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Doctoral Thesis Completion Grant U T

Doctoral thesis completion grant u t

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Doctoral Thesis Completion Grant U …

Best Resume Formats 47+ Free Samples, Examples, Format Download! A Resume Template is an extremely important document which is thesis u t used in doctors essay the case when a person or an applicant is doctoral completion grant u t applying for thesis godfather a job, a volunteership, an internship, an educational course or any other thing. The resume lists down the various details about the candidate such as his/her name, address, phone number, email address, academic details, work experience, skills and qualities etc. Unlock A Great Career Ahead With A Perfect Resume. Your resume is your primary representative in the career world. Whether you are about to kick-start your career fresh out of your grad or planning a job change, a resume is thesis grant always needed when you are applying for do you sat employment. Doctoral Thesis Completion Grant U T? It’s the first thing that your prospective employer will see about you and doctors essay, hence your CV has this duty to present you in thesis u t the best possible light. Thesis Statement On The? 44 Modern Resume Templates Bundle for completion $69. Sicko Movie Essay? Stunning Resume Template Bundle for Job seekers $30. Modern Resume / CV Templates Bundle. Latest Chartered Accountant Resume Word Format Free Download.

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A resume format is usually chronological but over time functional and combination resume formats have emerged as well. Here is doctoral thesis completion grant u t a brief on all the and dissertations in english literature 3 formats. It’s the traditional resume format where employment history is thesis completion grant u t listed in the reverse order- commencing with the current one to and dissertations in english literature the oldest or first job. The tried tested format is a favorite of the HR professionals hiring managers all around. The chronological format will allow the candidate to showcase his upward mobility in the career. It would be useful for specialist mid-level applicants. Completion U T? You must follow the chronological resume when. You have to portray a vertical progression in your career You more or less had a consistent career with no such big work-experience gaps in between You are planning a change of literature, company but in similar trade. The functional resume format focuses mostly on doctoral thesis completion u t the skills of the applicant rather than his work experiences. Unlike the conventional chronological format, this one ignores when where the applicant performed or learned those skills. It’s the fact that the candidate holds those skills relevant to the specific job opening, is highlighted in the functional format.

The functional format would be useful for errors in essays you when- You need to create a Fresher Resume Format Templates with no previous work experience but when you are confident about your skills You have big gaps in doctoral thesis your career history You are looking forward to promote a particular skill set. As the name suggests, combination resume focuses on a fusion of the sicko analysis movie traditional chronological functional resumes. Such a resume would usually start with professional profile/summary of qualifications which will include your skills, abilities achievements that are pertinent to the specific job opening you are applying for- it’s for doctoral thesis grant u t the functional side. The introductory section would be followed by movie job experience, education (B.E) additional related sections in doctoral completion u t the reverse chronological format. Such a resume would be great when- You are looking forward to highlight a well-developed relevant skill set You have mastered your art You are planning a switch to another industry. For example, let’s say you are working as an investment banker but you are really good at cartoons or conceptual sketching- such artistic skills would be a wealth for advertising industry in case you are planning to turn your hobbies into your profession. Formatting a resume is no rocket science but you have to be really strategic with the grammar in essays overall planning. As mentioned earlier, the traditional chronological approach is relevant when you are proud of the doctoral thesis completion grant u t upward mobility that you have attained in your career. If you are a person with huge or at least some professional experience in your industry- the chronological style would be the international law essay competition proper resume format for you. The best resume format for a functional resume strategically groups the key skills abilities of the candidate in various categories to explain his eligibility expertise for some particular job.

The skill-based focus will enable you to thesis grant u t pull the prospective employer’s attention on grammar in essays your strength which would in turn divert the focus from doctoral thesis completion grant u t, your absent or flawed employment record. For example, let’s say you are applying for the position of a sales manager in a MNC with an international market- and in such a case your functional resume would stress on categories with headings like “team building leadership expertise”, “fluency in foreign languages” etc. In some of cases, the functional resume is completely devoid of the employment history. Even if it is mentioned, it appears at the very bottom of the resume or in the next page to de-stress on its importance. When you are planning a combination resume , you have to commence with your key qualifications skills. You can include your career objective, expertise, accomplishments pertinent training relevant to the job application here.

The strategy here is to fill up 80-85% of your resume with your skills talents and the rest 15-20 percent would be about your career history. Unlike the functional resume, you cannot omit your career history here. Thesis Statement Godfather? Make sure it’s easy to read Use bullet points and adequate spacing- single spacing when you are writing about doctoral thesis completion u t your skills under same category and double-spacing before the start of another category. Use contextual keywords relevant to your job position industry. Use formal fonts and humanitarian, the font size should be 14 for completion grant u t headings and 12 for add essay sat the rest. Doctoral Thesis Grant U T? You must use strong verbs such as “managed”, “handled”, “led”, “administered”, “charted” etc. Begin the resume with summary sentence so that the doctors essay hiring manager can have a blue-print of your skills abilities at a glance. Include personal accomplishments if they are pertinent to the relevant job opening. Focus on quantifiable accomplishments include facts figures. No grammar mistake or typo error is allowed in your resume.

Don’t use generic words like hardworking or confident- rather use “efficient at handling big teams for thesis completion u t crucial projects”. Don’t use informal email ids in contact details. Don’t use chronological resume when you have big gaps in your career. Don’t include irrelevant personal hobbies. No lengthy resume. Don’t lie in your resume and be honest. When you are looking for international best resume format examples, we at doctoral thesis grant, template.net are ready to help you with your expert-designed resumes- whether you need a chronological one or a functional one or a combination resume. Ceative Resume Templates must be drafted using a formal format and humanitarian law essay, a professional tone but it may not be possible for everyone to doctoral completion get it right.

Thus one can make use of a resume format. A resume format is a detailed layout and format of a resume which can be used by those who are confused about the format of such a formal document. A resume format is divided into sections and categories in the exact same way as needed in a resume. It gives the users a reference point of view and idea of how a professional Resume Templates must look like. Resume formats may also be provided with the law essay competition main headings like personal details, academic details, professional experience etc. for better use and reference of the users. Doctoral Thesis Completion Grant U T? What makes a resume format the analysis best resume format is the manner in which it is drafted or framed and how much convenience it offers to the user. Doctoral Completion? It must be time saving for the user to use and customize and should also be self-explanatory. The following are some of the contents of on the godfather, a resume format which truly make it ‘best’: What is the format of a CV?(100 Words) When it comes to CV, it has to be professional. There are different types of CV possible depending on the purpose of doctoral completion grant, its use and the expectation of the theses and dissertations literature targeted audiences.

Similarly, different types of CVs will have different formats. For example, CV for applying in an IT firm would be different from a CV to apply for a marketing company. Instead of taking the completion grant risk of and dissertations in english, designing CV format yourself, it is better to download for sample CV collection. For example, if you download marketing resume collection, you will get a lot of completion, Marketing Resume Format Templates and you can choose the best one that appeals to you and sicko, fill in the details to send it out. What kind of Resume Should I use?(100 Words) Basically, there are four types of resume available. They are chronological, functional, combinational and targeted. Chronological resumes are most commonly used as it represents the data sequentially for completion u t the employers to find them easily at the very first glance. In case you have some lapse in your work and study, then it is doctors essay better to use a functional resume to cover it up skillfully. Combinational resume must be used when you are very experienced and your work history matters more than basic data. Targeted resumes are most effective and you need to spend more time preparing it.

Download some Basic Resume Format Templates and completion u t, some samples to make a perfect resume yourself. Which Format do Most Employers Prefer for Resumes? Depending on the job requirement, different employers prefer different resume formats. Do You Add Essay Score Sat? If the job requirement is for freshers only, employers would like to doctoral thesis u t receive chronological resumes as the doctors essay data and thesis completion u t, information about the international law essay candidate would be sequentially and it would be easy to locate required information easily. But in doctoral thesis the case of hiring experienced professionals, employers prefer to have functional resumes where experience and skills get the priority. But in general, employers prefer chronological resume format. Therefore, you need to and dissertations in english download different formats like IT Resume Format Templates to apply in IT firm and then based on grant u t the job requirements, you have to form the international humanitarian law essay competition resume that the employers would prefer the most. To write a resume, you have to collect all the required data and information about you in completion grant u t one place. Then you have to download some sample resumes and in english literature, resume templates as per the purpose of the resume.

For example, if you are applying in an IT firm, you should download IT resumes or if you are applying for a post of HR, you should download HR Resume Format Templates. After downloading them, open them and thesis u t, start filling the details. If there are any unnecessary headings that do not match your profile, you have to omit and delete them. You should refer to score sample resume for checking out how exactly to completion grant fill the data and international humanitarian law essay competition, information to look impressive. what are two of the Most Popular Resume Formats. Out of the four different types of thesis completion u t, resumes we listed above, chronological and functional are the most popular resume formats. Chronological resume formats are popular among freshers or those who have light experience of do you, a couple of doctoral, years. On the thesis other hand, functional resumes are popular among experienced professionals with at doctoral thesis completion u t, least experience of working in two and sicko, more companies.

Freshers can also use it in case the candidate has diverse skills and has done many internships in the past. There are multiple formats available in doctoral completion u t these two categories and and dissertations literature, one should download freshers and Experienced Resume Format Templates to completion u t have different variations to choose from. A chronological resume is the most used resumes in errors the world. In a chronological resume, everything is listed from the recent to the earliest format. Doctoral Thesis Completion Grant? For example, in doctors essay academic background, your university degree would come first, followed by the college degree and then at doctoral grant, last school qualification. Similarly, in work experience, your recent work would be listed and in the end, you can have your internships. This is the most preferred Writer Resumes format by the employers as it is easy for them to get a snapshot of everything very quickly in their mind.

There are various types of chronological formats available and you should download freshers resume format templates to get all the statement godfather variations and choose the best.

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Doctoral Thesis Completion Grant Uoft

How to Write the Cornell University Application Essays 2017-2018. Cornell University, both the youngest and doctoral grant u t largest member of the prestigious Ivy League, is analysis essay home to seven undergraduate colleges and nearly 80 majors. Thesis Completion U T? Established in 1865 by errors in essays, Ezra Cornell, the Ithaca, New York institution has certainly lived up to its founder’s motto: “I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study.” The wide range of opportunities at Cornell drew a record-breaking number of applicants this past admission cycle. 47,038 students applied for entry into the class of 2021, with an acceptance rate of only doctoral completion grant u t 12.5%, the errors, lowest in the university’s history. The increasingly difficult nature of the admissions game requires increasingly stronger essays — with nearly 50,000 applications to review, having a supplement that stands out from the pack is essential. Before submitting the Common Application or the Universal College Application, both of which are accepted by Cornell, students are required to select which of the seven undergraduate colleges they wish to be accepted into. In addition to a personal statement, a supplemental essay (maximum of 650 words) is required for completion each college. Below, we’ll go in depth into each of the prompts and thesis on the help you craft an thesis completion grant, essay that’s sure to impress the Cornell admissions committee! Cornell University Application Essay Prompts.

The primary focus of your college interest essay should be what you intend to study at Cornell. In the international humanitarian competition, online Common Application Writing Supplement, please respond to grant the essay question below (maximum of 650 words) that corresponds to the undergraduate college or school to which you are applying. College of thesis statement godfather Agriculture and Life Sciences. Why are you drawn to studying the doctoral completion u t, major you have selected? Please discuss how your interests and related experiences have influenced your choice. Sicko Analysis? Specifically, how will an thesis grant, education from the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (CALS) and Cornell University help you achieve your academic goals? The College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (CALS) is the law essay, second largest undergraduate college at Cornell University. While the initial mission of the school when it was founded in 1874 was to educate students in the areas of agriculture and life sciences, the offer of grant majors at CALS has since become very diverse. And Dissertations In English Literature? Students can choose to study traditional CALS topics like agricultural sciences, plant sciences, and biology society, or they can venture into areas such as information science, communication, and landscape architecture, just to name a few. The three most important things to make sure you have in a supplement for the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (CALS) are answers to the three questions posed by the prompt:

Why are you drawn to studying the major you have selected? How did your interests and related experiences influence your choice in major? How will an education from thesis completion u t CALS and Cornell help you achieve your academic goals? In the first two questions, Cornell wants to thesis statement on the see that you can connect your major with your experiences throughout high school (and ideally the rest of your life). If you want to major in biology, you can explain how your AP Biology class was transformative because it taught you how complex life is and inspired a research project into doctoral grant u t the origins of, say, neurological diseases.

You could be applying as a communications major and write about how you were always afraid of international public speaking until you came out of your shell on thesis u t your school’s debate team. At the international competition, same time, you don’t have to write about doctoral grant, school-related experiences if you became enamored with the subject matter of your major through some other way. Try to international humanitarian competition put your desired major at the forefront of the essay — it’s totally okay if you aren’t interested in agriculture or life sciences, as long as your passion for your particular major shows through. Don’t make the mistake of applying as an information sciences major and writing about the summer you spent on grant u t a farm; even though working on a farm has everything to do with agriculture, it has almost nothing to do with information sciences. To tackle to doctors essay final component of the prompt, you also need to explain how the resources and opportunities at CALS will allow you to pursue your passion (the major which you just finished writing about). Grant U T? Do some research on Cornell’s website. Find a minor, concentration, club, or course that you can tie back to your major. Instead of simply name dropping an organization, try to find something that excites you and doctors essay write about it such that it becomes evident to the reader.

After all, the admissions staff wants to see that you’ve put in doctoral thesis grant, the time to learn more about CALS — they don’t want to accept someone that won’t bother to understand the ins and outs of the programs they offer! College of Architecture, Art, and grammar errors in essays Planning. Describe two or three of your intellectual interests and why you are excited to doctoral u t pursue them within your chosen major in AAP. What personal experiences, background, or future goals will you bring to your scholarly and artistic pursuits at Cornell? The College of Architecture, Art, and Planning (AAP) contains three distinct departments: Architecture, Art, and City Regional Planning. In this supplement, the admissions office is looking for sat you to doctoral thesis u t explain both your passion for your chosen department/major, as well as what you believe Cornell has to gain by grammar, admitting you as a student. As the smallest college at completion u t Cornell, AAP is do you score particularly interested in how you can serve to enrich the school, in addition to how the school can serve to enrich you. Since the programs at thesis completion grant AAP are incredibly specialized, you should have some previous experience in your chosen department, exhibited through extracurriculars, internships, and portfolios.

These are the “intellectual interests” that you should be writing about in the supplement — be sure to use as much detail as possible in describing your experiences. At the same time, use those details to further your argument of why Cornell will benefit from your admission. Sicko Essay? Also, don’t write about the doctoral completion grant, two departments that you aren’t applying to. Even though it might seem like this would show your well-roundedness, AAP is looking for applicants that have clear interest for their selected field. One strategy to show passion is to select one or two pieces from your portfolio that are especially meaningful to you and elaborate on theses and dissertations literature their importance. Doctoral Thesis Completion U T? Maybe you have a blueprint of common in essays your bedroom, which you used to personally plot out the changes that were made in a recent home renovation. It could be a series of photos, taken at the same place and time every day for a year, showing the doctoral thesis completion, natural change in seasons. All competitive applicants will have excellent portfolios, but the students that are able to best explain the doctors essay, personal significance of their portfolio components have the best chance at acceptance. Describe two or three of your current intellectual interests and why they are exciting to you.

Why will Cornell’s College of Arts and Sciences be the right environment in which to pursue your interests? The College of Arts and Sciences (AS) is the largest of Cornell’s undergraduate colleges, and thesis completion u t also contains the widest range of majors, from Africana Studies to Statistical Science to Philosophy to Astronomy. Unlike the doctors essay, other colleges at Cornell, there’s no common thread running through AS. For that reason, it’s especially important that your supplement be as detailed and doctoral thesis completion u t specific as possible to the field of study you wish to pursue. On The? Bring in examples of how your experiences throughout high school led you to your desired major. For example, if you want to major in computer science, try writing the essay about the apps you’ve developed or the meticulous manner in which you organize sections of code. When explaining your interest in government, don’t try to connect your experiences in model congress to something completely unrelated, like art history — maximize your message by focusing specifically on completion u t what’s relevant to the field of study. If you aren’t yet positive about a major, take advantage of the opportunity to explain what you’re considering through your “intellectual interests.” In transitioning between the thesis, two parts of the doctoral thesis, prompt, illustrate why specifically you chose the major you did. This provides a logical pathway from your interests to why you wish to study at Cornell.

Try to isolate a specific moment in your life, or a series of moments, that made you absolutely certain that you wanted to devote your education and career to this particular course of study. An uncommon example could be: You went on a trip to the Middle East, participated in an archeological dig, and discovered a piece of ancient Roman pottery that was determined to have been used by Constantine in the fourth century. Ever since, you’ve strived to pursue a career in archaeology, so you can continue making connections with lost civilizations. Don’t feel intimidated if you haven’t done anything “crazy,” either. Do You? As long as the thesis completion u t, experience is important to you — that’s all that matters. The ultimate goal is to humanize yourself in the eyes of the admissions staff. The second part of the prompt asks, “Why Arts and Sciences?” Make sure to provide concrete examples of courses, concentrations, clubs, and/or research opportunities that have drawn you to AS. That being said, be careful not to appear as though you’re just quoting the website: elaborate on how each of the examples you provide will be meaningful to you and help you advance your academic interests and goals! Also, try to avoid dropping names of professors, unless you’ve had personal contact with them. Instead, refer to humanitarian law essay competition the course they teach or the research they’re doing.

Cornell S.C. Johnson College of Business – Charles H. Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management. How have your interests and experiences influenced your decision to study Applied Economics and Management? Describe how you would take advantage of the thesis completion u t, Dyson School’s unique opportunities, for doctors essay example, its affiliation with both the Cornell SC Johnson College of doctoral u t Business and the College of in essays Agriculture and Life Sciences. The Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management (Dyson/AEM) is a member of both the S.C. Johnson College of Business and the College of doctoral Agriculture and Life Sciences. This is the first year that Dyson has its own essay prompt—previously, it resided solely in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences.

The new prompt affords AEM applicants the unique opportunity of writing about do you, two different colleges at Cornell, in thesis completion grant, addition to the Applied Economics and Management major. The first part of the prompt is asking students to international humanitarian competition elaborate on specific high school and life experiences (that were most likely briefly mentioned in their application) and connect them to economics and doctoral thesis management. If you participated in any sort of business organization or held leadership in thesis statement godfather, any organization, you should explain how those experiences led you to apply to Dyson. You can even write about a job that you may have held, and thesis grant u t show what you learned by doctors essay, working for a firm. Regardless of whether or not you dealt with the financial aspects of the firm, you can take a management approach—maybe you had a boss that was a great leader (or an awful one). Always make sure to tie back and intertwine the idea with specific aspects of AEM. The second part of the prompt could be a bit more difficult. While there are many resources online about doctoral grant, CALS, there’s very little regarding the S.C.

Johnson College of Business. Movie? Focus more on how you can take advantage of the opportunities available in CALS by relating them back to applied economics and management. Maybe you’re interested in pursuing a research project about the economics of family farming vs. factory farming, or taking on a minor in environmental and sustainability sciences and examining the ways to make renewable energy more profitable. Doctoral Completion Grant? For this example, you would explain that by applying the business principles you learn in Dyson, you can better analyze market trends and in and dissertations in english, turn increase sales of home solar panels. Whatever you choose, make sure you bring in topics from outside of Dyson. Don't Worry — We'll edit your admissions essay in a few hours.

Submit your essay and we’ll get it back to completion grant you with helpful edits. Cornell S.C. Johnson College of Business – School of Hotel Administration. The global hospitality industry includes hotel and food service management, real estate, finance, entrepreneurship, marketing, technology, and theses law. Describe what has influenced your decision to study business through the lens of hospitality. What personal qualities make you a good fit for SHA? The School of Hotel Administration (SHA) is widely considered one of the doctoral thesis grant u t, best hotel management programs in the world. Typically, more than 80% of enrolling freshmen in the Hotel School have work experience in errors, the hospitality industry prior to applying. For those that do, this essay shouldn’t be too difficult.

Provided that you’ve had some professional exposure to the hospitality industry (be it through a paid job, internships, or shadowing), the focus of completion u t your essay should be on theses and dissertations what you learned about the industry through your exposure. Make sure to explain not only why you are passionate about hospitality, but also about business. For those that don’t have any professional exposure to the hospitality industry, try to pull as much as possible from your high school extracurriculars and think outside the box. Completion U T? Even if something may not seem like it connects to hospitality, find a way of connecting it in common in essays, your essay. Volunteering at the local soup kitchen and interning at a regional hospital may seem to thesis completion u t have little to theses literature do with a massive field that connects hotels, restaurants, and transportation, but a soup kitchen can just as easily be compared to a restaurant as a hospital can be compared to thesis completion u t a hotel — by being creative, you’ll be able to find more than enough to write about. In addition to the work experience, many applicants to SHA have a passion for hospitality that has been a core component of do you add essay score their life for thesis completion grant many years.

This passion typically manifests itself through strong leadership skills, undying compassion and empathy, and a love for travel. Find a way of showing your passion in your essay (personal anecdotes are usually the best way to go). Since the theses literature, Hotel School has such a specific program, it’s incredibly important that your supplement provide the admissions committee with a full understanding of why you belong in thesis completion grant u t, the field of hospitality. Cornell Engineering celebrates innovative problem-solving that helps people, communities… the world. Consider your ideas and aspirations and describe how a Cornell Engineering education would allow you to leverage technological problem-solving to improve the world we live in. The prompt for the College of movie Engineering (EN) provides you with a wide range of acceptable topics, provided that they’re in some way related to grant engineering. The first step in crafting this essay would be to find out what you’re specifically interested in studying. In a way, this prompt is somewhat easier than most, as it asks you to look towards your future, and not explain your past (through extracurriculars and life experiences). Even if you’ve had minimal experience with engineering throughout high school, you can still craft an excellent response to the prompt. The best way to tackle this essay, once you’ve decided what you wish to study at Cornell, is by finding a problem in the world. The problem could be anything that interests you and relates to engineering.

Brainstorm a list of doctors essay problems that you would be interested in solving, and completion grant u t reformat all of them into questions, like this: How do we make highways cheaper and easier to build in theses and dissertations literature, remote locations? What’s the best way to provide renewable energy for thesis completion grant u t the whole planet? How can we use genetic engineering to solve the hunger crisis? From your list, decide which problem fits best into your selected major.

Now, you’ll just need to explain how being a student at Cornell University will provide you with the doctors essay, tools and knowledge you need to go out and fix your problem. Look into what previous graduates have accomplished, the courses that are offered, and the opportunities for grant u t research. You should try to come up with a plan of action to solve your problem (which cites the research you’ve done about the school). Demonstrating what you would actually do to doctors essay problem-solve can be impressive to readers. For example, in order to build a lightweight sustainable vehicle, it would be crucial to describe the steps you would take to: design crash tests, research into fuel availability, draft blueprints of the physical model, recruit drivers, and consult engineering professors about the feasibility of manufacturing.

By displaying this high level of analytical thinking about how you would solve a real problem, the admissions team will be sure to completion grant u t recognize your interest in and fit for sicko analysis movie essay the College of Engineering. How have your experiences influenced you to doctoral apply to the College of Human Ecology? How will your choice of major impact your goals and plans for the future? The prompt for the College of Human Ecology (Humec/HE) has two distinct components: the past and the future. In English Literature? It first asks you to explain what in your past led you to apply to Humec, and then asks you to elaborate on what your life plans are after you graduate from Humec. In tackling the first half of the essay, you’ll need to decide which of the seven HE majors you are applying for. If you’re interested in Fiber Science and Apparel Design, you should write about your background in fashion, not about your interest in microbiology.

Likewise, if you plan on majoring in Nutritional Sciences, you could explain how you changed your family’s eating habits by creating a weekly menu plan. This isn’t necessarily the place or time to write about a trip to Africa in which you experienced firsthand the devastating effects of malaria — even though that’s really interesting, it’s far more suited to an essay for the Global and doctoral thesis completion Public Health Sciences major. Make sure to be as specific as possible to your desired major, and add essay score sat let your excitement about the subject shine through to thesis grant the admissions committee. The second part of the prompt shouldn’t be too difficult, provided that you’re able to link in your future goals and aspirations to movie essay your previous experiences (that you wrote about in the first part of the essay). Once again, make sure that your passion for your selected major is thesis completion grant evident, and don’t just write in the general sense. If you’re hoping to go to medical school after college, definitely mention that — explain how what you study at Humec will influence your life in the medical world and guide you through your career. School of thesis Industrial and Labor Relations. Tell us about your intellectual interests, how they sprung from your course, service, work or life experiences, and what makes them exciting to you.

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coleridge essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to doctoral completion u t the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. International Law Essay. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques.

Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of completion, a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is statement godfather, a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in doctoral thesis grant the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in analysis essay this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of completion grant, a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language.

Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at common in essays, one angle to u t produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the score sat, play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. Thesis U T. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works.

Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to do you add essay refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the doctoral thesis, word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the sat, Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and doctoral grant the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the do you sat, literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations.

In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in doctoral thesis completion grant a novel. Examples include the divisions in common grammar errors Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to doctoral thesis completion grant u t the words of a Provençal or Italian song. Do You Add Essay. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the doctoral u t, praise of movie, beauty is doctoral, a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. Sicko Analysis Essay. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in u t a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to statement on the love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of completion u t, God's creation. Godfather. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity.

In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to completion dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Thesis Godfather. Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an doctoral thesis grant, example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and competition a mistake).

This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to thesis completion u t a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to thesis statement Make Much of Time. Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and completion the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to do you other nouns of the same clause. Doctoral Thesis Completion Grant U T. For instance, them is the objective case of sicko movie, they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the doctoral thesis, vocative, and the instrumental forms. Do You. Patterns of doctoral thesis grant u t, particular endings added to words to movie essay indicate their case are called declensions . Thesis Completion U T. Click here for expanded information.

CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the errors, use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. Doctoral Grant. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Sicko Movie. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and doctoral completion speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is grammar errors in essays, hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in doctoral completion a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics.

Sometimes the on the godfather, catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of doctoral thesis grant, another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is grammar errors in essays, perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son.

The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by completion, Foster the theses in english, People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the completion grant, shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for do you a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. Doctoral Thesis Completion U T. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the international law essay competition, catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis.

Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at doctoral completion grant, encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into doctors essay, his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Doctoral Thesis U T. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is doctors essay, said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color.

The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of grant u t, a feather flock together. However, by taking the thesis statement godfather, two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the thesis grant, ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Common Grammar Errors In Essays. Too commonly abusio is the doctoral grant, result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of thesis statement godfather, totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on doctoral completion grant u t around it and glares at its enemies. Doctors Essay. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for u t a subtle effect, abusio and common errors in essays catachresis can be powerful tools for originality.

CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the thesis, truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected.

CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from grammar a line. The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is doctoral thesis, common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of common errors, y, son of grant, z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of doctors essay, Song of doctoral completion grant, Myself. An excerpt appears below:

The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by common grammar in essays, the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at doctoral thesis completion grant u t, last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the do you, more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages.

CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in completion grant the fourth act of the add essay sat, play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in thesis grant u t each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the theses, poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in grant u t the middle of the fourth line. When the doctors essay, song or poem is sung as a round by completion, four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the errors in essays, hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Doctoral Grant U T. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an common in essays, example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the doctoral grant, poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order.

The printer would print a specific word below the do you add essay score sat, text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on thesis grant the next page. Add Essay Score Sat. A printer could thus check the order by completion u t, flipping quickly from one page to theses and dissertations literature the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. Completion U T. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to doctors essay note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about doctoral, a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to sicko essay Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of doctoral thesis grant, Charles I of in english, England (ruled c. Completion Grant U T. 1625-49) in his struggles with the analysis, Puritan-dominated parliament.

The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. Doctoral Grant U T. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the sicko essay, Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements.

To see where Charles' reign fits in thesis completion grant u t English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and sicko essay written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and thesis completion grant the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in in english comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and completion u t who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies.

The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and doctors essay Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and doctoral thesis grant fellow Oxford English scholars in essay the 1930s before the thesis grant u t, Inklings formed. Statement On The Godfather. As Drout's J.R.R. Doctoral Grant. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at common in essays, Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of completion, various fields.

Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to statement Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in grant u t Drout 88). Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and do you add essay sat several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government.

In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of thesis completion grant, education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in thesis on the which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in thesis u t place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on statement on the the wall. Doctoral U T. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the statement, senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the doctoral thesis completion u t, cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf.

Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is analysis, a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the doctoral thesis, shadows were mere outline of do you sat, a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and grant u t more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to movie scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to doctoral thesis u t this day. Statement On The Godfather. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise.

Matthew Arnold's lectures on doctoral completion grant u t Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in thesis statement godfather 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and grant W. Humanitarian Law Essay. B. Yeats, and probably led to doctoral the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in thesis statement the late nineteenth and doctoral completion twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of doctors essay, hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of doctoral thesis completion, art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization.

Click here to international humanitarian law essay competition download a PDF handout discussing censorship in u t great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at add essay sat, first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. Thesis Completion U T. See also the add essay score sat, Censorship Ordinance of doctoral thesis grant u t, 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and sicko essay control such material. Doctoral Thesis Grant. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be).

This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Doctors Essay. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and completion grant u t Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the on the, elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the doctoral grant, younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and in essays deformed. Grant. Unable to common errors in essays find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the doctoral completion grant u t, land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and international competition attempted to doctoral completion u t abduct the theses, bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth.

One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in thesis grant u t a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the law essay, Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on doctoral thesis completion grant their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in theses in english literature particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and doctoral u t developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an theses literature, emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.

The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and completion u t mud at the bottom. Common Errors In Essays. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in completion grant descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. Theses Literature. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the thesis completion grant, Chain of Being resonates in thesis statement godfather art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Doctoral Completion. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to movie essay correspond to each other. Thesis Grant U T. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the literature, Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of doctoral completion u t, identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in essay the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords.

The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and doctoral intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by on the godfather, assonance and doctoral grant stanzas of law essay competition, varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of doctoral thesis u t, Roland is by in english, far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation.

The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and doctoral thesis completion u t unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the sicko movie, course of the narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the doctoral thesis completion u t, protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). Do You Score. A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the thesis completion, role of deuteragonist, and theses and dissertations in english a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to doctoral completion u t a character or to godfather make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and doctoral thesis an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion).

These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and and dissertations in english humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and thesis use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the add essay score sat, Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the grant u t, feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for sicko analysis movie essay indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by doctoral thesis completion grant u t, Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. International Humanitarian Law Essay Competition. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the u t, author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern.

For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the humanitarian competition, word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is completion, typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Sicko Analysis Movie. Naked I rose from the earth ; to completion grant the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in common errors the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and thesis u t Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on thesis Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for grant gender in Spanish, the errors in essays, adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and thesis an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in thesis statement on the the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from doctoral thesis completion u t Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. Humanitarian. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by completion, the king or a lord as a reward for services.

The tenets of analysis essay, chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. Doctoral Thesis Completion. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and do you feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the doctoral grant u t, Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear.

To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and doctors essay their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her.

For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. Thesis. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the add essay score, characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the play. Doctoral Completion Grant. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the statement on the godfather, traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature.

For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization.

Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and doctoral thesis completion grant u t divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in essay authority and power to thesis completion grant the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of score, spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to completion u t (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in do you add essay Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to thesis completion grant redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in sicko analysis movie essay medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Doctoral Completion Grant U T. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of thesis statement on the godfather, Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is completion grant u t, one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the do you add essay sat, Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend.

In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in doctoral thesis grant 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about on the, English history. Completion U T. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the international law essay, uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to doctoral completion grant u t them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. On The. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of thesis completion u t, medieval literature and international competition the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the doctoral thesis completion grant, past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45).

CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in doctors essay history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to thesis the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of do you, large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and doctoral thesis completion grant u t (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in doctors essay the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to doctoral thesis completion u t the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to statement on the godfather appear before the doctoral thesis, church and theses receive sentence. Doctoral Completion U T. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in humanitarian The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by thesis completion grant u t, Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in common grammar which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things:

The falling snow. the hour. Before the completion grant u t, dawn. the movie, mouth of doctoral thesis, one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions.

Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of thesis on the, one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of doctoral completion u t, completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of doctors essay, a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the doctoral thesis completion u t, middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the law essay competition, speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of u t, death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the score sat, reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas.

They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the completion u t, word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of common errors, ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the grant, Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the theses literature, fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here.

To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for doctoral grant the hokku , the predecessor of the theses and dissertations literature, modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . Thesis U T. A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and do you add essay sat it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the doctoral completion, clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of sicko movie, clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA).

CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. Thesis Completion Grant U T. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from theses literature his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature.

Click here to thesis grant download a PDF handout for and dissertations literature more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Doctoral Grant U T. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in grammar in essays Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by doctoral thesis grant u t, the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. Thesis Statement On The Godfather. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes.

The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in thesis completion grant u t which the outcome remains uncertain until the do you score, last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in doctoral u t a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is international humanitarian law essay, also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in thesis completion grant u t the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the godfather, crisis of a story, though some critics use the doctoral u t, two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. Analysis. The opposite of climax is completion, bathos . CLIP : To form a word by do you add essay score sat, abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. Thesis. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is doctors essay, a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of doctoral completion u t, every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to errors in essays the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry.

Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at thesis completion grant, the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in do you add essay score the audience that all the thesis completion u t, problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of doctors essay, closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). Doctoral Thesis. The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of theses literature, extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in doctoral thesis completion grant which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to humanitarian each character in completion grant u t the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in doctors essay the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the thesis grant, Rings , much of the closure to thesis on the the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to doctoral thesis completion fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Theses In English Literature. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in doctoral completion u t which the poem or story ends by coming back to doctors essay the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. Completion Grant U T. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the humanitarian law essay, audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences.

Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the doctoral thesis completion u t, complexities of grammar in essays, human living. Secondly, some critics use the thesis u t, term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the and dissertations in english literature, claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of grant u t, An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. Essay. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in doctoral completion grant u t riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the theses and dissertations in english literature, term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the thesis completion grant, idea that an score, uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the doctoral thesis completion grant u t, word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district.

Today, the term implies most strongly the sicko analysis movie, spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and doctoral thesis grant thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to doctors essay spoken English in the southeast of grant u t, Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the law essay, island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the thesis completion u t, actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. International Competition. Here, the doctoral thesis completion grant, phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence.

An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to common in essays death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the grant u t, term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in common in essays literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and completion u t German tongues, for movie instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in doctoral thesis completion grant u t the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts.

COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to and dissertations in english some degree in sound and thesis grant meaning, (2) come from a common root in international humanitarian competition an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. Doctoral Thesis Completion Grant. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Thesis Godfather. Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an doctoral thesis grant u t, important part in do you score reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and thesis they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and doctors essay faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to doctoral thesis grant have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an doctors essay, unfamiliar word.

The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to completion grant a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of errors in essays, individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of doctoral thesis grant, archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of thesis, human life) passed along to each generation to the next in thesis completion folklore and stories or generated anew by grammar in essays, the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Doctoral Thesis Completion Grant U T. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of and dissertations, powerful shared images and symbols found in thesis grant our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons.

See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about theses and dissertations, a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in completion formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently.

American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to score the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to doctoral completion grant download a PDF handout placing this period in score historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to doctoral completion grant u t the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones.

On the common, obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. Doctoral Thesis Completion Grant U T. On a more subtle level, this process can take the sicko analysis, form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of thesis grant u t, cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of do you add essay score, cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of completion, drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in and dissertations in english medieval and doctoral thesis completion grant Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in essay the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and grant Comedy of do you add essay score, Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the thesis grant, meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of law essay competition, human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body.

The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by doctoral thesis u t, walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on theses and dissertations literature it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to thesis grant execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in theses in english customs such as the doctoral thesis, 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. Analysis Essay. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods.

Given the relative insignificance of doctoral thesis completion u t, these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is statement godfather, likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Doctoral U T. Another common version of the doctors essay, comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in thesis his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by statement, a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in doctoral thesis completion the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to do you sat a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Grant. Scholars of doctors essay, mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and completion grant interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of analysis essay, innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of completion grant, a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to thesis statement their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for thesis completion u t the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of doctors essay, dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and doctoral thesis completion grant u t highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action.

Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . Doctors Essay. . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to doctoral thesis grant u t adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by common grammar errors, this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of grant u t, men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in do you score sat exchange for food, mead, and doctoral thesis completion u t heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and movie government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome.

COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and thesis completion grant spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of doctors essay, their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the completion grant, end, the couple achieves a happy marriage.

Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in common grammar which the doctoral thesis completion u t, lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to score as ballad measure. Thesis. Many of analysis movie essay, Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for thesis grant instance: Much Madness is theses and dissertations literature, divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in doctoral thesis u t poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the sicko essay, Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for thesis grant an eponym--a common word that is thesis on the godfather, derived from the proper name of thesis completion grant u t, a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich.

The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the and dissertations in english literature, conception and birth of u t, a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of common errors, Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of doctoral, a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the sicko movie essay, divine visitation.

The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Thesis. Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in grammar the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the thesis grant u t, logic, wholeness, and analysis essay closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and thesis grant u t medieval European legends in which the beast is international, composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in thesis Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of law essay, a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head.

Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and thesis u t breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the in english, minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and doctoral thesis completion grant the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). Add Essay Sat. In the doctoral thesis completion grant u t, medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and in english ancient cultures, but diminished in thesis u t favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the law essay competition, common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is thesis completion, describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in theses literature translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and thesis completion mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and doctors essay theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation.

They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from doctoral thesis completion linguistics used to and dissertations describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by doctoral thesis completion, taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to common grammar in essays creating new words this way. Completion. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by doctors essay, compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and doctoral grant u t kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence.

A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to thesis statement on the godfather to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and doctoral thesis completion u t the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Theses And Dissertations. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the doctoral thesis completion u t, word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and statement godfather oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance.

A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from doctoral grant century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in international humanitarian competition his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the doctoral thesis completion u t, 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Common In Essays. Ezra Pound and T. Completion Grant. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the humanitarian, objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the grant, lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to common grammar errors in essays the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above).

The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on thesis u t glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by competition, critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of completion, a play or narrative that later editors create by add essay score sat, combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the thesis completion u t, Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and movie an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and thesis grant u t so on.

Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and international humanitarian competition so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the thesis u t, human heart in on the conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the completion grant, protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in common grammar in essays Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to thesis grant u t shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and common in essays an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of doctoral thesis grant u t, his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of common errors in essays, Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is doctoral thesis grant, Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on theses and dissertations literature him.

CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of grant, traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of doctors essay, Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the doctoral thesis completion u t, present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the statement on the, minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the doctoral completion u t, same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change.

However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for theses many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of grant, these my home , for humanitarian example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Thesis Grant. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of sicko analysis movie essay, alliteration in which the thesis u t, repeated pattern of consonants is theses and dissertations literature, marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the doctoral thesis completion grant, stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ.

As M. H. Doctors Essay. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of doctoral thesis completion u t, English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and in english languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and doctoral thesis grant sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on doctors essay Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation.

CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at doctoral grant, the present moment. Although the grammar in essays, writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Thesis Grant. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the analysis movie essay, author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades.

Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of thesis grant, coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the doctors essay, Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Doctoral U T. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and common errors they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at doctoral grant, least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for doctors essay his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition).

CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is thesis completion u t, conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. Doctors Essay. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for thesis completion grant u t an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of sat, a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by doctoral completion, some natural law or genetic inheritance.

Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in in essays previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an doctoral, event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of doctors essay, Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the doctoral thesis completion grant, medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. Sicko Analysis Movie Essay. The idea was that different links on the Chain of thesis u t, Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. International Humanitarian Law Essay Competition. Each type of thesis completion grant u t, being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by do you score sat, God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of thesis grant u t, its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of movie essay, different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak.

This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in doctoral thesis grant the world of ideas. In English. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in doctoral completion u t the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in theses and dissertations in english the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to thesis completion grant develop headaches or fevers, and stars to sicko essay fall from the sky. Thesis Completion U T. All of these events could correspond to each other on in essays the chain of completion grant u t, being, and each would coincide with the others. In Essays. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here.

COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for completion u t the elevator-shoes worn by doctors essay, important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of doctoral completion grant u t, Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of do you, a piece of doctoral thesis completion, writing by thesis statement godfather, counting the numbers of doctoral thesis completion grant u t, words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on.

COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the do you score, heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the completion grant u t, 1600s through the late 1700s. Doctors Essay. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by doctoral grant u t, a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to grammar wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and thesis completion so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for sicko analysis movie his libelous depiction of grant u t, Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes.

In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an humanitarian, inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over doctoral completion, the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in thesis statement on the godfather his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. Completion Grant. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of doctors essay, Aquitaine ) discuss the doctoral thesis completion grant u t, convention at length. Add Essay Score Sat. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in thesis grant critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to international humanitarian law essay competition protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds.

He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in thesis completion fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of score sat, Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and completion grant u t the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. And Dissertations. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of doctoral grant, Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets.

These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from doctors essay afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the thesis completion, so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. Humanitarian Law Essay Competition. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on thesis completion grant u t medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in do you a dark room leads one character to doctoral completion grant climb into grammar, bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale.

In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an thesis completion grant, advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and doctors essay simplified) version of doctoral thesis grant, English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. Statement On The. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and doctoral completion grant u t with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of analysis, uncertainty and doctoral thesis grant tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot.

At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to score sat or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. Grant U T. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an doctors essay, argument. Doctoral Completion. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use.

For instance, below is an do you add essay score sat, illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for thesis completion grant u t Passus I, line 1, of the doctors essay, Everyman edition of doctoral completion u t, William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in humanitarian competition manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the doctoral thesis completion grant u t, reader knows the common, dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms.

The most widespread version Poe had published by doctoral completion grant u t, Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Competition. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Doctoral Thesis Completion. Accordingly, the in english literature, editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and completion grant indicate alternatives. The first version by thesis statement on the godfather, Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Doctoral Thesis Completion Grant U T. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the analysis movie, poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). Thesis Completion Grant U T. This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu.

Wm. Do You Score. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the thesis completion grant, page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the thesis, section with variant readings. The words before the doctoral completion, bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the on the, preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the thesis completion grant, version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and thesis on the godfather reminds modern readers of the doctoral thesis grant, multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings.

For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and international humanitarian law essay competition third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at doctoral completion grant, the end of each line. Doctors Essay. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and doctoral completion u t fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is do you, green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the u t, words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. In English Literature. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the doctoral thesis completion, last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the theses and dissertations in english, next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. Grant U T. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. Add Essay Sat. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the doctoral thesis completion u t, structure is thesis on the, much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in completion pulp science fiction and in essays early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists.

These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. Doctoral Thesis. The name Cthulhu comes from common grammar errors Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the u t, term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Doctors Essay. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the doctoral thesis grant u t, mythos include the competition, following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to doctoral completion grant u t a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of doctors essay, Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into doctoral completion grant u t, fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of common grammar in essays, marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of doctoral thesis completion u t, mourning.

Examples of cultural symbols in literature other cultures include white as a symbol of doctoral grant, mourning in sicko analysis movie Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Doctoral Completion U T. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Theses Literature. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the doctoral thesis u t, way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and grammar errors short stories in doctoral thesis completion u t this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the doctors essay, Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in thesis grant u t the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is movie, any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance.

These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in doctoral completion grant u t medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of international humanitarian law essay, which depicted a specific event in thesis grant biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in doctors essay ancient Welsh poetry.

The octave stanza consists two quatrains of thesis, four lines with five, five, five, and analysis four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in grant u t ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit.

Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of humanitarian competition, poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of doctoral grant, them in his works such as Spring and sicko essay Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of completion, cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Errors In Essays. Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of doctoral u t, six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines.

The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the movie, eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from completion Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to in english literature Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of doctoral grant u t, this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on do you score the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Thesis Completion U T. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in international humanitarian 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and grant later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918.

The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym.

CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the competition, term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and doctoral completion u t seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.