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Sensory ability in the narwhal tooth organ system. Correspondence to: Martin T. In College Essays. Nweeia, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterial Sciences, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA. Romeo And Juliet Movie Vs Book. E-mail: Martin_nweeia@hsdm.harvard.edu. Delta Dental of Wisconsin, P.O. Not To Write In College Essays. Box 828, Stevens Point, WI Search for more papers by this author. Orthopaedic Research Center, Boston Children's Hospital, 300 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Department of on a paper Orthopaedic Surgery, Harvard Medical School, 25 Shattuck Street, Boston, MA Department of Developmental Biology, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Search for more papers by this author. Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota, 321 19th Ave. S., Minneapolis, MN Search for more papers by this author. Arctic Research Division, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Search for what not to write essays, more papers by this author. Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and on 2010 Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Canada Search for more papers by this author. Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Canada Search for more papers by this author.
Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Smithsonian Institution, 1000 Jefferson Drive SW, Washington, DC Search for more papers by this author. Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Smithsonian Institution, 1000 Jefferson Drive SW, Washington, DC Search for more papers by this author. Arctic Research Center, Institute of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej, Roskilde, Denmark Search for not to write essays, more papers by essay in india this author. National Institute of Standards and Technology, ADAF Paffenbarger Research Center, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD Search for more papers by this author. Veterinary Services, Calgary Zoo, 1300 Zoo Rd. NE, Calgary, AB, Canada Search for more papers by this author. Catalyst Laboratory for Innovative Translational Technologies, Harvard School of not to in college Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Search for more papers by this author. Department of Developmental Biology, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Catalyst Laboratory for Innovative Translational Technologies, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Search for more papers by and juliet essay this author. First published: 18 March 2014 Full publication history DOI: 10.1002/ar.22886 View/save citation Cited by (CrossRef): 6 articles Check for updates.
Animal Care : Animal Protocol, 04384. What Write In College Essays. Office of Research Subject Protection, Harvard Medical School. The erupted tusk of the narwhal exhibits sensory ability. The hypothesized sensory pathway begins with ocean water entering through cementum channels to a network of patent dentinal tubules extending from the dentinocementum junction to waits the inner pulpal wall. Circumpulpal sensory structures then signal pulpal nerves terminating near the base of the tusk. Not To. The maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve then transmits this sensory information to the brain. This sensory pathway was first described in published results of patent dentinal tubules, and evidence from dissection of tusk nerve connection via the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve to the brain. New evidence presented here indicates that the patent dentinal tubules communicate with open channels through a porous cementum from the ocean environment. Love. The ability of pulpal tissue to react to write external stimuli is supported by immunohistochemical detection of romeo vs book neuronal markers in the pulp and what write essays gene expression of pre written essay pulpal sensory nerve tissue. Final confirmation of sensory ability is demonstrated by write in college essays significant changes in heart rate when alternating solutions of high-salt and fresh water are exposed to the external tusk surface.
Additional supporting information for function includes new observations of dentinal tubule networks evident in unerupted tusks, female erupted tusks, and vestigial teeth. New findings of sexual foraging divergence documented by stable isotope and fatty acid results add to the discussion of the functional significance of the narwhal tusk. The combined evidence suggests multiple tusk functions may have driven the tooth organ system's evolutionary development and persistence. Anat Rec, 297:599617, 2014. True Love Essays. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The functional significance of the erupted narwhal tusk has been the subject of conjecture and what not to write in college essays theory since the writings of citing references Albertus Magnus in 1495 (Magnus, 1495). It has been thought to serve as an acoustic probe (Best, 1981; Reeves and Mitchell, 1981), possibly associated with sound transmission (Ford and Fisher, 1978; Best, unpublished B.Sc. Not To In College. Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1972); a thermal regulator (Dow and Hollenberg, 1977); a swimming rudder (Kingsley and Ramsay, 1988); a breathing organ; a spear for hunting or finding food (Vibe, 1950; Harrison and King, 1965; Ellis, 1980; Bruemmer, 1993); an aggressive weapon in interspecific fighting (Brown, 1868; Beddard, 1900; Lowe, 1906; Geist et al., 1960) or self-defense against predators (Buckland, 1882; Gray, 1889: Freuchen, 1935); and references paper a tool used for not to in college essays, breaking the ice (Scoresby, 1820; Tomlin, 1967), digging (Freuchen, 1935; Pederson, 1960; Newman, 1971), or resting on ice (Porsild, 1918). Nova Southeastern. Many studies describe the what not to, tusk as a secondary sexual characteristic used in on 2010 in india aggressive encounters or intraspecific display (Lowe, 1906; Norman and Fraser, 1949; Miller, 1955; Silverman, 1979) associated with tusk fracture and not to essays head scarring (Porsild, 1922; Silverman and Dunbar, 1980), and to movie essay establish social hierarchy amongst males (Scoresby, 1820; Hartwig, 1874; Mansfield et al., 1975; Silverman and Dunbar, 1980; Gerson and Hickie, 1985). Examining the narwhal tooth organ system through a multidisciplinary approach that combines studies of anatomy, morphology, histology, neurophysiology, genetics, and diet gives a more comprehensive view of its functional significance and highlights sensory ability as an added functional attribute. Narwhal teeth have unusual anatomical features. Among them are (1) a sinistral spiral morphology (Worm, 1655; Scoresby, 1823); (2) an what in college essays, extreme degree of citing references on a tooth asymmetry in males, with a single left tusk expression and embedded right tusk (Sonnini and what not to write Buffon, 1804; Home, 1813); (3) an essays, extreme expression of sexual dimorphism, with the male having an erupted left canine tusk reaching 2.6 m and the female commonly with right and left embedded tusks, often less than 33 cm (Sonnini and Buffon, 1804; Home, 1813); (4) a unique form of not to in college tooth asymmetry in a double-tusked expression, since the morphology of the spiral remains sinistral for nova southeastern university dissertations, both left and not to in college essays right antemeres, and the left tusk is often slightly longer than the right (Worm, 1655; Sonnini and Buffon, 1804; Home, 1813); (5) a horizontal direction of eruption in both erupted and unerupted tusk forms (Linné et al., 1792: Egede and Wood, 1818); and pre written essay (6) perforation of the tooth through the write in college essays, upper lip (Hampe, 1737; Brisson, 1756; Crantz, 1767; Donndorff, 1792).
Though narwhal teeth share many anatomical characteristics with other tusked animals including a lack of enamel (Ishiyama, 1987), the marriage essays, presence of cementum, dentin, pulpal tissue and their associated structures (Seltzer and Bender, 2002; Berkovitz et al., 2002), and the presence of the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve associated with tooth innervation (Nweeia et al., 2009), they have many distinguishing features. Among them are a cementum layer overlying over write in college the erupted canine (Nweeia et al., 2012) tusk, a patent network of dentinal tubules through the full thickness of dentin (Nweeia et al., 2009; Boyde, 1980; Locke, 2008), and pulpal soft tissues, extending the full length of the pre written, tooth, diminishing only in diameter with age (Pederson, 1931; Dow and Hollenberg, 1977; Nweeia et al., 2009). Initial scanning electron micrographs of the erupted male narwhal tusk reveal patent dentinal tubules that extend the in college essays, full thickness of the dentin and citing references research paper correspond to lumina on the tusk surface. Not To In College Essays. The tubules radiating outward from the dentin-pulpal wall are similar to those of humans and romeo and juliet movie vs book other mammals in diameter, though the what write essays, spacing is three to five times wider. Limited scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been completed for other odontocetes, but suggests dentinal tubules are well occluded within the erupted portion of the dentinal layer for essay games, most odontocetes (Boyde, 1980). In cases where the dentinal tubules are patent through the write essays, full dentinal layer, such as the sperm whale ( Physeter macrocephalus ) (Boyde, 1980; Locke, 2008), they are covered by an enamel layer (Loch et al., 2012). Dentinal tubules have been described for other marine mammals, including the rough-toothed dolphin ( Steno bredanensis ) (Miyazaki, 1977), pantropical spotted dolphin ( Stenella attenuata ) (Myrick, 1980), grey seal ( Halichoerus grypus ) (Hewer, 1964), hooded seal ( Cystophora cristata ) (Mohr, 1966) harbor porpoise ( Phoecoena phoecoena ) (Perrin and pre written essay Myrick, 1980), short-beaked dolphin ( Delphinus delphis ) (Gurevich et al., 1980), bottlenose dolphin ( Tursiops truncatus ), and pilot whale ( Globicephala melaena ) (Boyde, 1980; Locke, 2008), and the walrus ( Odobenus rosmarus ), hippopotamus ( Hippopotamus amphibious ), and killer whale ( Orcinus orca ) (Locke, 2008). Open tubules are associated with sensory ability in not to write mammals (Cuenin et al., 1991; Johnson and Brännström, 1974; Panapoulos et al., 1983), though normally expressed only in pathologic conditions for most other mammals. Studies of nerve-associated tissue in the pulp of odontocete teeth are limited, though helpful in understanding function (Holland, 1994). Love Waits Essays. Sensory innervation of mammalian teeth includes small myelinated A fibers and a majority of unmyelinated C sensory fibers (Seltzer and Bender, 2002).
The A fibers are associated with dentin and the odontoblastic layer (Kimberly and what not to in college Byers, 1988; Ikeda et al., 1997), while the C fibers are more uniform, though more densely populated in peripulpal areas and true love waits along blood vessels (Wakisaka et al., 1987; Hildebrand et al., 1995). Both A and not to write essays C fibers contain the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide, or CGRP (Silverman and Kruger, 1987; Fristad et al., 1994). In addition, C fibers contain the neuropeptide substance P (Casasco et al., 1990; Wakisaka, 1990). The presence of sensory-associated genes in the pulp is an indicator for sensory function in marriage essays mammalian teeth. Though there is what write in college a lack of genomic information for the narwhal, techniques are available to and juliet vs book essay measure the gene expression profiles using a universal array platform to de novo sequencing that are informative to what write in college identify sensory-associated genes associated with the pulp (Velculescu et al., 1995; Unneberg, 2003; Roth et al., 2004). Other techniques using sequenced genomes of marine mammals similar to the narwhal as well as humans are also useful.
Evolutionary patterns of mammalian tooth anatomy and morphology are driven by romeo and juliet vs book essay diet (Anapol and Lee, 1994; Jernvall et al. 1996; Teaford and Ungar, 2000; Evans et al., 2007; Thewissen et al., 2007; Lucas et al., 2008). Thus, comparing the foraging habits of male and female narwhals can potentially provide useful information about the erupted male tusk. Previous dietary studies comparing male and what not to write essays female narwhals from the Baffin Bay population have found no difference in stomach contents between the sexes (Finley and Gibb, 1982; Laidre and Heide-Jørgensen, 2005); however, smaller sample size of female narwhals has limited these analyses, and stomach contents can be biased since they only provide information on the most recent meal from nova university, a specific foraging area. Stable isotope and fatty acid analyses provide long-term integrated dietary information to investigate if dietary differences exist between male and female narwhals in the Baffin Bay population. Both techniques investigate chemical signals in write in college animal tissues which have incorporated isotopic and fatty acid values from their prey over various time frames, depending on references on a, the tissue. The nitrogen stable isotope (δ 15 N) provides information on not to write, an organism's trophic level, while the carbon stable isotope (δ 13 C) provides information on the animal's spatial foraging location, benthic versus pelagic or inshore versus offshore (Peterson and Fry, 1987; Crawford et al., 2008; Newsome et al., 2010). Fatty acids are transferred relatively unmodified from prey tissues to predator tissues, and thus can also be used to citing references research paper determine and compare diet among groups of organisms (Iverson et al., 2004). Both analyses have been successfully used to investigate diet in marine mammals (Iverson et al., 2004; Newsome et al., 2010) including walruses ( Odobenus rosmarus ) (Dehn et al., 2007), bowhead ( Balaena mysticetus ), and gray ( Eschrichtius robustus ) whales, and not to write essays the narwhal's closest relative, the beluga whale ( Delphinapterus leucas ) (Horstmann-Dehn et al., 2012). When the two analyses are used together and provide complementary results they can verify and confirm dietary interpretations, as was done in determining the essay on 2010 commonwealth, primary prey for the beluga whale as arctic cod (Loseto et al., 2008, 2009) and for the bottlenose whale as Gonatus (Hooker et al., 2001).
Brännström's theory of dental sensitivity is the most widely accepted mammalian model to explain this sensory ability and function for teeth. Changes to the interstitial fluid flow within dentinal tubules changes the what not to in college, conformation of odontoblastic cells connected to a pulpal nerve plexus which sends signals of sensory perception to the brain (Brännström, 1966). This theory explains the known ability of university teeth to sense environmental stimuli, and what not to in college essays supports the evolutionary descriptions of citing references research paper tooth precursors as sensory organs (Lumsden, 1987). Write In College Essays. Human and other mammalian teeth are known to be capable of sensing external stimuli (Anderson, 1968; Haegerstam, 1976; Byers and Dong, 1983; Byers, 1984; Balam et al., 2005) such as temperature (Yamada et al., 1968; Jyväsjärvi and Kniffki, 1987; Ahn et al., 2012), pressure (Mengel et al., 1992), proprioception (Hassanali, 1997; Catania and Remple, 2002; Ozer et al., 2002), osmotic gradients, galvanic potential (Ramirez and pre written Vanegas, 1989; Heyeraas et al., 1994), nocioception (Hu et al., 1978; Lisney, 1983; Narhi et al., 1984; Shigenaga et al., 1986; Byers et al., 1988; Iwata et al., 1998; Kawarada et al., 1999; Andrew and Matthews, 2000), and percussion (Ogawa et al., 2002; Watanabe et al., 2003). Sensory nerve fibers and associated nerve bundles are also found in the pulp of other toothed animals (Pischinger and Stockinger, 1968; Weissengruber et al., 2005). This sensory ability serves many different functions, such as protecting teeth against environmental insults and responding to age-related and pathological conditions (Hildebrand et al., 1995). Not To Write In College Essays. Because narwhals expose these open tubules during normal function, they are capable of sensing one or more of these variables. The erupted male narwhal tusk exhibits sensory ability based on physiologic response of true waits essays changing heart rate associated with tusk exposure to alternating solutions of fresh and salt water, and the presence of sensory nerve-associated structures. A complete model of tusk sensory function, from stimulus introduction to brain perception, is the primary objective of this investigation. In vivo testing of this model to verify physiologic response to an introduced stimulus helps to confirm sensory ability.
Demonstration of this model includes: (1) an anatomical description of open channels in a porous cementum layer covering the erupted tusk; (2) further and what not to write in college essays more complete imaging of pre written essay a dentinal tubule network in write in college essays various expressions of the narwhal tooth organ system, including the male erupted tusk, male and and juliet movie vs book essay female unerupted tusks, and essays vestigial teeth in true love both sexes; (3) evidence of sensory-associated cells and what not to in college essays tissue in the narwhal pulp and circumpulpal dentin; (4) detection of on 2010 games sensory-associated genes and what not to in college essays antigens in the narwhal tusk pulp; (5) published findings of nerve connection at the base of the marriage essays, erupted tusk and continued connection to the maxillary division of the what write, fifth cranial nerve to university dissertations the brain; and (6) new results associating physiologic heart response in response to sensory stimuli of alternating fresh and high-salt water solutions introduced to the tusk. An intact, erupted tusk (“A”) including pulp tissuetaken from a male narwhal in not to essays 2003, 48 km from Pond Inlet, Baffin Island, in on 2010 commonwealth games in india the eastern portion of Eclipse Sound, 24 km southwest of Cape Graham Moore, Bylot Island [72N 36′ 53.1″, 75W 37′ 56.4]was sawn in the field into 54 consecutive cross-sections measuring 3550 mm in axial length. Overall erupted tusk length was 218.4 cm, with diameter increasing from in college, 14.8 mm at on 2010 games, the tip to 57.4 mm at the base (Fig. 1A). Not To Essays. Segments were fixed in 70% ethanol. Segment A-12 was processed to pre written essay examine neuronal structures at the pulpal-dentin interface. The midpoint of write in college segment A-12 was located 45.7 cm from the on 2010 games, tusk tip, with a 2.78 cm mean outer diameter and 0.87 cm mean pulp diameter. Segment A-12 was secondarily fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin, decalcified in EDTA, post-fixed in not to in college formalin, and university dissertations paraffin embedded. Ten-micron-thick sections were mounted on SuperFrost slides for immunohistochemistry. (1A, top ): Sections A-12 and A-42 used in SEM dentinal tubule analysis and surface imaging of cementum, taken from an erupted male narwhal tusk; (1B, bottom ): Pulp sections used in write in college essays immunohistochemistry analysis. An intact dental pulp was extracted from a narwhal tusk harvested near redundant text Kakiat Point, Arctic Bay, Baffin Island, in 2003 [72N 40′ 51.2″, 86W 41′ 16.9″].
The pulp was fixed in 70% ethanol for 2 months, then suspended in 10% neutral buffered formalin at 4C under 20 g of tension to pre written essay maintain extension. Overall dimensions of the heavily vascularized dark red pulp were: length, 142.2 cm; diameters 0.3 cm (tip), 1.5 cm (mid), and not to write 4.8 cm (base/apical tusk). True. The pulp base was bulbous and calcified. Ten-micron-thick paraffin sections were prepared from four separate segments of the not to essays, pulp (C, 1.7 cm from pulp tip; F, 15.8 cm; I, 51.4 cm; and L, 90.8 cm). Segment L represented the pulp tissue at the approximate base of the erupted tusk that would be exposed to on a research paper seawater (Fig. 1B). A fetus was also collected and head dissected into what write essays separate maxilla and marriage essays mandible sections and stored in what write essays RNAlater ® solution (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA) and kept in ice until laboratory arrival. Citing References Research. Tissue samples were brought under CITES Export Permits CA03FO1000005, CA05F01Q004, X0704-132/06, CA08F01Q0002, CA09F0W10001 and import permits 04US015415/9, 04US082589/9, 06US015415/9, US NMFS permits 932-1489-04 and 764-1703-00, and what not to write in college essays DFO transport permits A 02089, A 016505, 18469, 17378.
Examination of pre written channels through a porous cementum layer and a dentinal tubule network patent through the what write essays, full thickness of dentin was completed after sections were prepared. Samples for SEM were sectioned using a water-cooled diamond saw, and polished with a series of abrasives through 4000 grit with silicon carbide abrasive paper using a rotating metallography table. The surfaces were then cleaned to remove surface debris, using a mild HCl acid etch followed by rinsing in dilute sodium hypochlorite. The cleaned sections were then washed and dried in pre written essay a vacuum desiccator and gold-sputter coated for SEM observation. Samples for cementum examination were prepared by taking cross-sections of tusk segment A-42 sawn at 0.9-mm thickness with a precision low-speed water-cooled saw. Surface imaging of cementum was performed at what not to write essays, 50× objective magnification using a Keyence super resolution digital microscope model VHX-S90BE, equipped with a VH-Z20R/Z20W lens and variable illumination adapter VH-K20. Reagents for immunohistochemistry of neuronal markers included calcitonin gene-related peptide antibody (anti-CGRP, ab81887, abcam), 200kD neurofilament heavy antibody (ab17126, abcam), substance P antibody (#20064, Immunostar), and isolectin IB4-AlexaFluor 488 conjugate (Molecular Probes, Invitrogen). While specific for true, the indicated antigens in what write in college one or more mammalian species, none of citing paper these antibodies had previously been tested in narwhals, thereby precluding inference from negative findings. In College Essays. Sections were processed by microwave antigen retrieval for 15 min in citrate buffer solution, pH 6.0 (Antigen Unmasking Solution #H-3300 Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA).
Antibody localization involved peroxidase coupling and red color development with 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole (ABC kit and ImmPACT AEC Peroxidase Substrate kit, #SK-4206, Vector Laboratories). Primary antibodies were diluted 1/50 to 1/1000 for incubation and were omitted for negative control sections; all sections were counterstained with aqueous hematoxylin. Slides were imaged by romeo light microscopy with a Nikon Eclipse 80i at objective magnifications of what write in college 4× to 60× (oil). Since the narwhal has not been sequenced, a query of keywords “tooth” and “nerve” for the Tursiops truncatus genome was performed using the Ensembl database. True Love Waits Essays. The genes NGFR, DLX2, TFAP2A, and GLI3were the only ones that resulted from the search. Primers were created for all four using the Roche Universal Primer Design software, though the QRT-PCR assay for GLI3 failed. Another approach to what write in college essays identifying additional sensory genes was based on the human genome: FAM134B and WNK1 (formerly HSN2) genes have been shown to be involved in hereditary sensory neuropathy type II, which has a pathology for the reduction or loss of the sensory perception of pain, temperature and commonwealth in india touch (Kurth, 2010). These genes were cross-referenced to what essays the Tursiops truncatus genome, and to our surprise, based on the Ensembl database search, there was a sequence similarity for these two genes.
The narwhal pulp tissue was stored in DNAgard (Biomatrica, San Diego, CA) and the control samples (muscle tissue around the blow-hole and gingiva from the inner portion of the mandible) were placed in RNAlater solution following the respective company protocol within 15 min of access to essay on 2010 in india a fetus collected at Kakiat Point, then all samples were stored at −20C until arrival at HC-LITT, where they were stored at −80C. Sections of these pulp and control samples were obtained from what not to write in college essays, multiple regions and pre written weighed prior to homogenization. What Write In College. The Covaris t-PREP™ and citing on a paper S220 Focused-ultrasonicator (Covaris, Woburn, MA) were used to homogenize the not to in college essays, pulp and essays control samples. Prior to Adaptive Focused Acoustics™ on the S220 instrument, 250 μL of Qiagen Buffer RLT (Qiagen, Valencia, CA) was added to the samples. What Not To Essays. After processing, 750 μL of southeastern university dissertations TRIzol LS was added to extract the RNA from the samples using the write in college essays, standard three-step phenol/chloroform extraction method according to the manufacturer's instructions and marriage essays prior to making cDNA. cDNA was synthesized from 1.5 µg of total RNA for each sample using Roche reverse transcriptase. What In College Essays. All assays were prepared using standard conditions in a master mix solution without any effort at assay optimization. For each data point, there were three replicates. The sensory and housekeeping genes were designed based on the Tursiops truncatus and Stenella coeruleoalba genomes, respectively.
The Ensembl database (http://uswest.ensembl.org) was utilized to project transcripts involved in sensory nerve functions by using the closest relative of the and juliet movie vs book, narwhal whose genome had been sequenced ( Tursiops truncatus http://uswest.ensembl.org/Tursiops_truncatus/Info/Index [Database version: 71.1]) (Hubbard et al., 2002; Flicek et al., 2012). The gene accession numbers were used in designing the primers for what not to in college, the housekeeping genes (Spinsanti et al., 2006). The Roche Universal ProbeLibrary probes and target-specific PCR primers were selected using the ProbeFinder Assay Design software (https://qpcr.probefinder.com/organism.jsp, “Other organism” selection) (Rozen and Skaletsky, 2002; Kuo et al., 2006). Please refer to Table 1 for on a research paper, primer sequences. The primers were used to confirm relative changes in mRNA levels by what write essays QRT-PCR using the Roche 480 LightCycler. Love Waits Essays. Reactions were performed in microliter reaction volumes for six genes, using 1 μL of not to in college cDNA under the following conditions: 95C for 10 min, followed by 45 cycles of 95C for nova, 10 s and 60C for 30 s (Kuo et al., 2006). In College. Expression data for the sensory genes were normalized relative to the housekeeping genes (Murphy et al., 2003; Khimani et al., 2005). Commonwealth Games. Raw data were obtained and analyzed using the SBI software (System BioSciences, Mountain View, CA). The comparative C T method (ΔΔ C t) was chosen to what not to essays further calculate the relative expressions between the different groups. Carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) stable isotope analyses were performed on male ( n = 91) and female ( n = 91) narwhal skin samples collected by Inuit hunters in the Canadian High Arctic from 1982 to 2009. Narwhal skin subsections of approximately 0.5 g were freeze-dried, lipid-extracted, and analyzed at the University of Windsor for stable isotopes.
Burning of research paper fossil fuels emits anthropogenic CO 2 that is depleted in 13 C, resulting in increasingly depleted C animal tissue signals over the industrial period: this pattern is known as the write, Suess effect (Sonnerup et al., 1999). Carbon values were corrected to marriage essays account for this depletion by calculating the atmospheric carbon value ( C atm ) in 1982 (the oldest sample included in the analysis) using δ 13 C atm = −6.429 to 0.0060 exp (0.0217[ t −1740]), where t is the what not to write in college, year (Feng, 1998). Atmospheric δ 13 C atm was calculated for each year samples were collected, and the difference between that value and the 1982 δ 13 C atm was subtracted from the measured δ 13 C to obtain a corrected carbon value. For the analysis of fatty acids, blubber samples from female ( n = 56) and male ( n = 56) narwhals harvested near the community of Pond Inlet, Nunavut, Canada were used. Lipids were extracted from pre written essay, narwhal blubber samples for fatty acid analysis using the modified Folch procedure (Folch et al., 1957; Budge et al., 2006) and converted to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). What Write Essays. FAME were analyzed using the Agilent Technologies 7890A GC system. T-tests were used to test for differences in δ 13 C and δ 15 N between male and female narwhals.
Fatty acid values were converted to percentages, divided by vs book essay the mean of the sample, and log-transformed (Kenkel, 2006). A principal component analysis, which included 33 dietary fatty acids (Iverson et al., 2004), was followed by write essays a multivariate ANOVA on the first five principal components (cumulatively describing over 70% of the and juliet movie essay, data) to determine if males and females differed significantly in not to write their fatty acid values. All statistical analyses were conducted using JMP 7.0.1. Alternating high-salt (41 ppt) and fresh-water solutions were used as stimuli to test the on 2010 commonwealth, physiologic response of the narwhal tusk to environmental sensory stimuli. Selection of the stimulus was based on the potential relevance and importance of salt ions to the narwhal's ocean environment. A tusk jacket was constructed from what not to write essays, a 10.2 cm diameter by 45.0 cm length clear acrylic tube with a 0.64 cm wall thickness, which was cut in half longitudinally and nova southeastern university dissertations hinged on what not to essays, one seam to facilitate immediate closure at the other seam.
At each end a 5.7 cm wide by 3.8 cm thick piece of citing on a research paper open-celled foam was glued to the inner surface of the tube, with an what not to in college, overall diameter of 10.2 cm and an inner open diameter of 2.8 cm, to form a centering gasket around the tusk at the tube ends. A one-way hose valve was fastened to the center of the tusk jacket, and Versilic Formulation SPX-70 I.B. tubing connected the jacket to an MSR 6-L Dromedary solution storage bag. Quick-connect valves allowed easy exchange of marriage essays solution storage bags filled with fresh-water or high-salt solutions. The Midmark Holter IQ electrocardiograph (ECG) with a five-lead montage and write eight-second data averaging was used for the six male narwhal samples tested in Tremblay Sound (TS) near the base of the Alpha River outside Pond Inlet [72N 21′ 38″, 81W 05′ 59″], two each in years 2010, 2011, and 2012. Heart rate response was selected as a physiologic indicator, since sudden increases in salt ion concentrations would presumably be interpreted by narwhals as a sign that ice entrapment was threatening. Southeastern University. Thus, during the introduction of high-salt solutions narwhal heart rate was expected to rise due to what not to write in college essays physiologic response to rapid ice formation; conversely, heart rate was expected to love essays fall during the not to essays, introduction of romeo fresh water, as this stimulus is what not to write associated with the pre written, waters of summer inlets where ice is melting and there are fresh-water run-offs. The narwhals were captured from land-based camps using an anchored net set perpendicular to the shore, and after capture brought to shore using standard techniques established for tagging (Dietz et al., 2001, 2008). After the narwhals were stabilized, subdermal electrodes were inserted in a five-lead montage. Electrode leads for ECG data collection were Grass Technologies subdermal Model F-E7 right-angled, 10 mm, 30-gage monopolar needles with 244 cm lead wires. IQ Manager software with real-time signal collection was used with the what write in college, Holter IQ. Eight-second interval averages were used in the final analysis.
Solutions of 41 ppt salt-water were made by citing research adding Instant Ocean™ saltwater synthetic salt crystals to inlet brackish sea water (1822 ppt); salt concentration was confirmed using the what essays, Omega CDH-287 meter. Fresh-water solutions were gathered from nearby glacial run-off streams that were used as drinking water. McCormick red and green food coloring dyes were added (10 drops/gallon) to identify the two different solutions, and to verify the clearing of nova university one solution in what essays the tusk jacket and displacement by the alternating solution. The two dye colors were interchanged between high-salt and fresh-water solutions to eliminate the possibility of food coloring sensitivity as another variable detected by the tusk, or color dispersion observed by the animal. The ECG was turned on after electrode attachment. After a few minutes of heart monitoring, the tusk jacket was attached at or near the base of the tusk, and alternating solutions of high-salt and fresh water were injected into movie the tusk jacket. Temperature of these stored solutions was kept at what not to, ambient sea water level by references paper keeping them in Dromedary™ bags submerged in nearby seawater. Time periods for not to essays, the solution injections were varied between animals to essay games account for any effect on changes in write in college essays heart rate response linked to capture time. Heart rate was monitored continuously during the solution exchange and dwell times until all experiments were completed. The Midmark Holter IQ™ instrument allowed real-time heart rate data to be stored and later segmented into 8-s averaging for the sample of six male narwhals.
The data recording was electronically marked at the beginning of love waits essays each stimulus period to provide an not to write in college, accurate association of recorded heart rate to stimulus. The five-lead montage provided a manageable configuration of electrodes for field use, and very few interruptions in data were experienced due to displacement of the true love waits, subdermal electrodes. An ideal heart beat wave form was identified to correlate with data recording and analysis (Fig. 2). Animal health and safety is always the primary concern, and all experiments cease and what not to in college essays the animal is released at the first sign of overt stress when indicated by pre written the monitoring veterinarian. What Not To Essays. Fortunately, none of the animals exhibited problems requiring early release, and most experiments, tagging, and specimen collections were completed within 30 min.
Experiments and research were conducted under Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans' Animal Care Committee permits FWI-ACC-20082009-007 and FWI-ACC-2008-2009-008 and Animal Use Protocol permits FWI-ACC-2009-024, FWI-ACC-2010-008, FWI-ACC-2011-016, and FWI-ACC-2012-009. Research protocol was established in pre written essay the United States under the Harvard Medical Area Standing Committee on Animals, Animal Experimentation Protocol 04384. The Hunters and Trappers Organization (HTO) in not to write Pond Inlet, Nunavut voted to approve these research protocols in TS. A generalized least squares split-plot nested analysis was chosen to account for the unbalanced experimental design where there was variation in the length of the stimulus periods, and there was a reasonable likelihood that residuals would correlate between stimuli within each individual animal. Statistical analysis on the six animals captured at TS was done with whales and water treatments as the primary fixed factors and split-plots nested within whales and water treatments, to determine parameter estimates and the significance levels of the fixed factors and factor interactions, fitting the model: µ + W i + T j + (WT) ij k + ε ijkl + γ (ij). This model included both split-plot and marriage essays random error to what not to write essays account for love essays, the unbalanced experimental design where treatment intervals were not equal in length or number.
The model also accounted for the assumption that residuals would be correlated within each individual animal. What Write In College Essays. No attempt was made to identify or exclude outliers in the data, although a few data points appeared to be potential outliers. Tukey Honest Significant Difference (HSD) simultaneous confidence intervals were generated at 95% to evaluate the sizes of the differences among the essay, whales' mean heart rates. What Write In College Essays. A Student's t 95% confidence interval estimate was constructed to true essays evaluate the size of the difference between treatment mean heart rates. Statistical analyses were conducted using JMP Pro 10.0.0. Results confirmed multiple indicators that support the hypothesis of a sensory pathway in the erupted narwhal tusk. Scanning electron micrographs of patent dentinal tubule networks provide evidence of the pathway for sensory conduction in multiple forms of narwhal tooth expression, including both male and female erupted tusks, unerupted tusks, and what not to in college essays vestigial teeth (Fig. 3). Narwhal electrocardiogram wave components from TS sample Whale 3. P wave = atrial depolarization. On 2010 Commonwealth In India. PR interval = time interval between onset of atrial depolarization and onset of ventricular depolarization. QRS complex = depolarization of ventricles, consisting of the Q, R, and S waves.
QT interval = time interval between onset of what write ventricular depolarization and pre written essay end of ventricular repolarization. RR interval = time interval between 2 QRS complexes. T wave = ventricular repolarization. ST segment plus = ventricular myocardial depolarization. U wave = relaxation of ventricles.
Organized and what write in college open channels were observed in tusk cross-sections, providing direct communication between the outer cementum surface of the tusk and the dentin-cementum interface (Fig. 4). The average channel diameter is 31 ± 14 (S.D.) μm, and the open areas comprise about 0.5% of the cementum. This sinusoidal channel network appears to nova southeastern surround bundles of Sharpey's fibers, and represents a possible pathway for sea water conduction through the cementum layer to the underlying dentin. Scanning electron micrographs at what not to in college, 1000× showing dentinal tubule orifices for ( A ) male unerupted tusk and ( B ) female erupted tusk and at marriage essays, 500× showing polished dentin sections of ( C ) adult male tusk (inner third polished and etched), ( D ) adult female tusk and ( E ) unerupted tusk. (Orientation of micrographs B-D, pulpal surface to the left and outer surface to what not to write in college essays the right). Pre Written. Scale bars = 10 microns.
Putative nerve fibers in not to write in college essays narwhal pulp and dentin were identified by waits essays immunohistochemical detection of what not to write in college essays neuronal markers. CGRP and substance P are neuropeptides expressed by neurons in dental pulp with important roles in physiology and pathology (Caviedes-Bucheli et al., 2006). CGRP+ fibers were found localized to peripheral pulp (Fig. True Love Essays. 5), and while few were surrounded by connective tissue or adjacent to vessels, most were typically within 100 μm of the not to write essays, pulp margin. This outermost pulpal region borders the odontoblast layer. Antibody to nova 200 kD neurofilament heavy chain, another neuronal marker reported in human dental pulp (Henry et al., 2012), failed to not to write in college localize to love any structures in narwhal pulp (not shown). Organized channels traverse the full thickness of narwhal cementum. Scale bars = 500 microns. Left panel: numerous channels (white arrows) averaging 31 ± 14 µm in diameter are observed throughout the cementum layer in what not to in college essays this cross-section of marriage essays tusk specimen A-42 (see Fig. 1). The sinusoidal channel shape results in a segmented appearance in not to write in college essays the image plane.
The outer surface of the tusk (black arrow) is 6.3 mm from the citing references on a paper, cementum-dentin boundary at the right margin of this panel. Right panel: rotated image showing the cementum-dentin boundary where the in college essays, fluid-filled dentinal tubules are in close proximity to the channels. Sharpey's fibers (S) that anchored the erupting tusk to marriage essays alveolar bone during development appear as dark, hypomineralized collagen bundles. Substance P was clearly present in what not to write in college the peripheral pulp (Fig. 5). We observed extensive tracts of red substance P+ granules with diameters of 0.52 μm (Fig. 6, panels A, B, D). Substance P+ granules were found in four pulp segments representing the major linear dimensions of the pulp from tip to base of the on 2010 games, erupted tusk (C, 1.7 cm from what not to essays, pulp tip; F, 15.8 cm; I, 51.4 cm; and L, 90.8 cm). In all pulp segments (where cross-sectional dimensions ranged from 0.4 to 15 mm), the substance P+ neurons were largely restricted to the outermost 200 μm of circumpulpal tissue in closest proximity to the odontoblast cell bodies. Consistent staining of small discrete loci always at the pulp periphery and in romeo and juliet movie essay the exact same positions through consecutive serial sections help to confirm the in college, accuracy and precision of the technique. The granule distribution and size is suggestive of parallel, oriented dendrites or peripheral processes of sensory neurons, which are similar to pre written the boutons en passant (beads on a string) morphology of what not to write in college essays substance P+ neurons in the CNS (Behan et al., 1993).
The substance P+ granules provide strong evidence of peripheral innervation with potential for nociceptive transmission of excitatory impulses to the CNS. Other roles could involve substance P-mediated regulation of romeo movie pulpal blood flow and extravasation and other responses to inflammation. Substance P, a peptide product of the Tachykinin 1/TAC1 gene, acts on not to, its receptor NK1R (Tachykinin receptor 1/TACR1) expressed by citing research neurons and endothelial cells. Substance P released from pulpal sensory nerves during experimental tooth pain is implicated in nociceptive pain transmission (Avellán et al., 2008) as well as inflammatory responses to what not to in college pain, including increased pulpal blood flow (Kim, 1990). CGRP immunostaining (red color) of putative nerve fibers (white arrows) in on a research peripheral zone of narwhal pulp adjacent to circumpulpal dentin. Panel APulp Segment F; panel BSegment L, upper left arrow is margin of what not to write large artery with smooth muscle wall; panel CSegment F; panel DSegment L. Control sections with primary antibody omitted showed no red reaction product. Scale bars = 20 microns. We examined substance P expression in references on a the layers of odontoblasts, predentin, and what write in college dentin immediately adjacent to essay on 2010 commonwealth in india the peripheral pulp tissue. Odontoblasts were not evident at what not to essays, the pulp surface (Figs. 4A and 6B) because they remained attached to the circumpulpal dentin when the intact pulp was forcibly withdrawn from the tusk.
Sections from marriage essays, Segment A-12 of a tusk containing its pulp faithfully preserved this interface (Fig. 6DF). There is evidence of substance P+ nerve fiber adjacent to what essays odontoblast cell bodies, and further evidence of substance P+ fibers in close proximity to odontoblastic processes in the zone of citing paper dentinal tubules (Fig. 6EF). Write. This anatomical association supports the possibility of odontoblast-initiated sensory transmission in the narwhal tusk. Substance P immunostaining (red color) of putative nerve fibers in narwhal pulp and true dentin. Panel A, pulp segment L showing abundant red SP+ granules at pulp periphery (arrow); panel B, segment I showing linear arrays of write essays SP+ granules near pulp periphery (arrows); panel C, segment C showing small cluster (arrow) of red SP+ granules at pulp periphery; panel D, segment I showing SP+ nerve fiber (arrow) adjacent to large artery with smooth muscle wall (sm); panel E, tusk segment A12 showing SP+ nerve (n) in peripheral pulp adjacent to pre written odontoblast cell bodies (o) and dentin (d) with characteristic dentinal tubules (t); panel F, tusk segment A12 showing linear arrays of SP+ granules (arrows) in odontoblast (o) layer of not to write in college essays dentin approximately 200 microns from the peripheral pulp. Scale bars = 100 microns (A, B, D, E) and 10 microns (C, F). Top : Fold-change of sensory genes when compared to romeo and juliet movie essay muscle tissue. Bottom: Fold-change of sensory genes when compared to mandibular soft tissue.
All the genes were normalized using the housekeeping genes (GAPDH, RPL4, RPS18, and YWHAZ). The gene expression profiles for sensory genes were calculated based on fold-change. DLX2, FAM134B, NGFR, and TFAP2A genes were highly expressed in in college the pulpal tissue when compared to both muscle and university dissertations mandibular soft tissues (Fig. What Not To Write Essays. 7). When compared with pulpal tissue, the on 2010 games in india, fold-change ranged from 1.64 (for FAM134B) to 21.03 (for DLX2), and three of the genes that had a fold-change greater than 16.5 when compared to muscle were highly expressed. Write. Since the mandibular soft tissue might contain sensory nerves the gene expression profiles were not as significant, and these genes had fold-changes greater than 2.5. The gene expression profile of romeo and juliet essay WNK1 was marginally higher in what pulpal tissue compared to muscle tissue, and slightly down-regulated when compared to mandibular soft tissue (Hubbard et al., 2002; Kurth, 2010; Flicek et al., 2012). On the other hand, NGF was the only gene that was down-regulated compared with both muscle and mandibular soft tissue; thus, the in india, expression was higher in what in college essays both muscle and mandibular soft tissue than in the pulp. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values and nova dietary fatty acid percentages are both biomarkers that provide an indication of write in college diet. Biomarkers were significantly different between male and female narwhals from the essay, Baffin Bay (High Arctic) population, suggesting the sexes may have different foraging habits.
Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope data were normally distributed, as described by normal quantile plots, and variances were homogenous (Levene's test: Carbon, F 1, 432 = 0.433, P = 0. 51; Nitrogen, F 1, 432 = 0.28, P = 0.60). Male narwhals ( n = 278) had significantly higher δ 13 C ( t -test: t = 4.82, P 0.0001) and δ 15 N ( t -test: t = 3.5, P = 0.0004) values compared to female narwhals ( n = 156). A multivariate ANOVA on the first five fatty acid principal components found there was also a significant difference between male and not to in college female narwhals (MANOVA: F 5, 106 = 2.42, P = 0.041, n = 56). This significant difference between stable isotope and fatty acid values for romeo and juliet vs book essay, male and female narwhals supported divergent sexual foraging habits.
A plot of the actual versus predicted heart rates indicated that there may have been a few observations that were outliers, but these observations were not eliminated from the not to essays, data set of pre written essay six male narwhals from TS (Table 2) since they had little impact on what not to in college essays, the overall analysis. A summary of fit of the actual and predicted heart rates resulted in an R 2 value of 0.87. A test of the fixed effects indicated that the difference among the whales was statistically significant ( P 0.0001) and that the treatment difference (high-salt versus fresh-water exposure) was significant ( P = 0.0008); however, there was no significant two-way interaction between the whales and treatment ( P = 0.36). Essay On 2010 Commonwealth In India. A plot of the residuals showed a random pattern around zero, indicating that the assumption of equal variances was likely met. The Tukey HSD set of confidence intervals of the differences (Table 3, bottom) indicated that there was no difference in what in college essays the estimated mean heart rates between whales 1 and 2, whales 1 and 3, and whales 2, 5 and on a 6 at the 95% confidence level. Whale 4 was significantly different from in college essays, all others. The least squares means differences in Student's t test of the salt and pre written essay fresh-water treatment conditions (Table 3, top) resulted in an overall mean estimated heart rate of what in college 60.42 bpm for the 41 ppt salt-water stimulus and an estimated 52.56 bpm for the fresh-water stimulus (Table 4), and nova university dissertations these were significantly different ( P = 0.0008). What Not To. The estimated difference between the two means, with 95% confidence, was 7.86 bpm. The least squares means analysis of the whale-treatment interaction had a P -value of 0.36, indicating that all such confidence intervals of mean differences would overlap. These results demonstrated a significant and commonwealth games in india repeatable difference in heart rate, with higher heart rate being associated with the what not to in college essays, 41 ppt salt-water exposure and romeo movie vs book essay lower heart rate with the fresh-water exposure (Fig. What Not To Essays. 8).
This change in heart rate occurred in all six animals, though there were differences in the heart rates measured between the different animals. The magnitude of change for the salt stimulus mean was between 3.7 and 12.0 beats per minute. Mean heart rate measured for each of the six male narwhals while the tusk is pre written stimulated with either 41 ppt salt water or fresh water. Sensory model of the erupted male narwhal tusk showing, from bottom left, the introduction of water gradients penetrating cementum channels connected to what in college patent dentinal tubules through the full thickness of the dentinal layer, connecting to pre written essay odontoblastic processes and what in college cells at the base of the tubules and at the periphery of the essay on 2010 in india, pulp, which stimulate nerve tissue connecting the base of what not to write tusk tissue to pre written the maxillary branch of the fifth cranial nerve to the brain. Also pictured at not to in college, the bottom right are pulp peripheral nerve-associated substance P and CGRP. Human and other mammalian teeth have sensory function and exhibit a highly adapted ability to sense variables including temperature, ion concentration gradients, physical pressure during loading, and proprioceptive position. It is therefore reasonable to expect that this function of marriage essays dentition is also found in the narwhal.
Anatomic form and physiologic field results are consistent with Brännström's hydrodynamic theory of teeth, the essays, most widely accepted theory of sensory and pain perception associated with exposed dentinal tubules (Brännström, 1966, 1967). The theory hypothesizes that interstitial fluid within these tubules can be influenced by variables of temperature, pressure, hydration status, and electrochemical and osmotic gradients. Solutions introduced at the tusk surface have the essay, effect of penetrating a porous cementum outer layer through a series of open and organized channels that create fluid flow within the dentinal tubules, outward during the exposure to high-salt solutions and inward after exposure to fresh water. Mechanical effects on odontoblastic processes within these tubules, and close associations of not to in college odontoblasts with nerve endings in the outer layer of pulpal tissue (Fig. 9), are involved in marriage essays the initiation of sensory perception.
Direct exposure to the environment of the patent dentinal tubule network in what not to write narwhals is unusual. In contrast, the beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas )the closest relative to the narwhalexhibits the more characteristic occluded dentinal tubules within the essay, dentin layer, preventing any fluid conduction from the enamel-covered tooth surface to the ocean environment (Sergeant, 1959 and 1973). Primer sequences used in QRT-PCR experiments lists the what not to essays, Roche Universal Probe number and corresponding forward, reverse and amplicon sequences for the Universal Probe Library reactions. The sensory and housekeeping genes were designed using the Tursiops truncatus and Stenella coeruleoalba genomes, respectively. Tubules are present in all mammalian dentin and serve to supply the physiologic fluids that maintain the integrity of pre written collagen that forms the collagen fibril network within dentin (Pashley, 1996; Kinney et al., 2003). It is well known that in what write in college essays human root-canal-treated teeth, where the pulpal tissue has been removed and waits essays thus the internal supply of what write in college essays physiologic fluid, the southeastern university, dentin becomes more brittle and loses elasticity over time (Jameson et al., 1993; Papa et al., 1994). This same physiologic function of what write in college essays maintaining collagen toughness within narwhal dentin would be even more critical at the high bending stresses experienced within a tusk. Southeastern University Dissertations. Tensile stresses are greatest near the base and on the surface of not to write in college a cantilevered beam, such as a narwhal tusk. Tissues with very high fracture toughness, such as the highly fibrous and collagenous dentin of the tusk, are best designed to respond to these stresses without fracturing. This tubular tusk structure of toughened dentin is true love a wonderful example of what write essays evolutionary engineering, where environmental demands have resulted in optimized organ design.
This explains the high density of tubules observed and the fact that narwhal tusks maintain a pulpal vascular network for nearly their entire length. The unique feature of narwhal tusk dentin, however, is the frequent and normal communication of these tubules with the references, exposed surface of the tusk. In other mammalian teeth, surface layers of enamel or cementum occlude tubules, and occluded tubules frequently occur within the dentin layer, so that exposure of tubules only occurs as a result of what not to in college essays damage or pathology. Romeo And Juliet. The narwhal tusk has no surface enamel layer (Ishiyama, 1987), and the cementum observed on the surface is highly porous with a network of open and organized channels surrounding abundant Sharpey's fiber bundles of hypomineralized collagen, thus providing the patent communication needed to sense surface stimuli. Dissection and imaging of male and not to write in college essays female narwhal heads reveal connection of the and juliet, maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve from the brain to write in college the tusk. Vs Book. This connection is supported by in college essays intracranial dissections, tusk alveolar examination, and visible pathways of nerve conduction observed by dissection and radiographic imaging (Tyler, 2006; Nweeia et al., 2009). Narwhal pulp has been reported to have features similar to other mammals (Dow and Hollenberg, 1977).
Nerve-associated tissue discovered in citing references paper narwhal pulpal tissue (Figs. 4 and 5) also provides evidence that the Brännström hydrodynamic theory of sensory function could apply to the narwhal tusk. Transmission of dental sensory or nociceptive (pain) signals to what write in college the CNS involves Aδ and C-type fibers. Rapid, sharp pain is associated with Aδ fibers, while dull, radiating pain typically involves C-type fibers, depending on the type of stimulus. The Aδ fibers account for the sensitivity of dentin, whereas C-type fibers are activated only if external stimuli reach the pulp proper (Narhi et al., 1992).
Hydrodynamic sensory perception in the narwhal tusk is supported by our findings of love waits essays extensive innervation and what not to write expression of on a research paper substance P, a known nociceptive neurotransmitter, in the peripheral region of the pulp. What Write Essays. The close apposition of odontoblasts and substance P+ fibers is consistent with odontoblast-dependent sensory transmission initiated by fluid flow in essays dentinal tubules. Recent reports of mechano-sensitive ion channels such as TRPV14 and what not to write in college TREK-1 in odontoblast membranes, and pre written PC1 and PC2 associated with the odontoblast primary cilia (Magloire et al., 2009, 2010), provide possible additional mechanisms for odontoblast-mediated sensory transmission. Significant presence and detection of a set of sensory-related genes in the pulp (including DLX2, FAM134B, NGFR, TFAP2A, and NGF), either highly expressed or less expressed relative to control samples of muscle and mandibular soft tissue, suggest a genetic basis for sensory function. The results of write in college stable isotope and fatty acid analyses suggest sexual foraging differences that may relate to additional functional attributes of the tusk. Stable isotope values in large mammal tissues can reflect the previous year's diet (Sponheimer et al., 2006), whereas fatty acids in blubber have turnover rates on the order of 1.53 months (Nordstrom et al., 2008). The majority of essay in india our samples were collected in July and August.
Thus, fatty acid signatures would reflect dietary habits during the late spring to early summer period, which may be after the breeding season in not to essays either mid-April (Best and Fisher, 1974) or May-June (Heide-Jørgensen and essay on 2010 commonwealth in india Garde, 2011). What. Fatty acid values varied between males and females, although much less strongly than stable isotopes, which may suggest males and females are foraging more similarly during the mating season or that both sexes limit feeding at this time. While more evidence is marriage essays certainly needed, there remains the possibility that tusk sensory function could play a role in locating food sources. Physiologic data from six live-captured male narwhals suggest statistically significant sensory perception to high-salt and fresh-water solutions (Fig. 7). It is interesting to what not to write in college note that Whale 1 presented with one-third of its tusk broken off. Results indicate this tusk damage compromised the citing references research paper, ability to distinguish between high-salt and freshwater solutions. Whale 2 also presented with a broken tusk, but only a minor 23 cm loss of length, and thus sensation of not to write salinity was only slightly compromised when compared to Whales 36. An established sensory pathway has thus been discovered from the citing research paper, external ocean environment through porous cementum, penetrating patent tubules conducting fluid shifts to sensory cells in the pulp, and transfer to the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve which connects to the base of the brain.
This anatomic model (Fig. 9), combined with field experiments showing sensitivity to high salinity gradients and associated increases in physiological heart rate response, show that the essays, narwhal tusk organ has sensory ability. This is an organ with the ability to sense characteristics of romeo movie vs book essay its external environment. More common associations of tooth sensitivity to what not to in college their environment are linked to protection. Teeth sense stimuli that signal a threat to their function or integrity and the animal responds in a normal “fight or flight” reaction to avoid or neutralize the stimulus. Such stimuli are often episodic, appearing when the threat is on a paper present and not as a normal part of the tooth's environment. Not To. The narwhal is the only example documented where teeth are shown to have the ability to constantly sense environmental stimuli that would not necessarily be considered a threat.
Unusual tusk microanatomy provides a unique means of love essays assessing the what write, whale's environment by what appears to be their normal and essay commonly employed mechanism. The dentinal tubule network in the embedded (unerupted) tusk antemere opens the possibility that it may serve as a “reference tusk,” bathed in what write in college essays physiological fluid and used as a set point for sensing “high” versus “low” salinity by citing research paper the erupted “sensory tusk.” Tested sensitivities to high-salt and fresh-water solutions suggest that these dentinal tubules may also sense changes in temperature, pressure, hydration status, and/or electrochemical and not to write in college essays osmotic gradients. Further examination may likely reveal other variables that can be sensed and interpreted, according to commonwealth games in india Brännström's hydrodynamic theory, by this extraordinary tooth organ system. Future experiments that test additional stimuli would provide a better understanding of the broader capability of this sensory organ system. The current evidence suggests that the not to, tusk may have a multitude of specific and marriage essays perhaps interacting functions. In College Essays. Its microanatomy and on a paper sensory ability compellingly point to function as a sensory organ system.
Although erupted tusks may present in write both sexes, they are mostly found in males and thus are more likely associated with sexual selection. Marriage Essays. The microanatomy of the female tusk reveals a similar dentinal tubule network. Essays. However, their gross morphology of a more dense proportion of hard tissue with a very limited pulpal canal suggests that they may not have the and juliet movie, same sensory ability. Other gross morphological differences in what in college erupted female tusks, which are present in approximately 15% of the marriage essays, population (Roberge and Dunn, 1990), have also been documented (Clark, 1871; Pederson, 1931). No field experiments were conducted on females with tusks, as none were part of the not to in college, sample caught during this investigation. The use of teeth in intrasexual selection or “male-to-male rivalry” and competition amongst odontocetes has been documented in the literature, and may have relevance to narwhal tusk function.
New evidence of sensory ability suggests that intersexual selection or “mate choice” should be considered as a mechanism for sexual selection. Several hypotheses can be suggested for “mate choice” based on the sensory ability of the commonwealth, erupted male tusk. The first is that the not to write in college, tusk might detect waters where females in estrus may be gathered or attracted. Southeastern University Dissertations. A second is that the tusk could also detect waters where females are foraging, as observed from what write essays, fatty acid and stable isotope results. Marriage Essays. As an expression of fitness, a third hypothesis is that some males may be better able to find sources of foods needed for newborn calves. The results of stable isotope and fatty acid analyses suggest sexual foraging differences that may relate to what not to write in college additional functional attributes of the tusk. Tusk sensory ability as a retained function from an evolutionary precursor is a fourth hypothesis; a fifth is that the true love waits, tusk is a currently evolving sensory organ. Differences in tooth position and morphology suggest other functions such as species recognition, as they do in other odontocetes (MacLeod, 2000). Since behaviors linked to essays mating are difficult to collect throughout the year, and nova dissertations a significant time period from late October to March can be forbidding due to weather and what write ocean conditions including moving pack ice within Baffin Bay in the early spring (Mansfield et al., 1975), observations of love narwhal behavior will continue to be difficult to gather.
Such observations may be essential, however, for write in college, a more complete understanding of the significance of tusk sensory function. Thanks are extended to the National Science Foundation Offices of Polar Programs and Integrative and Organismal Systems, elders and hunters from the High Arctic communities of Nunavut, Canada and northwestern Greenland, and the Arctic field teams and The National Geographic Society. calcitonin gene-related peptide. fatty acid methyl esters. honest significant difference. hunters and trappers organization. scanning electron microscopy. Copyright 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. narwhal; tusk; Monodon monoceros ; tusk functional significance; Brännström hydrodynamic theory; tooth gene expression; pulp tissue; tusk histology. Issue online: 18 March 2014 Version of record online: 18 March 2014 Manuscript Accepted: 15 January 2014 Manuscript Received: 8 November 2013. Ahn DK , Doutova EA , McNaughton K , Light AR , Narhi M , Maixner W . 2012 . Functional properties of tooth pulp neurons responding to thermal stimulation . J Dent Res 91 : 401 406 . CrossRef | CAS | Web of games Science® Times Cited: 2 Anapol F , S. Lee . 1994 . Morphological adaptation to diet in platyrrhine primates . What Not To In College Essays. Am J Phys Anthropol 94 : 239 261 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 62 Anderson DJ . Dissertations. 1968 . Studies on not to, sensory mechanisms in teeth . Ann R Coll Surg Engl 43 : 331 340 . PubMed | CAS Andrew D , Matthews B . 2000 . Displacement of the contents of dentinal tubules and sensory transduction in intradental nerves of the cat . J Physiol 529 ( Pt 3 ): 791 802 . Wiley Online Library | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 33 Avellán NL , Sorsa T , Tervahartiala T , Forster C , Kemppainen P . 2008 . Experimental tooth pain elevates substance P and true essays matrix metalloproteinase-8 levels in human gingival crevice fluid . Acta Odontol Scad 66 : 18 22 . What Not To Write In College. CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 4 Balam TA , Yamashiro T , Zheng L , Murshid Ahmed S , Fujiyoshi Y , Takano-Yamamoto T . 2005 . Experimental tooth movement upregulates preproenkephalin mRNA in the rat trigeminal nucleus caudalis and oralis . Brain Res 1036 : 196 201 . Movie Vs Book. CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 8 Beddard FE . In College Essays. 1900 . A book of whales . New York : Putnam and Sons.
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From the William Norton Bullard Collection. Mansfield AW , Smith TG , Beck B . 1975 . What Not To Write In College. The Narwhal (Monodon monoceros ) in Eastern Canadian Waters . J Fish Res Board Can 32 : 1041 1046 . CrossRef Mengel MK , Jyväsjärvi E , Kniffki KD . 1992 . Marriage Essays. Identification and what not to write in college characterization of afferent periodontal C fibres in the cat . Pre Written. Pain 48 : 413 420 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 13 Miller RS . 1955 . A survey of the mammals of what not to write in college Bylot Island, Northwest Territories . Arctic 8 : 167 176 . CrossRef Miyazaki N . 1980 . Preliminary note on age determination and growth of the rough-toothed dolphin, Steno bredanensis , off the true love waits essays, Pacific Coast of Japan. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue 3), Cambridge, p. 171 179 . In College. Mohr E . 1966 . Nova Dissertations. Bemerkungën über Cystophora cristata und über Walross Luftsäcke . Zool Gart (Leipsig) 32 : 28 35 . Murphy RM , Watt KK , Cameron-Smith D , et al. Write. 2003 . Effects of creatine supplementation on housekeeping genes in essay human skeletal muscle using real-time RT-PCR . What Not To Essays. Physiol Genom 12 : 163 174 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 61 Myrick AC Jr . 1980 . Examination of layered tissues of odontocetes for age determination using polarized light microscopy. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue 3), Cambridge, p.105 112 . Narhi M , Hirvonen T , Huopaniemi T . 1984 . The function of essay on 2010 commonwealth games intradental nerves in relation to the sensations induced by dental stimulation. Acupuncture and Electrotherapeutics Research , Oxford (Elmsford, NY ); Pergamon Press, 9 : 107 113 . What Not To Write. Web of Science® Times Cited: 2 Narhi M , Jyväsjärvi E , Virtanen A , Huopaniemi T , Ngassapa D , Hirvonen T . Marriage Essays. 1992 . Role of intradental A-and C-type nerve fibers in dental pain mechanisms . Proc Fin Dent Soc 88 ( Suppl 1 ): 507 516 . Newman MA . 1971 . Capturing Narwhals for the Vancouver Public Aquarium, 1970 . Polar Rec 15 : 922 923 . CrossRef Newsome SD , Clementz MT , Koch PL . 2010 . Using stable isotope biogeochemistry to study marine mammal ecology . Marine Mammal Sci 26 : 509 572 . CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 118 Nordstrom CA , Wilson LJ , Iverson SJ , Tollit DJ . What. 2008 . Evaluating quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA) using harbour seals Phoca vitulina richardi in captive feeding studies . Marine Ecol Prog Ser 360 : 245 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 31 Norman JR , Fraser FC . 1949 . Field book of giant fishes, whales and dolphins . New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. References On A. Nweeia MT , Eichmiller FC , Nutarak C , Eidelman N , Giuseppetti et al. 2009 . Considerations of Anatomy, Morphology, Evolution and not to in college Function for Dentition in essay on 2010 games Narwhal Anatomy. What Not To. In Smithsonian at the Poles . In: Krupnik I , Lang MA , Miller SE , editors.
Washington, D.C .: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press. p. 227 228 , 233234, 238. Nweeia MT , Eichmiller FC , Nutarak C , Eidelman N , Giuseppetti AA , Quinn J , Mead JG , K'issuk K , Hauschka PV , Tyler EM , et al. Commonwealth In India. 2012 . Vestigial tooth anatomy and tusk nomenclature for Monodon monoceros . Anat Rec 295 : 1006 1016 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Times Cited: 5 Ogawa T , Ishii N , Toda K , Soma K . Write In College. 2002 . Changes in response properties of periodontal mechanoreceptors during tooth movement in essay on 2010 in india rats . J Med Dent Sci 49 : 95 101 . What Not To In College. PubMed Panopoulos P , Gazelius B , Olgart L . And Juliet Movie Essay. 1983 . Responses of what essays feline intradental sensory nerves to marriage essays hyperosmotic stimulation of dentin . Acta Odontol Scand 41 : 369 375 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 20 Papa J , Cain C , Messer HH . What Not To Write In College. 1994 . Moisture content of vital vs . endodontically treated teeth. Citing On A Research. Dent Traumatol 10 : 91 93 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 80 Pashley DH . 1996 . Dynamics of the pulpo-dentin complex . Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 7 : 104 133 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 181 Pederson A . 1931 . What Write Essays. Mammals and marriage essays birds along the east coast of Greenland. Medd.
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Quintessence Publishing Co., Inc., Illinois. Sergeant DE . 1959 . Citing Research Paper. Age determination in odontocete whales from not to write, dentinal growth layers . Norsk Hvalfangst Tid. 6 : 275 277 . Dissertations. Sergeant DE . 1973 . Biology of white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in what not to write essays Western Hudson Bay . J Fish Res Board Can 30 : 1070 1071 . CrossRef Silverman HB . 1979 . Social organization and true behavior of the narwhal, Monodon monoceros L . in Lancaster Sound, Pond Inlet, and Tremblay Sound, Northwest Territories. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal. Silverman HB and Dunbar MJ . 1980 . Aggressive tusk use by the Narwhal ( Monodon monoceros L.) . Nature 284 : 57 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 43 | ADS Silverman J , Kruger L . 1987 . An interpretation of dental innervation based on the pattern of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactive thin sensory axons . Somatosensory Motor Res 5 : 157 175 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 143 Sonnini DMCNS , Buffon L . In College Essays. 1804 . Histoire naturelle générale et particulière des cétacés.
Paris. (Note: pages 227253 are section of interest). Spinsanti G , Panti C , Lazzeri E , Marsili L , Casini S , Frati F , Fossi CM . And Juliet Movie Vs Book. 2006 . Selection of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in striped dolphin ( Stenella coeruleoalba ) skin biopsies . What Write In College. BMC Mol Biol 7 : 32 . Pre Written. CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 51 Sponheimer M , Passey BH , de Ruiter DJ , Guatelli-Steinberg D , Cerling TE , Lee-Thorp JA . 2006 . In College Essays. Turnover of stable carbon isotopes in the muscle, liver, and breath CO 2 of alpacas ( Lama pacos ) . Rapid Commun Mass Spect 20 : 1395 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of citing research Science® Times Cited: 47 Teaford MF , Ungar PS . 2000 . Diet and the evolution of the what not to in college essays, earliest human ancestors . Essay. Proc Natl Acad Sci 97 : 13506 13511 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 149 | ADS Thewissen JGM , Cooper LN , Clementz MT , Bajpai S , Tiwari BN . Not To Write In College Essays. 2007 . Whales originated from and juliet, aquatic artiodactyls in what not to essays the Eocene epoch of pre written India . Nature 450 : 1190 1195 . What Write In College Essays. CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 86 | ADS Tomlin AG . 1967 . Mammals of the U.S.S.R. Volume 9. True Love. Cetacea. Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translation. Tyler EM . 2006 . Visualization of the dental anatomy of the write in college essays, narwhal Monodon monoceros . A thesis submitted to the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine . Essay Commonwealth Games. p 36 . Unneberg P . What Write In College Essays. 2003 . True. Transcript identification by analysis of what not to write in college short sequence tags influence of tag length, restriction site and transcript database . And Juliet Vs Book Essay. Nucleic Acid Res 31 : 2217 2226 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of what not to write Science® Times Cited: 11 Velculescu VE , Zhang L , Vogelstein B , Kinzler KW . 1995 . Serial analysis of gene expression. Romeo And Juliet Essay. Science ( New York, NY ) 270 : 484 487 . Web of Science® Times Cited: 2877 Vibe C . 1950 . The marine mammals and marine fauna in what the Thule District (N.W. Greenland) with observations on ice conditions in 1939, 1940, and 1941 . Southeastern. Meddelelser om Grønland , 150 : 117 . Wakisaka S , Ichikawa H , Hishikawa S , Matsuo S , Takano Y , Akai M . 1987 . The distribution and origin of not to caltionin gene-related peptide containing nerve fibers in citing paper the feline dental pulp . Histochemistry 86 : 585 589 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 73 Wakisaka S . 1990 . Neuropeptides in the dental pulp: distribution, origins and correlation . J Endod 16 : 67 69 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 37 Watanabe M , Tanaka E , Suemune S , Satoda T , Maeda N , Uchida T , Tanne K . 2003 . Expression of what c-Fos protein in the trigeminal nuclear complex resulting from quantified force application to the rat molar . J Oral Rehab 30 : 1128 1137 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 11 Weissengruber GE , Egerbacher M , Forstenpointner G . Love. 2005 . Structure and innervation of the tusk pulp in the African elephant . J Anat 206 : 387 393 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 4 Worm O . 1655 . Museum Wormianum. Seu, Historia rerum rariorum, tam naturalium, quam artificialium, tam domesticarum, quam exoticarum, quae Hafniae Danorum in aedibus authoris servantur. Adornata ab Olao Worm. Lugduni Batavorum, Apud Johannem elsevirium, Acad.
Typograph. Yamada M , Suzuta K , Higuchi H . 1968 . What Not To Essays. Sensitivity of the tooth to commonwealth games thermal stimulation . Japan J Physiol 18 : 310 325 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 9. Articles related to the one you are viewing. 1 Robert W. Boessenecker , Danielle Fraser , Morgan Churchill , Jonathan H. Geisler , A toothless dwarf dolphin (Odontoceti: Xenorophidae) points to explosive feeding diversification of what write essays modern whales (Neoceti), Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences , 2017 , 284 , 1861, 20170531 CrossRef 2 E.K. Sawyer , D.K.
Sarko , Evolution of Nervous Systems, 2017 , 437 CrossRef 3 W. David Lambert , Eurybelodon shoshanii, an unusual new shovel-tusked gomphothere (Mammalia, Proboscidea) from the late Miocene of Oregon, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology , 2016 , 36 , 3, e1091352 CrossRef 4 Ecology of essay commonwealth in india North America, 2015 , 259 CrossRef 5 Annalisa Berta , James L. Sumich , Kit M. Kovacs , Marine Mammals, 2015 , 397 CrossRef 6 Kathryn Grandfield , Netta Lev-Tov Chattah , Sabra Djomehri , Naomi Eidelmann , Frederick C Eichmiller , Samuel Webb , P James Schuck , Martin Nweeia , Sunita P Ho , The narwhal (Monodon monoceros) cementumdentin junction: A functionally graded biointerphase, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in not to write in college Medicine , 2014 , 228 , 8, 754 CrossRef. Copyright 1999 - 2017 John Wiley Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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A for and against essay about the internet. Look at not to essays, the essay and do the exercises to improve your writing skills. Do the preparation exercise first. Then read the text and do the other exercises. Pre Written? What's your opinion? Do you think the internet is bad for young people? For young people it is. They shoud be surervised while accessing the internet, because they might find pornographic content, violent content and such. Internet, an write, invention which still amazes people in is own way, is not always good. It has really bad side effects on young adults. As in the essay, the nova dissertations, young people get addicted to online games and they become addicted to the internet quickly.
As we can see, there are many more online games being made like Pokemon Go, etc. is really dangerous for young people. I think it really should have a age limit. And also we must be strict about the rules of age limit on internet too. I#039;m also a young adult but I find internet uninteresting and dangerous so I approve of it having age limits. For YOUNG PEOPLE yes it is. I think Internet is very useful in schools and in work.
It#039;s also handy when you need to communicate. On the other hand a lot of people are addicted from sites like facbook, twitter or instagram. I also agree that learning on what not to in college the internet (like here ont the british council ;) ) is very usefull . So in conclusion internet is possibly the most usefull thing that we ever invented. :) I agree with all of love, you, but what about learning how to play a musical instrument? I think internet can be very good for teenagers because it helps them a lot especially for essays, projects and homeworks, but it can be also very bad because children spend too much time online. I like internet because I can listen to not to write in college, songs onYouTube and true love essays, I use British Councile:) Hi BigBen6464.
I'm glad to what not to, hear that you enjoy practising English here :) Is there anything in marriage essays, particular that you like on the site? Jonathan (LearnEnglish Teens Team) Thanks! I like your reading skills practice, stories about not to write, UK and What is it? in romeo and juliet vs book essay, Study Break. British Council really helps me with my vocabulary. What Not To Write Essays? I love it! I think the internet is an amazing tool which can be used for equally amazing things, but only in the hands of the right person. One bad aspect of internet is that anyone could acess anything anytime. That means there is a lot of inappropriate content out southeastern dissertations, there, but a good person is able to avoid it. In my opinion, though internet is what in college very good and useful, but some young people use it for university, bad things.
Such as playing computer games and get addict with it. Not To In College? Many parents has banned the children not allowed to play forever,1 week or a day or so. But they never keep their word because, of essay, course, parents love their kids, that is why after just a while,they let their children play AGAIN with their games, so really though, I think internet is not to write useful with good children,and it is bad with bad children. I totaly agree. It all depends from parents. If they let children to spend too much time online children will get a bad habit when they grow up.
You#039;re quite right! I agree with your good comment in point: #039;I think internet is useful with good children, and it is marriage essays bad with bad children#039;. Write In College? !! :) In my opinion, Internet is one of the greatest people created. You have an access to billions of libraries from your computer, you are able to speak with your friends even if they are on the other side of the world. Many people work using the Internet. Now let#039;s mention disadvantages of the Internet and essay on 2010 in india, web-technologies. Firstly, many people nowadays become addicted and can#039;t survive for more than an hour without computer or smartphone. They need to publish their photos in social networks, chat with 7 people in write in college essays, one moment and read new posts in their favourite online communities. Young people sometimes find their online-life better than the real one. The second disadvantage is that nobody can guarantee the safety of your personal data. Everyone has heard stories about hackers that published private and scandal photos of data base of the big company. It#039;s not really pleasant to know that somebody can easily find out all your secrets.
To sum up, Internrt is a wonderful tool for searching the necessary information, but social networks is quite tricky part of World Wide Web. I think the internet very useful for us .bcz we can get anything without spend alot of marriage essays, time in what write, looking it . Movie Vs Book? everything when we use it excessively and more than usually #039;it will be badthing. What Write Essays? Well, we must admit that on this perfectly imperfect planet nothing entirely good or entirely bad exists. Internet is love included. Surely it was meant for connecting people from all continents, but as the human mind has no border line we found out what not to in college, how to use it for different things that provide us either with information or amusement.
It is said that the nova university dissertations, Internet is a good servant but a bad master. Therefore, we can see that the problem isn#039;t in the Internet itself but rather in the humans, as it is us who are using it and who are asked FOR WHAT we are using it. So for not to, our irresponsibility we shouldn#039;t blame the Internet but ourselves as we are unable to use a powerful tool for our own improvement but we use it for our own unwanted degradation. Marriage Essays? I think that#039;s quite right!! Nowadays, Internet has been the not to write essays, most important thing in citing on a research paper, mutimedia life. Personally, l consider that the not to write in college essays, internet is bad or not,which depends on users. In India? I think the Internet is something that we have to know, and we should know what is write essays good and bad for us, and research, keep ourselves away from what can damage ourselves in any way.
I think it is the same for young people, we have to in college, be responsible, because the references, Internet is a tool that helps us either with the school, or with any ordinary situation. i think internet is useful for everyone. If it was a bad thing, something awful, it would have changed instead of reaching the whole world. What? Is something crazy, used 24hrs a day, everyday of the week, a lot of citing references on a paper, information, and what essays, a lot of people online. About teenagers who are addicted to essay, games, that depends on each family. Parents could create rules, so no one would be in a bad position. And that also depends on not to write essays the teenager#039;s sense of what he or she can or can#039;t do. It#039;s impossible to live without internet in a society like nowdays, it#039;s just so easy to make a research, work on a project. c#039;mon, does anyone here wants to references on a research, spend hours and hours looking for few informations? Internet is useful for everyone, for young and old people. There#039;s a lot of sites that can help us a lot. But, today Internet ha gone too far away.
Almost, there#039;s no home without the internet(more than 70% in whole world are with internet). Yes, there are a good and a bad sites on the Internet. We have different web-sites(Facebook,Tumlr, Twitter, Instagram. ) that shows us a different world. We can learn a lot of things (English, French. Not To In College Essays? ) and a lot of other things. But we all know that Internet isn#039;t so much safe.Even if we think that we have good hide it our information, we don#039;t. There#039;s a lot of dangerous people in the world. To sum up, I completely agree with essay. No, i don`t thing internet bad for young people, because there is love waits essays many information in the internet. In my opinion, I dont think Internet is bad for people. Not To In College? Without the Internet, I cannot learn language (English) by myself and I wouldn#039;t be able to access to lots of useful information that school doesn#039;t teach me. Games In India? On the other hand, internet is bad only when people dont know how to use it wisely.
If young people use the Internet for write in college essays, studying and relaxing in proper way, internet would be very useful. To me, the internet#039;s the most wonderful tool that human had created. In my own perspective, the Internet plays an important role in the communicating barrier. As you can see, people all around the world are using the Internet, including the elderly. We communicate with each other using the internet and it really helps us to stay connected with one another.
Besides, without the dissertations, internet, how are the countries going to write essays, develop? Our knowledge and the view to essay games in india, the outside world, the perspective to what write, the outside of our comfort zone will be just limited, like a frog in the well. So, why not? The internet is the best connection between an individual to the whole wide world. It#039;s definitely a boon. Internet is essay very usefull for us. Internet is particularly useful for everyone, nearly all things are on the internet, you can get anything by only searching on it.
Internet seems becoming really important nowadays, it helps people a lot, for not to in college essays, example i use internet for essay on 2010 games, learning English, reading news and doing research for my tasks. However, internet also can give many bad effects, people become so fanatical on social media and often forget about time and essays, everything they should do. I completely disagree that internet is bad for teenagers, internet can be useful or useless, it depends on marriage essays the way people use the internet. How does this photo make you feel? Can you write a caption for it? . Look carefully.
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Eavan Boland Boland, Eavan (Poetry Criticism) - Essay. (Full name Eavan Aisling Boland) Irish poet and critic. Boland is what not to essays, viewed as one of the most important poets in love, contemporary Irish literature. Critics commend her exploration of feminist issues in her work, particularly the write in college essays, role of true love, women in Irish literature and society. In her poetry she has also subverted traditional Irish mythology and write concepts of female identity in order to express a more accurate perspective on marriage essays the contributions and achievements of write in college, women in Irish history, politics, and games in india culture.
Boland was born on September 24, 1944, in Dublin. Her father, the Irish diplomat Frederick H. Boland, was posted in 1950 as the Irish Ambassador to the Court of St. James in London, and then in 1956 as the President of the United Nations General Assembly. What Not To Write Essays! Growing up in London and New York City, Boland felt alienated from her Irish heritage, particularly in London, where she encountered prejudice against the Irish. As a teenager she returned to Ireland and attended the Holy Child Convent in Killiny, County Dublin. She immersed herself in Irish culture and romeo and juliet movie vs book essay began to write poetry. Not To! In 1962 she attended Trinity College in Dublin and published her first collection of verse, 23 Poems. In 1966 she received degrees in paper, English and Latin from Trinity and was hired by the English department as a lecturer. In a short time, however, she left Trinity and became a full-time literary critic and poet. Much of her early poetry focused on domestic concerns, such as marriage, children, and her home in a suburb of Dublin. Yet with the not to in college, publication of In Her Own Image (1980), critics began to take notice of her exploration of feminist issues, particularly the role of female poets within the patriarchal literary establishment in Ireland.
Her work generated much controversy and brought her international recognition as a feminist literary figure. She has taught at true love essays, several universities, including University College, Dublin; Bowdoin College; the write in college essays, University of Utah; and Stanford University. In addition, she has received several awards for essay on 2010 in india her work, such as the Lannan Award for Poetry in 1994, the Bucknell Medal of Merit in 2000, and the Frederick Nims Memorial Prize in not to in college, 2002. Boland's early poems were conventional in citing references, style, centered on a celebration of domestic issues such as marriage and children, and were heavily influenced by the work of William Butler Yeats. Yet even at this early stage she demonstrated a recurring interest in the role of women in Irish literature and society, which later became a central thematic concern of her poetry and essays. In In Her Own Image, Boland explores such topics as domestic abuse, anorexia, breast cancer, and infanticide. She also addresses the lack of not to write, real women in Irish myths and national history and announces her suspicion of the male literary tradition and its portrayal of women. Night Feed (1982) considers the pre written essay, concept of what write, female identity through an marriage essays, examination of ordinary women as well as female figures who have been marginalized in Irish mythology. Through these depictions of regular women, she celebrates the what write in college essays, complexity of women's lives.
In Outside History (1990) she continues her exploration of female identity, and strives to uncover the silence of generations of women whose lives and contributions to history and culture have been largely ignored. For example, “The Achill Woman” portrays Boland's encounter, during a stay in Achill, with an old woman, who discusses of the Irish Famine and the people's struggle to survive such difficult times. The poet relates this woman's story to her own life and realizes her own failure in recognizing the importance of this woman's voice and her own connection to women throughout Irish history. In these collections, Boland also rejects the notion that women who live in suburbia and raise families are unworthy of attention. Waits! Her poetry celebrates the beauty in these lives and the importance of family, marriage, and not to write domestic responsibilities. The Lost Land (1998) returns to essay on 2010 the dynamics of family, as Boland reflects on what not to in college her children growing up and leaving home and the ways in which this process affects her sense of identity.
In Against Love Poetry (2001), Boland once again finds value and beauty in everyday existence and explores the tension between marriage and independence. Boland has emerged as one of the most important female voices in Irish poetry. Feminist critics have applauded her attempts to locate herself within the citing on a, Irish poetic tradition by rejecting and reexamining the limited, traditional role of women in not to in college, Irish mythology and history. By subverting these myths and true love history, they contend, she succeeds in repossessing her identity as an Irish woman and not to write in college essays poet. In a broader sense, critics maintain, Boland's poetic development reflects the dramatic political and cultural shifts in Ireland in nova southeastern university dissertations, the past several decades. Commentators have noted the exploration of such controversial themes as child abuse, violence against women, self-esteem, and eating disorders in her verse. She also touches on issues of alienation, assimilation, identification, and exile. Critics praise her painterly consciousness, poignant lyrics, keen sense of what write in college, poetic ethics, and use of the concrete to university dissertations reveal hidden stories in Irish histories. A few critics caution against a strict feminist reading of her poems, contending that this minimizes her work and her contribution to modern poetry. Others have derided her verse as strident and accuse her of what not to write essays, mythologizing the domestic sphere and the suburban life.
Yeats and Adrienne Rich are regarded as profound influences on Boland's poetry, and commentators have found affinities between the references research paper, poetry of Boland and what write in college essays Seamus Heaney. Access our Eavan Boland Study Guide for Free. New Territory 1967. In Her Own Image 1980. The War Horse 1980. Introducing Eavan Boland 1981.
The Journey 1983. Selected Poems 1990. Outside History: Selected Poems, 1980-90 1990. In a Time of Violence 1994. Collected Poems 1995. An Origin Like Water: Collected Poems, 1967-1987 1996. Anna Liffey 1997. The Lost Land 1998.
Against Love Poetry 2001. Journey with Two Maps: An Anthology 2002. Three Irish Poets, An Anthology: Eavan Boland, Paula Meehan, Mary O'Malley [edited by marriage essays Boland] 2003. W. B. Yeats and His World [with Michael MacLiammoir] (nonfiction) 1970. A Kind of Scar: The Woman Poet in in college essays, National Tradition (nonfiction) 1989. Object Lessons: The Life of the Woman and the Poet in Our Time (nonfiction) 1995. Patricia L. Hagen and Thomas W. Zelman (essay date winter 1991)
SOURCE: Hagen, Patricia L., and Thomas W. Waits! Zelman. “‘We Were Never on the Scene of the Crime’: Eavan Boland's Repossession of History.” Twentieth Century Literature 37, no. 4 (winter 1991): 442-53. [ In the following essay, Hagen and Zelman assert that Boland aims to “repossess” her place within the Irish literary tradition. ] From Yeats and the Celtic Revival onward, Irish poets have recorded, shaped, and criticized their nation's emerging independent identity. In the process, of write in college essays, course, they also attempted to reforge links to the past by creating for Ireland a literary tradition incorporating the myths, folklore, and symbols of a long-suppressed Gaelic heritage. Now, at the end of the twentieth century, the literary tradition wished into existence by Yeats has been expanded, modified, complicated, and essay virtually completed: it has become, so the argument goes, a “given” in Irish literature, a dead issue. Thus in Modern Irish Poetry, Robert Garratt “assumes a change among a younger generation of writers in their attitude toward tradition” (5). For today's poets, Garratt argues, the “need to create and establish a tradition in literature no longer appears foremost in what not to, their thoughts” (5); contemporary poets no longer feel compelled to write the “definitions” and “apologetics” that so obsessed their poetic forefathers. Although Garratt does not use the marriage essays, word, forefathers is by implication a key concept in his formulation; the tradition Garratt traces (“from Yeats to Heaney”) is exclusively male.
For women, who until recently have appeared only as subjects and objects of poems, not as their authors, the matter of tradition carries considerably more urgency than it does for their male counterparts. Indeed, just as the early Revivalists sought reconnection with a Gaelic heritage suppressed by centuries of English domination, so Irish women poets seek reconnection with a female heritage suppressed by centuries of male domination. Eavan Boland, a major figure in what write in college essays, the current generation of Irish poets, is marriage essays, vitally concerned with the “ethics” underlying the Irish poetic tradition, most notably the ethical choices involved in a writer's selection of themes worth exploring in poetry, for these themes will naturally reveal the writer's—and, collectively, the write, tradition's—ability to bear witness to the truth of experience. As a poet and a critic, Eavan Boland displays a painterly consciousness, a keen, painful awareness of the research paper, shaping power of language, and a fundamental sense of poetic ethics, three strands that merge into a vital concern with the artistic image and its relationship to truth. Art—poetry, painting, history—outlasts human lives; its images offer us a sense of the not to write in college, past which allows us to view and situate ourselves, individually and collectively, as heirs to tradition. Romeo! As Boland notes, “we ourselves are constructed by what in college our constructs” ( Kind of Scar 20). Given the relation between image and selfhood, the poet—especially the commonwealth in india, woman poet—has an ethical obligation to de- and re-construct those constructs that shape literary tradition, bearing witness to the truths of experience suppressed, simplified, falsified by the “official” record. In their broad strokes these issues are not, of course, uniquely Irish; as Boland acknowledges, “poetic ethics are evident and urgent in any culture where tensions between a poet and her or his birthplace are inherited and established” ( Kind of what not to, Scar 7)—a view suggesting the difficulty women poets encounter as they approach a sanctioned national myth.
Nevertheless, it is within the marriage essays, Irish poetic tradition that, by both birth and choice, Eavan Boland locates herself. Indeed, because of her upbringing, as she describes in not to, “Irish Childhood in England,” issues of true waits essays, assimilation and estrangement, identification and exile—issues themselves central to an Irish tradition in literature—became significant for her at an early age. She arrived in England, a “freckled six year old” For this child in exile, “filled with some malaise / of love for what [she'd] never known [she] had” (50), educated in English schools, the songs and poems of her birth-country—the Irish poetic tradition—in many ways created Ireland for her. “Fond Memory” ( Journey 52) juxtaposes her early sense of identification with the not to write essays, Ireland of song and citing references on a paper poem against her adult sense of not to write in college essays, estrangement from that construction. Evoking her disturbingly peaceful childhood in postwar England, one in nova university dissertations, which she “wore darned worsted” and. Boland moves from her primary-school experience in the first half of the poem to her home in the second, where her father plays the “slow / lilts of Tom Moore” at the piano. She is affected strongly by the music and. As an adult, she rejects the “safe inventory of pain,” with its manifold falsifications and simplifications, but nonetheless retains a fundamental sense of identity as an Irish poet. “I didn't know what to hold, to keep” ( Journey 50), the speaker claims in “An Irish Childhood in not to write in college, England: 1951.” “On the pre written, one hand,” Boland writes, “I knew that as a poet, I could not easily do without the not to write in college, idea of a nation. Essay! … On the other, I could not as a woman accept the nation formulated for me by Irish poetry and its traditions” ( Kind of Scar 8). The only reconciliation possible for her was to “repossess” that tradition.
By affirming herself as an Irish poet, and thus rejecting the common notion that women's poetry should be quarantined from mainstream literature, Boland is in essence claiming her birthright, her say in that tradition, her right to “establish a discourse with the idea of a nation” ( Kind of Scar 20). As Boland cautions, such “repossession” is write essays, neither a single nor a static act, but a fluid process of de- and re-construction. It is as if she has been presented with a seemingly completed jigsaw puzzle, but herself holds a series of additional pieces. In defiance of those who suggest she create a nice border around the original, Boland would break apart the completed picture and reconstruct a new image. In this model, the marriage essays, first part of the tradition to be shattered must be its alienating “fusion of the national and write the feminine which seemed to simplify both” ( Kind of Scar 7).
Instead of real lives, the tradition offers Dark Rosaleen, the Old Woman of the Roads, and Cathleen Ni Houlihan, images that by their mythic and ornamental nature necessarily reduce the complex feelings, aspirations, and lives of marriage essays, real women—but not only of women. Boland views these emblematic women, “passive projection[s] of a national idea” ( Kind of what write essays, Scar 13), as “an underlying fault in Irish poetry; almost a geological weakness” because “all good poetry depends on an ethical relation between imagination and image. Images are not ornaments; they are truths” ( Kind of on a research, Scar 23). Not To Write In College! By recasting a defeated nation into a triumphant woman, the Irish literary tradition may have gained aesthetically, but it lost ethically: gone were the and juliet vs book, “human truths of survival and humiliation” and in what not to write, their place were the “hollow victories … the rhyming queens” ( Kind of Scar 13). Boland's poems, then, attempt to unseat the rhyming queens and references on a paper reinscribe the human truths they have suppressed, to “repossess” those portions of history ignored by the Irish canon and to reassess the truth of the national identity.
In this task, her starting point is frequently the driving of a wedge into the “almost geological weakness” of the Irish poetic tradition. Write Essays! In its simplest terms, the resulting division is the distance between male and female—the split, in Boland's terms, between “hearth and history,” her hearth and his story. Her world, if seen at all, is confined to the margins of on 2010 games, his story, the celebration of the grand sweep of Irish heroism. As Boland notes, while the nation's “flags and battle-cries, even its poetry” at times use feminine imagery, “the true voice and vision of women are routinely excluded” ( Kind of Scar 19). “It's our alibi / for all time,” she writes in not to in college, “It's a Woman's World,” “that as far as history goes / we were never / on the scene of the crime” (357). In the official records—the history books, battle-cries, songs, and poems—women exist largely as lamenting voices, mouthpieces, ornaments: the Young Queen, the Old Mother, the Poor Old Woman. “So when the king's head / gored its basket,” the pre written, speaker notes, “we were gristing bread” “Like most historic peoples,” women are “defined / by what we forget, by what we never will be: / star-gazers, / fire-eaters” (357). Write In College Essays! The unsensational and therefore unwritten sufferings of romeo and juliet movie vs book essay, ordinary women, ordinary people, are doomed to become unhistory: “And still no page / scores the low music / of our outrage” (358).
Within his story, gristing bread is of no consequence, despite its overwhelming importance in what in college essays, sustaining life; her hearth (a precondition of the “heroics” celebrated by his story ), trivialized into recipes and gossip, is. (The entire section is 4041 words.) Get Free Access to this Eavan Boland Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for free. Anne Stevenson (essay date January-February 1992)
SOURCE: Stevenson, Anne. “Inside and Outside History.” P.N. Review 18, no. 3 (January-February 1992): 34-5. [ In the marriage essays, following essay, Stevenson regards Boland's encounter with the Achill woman, chronicled in her verse and her essay “Outside History,” as an important moment in her life and work. ] As will be evident to anyone who has followed Eavan Boland's purgatorial journey into self-placement, the story of her meeting with the Achill woman occurs at least twice in her published work: once in the verse sequence of Outside History (Carcanet, 1990), and again as a prologue to what in college essays her essay of the same title ( P.N.R. 75). Boland, then a student at Trinity. (The entire section is 1552 words.) Get Free Access to this Eavan Boland Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and true waits thousands more. SOURCE: Weekes, Ann Owens. “‘An Origin like Water’: The Poetry of Eavan Boland and Modernist Critiques of Irish Literature.” Bucknell Review 38, no. 1 (1994): 159-76.
[ In the following essay, Weekes applies Richard Kearney's theory about the in college, connection between Irish Revivalism and modernism to Boland's poetry. Essay! ] In his excellent study, Transitions (1988), Richard Kearney explores the tensions between Revivalism and modernism in twentieth-century Irish narratives. Revivalism is associated with Yeats's attempt to present a unity of in college essays, culture by privileging “primordial images of ancient Celtic mythology which predated all subsequent historical divisions into. (The entire section is 6463 words.) Debrah Raschke (essay date June 1996) SOURCE: Raschke, Debrah. “Eavan Boland's Outside History and nova southeastern dissertations In a Time of Violence : Rescuing Women, the Concrete, and Other Things Physical from the Dung Heap.” Colby Quarterly 32, no.
2 (June 1996): 135-42. [ In the not to essays, following essay, Raschke asserts that “Boland's Outside History and In a Time of Violence use the love, concrete, physical world to revise notions of what sustains, to query historiography, and to write in college expose the dangers of waits essays, mythology.” ] Eavan Boland's poetry has been described as “impeccably scornful,” as “denunciatory,” as too “strident” and what not to write too “vehement” (Henigan 110), and as justification for “her dangerous. (The entire section is essay commonwealth in india, 3725 words.) Rose Atfield (essay date spring 1997) SOURCE: Atfield, Rose. “Postcolonialism in the Poetry and Essays of Eavan Boland.” Women: A Cultural Review 8, no. 2 (spring 1997): 168-82.
[ In the what write essays, following essay, Atfield considers the issue of postcolonialism in Boland's verse. On 2010 In India! ] Postcolonialism in the poetry of Eavan Boland is what write essays, a process of the marriage essays, recognition and in college essays exposure of marriage essays, colonialism: its denial and repression of identity, and the restoration and write essays reconstruction of that identity in terms of place, history and literary tradition. Southeastern University Dissertations! Boland established a sense of dual postcolonialism when, in the Ronald Duncan lecture for not to write essays the Poetry Book Society, she referred to ‘two identities’ which ‘shape and reshape what I. (The entire section is love, 5299 words.) Nell Sullivan (essay date December 1997) SOURCE: Sullivan, Nell. “Righting Irish Poetry: Eavan Boland's Revisionary Struggle.” Colby Quarterly 23, no. 4 (December 1997): 334-48. [ In the following essay, Sullivan perceives Boland's “revisionary struggle” with Irish mythology, which depicts women in what not to, subordinate and passive roles as an attempt to “repossess” Irish poetry for women. ] Traditionally, the envoi sends the poet's work out into the world with modest hopes, anxious disclaimers, and humble apologies. But in her poem “Envoi” from waits essays, Outside. (The entire section is 6762 words.)
David C. Ward (review date January-February 1999) SOURCE: Ward, David C. What Essays! “A Certain Slant of Light.” P.N. Review 25, no. 3 (January-February 1999): 66-8. [ In the on a research, following review, Ward considers the place of The Lost Land within Boland's poetic oeuvre and deems the collection to what write be Boland's return to political concerns. ] ‘My passport is green,’ was Seamus Heaney's defiant assertion of his poetic patrimony. Heaney's confident nationalism has never been shared by his compatriot Eavan Boland. Boland's poetic career began conventionally enough with her writing nicey-nice lyric poems about Ireland; in one she describes Yeats as the ‘sum’ of all she could learn. But writing poems called ‘Elegy for a. (The entire section is marriage essays, 1599 words.) Kate Daniels (essay date spring 1999) SOURCE: Daniels, Kate. Not To Essays! “Ireland's Best.” Southern Review 35, no.
2 (spring 1999): 387-93. [ In the following excerpt, Daniels finds similarities between the poetry of Boland and Medbh McGuckian and differentiates the poetry of The Lost Land from Boland's earlier poetic work. ] If one were to compose a scale of oppositions upon citing references research which to what write in college consider contemporary poetry by Irish women, the Dublin poet Eavan Boland (b. 1944) would appear at one end, and Medbh McGuckian (b. 1951), from Belfast, at the other. Essay On 2010 Games! Although their work is fundamentally different—Boland the mistress of a highly cadenced, formalistic verse that favors “a lyric speech, a civil tone” (to. (The entire section is 2227 words.) Albert Gelpi (essay date December 1999) SOURCE: Gelpi, Albert. “‘Hazard and Death’: The Poetry of Eavan Boland.” Colby Quarterly 35, no.
4 (December 1999): 210-28. [ In the following essay, Gelpi investigates the influence of the American poet Adrienne Rich on Boland's poetry. ] Eavan Boland's growing international reputation is grounded in the recognition that she is the first great woman poet in essays, the history of Irish poetry. Pre Written! Her success is yet another validation of William Carlos Williams' observation that the local is the universal. That very American conviction, which runs from Thoreau through Whitman and Dickinson to write essays Frost and Robinson Jeffers on to Robert Lowell and Elizabeth Bishop and Denise. (The entire section is 8247 words.) Michael Thurston (essay date December 1999) SOURCE: Thurston, Michael. “‘A Deliberate Collection of Cross Purposes’: Eavan Boland's Poetic Sequences.” Colby Quarterly 35, no. 4 (December 1999): 229-51.
[ In the following essay, Thurston offers a thematic and stylistic examination of Boland's longer poetic works. Romeo And Juliet! ] Beginning in the early 1980s, Eavan Boland began to work not only in individual lyrics but in slightly longer poems (“The Journey”) and what not to sequences of lyrics (including the poems gathered in In Her Own Image ). Indeed, since the 1990 American appearance of Outside History: Selected Poems 1980-1990, each of Boland's books has included at least one such sequence ( Outside. (The entire section is 11403 words.) Catriona Clutterbuck (essay date December 1999) SOURCE: Clutterbuck, Catriona. “Irish Critical Responses to Self-Representation in Eavan Boland.” Colby Quarterly 35, no. 4 (December 1999): 275-87. [ In the following essay, Clutterbuck addresses the critical reaction to issues of feminism and nationalism in Boland's verse. ] This article examines Irish critical responses to a central issue in Eavan Boland's work, responses which were published during eight years of pre written, vital development, not only in not to in college essays, her own aesthetic, but in her reputation as an artist and in love waits, the wider position of women in Irish cultural and what not to write in college essays political life. Citing References On A Research Paper! In 1987, the results of abortion and divorce referenda in the Republic had consolidated. (The entire section is 6580 words.) Jacqueline Belanger (essay date September 2000) SOURCE: Belanger, Jacqueline. “‘The Laws of Metaphor’: Reading Eavan Boland's ‘Anorexic’ in an Irish Context.” Colby Quarterly 36, no.
3 (September 2000): 242-51. [ In the in college essays, following essay, Belanger maintains that Boland's poem “Anorexic” “best illustrates her attempts to romeo and juliet essay reinsert excluded realities of what write, female experience into an Irish poetic tradition and to marriage essays explore the implications of the allegorisation of nation as woman.” ] In her 1989 pamphlet, A Kind of Scar: The Woman Poet in a National Tradition, Dublin poet Eavan Boland describes her search for a way to locate herself in an Irish poetic tradition and for ways to render her experiences of. (The entire section is 4623 words.) Paul Keen (essay date September 2000) SOURCE: Keen, Paul. “The Doubled Edge: Identity and Alterity in what not to write in college, the Poetry of Eavan Boland and Nuala Ni Dhomhnaill.” Mosaic 33, no. 3 (September 2000): 19-34.
[ In the following essay, Keen places the poetry of true, Boland and Nuala Ni Dhomhnaill in relation to what not to write essays their writings on gender, nationalism, and history. ] In November 1994, the Irish government collapsed. Its disintegration was all the more dramatic because the Taoiseach, Albert Reynolds, was enjoying unprecedented popularity for his role in brokering an southeastern university, IRA cease-fire and securing the prospect of not to essays, peace negotiations. Within weeks he had resigned in disgrace over his promotion of Harry Whelehan to president of. (The entire section is 6383 words.) SOURCE: Conboy, Katie. “Revisionist Cartography: The Politics of Place in Boland and pre written Heaney.” In Border Crossings: Irish Women Writers and what write National Identities, edited by citing references Kathryn Kirkpatrick, pp. 190-203. What Write In College Essays! Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press, 2000. [ In the following essay, Conboy investigates the connection between poet and place in the work of Boland and Seamus Heaney. Pre Written Essay! ] (The entire section is 4902 words.) Anne Shifrer (essay date December 2001)
SOURCE: Shifrer, Anne. “The Fabrics and Erotics of what write essays, Eavan Boland's Poetry.” Colby Quarterly 37, no. 4 (December 2001): 309-42. [ In the following essay, Shifrer examines the role of fabrics in essay, Boland's poetry. ] By focusing on the role of fabrics in what not to write in college essays, Eavan Boland's poetry, I hope to provide readers with a better key to reading Boland's domestic world, one which reveals her demolition of the aesthetic—and its aftermath, in which Boland recuperates the and juliet movie vs book essay, aesthetic for feminine pleasure. There's a logic, I believe, in what write in college, reading Boland's poems, at first, autoerotically, reveling in the fabrics, the flowers, the colors of twilight. In moving to citing on a a deeper understanding, we then.
(The entire section is 6794 words.) Richard Rankin Russell (essay date winter 2002) SOURCE: Russell, Richard Rankin. “Boland's ‘Lava Cameo.’” The Explicator 60, no. 2 (winter 2002): 114-17. [ In the following essay, Russell argues that a close reading of Boland's “Lava Cameo” “illustrates how its subject, tone, sentence structure, and diction enable Boland to imagine this scene, sympathetically write herself into it, and not to write establish a new relationship with her grandparents and her own personal history.” ] Eavan Boland's 1995 volume of poetry, In a Time of Violence, explores her imaginative re-creations of history. The middle section of that volume, “Legends,” contains a remarkable poem entitled “Lava Cameo,” which depicts a. (The entire section is romeo and juliet vs book, 1367 words.) Burns, Christy. “Beautiful Labors: Lyricism and Feminist Revisions in Eavan Boland's Poetry.” Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature 20, no. 2 (fall 2001): 217-36. Explores “the tension in Boland's work between her political investment in representing women—especially the laboring poor—and her attraction to beautiful images and write in college essays seductive, lyrical language.” Consalvo, Deborah McWilliams. “In Common Usage: Eavan Boland's Poetic Voice.” Eire-Ireland 28, no.
2 (summer 1993): 98-115. Examines the range of Boland's craft as a poet and assesses her poetic contribution.
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Self taught freelance graphic designer and photographer. He loves collecting and showcasing good fonts and typefaces at his blog Fonts Collector.