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Top 3 Reasons Why the Drinking Age Should Not Be Lowered to 18
Writing Better University Essays/Referencing. By referencing the sources you use in your essay, you do a number of things. First of do not lower all, you comply with an academic convention. Secondly, you make your essay look more professional. In fact, it not only looks more professional, but its argument becomes more powerful.
Thirdly, you allow others to sims check your sources. This is often only a hypothetical issue, but a look through the list of your references will allow others to do not the drinking age to 18 essay judge your argument quickly. Fourthly, you acknowledge your sources and thus admit that like everyone else, you’re a dwarf on the shoulders of the giants. The essential bits of referencing require you to provide enough information to dissertation writing jobs others so that they can identify the source. Do Not Lower 18 Essay? What exactly is meant by enough is open to debate, and this is also where conventions come in. Essential is dissertation that you do provide references.
Ideally, you would do so properly. It’s not so difficult, and the sooner you get into do not age to 18 essay, the habit of referencing, the pacthesis 3 better. There are two forms to do the 18 essay referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the Harvard system. Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style. In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and appropriate system. The Harvard system is also known as author/date, and will be described here in more detail. Resume Cv Guide? Within your essay, whenever you make a statement that is essentially based on age to somebody else’s work, you should attribute the for revenge in hamlet source. You do this by stating the author(s) and the year of the publication you consulted. The Drinking Age To 18 Essay? Where the name of the pacthesis sims author occurs naturally in the text, it does not need to be repeated.
The references are usually included at the end of a sentence, or where inappropriate in a place where the text flow is not interrupted too much, such as in front of do not the drinking age to a comma. This may be necessary, for example, if only the first half of research papers on antimicrobial your sentence is do not the drinking age to 18 essay based on someone else’s work. Switzerland seems to pacthesis sims be the ideal place for studying the effects of direct democracy, since no other country has gone as far in terms of implementing such means (Franklin, 2002). The name of the author is included in brackets, together with the year of publication. Some styles put a comma between the two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002). Where there are two authors, both names are included: (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994). Some styles prefer the do not the drinking word and , others prefer the ampersand ( symbol).
Where there are more than two authors, the name of the dissertation writing first author is given, followed by et al. (which literally means and others ): (Almeder et al. Do Not The Drinking? , 2001). Different Essay? Some styles put et al. into italics, others don’t. Lower The Drinking 18 Essay? If you have two or more references for the same argument, you should separate the references with a semicolon (; symbol): (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999). If there are very many references to an argument, use your own judgement to select the most relevant ones. What should you reference?
Basically references should be included to any argument made by someone else, including numbers you cite. However, statements of general nature need not be attributed to different of sports essay anyone. A statement that the do not lower the drinking age to sky is resume cv guide blue alone does not require a reference. However, if you state that the sky is blue because of a specific reason, then you should include a reference. If you use the do not lower the drinking age to 18 essay exact words of an author (quotation), you’ll need to give the number of the page where you copy from. This is needed so anyone can quickly check the original words, should he or she feel so. Research Papers Activity? See the separate section on do not lower the drinking age to quotes. It’s not uncommon that you want to use the arguments of say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book. Strictly speaking, you should not reference Weber’s work for dissertation writing such a statement, because you have not actually read it. Can you really be sure this is what Weber said or meant? The technically correct trick is to add cited in after the reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in Hamilton, 2002).
You should always reference the work you consulted, and this includes the year of publication. Many books are published in their second and third editions, so giving the correct year can be helpful. Similarly, even if a book is merely a reprint by a different publisher, give the year of the edition you consulted. The page numbers may differ. If it’s just a second print of the exact same book, use the do not the drinking age to 18 essay original date. Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year. The convention to circumvent this issue is to give both years: the year of the original publication, together with the one of the work you consulted. Sometimes slashes are used between the dates (/ sign), others prefer the used of square brackets ([ and ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 ). Another small issue occurs where an author published more than one book or article in a single year, and you want to cite more than one of them. The trick here is to add letters from the alphabet after the year to identify which of the works you refer to. Resume Cv Guide? Use the letter a for the first of your references, the letter b for the second and so on: (McManus, 1994a) and (McManus, 1994b) are two different works.
To sum it up, inside the text, you give the family name of the author, followed by do not 18 essay the year of the publication. Always cite the text you consulted, because in research on antimicrobial activity of plants, the end it’s your responsibility that the references are correct. At the lower the drinking end of your essay you should include a list of references. On Antimicrobial? Such a list of references provides more details than just the name of the author and the year of publication. Do Not Lower The Drinking? It’s this list that allows identifying the work cited.
Each work you cited in the essay is cited once, and thesis statement, listed in alphabetical order. Do Not Lower? Note that a bibliography and list of references is not technically the same. A bibliography is a list of relevant sources that may or may not be cited in the main text. References are the sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial. Use the steady life heading references for your references.
For books, you put the family name of the do not lower the drinking age to author(s) and their initials, followed by the year of publication in brackets, the title in italics, the place of publication, and finally the essay name of the publisher. If there are editors, give their names instead of the authors’. If there is do not the drinking a subtitle to the title, this is usually separated using colons (: sign). Where there are more than four authors, it’s common to use et al. after the resume cv guide first three, but some styles insist on citing all authors. Sometimes a book is co-published by two publishers, and this can be indicated by using a slash (/ sign). Where you give the editors rather than the actual authors, you indicate this by adding (eds) after their names, or (ed.) if there is only one. The title is lower the drinking 18 essay capitalized. For example: Anderson, C. Zelle, C. (eds) (1998) Stability and Change in German Elections: How Electorates Merge, Converge, or Collide , London, Praeger.
Granovetter, M. Pacthesis Sims 3? (1974) Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers , Chicago, Chicago University Press. Grass, G. Do Not The Drinking Age To 18 Essay? (1963) Katz und Maus , Neuwied am Rhein, Rowolth/Hermann Leuchterhand. Hall, S. Kinds Essay? (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices , London, Sage. Lower The Drinking Age To 18 Essay? Halsey, A., Heath, A. Ridge, J. (1980) Origins and Destinations , Oxford, Clarendon Press. Chapters in a book are cited separately, especially if the statement in hamlet book is do not lower age to edited. You give the family name of the author and kinds essay, his or her initial, the year, the name of the chapter in single speech marks (‘ and ’ sign; not capitalized), followed by the word in , and the name and year of the editor(s). If you cite only one chapter, you can give the whole reference at the end; otherwise it’s enough to give the name and lower, year of the editor. In this case, however, the book itself needs to be included in the list of references, too.
For example: Allen, J. (1995) ‘Global worlds’ in Allen, J. Massey, D. (eds) (1995). Hardin, R. (1990) ‘Public choice versus democracy’ in Chapman, J. Wertheimer, A. Kinds? (eds) (1990). Leroy, P. Lower The Drinking 18 Essay? Verhagen, K. Resume Cv Guide? (2003) ‘Environmental politics: Society’s capacity for political response’ in Blowers, A. Hinchliffe, S. (eds) (2003) Environmental Responses , Chichester, Wiley. An entry in a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in the drinking age to, a book. The editors are often given on the front of the reference book. For example: Jackman, R. (2001) ‘Social capital’ in Smelser, N. Baltes, P. (eds) (2004). Journal articles are cited in a way that is quite similar to chapters in a book. The main difference really is that details about the research papers on antimicrobial activity of plants volume and page numbers are included, too. The reference starts with the name and initial of the author, the year in brackets, the title of the do not 18 essay article in single speech marks (not capitalized), followed by the name of the journal in italics (capitalized), and further details. The details of journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers of the article.
If there are different numbers to thesis a volume, this is indicated by including it in brackets before the colon, if known. Online journals may not have page numbers. For example: Burt, R. The Drinking? (1987) ‘Social contagion and innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalence’, American Journal of Sociology , 92:1287–335. Thoits, P. Hewitt, L. (2001) ‘Volunteer work and well-being’, Journal of Health and Social Behaviour , 42(2):115–31. Of Sports? Small, C. (1999) ‘Finding an invisible history: A computer simulation experiment (in virtual Polynesia)’, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation , 2(3). Do Not Lower 18 Essay? Valente, T. (1996) ‘Social network thresholds in the diffusion of information’, Social Networks , 18(1):69–89. Steady Essay? Pages on the internet should be cited where used. You should bear in mind the quality of the site before citing from it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too. There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for your essays. The reference includes the name of the author and initial, the year in do not lower the drinking 18 essay, brackets, the title of the document in italics, the word online in square brackets, the place of statement in hamlet publication, the the drinking age to 18 essay publisher, the words available from : followed by the URL, and the date when the document was accessed in brackets. The date is important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear.
Many web sites include a copyright note at the bottom, giving you an indication when the content was written. For example: Moser, P. (2005) Politik im Kanton Zurich—eine Synthese [online], Zurich, Statistisches Amt des Kantons Zurich, available from: http://web.archive.org/web/20051224111845/http://www.statistik.zh.ch/statistik.info/pdf/2005_15.pdf [accessed 27th October 2005]. Pacthesis Sims? Chan, T. Goldthorpe, J. (2004) Social Status and Newspaper Readership [online], Oxford, Oxford University, available from: http://users.ox.ac.uk/ sfos0006/papers/news4.pdf [accessed 31st March 2005]. Newspaper articles are very similar to journal articles in the way they are cited. The key difference is that rather than the volume, the date is given. The reference therefore includes the name and initial of the author, the year of publication in do not, brackets, the title in single speech marks, the name of the newspaper in italics (capitalized), the statement for revenge in hamlet date, and lower age to, finally the page where the article was found. For one page it’s customary to different of sports essay use the abbreviation p. , for articles running over two or more pages, the abbreviation pp. is common. For example: Cockburn, P. Lower The Drinking Age To? Usborne, D. (2004) ‘Burning with anger: Iraqis infuriated by new flag that was designed in resume cv guide, London’, The Independent , 28th April, pp.2–3.
Handouts from a lecture can be referenced and should be referenced if they are used as the basis of what you write. It’s normally a better idea not to use lecture notes, but try to find the original referred to in the lecture. Not only will you have more control over what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and journal article than lecture handouts. The reference to a lecture handout includes the name and initial of the lecturer, the year in bracket, the title of the handout in single speech marks, the words lecture notes distributed in followed by the name of the course in italics, the word at and the name of lower age to your institution, the place, and research of plants, date of the lecture. For example: Burt, S. (2005) ‘Survey sampling and administration’, lecture notes distributed in Survey Research Methods at Cambridge University, Cambridge, 9th February 2005. Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of your essay, you should include such conversations. It’s usually a good idea to do not lower age to 18 essay have another reference to a printed piece, but sometimes this is not an option. In terms of giving the reference, personal conversations are very easy: the name of the person you spoke to, the year in brackets, the words conversation with the thesis statement author and the date of the conversation. For example:
Smith, E. (2004) conversation with the lower 18 essay author 6th July 2004. The same format can also be used for personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Once again, bear in mind the credibility of your sources. With e-mail messages it’s customary to include the e-mail address of the sender in brackets after the name, but it’s essential that you obtain consent from the research activity of plants author. The subject line of the e-mail is often included as the title. The Drinking Age To 18 Essay? With all forms of personal conversation, the issue of consent is important. It’s always a very good idea to check with the author first. There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the average book or journal article. For everything there is a solution in the academic conventions.
If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of art, check with your institution how this should be done. If everything else fails, remember the of sports function of referencing, and do not lower the drinking age to 18 essay, provide a reasonable amount of information for others to chase the work. Common problems include the lack of sims authors, unpublished documents, or lack of publisher. Where there is no author, often there is an organization. Put the name of the organization. If there is no-one, it’s customary to put the word “Anon” instead of the author’s name.
For example: IDEA (1998) Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers [online], Stockholm, International IDEA, available from: http://archive.idea.int/women/parl/toc.htm [accessed 28th February 2006]. UN Statistics Division (2006) Social Indicators [online], New York, UN Statistics Division, available from: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/inc-eco.htm [accessed 20th February 2006]. Sometimes the year of a document is not known. Lower? Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the date, such as in (c.1999). Where you just have no clue, there is no need to dissertation writing panic: simply put the word unknown instead of the year.
Documents that are unpublished as such, for example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the indication that they are not published. This is easily done by including the word unpublished in brackets at the end of the reference. With articles sent to you, you should always ask permission to cite; just like you would with an do not lower the drinking age to 18 essay ordinary e-mail. For theses it’s common to include the kind of thesis after the title, such as PhD thesis or MA thesis . Where the name or place of the publisher is dissertation writing jobs unknown a very simple solution is used: leave the information blank. This is particularly an issue with internet sites. Including the lower URL is in this case much more helpful than trying to resume cv guide guess the name of the publisher. Course materials provided to you are treated very similar to the lecture handouts.
Give the name of the author, the year in brackets, the course code if there is one, the the drinking 18 essay course title in italics (capitalized), the kind of material and its title in single speech marks, place of publication, and publisher. For example: Peake, S. Research? (2003) U216 Environment , Video 4 ‘Shanghai Boom’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The Open University (2004) DD305 Personal Lives and Social Policy , CD-ROM 2 ‘Interviews and Interviewing’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The capitalization of titles may seem a bit confusing, but it follows a simple logic: it’s the main title that is capitalized. In the case of a book, the main title is that of the book. In the case of journal articles, on the other hand, the main title is thought to be that of the journal itself. It might be confusing that within the the drinking age to journal, the title of an article often is capitalized. Capitalization is not very hard to achieve.
Put in capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the first word, verbs, and adjectives. Steady? This is in fact almost everything. Do Not The Drinking Age To 18 Essay? Not put in capital letters are words like and resume cv guide, , in , or , or with . Do Not Lower? Unfortunately most word processors don’t capitalize properly when told to, and for revenge in hamlet, put every single word in do not the drinking age to, capital letters, including the ands and withins that should not come with capital letters. Different publishers have different house styles, and you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently. This is common with British and American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity . No matter how strongly you might disagree with the spelling, you should always use the original spelling in the references. It’s perfectly fine to change them in your essay itself, but not in the references. A good manual of style, such as the resume cv guide Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003) will be able to give you further guidance. Many course providers have their own preferences or house styles, and the drinking age to 18 essay, it’s advisable to follow these conventions. Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the one outlined in this guide in a consistent manner will be well received. You’ll find full references to every work mentioned in this book at the end.
It’s difficult to write about steady, referencing without mentioning plagiarism. Plagiarism describes the the drinking act or result where you take the words or ideas of somebody else and present them as your own. Plagiarism is considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely. Most importantly, however, your reputation is on the line. The origin of the different word plagiarism gives you an idea what others will think of you when you plagiarize. The word goes back to the Latin plagiarius , a thief and kidnapper—in particular a child snatcher and lower the drinking age to 18 essay, somebody abducting slaves.
The modern use in academia brands you a literary thief (OED, 2005). Life Essay? There are a number of reasons why plagiarism occurs. The worst case is do not the drinking age to 18 essay deliberate plagiarism (for whatever reason). Careless work may lead to plagiarism, but is not commonly considered as severe an offence as the deliberate case. Careless work is often a sign of students working too closely to the original, and this can be easily remedied. Without changing your habit, simply by including references to where you got the ideas from, and putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. In practice, you still might rely too much on the original and 3, not deliver as good an essay as you could. Deliberate plagiarism, often motivated by laziness, can’t be remedied directly. At the do not the drinking age to 18 essay time, it may seem a reasonable risk to copy from the internet, but is it really worth it? Bear in mind that there is something in for you, too—that is something in addition to the grades. The more you write, the easier it gets.
If you work too closely to the original, there is a simple solution: don’t write the essay with the dissertation writing books in front of you. By so doing, there is very little danger that you copy word by word. In a way, you force yourself to make the material your own: and that is a good thing—it makes a better argument, your essay will be more original, and do not lower 18 essay, not least, you’ll also get better grades. Rather than having the original works in front of you, try using your notes. As you still will need to put those references for the ideas you take from others, make a note whenever you do so. I use brackets with three X inside, to remind myself that I need to put a proper reference. Pacthesis Sims 3? Often I remember very well who said this, so I include, for example, (Granovetter XXX) inside the text. When checking the the drinking essay, it’s hard not to notice the triple X; and there is always the search facility in writing jobs, the word processor. By putting a place holder, I can get on with the do not lower age to 18 essay job of writing without interrupting my thoughts. Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to myself that there is some more work to be done: finding the proper reference, for example.
If you think plagiarism is hard to detect by your marker, think again. There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away. Technology-wise, your markers are likely to have the resume cv guide same possibilities than you have if not more. If you can copy and paste something you found on the internet, it’s equally easy for 18 essay your marker to find it on a search engine, again. It would, of 3 course, be possible, to do not the drinking change plagiarized work to pacthesis sims 3 the extent that the deed is no longer easy to spot. Usually, however, this is just as much work as writing the essay yourself. Just to give you an idea, the lower the drinking markers of your essay will not only have access to dissertation jobs the same search engines than you have. There is software to scan essays for duplicates; and many institutes even have access to essay banks (sites on the internet where complete essays are sold). The most successful tool, however, is probably the human brain with its incredible ability to lower remember. If you copy from a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too.
If you copy from steady life a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Knowing what is on the reading list helps spot essays that refer to the drinking age to 18 essay other works a great deal, or don’t refer to resume cv guide some of the core reading. Your marker can estimate how many readings you had time to read, or whether you’re likely to have read a great number of papers on the Belgian perspective of whatever issues is set in do not the drinking age to 18 essay, the question. An even easier sign is having the same paragraph twice in the same essay, for example. There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in style or formatting. Many people are unaware of how idiosyncratic one’s writing style is. They are in fact so individual that writing styles can be used to determine how many people wrote a document, such as the thesis for revenge in hamlet Christian Bible (Jakoblich, 2001). Writing style includes the do not the drinking age to 18 essay tenses we use, the level of formality, our own choice of research on antimicrobial of plants words, the kinds of metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over punctuation, the length of sentences, or the use of specialist terms. Typographic signs include font size, choices of where to break paragraphs, spaces in the drinking 18 essay, between lines, and things like proper m- and resume cv guide, n-dashes (when copying from electronic articles). The presence or lack of references is often an do not easy sign: for example, where there are many references inside the text, but few at the end, or where the citation style changes within a single essay. A marker may get suspicious where there is suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none.
Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in references when copying from electronic journals; and have them automatically underlined by the word processor. Even where you take care of these issues, a paragraph copied from the internet will very unlikely link well with the rest of your essay. The style may be inappropriate, or just different. Essays from an essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to the exact question you have been set. In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily. This is done by writing freely without having the books right in front of steady life essay you. Instead, work with your notes, and take care to put references where you use the ideas from others. Don’t use the internet to copy from, no matter how tempting it is. It will hardly ever be worth it. There is an important difference between citations and quotations. Unfortunately, confusion is lower the drinking commonplace; and the terms are frequently used incorrectly.
Knowing your citations from your quotations is useful when writing essays. It’s essential, in fact, if you want to reference properly. Citations are about ideas you take from others. Steady Essay? Quotations are about the exact words used by others. This is lower age to really the whole distinction. So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the words of someone else, you quote. “Why can’t a man be more like a woman?” (Blankenhorn, 1995, p.117) is a quotation, because I use the exact same words Blankenhorn did. However, when stating that families in the US are increasingly defined by research activity of plants the absence of a father (Blankenhorn, 1995), I only lower the drinking 18 essay, use the resume cv guide idea, not the exact words. Age To? When putting a reference, the dissertation difference between a citation and a quotation is that for the drinking age to a quotation we always put a page number. This is done to enable the reader to check the on antimicrobial activity words in the original context. Lower The Drinking 18 Essay? In the on antimicrobial list of references at the end of the lower the drinking age to text, there is no difference.
Short quotations are included in in hamlet, the text, and enclosed by lower the drinking age to speech marks. Longer quotations are set apart from the main text by indenting the quotations, and resume cv guide, usually putting in a slightly smaller font. Lower The Drinking Age To? Longer means about 3 to 4 lines or more. For example: It is true that many voters may be voting for reasons wholly unconnected with social inequalities in any of the steady life essay three dimensions. They may attach greater importance to some specific issue such as foreign affairs, or they may vote out of personal reasons or habits with which egalitarianism has nothing to do. (Runciman, 1966, p.136) When quoting someone else, you should take great care to copy the the drinking words exactly. Sometimes, you might want to change a quote slightly in order to make it fit your essay. If these changes are substantial, you should use your own words and statement in hamlet, cite the work instead.
If the changes are small, use square brackets to indicate that you have changed the text. For example, you might quote Rawls (1999, p.87) that intelligent people don’t “[deserve their] greater natural capacity”. I have included the words that I changed in square brackets, leaving the rest the same. This indicates to my readers that the words in square brackets are not the exact same as Rawls used. For reference, the original reads: “No one deserves his greater natural capacity” (p.87). Do Not The Drinking? I made the changes, because I wrote about intelligent people, and Rawls was talking in more general terms. Whilst quotations can lighten up an essay, you should not rely on them too much. Your own writing is much more important, and often text you quote was written for resume cv guide a different purpose.
The consequence is that the quotations may be relevant in content (what is being said), but in terms of style don’t fit well with what you wrote. Do Not The Drinking 18 Essay? If you rely too much on quotations, you run the risk that your readers will think that you maybe don’t really know what you’re writing about: that you have not understood the material well enough. When writing an essay, particularly when writing an extended essay, it’s easiest to statement for revenge in hamlet put the do not lower the drinking references whilst you write. This is the case, because you still know where you got the idea from. I keep a place holder to remind myself that a reference is needed if I can’t remember the author right away.
Often, I will know at least some of it, and pacthesis 3, write this down. By putting a place holder rather than chasing the reference right away, I can stay focused on the writing. However, I also indicate that the essay is not completed. Place holders like (Baudrillard, XXX) or (XXX last week’s reading) will help me find the 18 essay full references once I completed the essay or section. References are needed whenever you write an academic piece of writing. Even where you can get away without referencing, by including references your essay will be taken more serious. Kinds Essay? It’s a good habit to put references all the time, so when you really need to—such as in your thesis—you’ll not struggle, or spend days trying to find out how to do not reference a chapter in dissertation jobs, a book.
There are a number of software packages such as Endnote , Refworks , Scholar’s Aid Lite , or Bibus that help you putting references. These computer applications interact with your word processor, and automate much of the referencing process. They manage citations, and the drinking age to, usually let you search libraries and pacthesis, journal databases. The Drinking Age To 18 Essay? Useful and resume cv guide, flexible as they are, such software packages need some time to get used to. It’s thus a good idea to familiarize yourself with their working before the do not lower the drinking age to 18 essay deadline is resume cv guide menacing.
For example, make sure you know how to the drinking age to put page numbers for quotations. Even if you don’t use a dedicated computer program to manage your references, it might be useful to collect references in a separate file. So, after completing your essay, copy all the references to a separate file. Dissertation Jobs? The next time you cite the do not the drinking age to 18 essay same paper, it’ll be a simple case of copying and pasting, without the work of formatting the kinds of sports reference. Keeping the full references with your notes can safe a great deal of time, too.
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Top 3 Reasons Why the Drinking Age Should Not Be Lowered to 18
1314 Words Essay on Poverty in India: A Big Challenge. Poverty is one of the major problems in India. It is the root cause of many socio-economic problems including population explosion, unemployment, and child labour and rising graph of crimes. Poverty alleviation should be the main target of the nation so as to make it a prosperous and developed country. Thus, poverty elimination is lower 18 essay a matter of fundamental importance. Steady Essay. Poverty implies a condition in which a person finds him unable to maintain a living standard adequate for his physical and lower age to 18 essay, mental efficiency. He even fails to meet his basic requirements.
Poverty is in fact a relative concept. Resume Cv Guide. It is very difficult to draw a demarcation line between affluence and poverty. According to Adam Smith, #8220;Man is rich or poor according to the degree in which he can afford to enjoy the necessaries, the age to conveniences and activity of plants, the amusements of do not lower the drinking 18 essay human life.#8221; The pathos of resume cv guide Indian story is that 220-230 million of Indian population, which constitutes 22 per cent of the total population, is poor, as per the findings of the National Sample Survey Organisation. This makes India home to the world#8217;s largest proportion of the poor, even if the percentage of the people living below poverty line reduced from 36 per cent in 1993-194 to 22 per cent in 2004-05. The problem of poverty is acute in the drinking villages. More than 75 per cent people live in villages. Thesis In Hamlet. Even prevalence of poverty is not uniform all across India. The poverty level is below 10 per cent in states like Delhi, Goa, Punjab, etc. while it is nearly 50 per cent in socio-economically backward states like Bihar and Orissa. The percentage of poverty fluctuates between 30 to 40 in north-eastern states of Assam, Meghalaya, and in Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh. Image Source : cdn.yourarticlelibrary.com.
There are other dismal facts about poverty in this 4th largest economy of the world on do not lower age to 18 essay GDP at Purchasing Power Parity: it ranks 126th out of 177 countries listed in the World Human Development Index and the rate of child malnutrition double than that of sub-Saharan Africa. The most recent World Bank estimates for India are based on household surveys carried out in 1999-2000. It was found that almost 80 per cent of India#8217;s population was surviving on less than $2.15 a day (in PPP terms), i.e. is about 800 million $1.40 a day or less and nearly 35 per cent were found to resume cv guide, be living on $1.20 a day or less. With such factual and visible evidence enforcing existing bias, the defining element of our economy would remain identified with poor millions. Rather than getting drowned into swirling oceans of data we need to look into the factors which lead to poverty. Since India is predominantly an agricultural country, it is the largest source of employment.
More than three-fourths of their populations depend on agriculture for their livelihood. Agriculture here is do not 18 essay dependent on papers activity of plants monsoon. Sometimes due to the drinking, uncertainty and irregularity of monsoon, agriculture collapses. Foodgrains production declines. Often there is drought.
All these adversely affect the income generation prospect. These combine to result in poverty. People do not have other means of livelihood; they are left with no other option except to starve. Illiteracy constitutes a major cause of different kinds poverty. It is really very distressing that after more than 60 years of independence, about one-fourth of our population do not know how to read and write. Illiteracy is one of the constraints which deprive one from opportunities to seek other forms of livelihood.
It in fact forces people to stick to ancestoral jobs and prevents them from having job flexibility. Besides, caste system also puts constraints in the access to lower age to 18 essay, lucrative jobs to a vast majority of the people. Though constitutionally such institutions have been dismantled, their presence can still be seen in rural areas. Sims 3. Furthermore, there has been increase in unemployment adding to age to, the woes of poverty. Growing population is a great contributor to poverty. The average size of research on antimicrobial Indian family is relatively bigger, consisting of the drinking age to 18 essay 4.2 members. All these factors make a vicious cycle of poverty and aggravate the statement in hamlet problems related to poverty.
Poverty is a great pollutant. It is marked by an apathy that erodes self-esteem and any willingness to live life to the fullest. It is also an important factor in lower 18 essay the creation of paradoxical situation, the lack of purchasing power amidst plentiful availability of food causing starvation deaths. Poverty makes education, balanced diet, health care facilities, etc. inaccessible. Obviously, all these deprivations immensely affect the personality development of a person, thus creating wide gaps between haves and have-nots. The dimensions of poverty have been changing from time- to-time and place-to-place. There are two inter-related aspects of poverty-urban and rural. The main causes of urban poverty are predominantly due to impoverishment of rural peasantry that forces them to migrate to big cities to find livelihood.
In this process they lose even the open space or habitat they had in villages, albeit without food and other basic amenities. In the cities, though they get food but other sanitary facilities including clean water supply still elude them. They are compelled to live in sub-human conditions. There is pacthesis 3 really a very paradoxical situation, when wealth and prosperity is concentrated in a few homes while millions have to the drinking age to 18 essay, go to bed without food. A select few enjoy the standards of living comparable to the richest in the world while the writing jobs majority fails to meet both their ends. It cannot be said that attempts have not been made by the drinking 18 essay the government. Since 1970s poverty alleviation became the priority in government#8217;s development planning. Policies have been framed with prime focus on improving standard of living of the people by ensuring them food security, promoting self- employment through greater access to assets, increasing wage employment and improving access to research papers of plants, basic social services. It is with this aim that Public Distribution System was launched in 1965 to provide foodgrains to the poor at subsidised rates. The Government of India launched the Integrated Rural Development Programme, the largest credit-based government poverty reduction programme in 1979 to provide rural households below the poverty line with credit to purchase income-generating assets.
The beneficiaries include small and marginalised farmers, agricultural labourers, rural artisans, the physically handicapped, scheduled castes and lower age to, scheduled tribes. Within the targeted population, 40 per cent of the beneficiaries are supposed to be women. Thesis Statement. Significantly, the programme has been successful enough to increase the income of 57 per cent of assisted families. Lower Age To 18 Essay. Unemployment and low-productivity have been significant causes of rural poverty. It is to address the problem that a national public work scheme, the Jawahar Rozgar Yojana was launched in 1989 to pacthesis sims, provide unemployment at the statutory minimum wage for unskilled manual labour, besides low-cost housing and to supply free irrigation well to poor and marginalised farmers. Do Not Lower The Drinking Age To 18 Essay. The programme has had a significant impact on poverty reduction. Besides, a number of other programmes for on antimicrobial activity, poverty alleviation are being carried on by government-Central and State. As a consequence of lower attempts made by on antimicrobial of plants government, poverty showed a sharp decline in 1980s.
This decline in poverty, to some extent, is also attributed to agriculture development of 1970s and 1980s resulting from the Green Revolutions. However, much more needs to be done, for India is the home to the largest poor population in the world. Basic necessities of life such as drinking water, health care facilities, etc. are still inaccessible to majority of population. In this regard community participation and awareness campaign can make a difference. The media and the NGOs, besides other institutions have crucial role to do not age to, play. The machinery involved in poverty alleviation need to be accountable, sensitised and sincere. New laws have to be evolved to ensure more accountability. The lack of transparency and accountability has hampered our economic development at all levels. A system of incentives and statement, disincentives can also be of great importance. Thus, the situation is do not the drinking age to bound to change and society will be free from sims 3 deprivation.
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Against Lowering Drinking Age to 18 - Essay Forum
Home Based Mini Portable Bio-Gas Plant. In this project, we try to make smaller size of portable biogas plant for the use. of energy generated by do not the drinking plant at anywhere. This plant would have very high. portability to the scale of a human being able to move the whole plant by. himself at anywhere. In this project, the design would be made keeping in. mind the writing, plastic material of digester which reduce the weight.
This project. stands for increase the scope of do not lower the drinking age to 18 essay using the dissertation, biogas technology and there by. design plant that will suit the customer focusing on portability, functionality. and usability. This project would also help protect the earth's global warming. which has risen to an alarming rate by do not lower 18 essay creation of a non-conventional energy. ' Bio-gas plants are generally made from thesis statement for revenge in hamlet, stain less steel, zinc, best quality rubber, mild steel, aluminium etc. The use of lower 18 essay construction material to construct the wall of. the digester of bio-gas plant was limited to a specific period of time. Nowadays, the. body of biogas plant is research papers activity of plants, commonly manufactured through casting process.
' Many improvements have been made in do not lower age to 18 essay manufacture the body structure of biogas. digester such as change of life materials to build the structure of the digester and age to, make. innovations in some or the of sports, other ways to make the digester be more efficient to. produce methane gas. ' Biogas plants are widely used in do not lower 18 essay various countries of the world after humans knew.
the application of methane gas. ' Various applications are Generating electricity, replace cooking gas etc. ' For example in India, the biogas plants are widely used to steady essay generate electricity and. use as a substitute for cooking gas. Methane gas can be produced throughout the. fermentation process. Usually, the waste product such as cow dung shall be. fermented to produce methane gas.
From the digester, the methane gas will. voluntarily flow out through the gas outlet straight to do not outlet container. Life. The used cow. dung, after fermentation can be used as manure for crop cultivation. The biogas.
digester must be built to be long lasting, which has a characteristic of corrosive. resistance, high tensile strength, and technical stability. 1.2What is Biogas? ' Biogas is the gas produced by anaerobic digestion of waste materials of plant and. animal origin. Do Not Lower Age To 18 Essay. Biogas is a mixture of methane (60-70%), carbon dioxide (30.40%) and traces of other gases like hydrogen sulphide and hydrogen. Methane in biogas. provides a source of fuel without smoke. ' Anaerobic digestion (AD) is the process by which plant and animal material is. converted into useful product by micro-organisms in activity of plants the absence of the drinking age to air.
Biomass is. put inside a sealed tank and naturally occurring micro-organisms digest it, releasing. methane that can be used to provide heat and power. The material left over at the. end of the process, known as bio-slurry, is very rich in for revenge in hamlet nutrients so it can be used as. fertilizer. This means that generation of biogas is carried out by using waste. materials of plant or animal origin which can be capacity source of the drinking environmental. pollution if disposed of essay without conversion. Most importantly it provides an. Portable biogas plant 2. alternate source of renewable energy and thus reduces the burden on use of fossil.
fuel as a source of energy. The bio-slurry provides organic fertilizer which, unlike. synthetic fertilizers imparts no catastrophic effect on soil as well as environment. ' Bio-gas technology introduce another alternative source of energy and is fall as an. archetypal appropriate technology that we meets the primary need for cooking gas. in village areas. Using local resources, viz. organic wastes, energy and manure are. derived.
Realization of this capacity and the fact that India supports the largest cattle. wealth led to the promotion of National Bio-gas Programmed in a major way in the drinking 18 essay the. late 1970s as an answer to the growing fuel crisis. ' Bio-gas is produced by organic wastes by concerted process of different groups of. anaerobic bacteria.
An attempt has been made in this feedback on for revenge, the work done by. our scientists in understanding the microbiel diversity in bio-gas digesters, their. inter actions and factors affecting bio-gas production, some alternate feedstock, and. uses of spent wastes. ' Various different factors such as bio-gas capacity of feedstock, design of digester, nature of substrate, pH, tempe. , load rating, hydraulic retention time for bio-gas. plant (HRT), C: N ratio, volatile fatty acids for ph (VFA), etc. influence the biogas.
' A technology is lower age to, suitable if it gets acceptance. Bio-gas plants have steel gained little. acceptance. Generally bio-gas plants have up to now presumably been. inappropriate. Of Sports Essay. Bicycles are appropriate: if a man buys a bicycle, he is proud. It is a. symbol of his advance, his personal achievements.
The bicycle is the need for social. recognition. If the person sit on the bicycle and get down because he doesn't know. how to ride bicycle, it is not the lower age to, abilities of bicycle's owner. The men learns how to.
ride and this adapts himself to his bicycle. Dissertation. The people goes to work on it. It is need. for convenience and lowest-cost transport vehicle. The bicycle breaks down. The. person has no money to repair to have it mender. He saves on other expenditure, because the bicycle is age to, important for his proud. He walks very long distances to the. mender. He adapts to thesis statement for revenge the needs of the bicycle.
' The person can afford this expenditure without getting into economic difficulties. The bicycle is appropriate to his economic capacity. ' A biogas plant is correctly operated and maintained if it satisfies the user's need for. recognition and convenience. He for his part is then prepared to adapt to do not age to 18 essay the needs. of the biogas plant. ' Biogas plants are appropriate to the technical abilities and papers of plants, economic capacity of. Third World farmers.
Biogas technology is extremely appropriate to the ecological. and economic demands of the future. Biogas technology is progressive. Portable biogas plant 3. ' However, a biogas plant seldom meets the owner's need for status and recognition. Biogas technology has a poor image (Biogas plants are built by dreamers for poor. people. If you do not want to seem one of the do not lower the drinking, poor, you do not buy a biogas plant. The image of the biogas plant must be improved. ' The designer makes his contribution by supplying a good design. A professional.
design that works. One that is built in conformity with contemporary requirements. and models. Life. The biogas plant must be a symbol of social advancement. The biogas. plant must be technically progressive. ' A biogas plant as an investment is in lower the drinking 18 essay competition with a bicycle or moped, a radio. set or diesel pump, a buffalo or an extension to resume cv guide the farmhouse.
The economic benefit. of a biogas plant is greater than that of most competing investments. However, the. plant must also be worthwhile as a topic for the chat in the market place. Lower Age To 18 Essay. So the. design must not be primitive. Dissertation Writing Jobs. So the do not lower age to 18 essay, gas bell must be attractively painted. So the. gas pipe must be laid tidily.
' So the fermentation slurry tank must be decently designed and kinds, constructed. So giant. pumpkins and lower the drinking age to 18 essay, flowers must grow around the plant. A good biogas plant is. appropriate. Appropriate to the needs of its owner and his abilities and papers on antimicrobial of plants, capacity. It. is appropriate to the necessities of the future. 1.3 Biogas as alternative source of lower the drinking 18 essay energy. ' Unless an appropriate intervention geared towards the development of alternative.
renewable energy source is instituted in the near future, India will find itself in a. dangerous situation in terms of sustaining the availability of fuel wood or its. derivative. Thus deforestation and health hazards cannot be reduced without. providing alternatives to research activity the current way of cooking. Do Not Age To 18 Essay. In the absence of resume cv guide alternate.
renewable source of energy, people will continue relentless deforestation that will. endanger the eco-system and the drinking age to 18 essay, their lives beyond repair. Generation of biogas from. cow manure, human excreta and thesis in hamlet, kitchen waste is considered to be one such. alternative. The present project will focus on exploring the feasibility of the use of. kitchen waste as an alternative source of biogas in a portable way. Portable biogas plant 4. 1.4 Biogas Potential. 1.4.1 composition of Biogas. SUBSTANCES SYMBOLS PERCENTAGE.
Methane CH4 50-70% Carbon Dioxide CO2 30-40% Hydrogen H2 5-10% Water Vapour H2O 0.3% Hydrogen Sulphide H2S Traces. 1.4.2 Methane Consumption. ' Cooking: 0.45 cubic meters (8cu. ft.) per person per day. ' Lighting: 0.12-0.15 cubic meters (4.5cu. ft.) per hour per lamp. ' Driving Engines: 0.45 cubic meters (15cu. ft.) per HP per hour. 1.4.3 Non-renewable Value equivalent of lower 18 essay Biogas. ' 1 kilogram LPG = 0.45 cubic meter biogas.
' 1 litre gasoline = 0.54 cubic meter biogas. ' 1 litre diesel fuel = 0.52 cubic meter biogas. ' 1 kilowatt hr. electricity = 1.0 cubic meter biogas. 1.4.4 Uses of Biogas. This can be used for- 1. Cooking (like natural gas). 2. Burning in a mantel to get luminous light (0.75 M3 of biogas can light 7 biogas. lamps for an hour).
3. Running a generator to produce electricity and use fan, radio, television, VCP, electric bulb etc.(The production of 0.75m3 biogas can generate 1 kw-hr, which. can light 25 electric lamps, each rated of 40w for an hour). 4. Running a pump for irrigation. 5. Running a motor vehicle. 6. Running a refrigeration unit to dissertation writing store fruits and crops. 7. Age To 18 Essay. Running an incubator etc. Biogas can be used for providing heat for raising rice seeding silkworms, killing. injurious insects in grain store and even welding and cutting steel. It can be used as.
a fuel for internal combustion engine to power fodder grinders, rice mills, and flour. milling machine, generator, automobiles etc. where there is a shortage of oil. Some. of them are still in process trial and different kinds of sports, need further development. Portable biogas plant 5. 1.5 Benefits of Biogas. Developing country context including India, the benefits of lower 18 essay biogas are now. well recognized. It has resulted in a smoke free kitchen, so women and children are.
no longer prone to respiratory infections and writing, can look forward to live longer, healthier lives. Women are spared from the burden of gathering firewood. Both. these factors will contribute to the drinking age to protecting the forests and allowing the forests to. regenerate. The sludge remaining after digestion is rich in valuable nutrients and. can be used as top quality fertilizer that guarantees better crops. In mind areas when. there is no electricity supply, the use biogas, a source of statement in hamlet light has enabled women. to engage in evening study have increased literacy and other home and community. activities.
Cattle dung is no longer stored in lower 18 essay the home, but is fed directly to the. biogas digester along with toilet waste. The anaerobic digestion process also. destroys pathogens. As a result, sanitation has greatly improved. The common uses of thesis statement for revenge biogas are for cooking, lighting, running an do not lower age to 18 essay, internal. combustion engine, and the effluent can be used as fertilizer in for revenge vegetable. ' High nutrient fertilizer produced in do not age to excess. ' Reduces methane and carbon dioxide release into the air.
' Cheap to resume cv guide produce. ' Many different uses. ' Reduces landfill sites, sewage drainage, and farm manure. ' Clean/ quiet fuel for cars and trucks. ' A biogas plant supplies energy and fertilizer. It improves hygiene and. protects the environment. Abiogas plant lightens the burden on the State.
budget and improves working conditions for the housewife. A biogas plant. is a modern energy source. A biogas plant improves life in the country. A. biogas plant can satisfy these high expectations only if it is do not lower the drinking, well designed. ' A biogas plant supplies energy. However, a biogas plant also consumes.
energy. Sims. Energy is already consumed in the drinking the production of the construction. ' for 1 m?? of masonry, about 1000 kWh or 180 m?? of biogas, ' for 100 kg of steel, about 800 kWh or 150 m?? of biogas, ' For 1 kg of oil paint, about 170 kWh or 28 m?? of biogas. Energy is. consumed in transporting the materials of a biogas plant. Construction. and maintenance also consume energy. ' for 1 km of transport by lorry, about 1.5 kWh or 1.05 m?? of resume cv guide biogas. Portable biogas plant 6. ' For 1 km of transport by the drinking age to 18 essay car, about 0.5 kWh or 0.35 m?? of biogas.
A biogas plant must operate for one or two years before the energy put into. it is recovered. 1.5.1 Environmental aspects. The main component of statement for revenge urban solid waste in India is organic food wastes. Most of the do not age to 18 essay, solid wastes are generated in rural and dissertation writing jobs, are used as fuel. The combustion. of these organic wastes, such as dung and agriculture residue, in the rural and slum.
areas of developing countries cause severe ecological imbalance due to loss of. nutrients and serious indoor air pollution. The most important effects of air pollution. are eye infection and respiratory diseases, ranging from do not lower, predisposition to acute. infection children o chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases in adults. Activity Of Plants. About 700. million women in developing country may be risk of developing such serious. diseases. The traditional use of these organic wastes as fuel is not only harmful to. health but also a most inefficient way of using the energy. The Drinking Age To 18 Essay. The use of dissertation writing biogas.
technology will mitigate the adverse effect on health and ecological imbalance and. unimproved fuel efficiency. 1.6 Substrates Used. Substrates are biodegradable materials, which can be used for biogas. production. Do Not Age To. The substrates, which can be loaded to the biogas digester, are the. ' Animal Wastes: Chicken Dung, Hog, Cattle, Goat. ' Household Wastes: night soil and kitchen wastes.
' Crop Residues: Corn Stalks, Rice Straws, Banana Leaves, Corncobs, Peanut. Hulls, Cogon and Bagasse, Water Lily and Grass Cuttings. ' Industrial Wastes: Coconut Water, Filter Pressed Cake, Banana And. Pineapple Peelings, Bottling Wastes, Fish Wastes And Meat Processing. ' Residues from agriculture. Portable biogas plant 7. 1 Pig Manure 0.25-0.50. 2 Cow Manure 0.2-0.3. 3 Chicken food Waste 0.35-0.60. 4 Human Excreta 0.03[m3/person]
5 Fruit And Vegetable Waste 0.25-0.50. 6 Food Waste 0.5-0.6. 7 Garden waste 0.2-0.5. 1.7 Roots of Biogas (History) ' It is jobs, believed that a form of this gas was used to do not the drinking heat water from the 10th to 16th. century. By 1850 the pacthesis 3, concept of biogas was starting to do not the drinking age to 18 essay become better understood. and in sewage processing plant was built to create biogas, and this energy was used. to illuminate streetlights. ' The formation of biogas is a natural phenomenon that naturally occurs in wetland, manure stack, human and animal intestines. For centuries, humans have harvested. the power of bacteriological digestion, by recovering naturally formed biogases to.
use them as cooking gas, heating gas or engine fuel. ' In India hundreds of thousands of pacthesis sims family digesters were built to provide cooking. fuel and age to, lighting in rural areas. During the Second World War, German army trucks. were fueled with biogas collected from farmers manure (gas engine). ' Over the life essay, last 50 years remarkable progress has been made in age to 18 essay the development of. anaerobic digesters (bioreactors) to increase methane (CH4) yield and improve its. process flow technologies.
The fuel research and pacthesis sims 3, development institute of. Bangladesh science laboratory started trying to produce biogas from age to, cow dung and. other organic substances from different kinds essay, immediate after independence with a view to settling. the fuel crisis. In 1976 that institute constructed a 3 m3 floating dome type biogas. plant, for the first time. In 1991 fixed Dome type plant has been constructed. ' Nowadays, hundreds of projects around the world, from small dairy farms to large. municipal waste water treatment plants, are demonstrating that biogas recovery.
systems are environmentally and economically sound. Portable biogas plant 8. 1.8 Biogas Digester Technologies. Biogas digester can be divided into do not lower the drinking age to 18 essay, two categories: Fig. 1 types of biogas plant. 1.9 FLOATING GAS DRUM. ' The gas drum normally consists of for revenge 2.5 mm steel sheet for the sides and lower the drinking, 2 mm sheet. for the cover.
It has welded-in braces. These break up surface scum when the steady, drum. ' The drum must be protected against corrosion. Suitable coating products are oil. paints, synthetic paints and bitumen paints. Correct priming is important.
' One coat is age to, as good as no coat. Different Of Sports. Two coats are not enough. There must be at do not the drinking age to 18 essay least. two preliminary coats and kinds essay, one topcoat. ' Coatings of used oil are cheap. They must be renewed monthly.
Plastic sheeting. stuck to bitumen sealant has not given good results. Lower The Drinking Age To. In coastal regions, repainting is. necessary at least once a year, and in dry uplands at least every other year. Thesis Statement. Gas. production will be higher if the the drinking 18 essay, drum is writing jobs, painted black or red than with blue or white, because the the drinking age to, digester temperature is 3, increased by solar radiation. Lower 18 Essay. Gas drums made. of 2 cm wire-mesh-reinforced concrete or fibrocement must receive a gaslight.
' The gas drum should have a slightly sloping roof (Figure 29), otherwise rainwater. will be trapped on it, leading to rust damage. An excessively steep-pitched roof is. unnecessarily expensive. The gas in the tip cannot be used because the drum is. already resting on the bottom and the gas is no longer under pressure. Portable biogas plant 9.
1.10 FIXED GAS DRUM. ' The top part of a fixed-dome plant (the gas space) must be gaslight. Concrete, masonry and cement rendering are not gaslight. The gas space must therefore be. painted with a gaslight product. Gastight paints must be elastic, this is the steady, only way. to bridge cracks in the structure. ' Latex or synthetic paints (PVC or polyester) are suitable. Epoxy resin paints are. particularly good.
Polyethylene is lower age to, not very gaslight. Hot paraffin coatings also serve. well. The walls are first heated with a torch. Then hot paraffin (as hot as possible) is applied. 3. Since the do not the drinking, paraffin will only adhere to thoroughly dry masonry, it may.
have to be dried out first with the essay, aid of do not age to 18 essay a charcoal fire. Fixed-dome plants produce. just as much gas as floating-drum plants - but only if they are gaslight. However, utilization of the sims 3, gas is less effective as the gas pressure fluctuates substantially. Burners cannot be set optimally.
1.11 Reason for selection of lower Floating Type. ' The other digesters are expensive for rural economy in different the absence of subsidy and. loan facility, the provision of which has been made in the national biogas program. ' The dome of other types is fixed. Do Not Lower Age To. Therefore the temperature is lower compared to. floating type temperature due to for revenge in hamlet the fact that direct sunlight comes in the contact of. the slurry. This in do not lower age to 18 essay turn affects the performance of anaerobic digestion. Statement. Floating type. has better digestion at higher temperature. ' For the construction of lower the drinking age to other digesters, the area required is more compared to the.
1.12 Alternative wastes. ' It was reported the feasibility of using industrial canteen waste as a feedstock in. biogas digesters and writing, suggested a reduction in particle size of the waste below 2 cm, and feeding at the rate of lower age to 18 essay 8'10 TS, for successful operation. Biomethanation. capacity of market waste was studied and reported that the digestion process was. stable at 20 days HRT with 48% reduction in VS and with biogas production of 35. liter kg' 1 d' 1. Also the biogas production from solid waste is originated from.
biscuit and chocolate industry. ' Although biogas production technology has established itself as a technology with. great capacity which could exercise major influence in the energy scene in rural. areas, it has not made any real impact on the total energy scenario despite the. presence of about 1.8 million biogas digesters.
One of its serious limitations is the. availability of feedstock followed by pacthesis sims 3 defects in construction, and lower the drinking, microbiological. failure. But on reviewing the literature, one finds a long list of alternate feedstock. and their capacity for biogas production. Portable biogas plant 10. 1.13 Biogas designs. Fig. 2 biogas design (1). Fig. Dissertation Jobs. 3 biogas design (2).
Portable biogas plant 11. Fig. 4 biogas design (3). Fig. 5 biogas design (4). Portable biogas plant 12. Fig. 6 biogas design (5). Portable biogas plant 13. Objective and Problem statement. 2.1 Project Synopsis.
' The concept of do not lower age to 18 essay this biogas plant is different from the conventional biogas plant. which is of the scale of a huge sized dome and is fixed at a place. The energy of dissertation jobs the. plant cannot be utilized remotely. In creation of the new design of a portable biogas. digester, the various stages included are Concept generation, Design of the age to, concept. and fabrication. The working model may be presented in the days to come. depending upon the retention time needed for dissertation writing jobs the biogas generation.
' The body of this biogas plant is designed to decrease its weight by using plastic and. PVC material to make it as light as possible thereby increase its portability. characteristic. The portability is magnified by providing this portable biogas plant. with a U shaped handle on age to, the digester to give it the best possible portability onthe- go and make it user friendly. ' The volume of the body also designed to get the bigger size as possible but still suit. the portability characteristic with it. ' The project involves the thesis statement for revenge in hamlet, developing and analysis of the body shape of the digester. to make it more efficient to produce methane gas and also will concern about the. structure strength, durability, ergonomic factor and convenience.
The new concept. of this digester is primarily being focused on the portability factor. All the. specifications will be verified to avoid materials and do not the drinking age to, fund wasting. For the safety. feature, stoppers are provided in order to save the dome from flying away due to. the pressure of the biogas. ' In the overall process of designing, developing and research papers of plants, fabricating this plant would.
enable the application of the lower the drinking 18 essay, skills learned and would also be the use of all the basic. knowledge of Manufacturing Process I and II, Alternate Energy Sources etc. 2.2 Problem Statement. ' Usually all the biogas plants are used to produce methane gas and the size of the. digesters are commonly bigger in size. Resume Cv Guide. The conventional biogas plants are the do not, ones. which cannot be mobilized. The rural areas of India highlight the people who are. underprivileged and despite having a conventional sized biogas plant, they are. unable to use it due to absence of portability. ' This portable biogas plant would enable a human being to writing jobs have the do not the drinking, power in hands.
using several applications which will be applied to steady essay this portable system and carry it. Portable biogas plant 14. to a particular remote area and can utilize the energy and power generated by the. ' It would also promote the use of renewable source of energy and thereby protecting. the earth and lower 18 essay, also encourage the sustainable development of the earth.
' For the solution, a portable biogas with such extent of portability that you can carry. it with your own hands can stand as a substitute. ' This problem has now a solution. 'The Portable Biogas Plant' which provides the. portability in the best possible way. 2.3 Objective of on antimicrobial activity this thesis project. ' The objectives are given below: ' To design a portable biogas plant for domestic uses. ' To lower the construction cost of age to portable biogas plant. ' To make the resume cv guide, better performance of plant.
' Construction of portable model biogas plant. ' To produce organic fertilizer. 2.4 Difference with previous work. ' The difference between previous thesis and our thesis; ' We made this plant with better performance which is more efficient than the first. ' The taper section of the digester is do not the drinking age to 18 essay, eliminated in the new plant which increases the. effective volume of the digester, hence increasing the efficiency.
' The ergonomic factor is improved by providing wheels at the bottom of the digester. and a curved handle which is easy to hold for the movement of the new plant. Portable biogas plant 15. ' Ravi P. Agrahar, G. N. Tiwar (2011), 'Parametric study of portable floating. type biogas plant' In this paper, an attempt has been made to design and test the performance. of a portable floating type biogas plant of volume capacity 0.018 m3 for outdoor. climatic condition of New Delhi, India. The field study has been carried under the. monsoonal season of dissertation writing New Delhi, India. Do Not Age To 18 Essay. In this experiment, we have taken an.
aluminium made digester of resume cv guide 30 Kg slurry capacity for batch system. In the batch. system, the do not 18 essay, slurry has been added once to the digester for whole duration of the. process. The rate of biogas production with slurry temperature has been observed. It has been observed that (i) the biogas production depends strongly on thesis for revenge, slurry. temperature and (ii) the retention period is nearly 85 days. The range of slurry and. ambient temperature of atmosphere recorded during the observed period have been.
found as 26 to 42 ??C and 30 to 40 ??C respectively. Physical and chemical analysis. of biogas and slurry have also been carried out. Further, the CO2 mitigation and. carbon credit has also been evaluated for the present system. ' Anu Andrews Oommen ,(2007), ' Design of Portable Biogas plant' The initial study for obtaining the data was done with the product context. study, Gemba study, market survey and understanding the technology through. present dealers and other sources.
16 plants were visited as a part of user and lower the drinking 18 essay, gemba. study with questionnaires, which helped in understanding the existing product and. user needs. The method of quality functional deployment (QFD) was adopted to. derive the technical features of the product from the thesis statement, customer needs. Product design. specifications were finalized with the help of QFD. The concept were generated and. finalized to solve the basic needs. From the generated concept, one concept was.
finalized after consulting with experts. The final concept was materialized to quasiprototype. in order to validate the concept. The validation pertaining to do not lower the drinking functionality. and usability factors were recorded. This study shows the need and scope of such. kind of pacthesis sims biogas plant in the current scenario to create alternate fuel for lower the drinking age to cooking. Portable biogas plant 16.
' Sunil MP, Ashik Narayan, Vidyasagar Bhat, Vinay S (2013), 'Smart Biogas. The project investigates the development of resume cv guide a low cost, efficient, portable. biogas plant for the generation of energy from discarded kitchen wastes and food. waste. The main purpose of the project is to do not lower 18 essay cut down on the landfill wastes and. generate a reliable source of renewable, decentralized source of papers on antimicrobial energy for lower the.
future. Biogas generation does not require a complex technology and can be applied. globally. Kitchen waste discarded causes public health hazards, the steady life, project also. looks into prevention of various diseases including malaria, typhoid and also meets. the social concerns in the society. Household digesters represent a boon for urban.
and rural people to meet their energy needs. These digesters help in two ways: one. is to reduce waste and the other is to provide valuable energy. ' Van Helmont recorded that decaying organic material produced FL ammable. gases. In 1776, Volta resolved that there was a direct connection between how much. organic material was used and how much gas the material produced.
' That this combustible gas is methane was established by the work conducted. independently by John Dalton and do not the drinking 18 essay, Humphrey Davy during 1804'1808 (Tietjen. ' A Frenchman, Mouras, applied anaerobic digestion for the first time to statement for revenge in hamlet treat. wastewater, in his invention of do not lower age to a crude version of sims a septic tank in 1881, named by. him 'automatic scavenger' (McCarty et al. 1982 ) . ' India is credited for having built the first-ever anaerobic digester, in 1897, when. the Matunga Leper Asylum in Bombay (Mumbai) utilized human waste to generate. gas to the drinking 18 essay meet its lighting needs.
' Agapitidis I. and Zafiris C. (2006). 'Energy Exploitation of Biogas: European and National perspectives'. 2nd. International Conference of the Hellenic Solid Waste Management Association. ' Al Seadi, T. (2001). Good practice in quality management of pacthesis sims AD residues from biogas.
production. Do Not Age To 18 Essay. Report made for the International Energy Agency, Task 24- Energy. from Biological Conversion of Organic Waste. Published by IEA Bioenergy and. AEA Technology Environment, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom. ' Al Seadi, T.; Holm Nielsen J. (2004). Utilization of waste from food and. Solid waste: Assessment, Monitoring and dissertation writing jobs, Remediation; Waste management.
series 4; ELSEVIER; ISBN 0080443214, 735-754. Portable biogas plant 17. ' Amon, T. et al. (2006). Optimization of methane production from energy crops with the Methane. Energy Value Published by the Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and. Technology, Vienna, Austria.
' Angelidaki, I. et al. 18 Essay. (2004). Environmental Biotechnology. AD ' Biogas Production. Steady. Environment Resources DTU, Technical University of Denmark. ' Ivan Simeonov, Dencho Denchev and Bayko Baykov (2006). 'Development of the drinking 18 essay new technologies for production of heat and electric power. from organic wastes for increasing the economic efficiency of the final products', Advances in Bulgarian Science, no 1, 15-24, ' Karthik Rajendran, Solmaz Aslanzadeh and Mohammad J. Taherzadeh, (2012), 'Household Biogas Digesters' This review is a summary of different aspects of the design and operation of. small-scale, household, biogas digesters.
It covers different digester designs and. materials used for research papers activity of plants construction, important operating parameters such as pH, temperature, substrate, and loading rate, applications of the biogas, the do not lower the drinking, government. policies concerning the dissertation writing, use of household digesters, and the social and environmental. effects of the the drinking age to 18 essay, digesters. Resume Cv Guide. Biogas is a value-added product of anaerobic digestion of. organic compounds. Biogas production depends on different factors including: pH, temperature, substrate, loading rate, hydraulic retention time (HRT), C/N ratio, and. mixing. Household digesters are cheap, easy to handle, and reduce the amount of. organic household waste. Lower The Drinking 18 Essay. The size of these digesters varies between 1 and 150 m3.
The common designs include fixed dome, floating drum, and plug flow type. Biogas. and fertilizer obtained at the end of anaerobic digestion could be used for different kinds essay cooking, lighting, and electricity. ' Avinash Kumar Agarwal and Mritunjaya Kumar Shukla, (2009), 'Portable. biogas bottling plant' Biogas contains about do not lower the drinking 18 essay 65% methane, 30'35% carbon dioxide, traces of. hydrogen sulphide and moisture. It has been observed that diesel engines get.
severely damaged, when operated on biogas for long duration. Presence of these. corrosive gases make biogas unsuitable for transportation application. By removing. CO2 and trace acidic gases like H2S and moisture, biogas can be converted into. natural gas (which is mainly methane). Natural gas is a more environment friendly.
and its usage leads to lower engine wear. CO2 and H2S can be removed successfully. from biogas using suitable scrubber techniques. Remaining methane gas (natural. gas) can be compressed to high pressures of the order of 240 bar using multistage. compression and thesis, CNG cylinders can be filled. Lower The Drinking. This bottled gas can be used to. operate automobiles by suitable modifications in the induction system of the. engines. This fuel gas derived from biogas is a good engine fuel. [Received:
February 21, 2009; Accepted: June 11, 2009] Portable biogas plant 18. 4.1 principle of fermentation. BIOGAS production is steady essay, a microbial process. A microbes involved in. BIOGAS production grow in the absence of air (Oxygen). The most important.
organisms are tiny bacteria. Different groups of bacteria act upon complex organic. materials in do not lower age to the absence of air to produce biogas rise in the methane. The process. involved combined action of four groups of bacteria, in four stages in the BIOGAS. plant. The first stage is the degradation of high molecular weight substances like. cellulose, starch, protein, fats, etc. present in organic materials into small molecular. weight compounds like fatty acids amino acid, carbon dioxide and hydrogen, this is. brought about by a hydrolytic group of bacteria, in the second stage the end products. of the first stage are converted into acetate and hydrogen by acetogens, in order to.
produce more acetate a third stage is jobs, involved in which organism s known as. homoacetogens convert hydrogen and simple compounds produce in the first stage. and second stages into lower the drinking age to 18 essay, acetate. The fourth stage is the conversion of acetate and. some other simple compounds like format, carbon dioxide and hydrogen into. methane. This is brought about by a unique group of organisms known as. methanogens; methane being lighter than air raises out of the essay, system and can be. collected and used for various purposes. 4.2 Mechanism of biogas fermentation. Biogas fermentation is an anaerobic process by which organic materials are.
degraded to produce methane as in end product in do not 18 essay the absence of molecular oxygen. .the microbes involved in biogas fermentation are called microbes include nonmethane. producing bacterial and different of sports, methane producing bacteria .The non-methane. producing bacteria can be divided into two groups. a) Fermentative bacteria. b) Hydrogen producing bacteria.
People knew very few little about the intrinsic law of biogas fermentation until. Hungate carried out an extensive study on lower the drinking age to, the anaerobic cultivating technique of. methane producing bacteria and methane producing bacteria in 1950. He also. worked on the variety of biogas microbes the stability of fermentation process and. Portable biogas plant 19. mutual relationship between the different stages in the whole process of biogas.
fermentation in resume cv guide 1979. Brayant divided the age to, process into three phases. They are 1: Hydrolysis and Fermentation 2: Production of Hydrogen Acetic Acid 3: Methangoenesis these phases are describing below with chemical reaction and.
4.2.1 STAGE 1: Hydrolysis and fermentation: Fermentative bacteria, a very complicated and mixed group of are involved. in the first stage of biogas fermentation .They hydrolyse various complex organic. substances .They use the resume cv guide, oxygen in air trapped inside the digester and oxygen from. water for breaking down foodstuffs the hydrolyse carbohydrates simple sugars and.
alcohol proteins into lower age to 18 essay, amino acids and fats into soluble organic mater and research papers activity, long chain. fatty acid s(fulford-1988). C6H12O6 + H2O C6H12O6 + H2O 2CH3COOH + 2CO2 + 4H2. C6H12O6 C3H7COOH + 2CO2 + 2H2. C6H12O6 + 2H2 2C3H7COOH + H2O. 4.2.2 STAGE2: Production of Hydrogen Acetic Acid. Hydrogen producing acetogenic bacteria take part in the second stage of.
Biogas fermentation. The substances produced in the first stage are further. decomposed into volatile fatty acids carbon dioxides and hydrogen, acetic acid is. a major constituent at this stage. C2H5COOH + 2H2 O CH3COOH + CO2+ 3H2. C3H7COOH + 2H2 O CH3COOH + 3H2. The variety and quantity of fermentative and hydrogen producing acetogenic. bacteria vary with fermentation material .Judging from their reaction to oxygen. they are mostly anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria. If some of air. present at this stages the digestion process stops.
Portable biogas plant 20. 4.2.3 STAGE 3: Methaogeneis: Methane producing bacteria takes part in this stage to convert the acetic. acid, hydrogen carbon dioxide and formic acid produced in the previous stages to. produce methane through metabolism by acetoclastic methane bacteria and. hydrogen utilizing methane bacteria according to lower the drinking age to 18 essay reactions- CH3COOH CH4 + CO2. CO2 + 4H2 CH4 + 2H2O. Fig. 7 the Anaerobic Process.
Source: Intermediate Tech. publications, Portable biogas plant 21. In fact these stages are not separate from dissertation, one another each stage provides. substrates, energy and suitable media for succeeding stage. The last stage regulates. and stimulates biogas fermentation and enables the whole system dynamic.
equilibrium (yongfy, 1989) 4.3 Factors affecting fermentation process: ' PH fermentative fluid: Biogas fermentation requires an environment with neutral PH i.e. usually. 7.0 to 8.0.When a biogas plant is newly started, the acid former become active first, reducing the PH value to 7.0 by increasing acid content. The mthanogens then start. using this acid increasing the do not lower the drinking, PH back to neutral. A working plant is therefore. buffered that are the acid level is controlled by the process itself.
The gas production efficiency increases with temp. The length of retention. time of on antimicrobial material is also determined by the fermentative temperature. The higher the. temperature the faster the slurry is needed.
If the fermenting temperature is between. 32.20 and 370 the do not the drinking, retention time for the fermentation of the cattle dung or plant. waste matter will be between 28and 30 days. Where AS 23.90 it takes between 50. to 70 days to digest the material completely. The Chenghu Research Institute also. ascertained that a higher temperature between 45 to papers on antimicrobial 6000c the retention time then. even reduces to 10 says. However a stable of fermenting temperature is required to maintain the do not lower age to, normal state. of biogas fermentation. Biogas microbes especially method producing bacteria are.
sensitive to sudden change of of sports temp. The ideal temp. Is about do not 18 essay 3500 C. if the statement for revenge, slurry. temp. Is lower than optimum, gas production will be stopped. The generation of.
biogas will be slowed down noticeably if there is an abrupt change of temp. Of 1000. The main anaerobes among the biogas microbes i.e. the methane producing. bacteria are very sensitive to oxygen. They die if they are exposed to lower the drinking 18 essay air. So it is. an obvious criterion to create an anaerobic condition for the mehanogenic bacteria.
At the resume cv guide, beginning of fermentation, a small amount of oxygen and the drinking 18 essay, aerobes get into. the digester along with the feed stuck. These aerobes consume the oxygen and. create suitable anaerobic condition for struck anaerobes. Different. To ensure an anaerobic. environment the do not the drinking 18 essay, digester must be fully seal so that there is no leakage of gas or. Portable biogas plant 22. ' Effective of toxins on biogas fermentation: Industrial effluent can contain toxic materials which may kill methane. producing bacteria.
Antibiotics, pesticides, detergent, chlorinated hydrocarbon such. as chloroform and other organic solvent also kill bacteria and there by stop the. functioning of digester. Therefore, care must be taken so that the fermentation. materials and pacthesis, water used are not polluted by such materials. Suitable water content is required for the metabolic activities in do not lower 18 essay biogas. fermentation.
The water content should be around 90% of the weight of total. content. Different Kinds Of Sports Essay. Too much or too much little water both is harmful. 4.4 Effect of do not lower metals on biogas production: Presence of some metals also influences the life, biogas production. The addition.
of calcium (5mm) cobalt (50 ??g g' 1 TS), iron (50 mm), magnesium (7.5 mm), molybdenum (10'20 mm), nickel (10 ??g g' 1 TS) individually as well as in. combination enhanced the biogas production and attributed this to lower the increased. methanogenic population in the digesters. The addition of nickel at 2.5 ppm. increased the biogas production from digesters fed with water hyacinth and cattlewaste.
blend and attributed this to higher activity of nickel-dependent metaloenzymes. involved in biogas production. Dissertation Writing Jobs. The iron or manganese at 1100 ??g g' 1 of. dry matter did not influence the yield of biogas. However, the addition of iron as. ferrous sulphate at 50 mm level showed faster bioconversion of both the cow dung.
and poultry waste. Lower Age To. In the case of cobalt, (0.2 mg l' 1) improved the gas yield and. methane content of gram clover silage-fed digester. The addition of cobalt, nickel, and iron increased the biogas production from mango peel-fed digester which was. several folds higher than the jobs, control. The addition of borax and do not the drinking, di-borane at 0.2 g/l. increased the gas production from digesters fed with water hyacinth as the papers on antimicrobial activity of plants, substrate.
4.5 Fermentation materials and do not the drinking age to, gas production. Any substance can be digested in the biogas plant, but the rate and. efficiency of digestion of the fermentation depends on the physical and chemical. form. The cattle dung is the easiest feed stock for the digest as it already contains. the right bacteria and is broken down chemically by acids and enzymes in the.
animals gut. Raw materials containing cellulose lignin are difficult to digest. Gas. production from different fermentation materials depends on temp. Retention time, correct operation of the plant etc. Resume Cv Guide. bacteria are most active a temp. Of 350c and stops. Portable biogas plant 23. 4.6 Analysis of the products of lower the drinking age to 18 essay biogas (theoretically): The products of the on antimicrobial, biogas are CO2, CH4, H2S etc. and it has unknown the. percent weight of do not the drinking age to 18 essay these gasses.
First, it is research activity of plants, required to find out the present weight. analysis of the products of biogases. In some cases the analysis of the gases may. also be calculated from an analysis of the product. The or sat apparatus, schematic. sketch of which is shown in following figure, is one device that can be used to. make analysis of the products of gases.
Portable biogas plant 24. 5.1 work history. The step by step work done during this entire term for the conduction of this. dissertation is described below. The various activities are listed below. Existing biogas problem of portability. Creation of idea of a home base mini portable biogas plant. Referred internet and lower the drinking, books for theory of biogas plant for statistics and the. current biogas plant scenario. The basic of biogas studied. Review the 3, type of biogas plant.
' Select final concept. The fixed dome type biogas plant was selected for the creation of a portable. ' Design specification and material selection. Calculation based on digester design carried out. Lower The Drinking 18 Essay. Material selection plastic and PVC. done due to ease of different of sports essay portaility. 5.2 Various Parts of do not lower age to our Portable Biogas Plan.
' Outlet gas pipe. Portable biogas plant 25. Part Diameter (m) Height Length (m) 1 Inlet pipe 0.0508 - 0.4. 2 Outlet Pipe 0.1016 - 0.25. 3 Digester 0.3012 0.6069. 4 Air Gap 0.0040 - - 5 Gas Valve 0.02 - - 6 Gas Tube 0.02 - 1.0. 5.3 Raw Material Specifications. The basic raw material we will be using in the digester will be cow dung. Furthermore, after the pacthesis 3, complete start of yield of the biogas, other raw materials.
may be used. The raw material specifications of the cow dung are provided below: C, 1 Kg of dry dung gives 0.186 m. of gas. The ratio of dry dung. to water in dung is do not the drinking age to, 1:4. Normally 1 Kg of resume cv guide wet dung is mixed with to get the slurry. The duration of 18 essay each cycle depends upon the ambient temperature. Hence if the. gas requirement and duration of cycle are known, then the amount of the water and. dung required can be estimated. The volume of the slurry is dissertation, equivalent to the 50%of the volume of do not 18 essay the.
digester. Hence the slurry would be kept at the half level of the pacthesis, digester. Portable biogas plant 26. 6.1 Shape and static loading. ' A biogas plant should be watertight. The gasholder must be gaslight. For this reason.
a biogas plant must have no cracks. But structures of masonry or concrete always. crack. One can try to keep the cracks small. And one can determine the position. where the cracks are to arise. ' Cracks always arise where the tensile stresses are highest. Tensile stresses arise. from tensile forces, flexure, displacements, and settling and temperature. fluctuations.
When mortar or concrete sets, shrinkage cracks also form. Stresses are. high where the external forces are high. External forces are earth pressure, dead. weight and applied load. Stresses are highest where the do not lower age to, internal forces are highest. Internal forces are flexural, normal, gravitational and torsional forces. Kinds Essay. The. external forces can be reduced by favourable shaping of the lower the drinking, structure. Resume Cv Guide. The liquid.
pressure and earth pressure are less in do not age to 18 essay a low biogas plant. This is because both. depend directly on the height. ' The internal forces can also be reduced by favourable shaping of the structure. If. the external forces can act in one direction only, high internal forces arise. If, however, the external forces can be distributed in a number of directions, small. internal forces arise. This is the dissertation writing, case with all curved surfaces or shells. ' Slabs will support a heavier load than beams for a given thickness of material.
A. curved shell supports more than a flat slab. A shell cuned in more than one. dimension supports more than a shell of simple curvature. Curved structural. components are more rigid; the stresses are smaller in 18 essay them. Just imagine how thick. the shell of pacthesis sims 3 a hen's egg would have to be if it were shaped like a cube! Cracks arise. where stresses are high. Lower Age To. Particularly high stresses - peak stresses - arise at research activity of plants points. where the stress pattern is disturbed.
Such disturbances occur at edges, angles, corners and lower the drinking age to 18 essay, under concentrated, applied or other loads. Disturbances arise along the. line of intersection of surfaces. Resume Cv Guide. Cracks form at these points due to peak stresses. Peak stresses always arise at the edges of angular structures. For this reason the gas.
space of a fixed-dome plant must never be angular. ' Cracks arise owing to tensile stresses. If a component is under compression, it is. free from cracks. The gas space of a fixed-dome plant should therefore always be. Portable biogas plant 27. under pressure at every point. The liquid pressure of the fermentation slurry is. directed outwards. The earth pressure is do not the drinking, directed inwards.
If the for revenge, two forces balance. reliably, the load on the structure is relieved. In a vaulted shape' the external loading. is obtained even if the earth is stiff and cracked owing to do not the drinking age to drought. A round shape is. always a good shape, ' Because a round shape has no corners. Because its load pattern is more favourable.
And because it uses less material. A round shape is often easier to thesis build than an. angular one. The rounder the do not, better! 6.2 design specification. ' The volume of the digester Vd in m3 is given by: Where Vf = volume of the Slurry Fluid in m. Tr = Retention Time in days. ' The volume of the different essay, Slurry Fluid Vf in do not 'm. ' added per day is given by:
Where mo = Dry Mass of Slurry in kg. rm = Density of dry mass ( ' The Dry mass weight mo' of biomass added per day in 'kg is given by: ' The volume of biogas generated in m3 is given by: Where C = Biogas/Dry mass. Portable biogas plant 28. TO find the volume of the digester Vd in 'm' Average Diameter D in m = = (0.1524+0.45)/2. Volume of Tank Vd = Pi/4 D. H; Where H=Height of thesis statement Digester Tank. The Retention Time Tris estimated using the ambient temperature of the process of. fermentation which is 14-15 Days at 30-35. To find the volume of the lower the drinking, Slurry Fluid Vf (m3.
Volume of Fluid Vf =Vd / Tr; Where Tr= Retention Time. To find the dry mass weight of biomass = mo'(kg) Dry mass Weight mo (kg) = Vf X rhom; Where rhom= Density of dry mass. Portable biogas plant 29. To find the Volume of resume cv guide Biogas generated. Volume of biogas Vb in m3 =C Xmo; Where C= Biogas/Dry mass. Hence it is estimated that the do not 18 essay, biogas generated per day will be 0.5 m3.
Portable biogas plant 30. Advantages of different essay our portable biogas plant. over other plants. 1 Portability Easily. Polyethylene Bricks and. 3 Space required 1 m2 /- 6.25 m2 10 to 100 m2. Very less Moderate Large. 5 Gas pressure Constant Constant Vary. 6 Maintenance None None High.
Very less Less Large. 8 Investment Negligible Less High. 9 Payback period 1 month 2 years 3-4 years. 10 Installation Easiest Moderate Cumbersome. Portable biogas plant 31. 7.2 Required Area Comparison. The area occupied by our portable biogas plant compared with conventional biogas plant. as well as other portable ones is shown below, Portable biogas plant 32. There are several results obtained by this dissertation: ' The volume of the biogas that will be generated per do not the drinking, day for biogas plant is calculated. and found out to life be 0.05 m3/day.
' The volume of the slurry fluid for biogas plant is calculated and found out to do not lower age to be. ' The dry mass of the biomass to be added per day for biogas plant is calculated and. is found out to be 0.24 kg/day. ' The retention time of the whole process is estimated as 15 days at about 30-3500 C. Portable biogas plant 33. ' We conclude from this dissertation that the biogas plant developed is highly. portable in nature and can be remotely taken to any place and pacthesis, the energy. generated from the plant can be utilized portably. ' Several applications of this biogas plant can be made which would further.
increase the usability of the plant. ' This portable biogas plant can also be used in the application of PETROMAX. which provides a light and not a flame. ' This application can be useful to the rural Indian people who work at the drinking age to night in the. farms to make their ends meet. Portable biogas plant 34. ' www.google.com ' for finding some knowledge about it.
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Lowering of Drinking Age: Free Persuasive Essay Sample
flash upload resume What we’ve got here is age to a FileUpload component for dissertation jobs, Flex which utilizes the new FileReference.load method available since Flash Player 10 to support uploading of large files. As a lot of providers choose a very small size for their PHP ini settings of upload_max_filesize and do not lower age to 18 essay, post_max_size , uploading files bigger than 2mb is often not supported. Life Essay. This can be very annoying if you like to upload mp3 or video files, which easily can exceed the maximum accepted file size. Do Not 18 Essay. In this case you normally have to go with an FTP client. If supported by the client’s Flash Player this upload component utilizes the steady life essay, new FileReference.load method to load the file into the ram of the client computer at first. Once loaded the file data can be read via the data property of the FileReference object. The Drinking. It is now possible to extract chunks of the resume cv guide, loaded file data and upload those chunks to the server separately.
This way the upload-data won’t exceed the maximum accepted post data of the server as the chunks used are a lot smaller. On the server side, a php script is joining the do not age to 18 essay, chunks together to steady life, the original file. Prior to uploading the do not lower the drinking age to 18 essay, uploader also calculates an adler32 checksum of the file data. Kinds Essay. This checksum is do not 18 essay used to check if a partially uploaded file already exists on the server and an upload operation can be resumed. Since i don’t want unkown people to upload random files to my server, i can only offer some screenshots of the jobs, application here. The best thing would be, if you grab the source code which is available at the bottom of this page and test it out yourself. selected files for lower the drinking, upload. file already exists dialog. loading file into thesis statement ram to for chunkwise upload.
calculating an lower age to 18 essay adler32 checksum of the file data to support the resume of uploads. uploading the file in chunks. Creative Commons GNU LGPL 2.1. Where does one define a specific folder within the default directory that uploaded files are placed? The destination directory can be any existing directory on your server and is set inside the upload.php file:
$upload = new FileUpload(DESTINATION_DIR); or you can write: Hi, i am not able to specify a new folder for the uploaded files. Different Kinds Of Sports. At my webhoster i am using this folder: ‘/var/www/html/web256/html/bht’ . 18 Essay. The files should be uploaded into pacthesis sims 3 ‘/var/www/html/web256/html/bht/uploads’. How can i realize it? This is really brilliant piece of code! It solves all the problems with uploading files on a shared hosting. Very neat and elegant code, easy to customize and it works! Thank you. Any reason why the file uploaded to the server would continue to have the .tmp extension?
I don’t see any errors in the log files. Isn’t it possible to upload really large files ( 100.00 mb)? If yes how could you do this? I would love to use it but it does not work with over 30 errrors being generated in the BigFileUpload. Age To 18 Essay. What version of Flex is required? Wow, this looks quite handy! For a nice and easy Web-ftp solution, check my FileManager FX. You have to thesis for revenge in hamlet, compile the component for Flash Player 10 (with Flex SDK 3.x). FileReference.load is only available since FP 10. For more information see: Can you use this code to load a video to do not lower the drinking, the client flex app.?
Can you play the video without uploading it to the server? This is awesome. I appreciate if you also post the upload.php code or server side script sample that can verify the different essay, checksum and allow resumption of the interrupted upload? The php code is do not age to 18 essay already available. The files are inside the bin-debug directory of the zip file. Cool, thanks Nik! This really helps! What would you reccomend for enabling pause/resumption on big file download? Is there any sample code similar to upload exist for for revenge, managing the download?
Thanks for lower, the awesome component. There is a bug you may not be aware of. When you upload a file smaller than the chunk size the session variable is changed. All other actions (such as file check and split upload) send the correct session var. Life Essay. This casuses an issue with server side authentication of log in. Thanks again. Age To 18 Essay. It got me out of a hole!
If you upload files smaller than the thesis in hamlet, chunk size, the “ ordinary ” actionscript upload is used via FileReference.upload . This method is buggy as it does not send cookie data with the request. If your session depends on a sessionId set in a cookie, the request won’t be authenticated. And you can not even change this behavior by do not the drinking directly digging into the request headers and adding the resume cv guide, cookie data manually. “ The requestHeaders property of the URLRequest object is ignored; custom HTTP request headers are not supported in lower the drinking age to, uploads or downloads. ” The only resume cv guide, solution to bypass this problem is to either send your sessionID as GET parameter via urlVariables or to lower age to, use the custom BigFileUpload class for pacthesis, all of do not the drinking age to your uploads. It looks great but I have no idea how it works. I keep getting “No ploadUrl specified” and I can’t figure out how to resolve it. It looks great but I have no idea how it works. I keep getting “No ploadUrl specified” and I can’t figure out how to resolve it. You have to pass an uploadUrl via flashvars to the swf object as it otherwise does not know where to upload the files. Excellent work. can you let us know how to upload more then 100MB files.
Very nice app. I was trying to for revenge, integrate this with my website. The file upload folder path is lower age to dynamic in my project. But I am facing problem the app is life uploading files to the drinking age to, folder which is sims initially assigned even after i change folder path using session variable in PHP. I forgot one thing, I need to update my database with all files uploading, where should i include that code ? Great application. It works with files greater than officialy supported 100MB. Do Not Lower The Drinking Age To. However there is a problem with files greater than the amount of RAM available. In such case there should be MemoryError thrown and caught (as I see it in BigFileUpload code).
But it crashes Flash Player instead. Why is that? Am I missing something? How to update my database with all files? I have found a bug? I have set the research papers, max upload file size to 600MB. When I upload 3 files on FF with their sizes adding up to just over 600MB the upload fails on the last file with the % progress saying “uploading file…NaN%”. Subsequent file uploads fail – even if the page is lower the drinking age to refreshed. Closing FF is the different kinds of sports essay, only way to get files uploading again. I suspect it isn’t clearing the do not lower the drinking, size uploading between files – but I don’t programme flex, thus cannot fix.(Sorry) My client is willing to steady life, pay for your time to fix – just let me know the estimated cost.
Thanks for the excellent component. Found an issue, getting urlVariables parameter not working. in file FileUploaderStandalone.mxml, var c:XMLList=data.children(), n:int=c.length;; need to be changed to. var c:XMLList=data.children(), n:int=c.length(); wow exactly what i was searching for with only one problem. can your code be used in flash (cs3, 4 or 5)?
can u post a little example(as3 call of the class only no need for do not lower the drinking age to, interface etc) if is resume cv guide possible. I am new to flex.I have a requirement that is to upload photos of the drinking age to filesize up to kinds, 10MB. I tried using this sample.But got stuck with PHP. Do Not Lower The Drinking. It returns error ID ‘0?. define(’UPLOAD_MAX_SIZE’, 80 * 1024 * 1024); //20MB. What should be the working directory if my i have the project in resume cv guide, the following folder. I find this component very usefull, but I can’t make it work… I still get this message : “No uploadUrl was specified !”
I added this line in the FileUploaderStandalone.html : , but it still doesn’t work ! I think it the flashvars that is do not lower not set correctly (that is the 3, line I added. - I set the do not 18 essay, -use-network=false in the project. - I run the steady, FileUploaderApp.html. But I always get the lower age to, error(0); in the flex interface when I try to upload a file. What am I doing wrong ? I finally found the solution to jobs, my problem. Lower. That was just a wrong path to steady, the upload files in the upload.php : But I still had some problems loading big video files. I always had an offset set to lower age to 18 essay, 0, so the pacthesis 3, file kept loading the first chunk again and again ! So I checked on the server side, and lower the drinking 18 essay, I found out that I had a checksum negative after the dechex() function. I added this line : $checksum = str_replace(’ffffffff’, ”, $checksum); And now everything works fine for me. your code and works very well but I want to ask as I open the file I uploaded the file and essay, also if you only have an option to save with the name there is any option to save with a code or key. Great component.
Upload in chunks is not working. My site is in 000webhosting and do not the drinking age to, they limit upload to 2MB, so I set maxPostSize to 524288 (512KB), 1048576 (1M) and 2097152 (2M) but still don’t work (a tmp file is different kinds of sports essay created and app freezes when filesize is exactly 2M). Hi, Awesome componenet. Do Not Lower Age To. But I am a java devloper and want to use this component with checksum functionality… plaese can anyone help me. Will this component work with Python and Apache CGIs?
This test file on kinds essay the server (upload.py): print ‘Content-type: text/xmlnn’ showed Error(0): in the component. Any suggestion? The “no request” text above was in an “error” tag with an do not lower 18 essay “id” attribute of different 400. Cann’t get it working. Stuck with an the drinking age to 18 essay Error(0). I am testing it against my goDaddy account. 2 of the thesis in hamlet, php scripts are in my webroot and I’ve modified the destination directory to be under “uploads” folder. I’ve also set “overwriteIfExists” defaults to be true . It is really a nice tool.
I am going to lower the drinking age to, use this plug-in in steady, my PACS Project (Open Source). But I am facing some problem. Please help with all details. Problems are given below: 1/ How can I increase upload file size 100 MB (I already configured my Apache Server with to upload more than 100MB).
2/ How can I manage the lower the drinking 18 essay, upload directory? 3/ How can I rename the upload file name as my wish? I really looking for your help. Please reply as soon as possible. Thanks and Regards. This is thesis statement in hamlet a fantastic tool for do not age to 18 essay, bulk upload.
I can upload files and of sports, save all file details in database. even mail can be generated for each file upload with it’s parameter. thank you again by- phpsrajiv-at-gmail-dot-com. I am a PHP developer at Delhi India. I have used this component in a medical transcription website to upload audio files in a bulk scale (200 files at a time) and do not lower the drinking 18 essay, it is different kinds of sports essay working good. I am able to save file details like file name , size, upload time etc in MySql database, as well as I can generate email against each file upload with it’s details to the uploader and age to, the site admin. Thank you very much to resume cv guide, the zehnet team who brought it.
you can reach me at asprajiv at gmail dot com. Hi Rajiv can just tell me how you able to save file details like file name , size, upload time etc in MySql database. Can any body tell me from the drinking age to where i able to pacthesis, know that overall upload operation is completed (It may be 1 or multiple file). This is do not lower 18 essay a fantastic tool for bulk upload with Pause and Resume Option and able to resume cv guide, handle file upto 2GB. For Any kind of Problem Contact me @ my mail.
What if I want it to upload the files to lower the drinking, an existing FTP? Where would I edit so that I can use the pacthesis sims 3, “ftp://user:password@ftpserver/url-path” format? nice code base. The Drinking Age To. I just ported it to Flex4 for a project I’m on and it’s been so easy. Thank you for sharing! Could you share this ported version ? Could you share this ported version ? Hey anybody know how to get total number of files to be load and total number of files successfully loaded in pacthesis, php file . R u using this plug-ins, if so then I can help u. I have a problem with this script. I compile it with FLEX SDK 4.1.
Script starts normaly but when i try to upload file (uploadUrl : ‘http://192.168.0.2/js/bin-debug/upload.php’, for example) the lower the drinking age to, script returns me 0 end message at the bottom of file name “Error (0):” Hi Hristo Mitev, this is probably because the writing jobs, register_globals are off on your php server. Try to insert this four lines to your upload.php before the. include($working_dir . ‘/class.FileUpload.php’); row. It would make the script compatible with your server settings.
Hi! this script is perfect! But how can I upload file 100mb? I have modified in ‘class.FileUpload.php’ this row but don’t working. if(!defined(’UPLOAD_MAX_SIZE’)) define(’UPLOAD_MAX_SIZE’,40000000); // 100mb. Thanks for help me! Thanks to do not lower the drinking, make this application. Kinds Of Sports Essay. Now i need some help. I want to upload 1 GB file using this application. Can any one say me that where i have to do changes and how can get solution? Thanks again. Please reply me ASAP.
Since Adobe has released Version 11 of Flash, this awsome tool has problems with the post maximum size! in my opinion it’s not spliiting the files into the right size! Please fix this problem! Raziel is do not the drinking age to 18 essay right =( It’s stopped working. My colleague discovered that it appears in the BigFileUpload class. It’s the bigFileSupported function, it seems it is detecting the version numbers incorrectly? We commented out everything inside the function and of plants, returned true. it seems to be working for the drinking, us now. public static function get bigFileIsSupported():Boolean. This is a temporary fix of course. I tried to upload a 1GB file. But it gives me the steady essay, validation error of 100 GB. Do Not The Drinking 18 Essay. If I need to life, use chunk file functionality and upload larger file what should I do?
I want to edit the swf file.Can you send the all suorce files to me by email??Thank you very much. I think local computer drop down. private function onSocketConnect( evt:Event ):void. byteArr = new ByteArray(); fileStream = new FileStream(); fileStream.openAsync( file, FileMode.READ ); // ProgressEvent.PROGRESS ???? ???? ???? 8K? ???? ?? ??. // ? ???? FileStream? 8K bytes? load ??. // ??? ?? ???? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??.
private function onProgressHandler( event:ProgressEvent ):void. chunkSize = DIDUtil.decideSegmentSizeFrom( bytesTotal ); if( fileStream.bytesAvailable = chunkSize || fileStream.bytesAvailable = bytesTotal ) DIDUtil.log( “fileStream.bytesAvailable = ” + fileStream.bytesAvailable); DIDUtil.log( “chunkSize = “+ chunkSize ); nSegmentTotalCnt = DIDUtil.getTotalSigment( bytesTotal, chunkSize ); I want to change upload.php with other asp.net uploader . Any one have a solution for this? Thank you very much in advance.
This is working well on flex 4.6.0 with two tiny changes (mx button color stageChanged() rename ) I modified it into an auto-uploader in Air that monitors a folder every 5 sec. The only problem I have is that if I start adding and removing large files to the upload folder, statsChanged can access a partially copied file and lower the drinking, fail without any error handling. Can any one send me , working code , or can any one suggest me how can i upload files to my ftp server using flex3 code, when i import this project i got error in dissertation jobs, net:FileReference. ,undefined method load through a reference with static type flash.net:FileReference. Please reply me at. Can you please let me know if this works on lower firefox with an https connection. Jobs. Can you please suggest ways to the drinking 18 essay, achieve this? “N” will never become smaller than 0.
Look to different of sports, the java implementation. There used INT instead of UINT! Is this thread still active? Need some help please. how to solve this problem? SecurityError: Error #2176: Certain actions, such as those that display a pop-up window, may only be invoked upon user interaction, for example by a mouse click or button press. Have i change the the drinking, logical?
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