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Applying for a Job Part 2: CV and Covering Letter. This article will provide you with a framework, a few examples and some guidelines to follow when writing a CV and covering letter, in line with common practice. It will also help you to focus on what you're trying to achieve. On Planet Perfect you would have a selection of bright, shiny up-to-date CVs ready to tailor, check and print off. Literacy Narrative Essay About! It goes without saying that the best advice anyone can give you is to keep your CV regularly updated. Back in the real world, it's not quite like that! Even if you're organised enough to have an up to date CV to hand, you'll need to tailor it before it's good to edgar allan go. Literacy Narrative! Mass mailings can sometimes get you an interview, but it's hit and miss. Edgar Poe The Raven Paper! That's because one of the most common misconceptions about CVs is that it they are all about essay, showcasing yourself. While that is true, it's even more important to match your skills and abilities to the job you are applying for.
And as with any communication, your audience is gonorrhea paper more important than you are. So it's also about the prospective employers and what they want. A well presented CV and letter gets you through the about, weeding-out process to the point where you will be considered for interview. As well as the content, a prospective employer is looking for high school effort, attention to detail and about, your presentation skills in written form. In this article, we will give you a framework and some guidelines to follow, in line with current thinking and common practice, and, more importantly, a focus on paper, what you're trying to achieve. How can I make my CV and letter work for literacy essay about me? Follow the logic: the perfect covering letter is the one that makes the recipient want to gonorrhea read your CV. The perfect CV is the one that gets you an interview. To get an interview, you have to give prospective employers what they're looking for. To find out what they're looking for, you have to pay attention to what the job advertisement is asking for.
So always gear your letter and CV to the skills and abilities advertised. If there's a job specification in literacy narrative essay about, an application pack, make sure you read that thoroughly. Find out about the employer (click the Employer Profile at the end of the job advert and follow the links to allan poe the raven research their website, if it's advertised on this site). If you need to know more about the position, the institution/organisation or anything else, contact the person named under Informal Enquiries at the end of the literacy reading, advertisement. Writing a covering letter. The covering letter is a courteous introduction. It needs to lead into your CV and read my resume, it must be concise and literacy narrative reading, relevant.
It is also a professional document, even if it is sent via email, so format it as you would a business letter. Keep it to a single page, including addresses and read my resume, sign-off. If there's a job reference or advertisement reference, include it. An example ‘template' could be: Dear (always use a name, if you can. Narrative About! Don't use a Christian name only, but use Mr. Mrs. Miss. or Ms - appropriate if you don't know whether she is Mrs or Miss.) RE: job/advertisement reference number (if applicable) Paragraph 1: clearly state which job you are applying for. I am writing in reply to your advertisement on the jobs.ac.uk website on (date of advertisement) for (the position/job title). I enclose/attach my CV for your consideration. Paragraph 2: briefly outline why you are a good applicant -what you can do for them.
You could echo (but not repeat!) some of the phrases in the advertisement. For example, if the advertisement says: ‘ You will have excellent research and organisational skills, and the ability to work flexibly in critique, a small team as well as alone. Although not essential, teaching experience and knowledge of the sector would be an advantage.' You could write: As you will see from my CV, I have considerable research experience in this sector. Literacy About! For the past three years I have had individual responsibility for my project as well as lecturing and read my resume, working closely with team members to narrative reading organise conferences and events . Essay Prompt High! Paragraph 3: Clarify or explain any problem areas (if applicable) or highlight relevant voluntary work. Briefly explain anything in literacy, your CV that needs clarification - if your current position is completely different or if you have taken a break. Don't be apologetic!
For example: I took a break from essay prompt, academic research during 2003-5, and worked my way up to the position of Events Manager in a leisure centre, where I gained valuable experience and developed management skills. When a job opportunity came up at the University, I applied and returned to lecturing and research. Paragraph 4: bow out gracefully! You could include a sentence about the organisation or institution here, based on your knowledge or on what you have found out. For example: I hope my application is successful. Essay About! I would welcome the opportunity to continue my career in a University with such a good reputation for essay research/in a new and stimulating environment/in an innovative and exciting Company.
The following is essay a suggested sequence and outline headings for research a CV. Make it readable and use a no-nonsense font like Ariel or Times New Roman. Use headings in bold and bullet points for responsibilities, achievements, qualifications etc. The ideal length is 2 sides (on two separate numbered pages). Narrative About! A word of warning - your CV is not an item in isolation. Bear in research paper, mind that you must be able to back up all your statements with information or examples in an interview! 1. Your name and contact details. A personal statement is a summary of your abilities. It's not about what you have done, jobs you have held, qualifications you have gained or your experience - that's in the rest of the CV. This is about the literacy narrative, transferable skills that will contribute to to write a persausive essay the job. As in the covering letter, you need to gear it to the position you are applying for - and literacy narrative about reading, the clues are in the advertisement.
Stick to critique paper one paragraph of three or four pithy sentences. Narrative Essay Reading! Go through the job specification for the new post if you have one and make a list of the skills that are required. Make every sentence count. Be relentlessly positive and critique paper, avoid negative statements. You need to give the prospective employer a snapshot of what you are like professionally. For example: I am task-oriented, able to motivate myself and essay reading, sustain focus from the start of a project through to completion. A naturally strategic thinker, I also have an eye for read my resume detail, quality and practicality. I enjoy collaborating with other people, working towards a shared goal and learning from shared experience. Starting with your current position, list these in reading, reverse order. For the first one or two (if they are relevant to critique the new role), bullet-point your key duties and literacy narrative essay reading, achievements under clear sub-headings.
For the earlier jobs, just list them, unless they show different abilities. Date Job title and lit review, organisation name. Where possible, link these to the specification for the new job. Detail the results of literacy narrative, your achievements. If you have had a break in your career, have been self-employed or have had a ‘portfolio' career where you have done a number of poe the paper, different jobs, detail your skills before you list your previous jobs. 4. Qualifications, education and training. Narrative Essay! Unless you are starting out in your career, you don't need to research put in all your GCSE subjects and grades, or all your A levels.
If you have a degree, start with that, the literacy narrative about reading, University or College you attended, and the date and go from there. Include any diplomas, courses, IT skills - anything that could be relevant to the job. Edgar Raven Paper! 5. Voluntary work (if applicable) Voluntary work can complete the picture for a potential employer, if it is substantial. For example, mentoring young people, coaching a sports team or Samaritans work. ‘Hobbies' is not the hot topic it once was for CVs! Unless it is literacy essay about relevant to argumentative high the job, keep it to a sentence about what you like to do in your spare time. Again, this will complete the picture for your employer. If you have details of referees, put them in. Common practice is to write ‘References are available on request' and wait until they are asked for.
There are a number of articles already in this section of the website that may be useful to you. Melanie Allen is a Career, Life and Leadership Coach working in Yorkshire. She brings over 20 years of writing and developing Career Development, Leadership and Coaching training, several publications and plenty of life experience to essay about her work. She completed her Diploma in Advanced Executive Coaching from the Academy of Executive Coaching in 2003. Since then she has established her coaching business, working with organisational and private clients both face to face and over the phone. Visit the website: www.melanieallen.co.uk for more information.
Click on the link to view the current vacancies in the field of Academic, Research Teaching. Click on the link to essay view the current vacancies in the field of Professional, Managerial Senior Admin.
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methods essay Double-click on any word and literacy essay, see its definition from Cambridge Dictionaries Online. One of the edgar research paper, most important skills you will learn and literacy narrative about, develop during your university years is to write a persausive essay writing, in particular essay writing. It is important to realise that this is a skill which has to be learnt and practised, and that therefore you should apply yourselves from the very beginning, as you will be writing essays for which you will be graded from the early weeks to the very end of your degree programme. Essay About Reading? These skills will be used by you regularly once you leave university, no matter what path you choose to take. Essay Prompt School? Essay writing involves presenting an argument and communicating.
It can be easily imagined that this covers a vast variety of scenarios in narrative essay about reading which you need to be clear and persuasive : arguing that you should be given the job you are applying for, selling the outline of a film script you have written, presenting products at critique, various forums, writing articles for publication, persuading your bank manager to extend your loan, preparing reports, beginning and sustaining your career in journalism, and writing lectures and class plans for literacy reading your future students. The list is endless, and critique, it is narrative reading obvious that the way you present your arguments in written form can make the difference between success and failure - in which case you will have to think again. In some of the to write, scenarios outlined above the skills required for essay writing should be slightly adapted but the basic skills and literacy narrative about reading, methods are in school the main common to all forms of formal writing in literacy narrative essay about reading which an argument or arguments need to be presented. The focus here is primarily on writing essays concerning literature. You may have many great ideas and be a very intuitive and fine reader of literature, but no-one will ever know if you cannot express your ideas properly and your communicative skills are not developed. Edgar Allan Paper? It is no good carrying around insights into a particular piece of literature if you do not put efforts into presenting them clearly . Some of the following may be obvious, but the points need to be emphasised and consulted each time you are preparing an essay. The comments are based on years of experience of reading student essays, good, bad, and indifferent at the University of Liège. An essay should not be merely a list. Too many in the past have been a list of notes, or a series of sub-headings followed by a list of dashes (-) or stars (*) accompanied by one or two words and/or quotations from the literary text with no explanation of what they are doing there. Let us be blunt here and literacy about reading, state that we tutors are not impressed by indiscriminate underlining and the use of different coloured pens. Sub-headings written in magenta, underlined in ochre, followed by a list of to write a persausive quotations in vermilion are pointless.
We are not tricked by attempts to distract us, through dazzling visual displays, from the fact that an essay is poor. An essay should be the development of argument, interpretation and analysis through extended and flowing narrative . Literacy Essay About Reading? To do this you need to research work at the level of the literacy about reading, sentence, of critique of research course, but also, very importantly, you need to work at the level of the paragraph . The paragraph is literacy essay a coherent passage of logically connected sentences usually concentrating on no more than one or two ideas relevant to your argument. Paper? Do not use very short and narrative reading, unconnected staccato sentences. It takes experience and a persausive essay, practice to develop a sense of when a new paragraph is needed and when it has been finished. About Reading? Examine the introduction to raven this booklet and this guide to get some sense of how paragraphs, or ' idea units ' as they have also been called, can be developed and constructed, and how their 'natural' beginnings and narrative essay about, ends appear. The first sentence of the a persausive essay, paragraph should generally be a 'strong' one, used to signal or indicate the idea to be discussed within the literacy narrative reading, paragraph. Think of a 'topic sentence', as it has also been called, which will highlight the main areas examined in a particular paragraph. Connecting and signposting words and phrases should be learnt, used, practised and developed (examples are 'furthermore', 'moreover', 'in addition', 'to qualify the above', 'however', 'in order to', 'in this connection', 'having established that' etc.). The argument should develop through the language you use and therefore in a short essay sub-headings are unnecessary. Several stages are involved in essay preparation, choosing which points are to be considered, deciding how you will deal with them, and argumentative prompt, the actual writing. As you gain more experience you will find methods and essay, ways of working which suit you, your personality and lifestyle.
Generally, however, the process will involve the following. You should examine carefully the statements made in the essay question , making sure you understand each word and what is being asked, as misreading and read my resume, misunderstanding at this stage can be fatal. Essay questions can be very general, very specific and literacy narrative essay, sometimes deliberately provocative, and an understanding of them is critique essential. Read through notes you may have made in class, start to gather other relevant source material , and make notes about the literary text you are examining. Ask yourself the literacy essay reading, questions suggested earlier in the introduction to this booklet, concerning style, content, and imagery etc. Next you will probably want to identify the key points that you want to discuss. There may be many points you find generally interesting, but ask yourself if they are relevant to the essay in question. To do this it can be useful to try to think of a title for your essay.
This is not to be confused with the essay question or title, but is concerned with your response to the task set. What title would best give the reader an overview of essay prompt your approach and literacy narrative essay about reading, analysis, and to write, highlight the main points you examine and the conclusions you reach? (Suggestions concerning conclusions will be given later). You should not assume that an literacy narrative reading essay has to gonorrhea include and cover all the possible points an interpretation may offer up. A short, well organised and structured essay focusing on some of the main points is far better than an literacy reading over-long and unwieldy attempt to say a little about everything. You may find it useful to state in the introduction which points you are focusing on and why.
Keep your reader informed of the development of your argument. Let her or him know which direction is critique being taken and the reasons why. Once the literacy essay about, main points have been identified you need to consider in which order they will be examined. Students often do not make the most of the argumentative prompt high, good ideas they have because they get lost if the literacy narrative about, argument does not develop coherently. Good points are also often thrown away or wasted because students do not say enough about them. Make sure the relevance of each point to the main argument is clearly stated and demonstrated. You should dwell and linger on the points: often this requires no more than two or three extra sentences, particularly if your writing is concise and focused. A good essay takes time to prepare and write, so start to think about lit review it and do the groundwork well ahead of the essay deadline (even in timed conditions, such as exams, it is important to take the time to organise and structure the essay before starting to write). Narrative Essay About? You will probably find that you need to research paper work out your ideas on paper before writing the essay, and are encouraged to essay prepare an outline of the essay: a point by point series of edgar allan poe the paper key words, phrases and about, ideas. This will help you to organise the structure and to recognise what is relevant and irrelevant to the essay as a whole.
Some people find that a plan or outline will consist of eight to ten words only. Others find it more useful to draw up very detailed plans, outlining every paragraph and its contents. Again you will discover which method works for you as you go along. Some students find it easier to think and plan the essay point by point before beginning to write, whilst others find that after some initial preparation, reading, organisation and thinking they can only develop their ideas through writing. Both these approaches take time, if the essays are to be done well.
It should be stressed here that the first plan does not have to be binding and may change as the lit review, work begins and develops. The main point here is that essays involve a certain amount of literacy about reading planning and read my resume, preparation even before the actual writing begins. Having emphasised that essays are hard work and take time it should also be stressed that it can be very stimulating and rewarding to work through a number of ideas in depth and detail. Literary texts and literary language are potentially very complex, inspiring, and beautiful. The ideas and images often demand careful thought and attention. Computers are essential in terms of using the time you spend on an essay efficiently and productively. Literacy Narrative? As stated earlier, good essay writing demands time spent on every stage of the poe the raven research paper, process: reading and research, making an literacy narrative essay about outline, ordering and structuring your ideas, writing and paper, changing various drafts, and final editing and presentation. With this in mind it cannot be stressed enough how important it is for narrative essay you to learn word-processing skills and to make sure you have access to gonorrhea research paper a computer.
Use the university resources. Admittedly the space available is limited at literacy about, times but this is no excuse not to learn the skills, if you do not already possess them, and to find out where there are available computer terminals. Of course if you use university resources it is even more important to poe the raven research paper start your essay early in order to avoid the last minute rush as most students, not only from this department, search for terminals in a panic on literacy, the Friday before a Monday deadline. It is appreciated that students are very busy and argumentative prompt, do have a lot of work, but it is a mistake to claim, as some students have been heard, that they are too busy to learn word-processing skills. Literacy Narrative Essay About? Ultimately word-processing will save you a lot of time. It is far easier to add and read my resume, delete material, and to restructure and reorganise essays by moving material around, on a computer than if you are writing by hand. Software has become really user-friendly; 'Word', for instance, will tell you what to literacy narrative do in read my resume explicit English or French, and typing skills can be learned whilst typing. Your essay will be the representation of an argument on a given subject or subjects . It will include only points which are relevant to literacy narrative essay about reading the subject, so be careful to get rid of material that is not directly relevant. Although students complain that essays are too long, most of the essays you will write are really relatively short. Paper? Part of the skill of about reading writing is to write concisely and economically , without wasting material or 'padding' the work with irrelevant diversions and repetition. Once the points have been chosen they should be presented logically and paper, coherently , so do not leap about from narrative about reading, point to point.
Each point generally will have some connection to a persausive essay the preceding one and the one to follow. If you do leave one area of the essay to move into another, but intend later to go back to the point you have left and show, for example, how the points may be connected or related, then it can be useful to say so by 'signposting', e.g. 'this point will be picked up later', 'this point will be returned to later, after taking into consideration . '. Narrative? After each draft of the essay check that each point is presented in gonorrhea a logical and coherent order. Read each draft carefully and critically. Is there a significant idea you have not included in the essay? Do you need to expand some of the points you have chosen to literacy narrative essay write about? Are some of the points, after due consideration, not really relevant? Have you been too long-winded or repetitive? If so, cut out and/or reduce some of the text. Does your argument need to be clearer, and do the links between some of the main points need more emphasis? You should be asking yourself these questions throughout the whole process.
A particularly distressing weakness in the past, but hopefully not the future, has been the absence of serious discussion of imagery and literary language . Some students have merely stated that the author uses imagery, illustrated this with an example, and then moved on to the next point on the list. If you discuss images, metaphors and other literary devices, then say how and paper, why they are being used in the piece of fiction, and maybe if you think the imagery works or not. If you do not say how and why an image is being used then don't mention it. You will not write good work on reading, literature if you approach an critique paper essay as some useless game of 'spot the image'. Throughout your years at literacy essay about reading, the University of Liège you will be writing essays on edgar research, literature which will inevitably include numerous quotations , either from the literature you are working on literacy narrative essay about reading, or from secondary sources, be they books or articles on historical context, literary criticism or other relevant areas. These quotations can obviously add much to the texture and quality of your work, but they are often handled very badly by students. Do not assume that a good quotation will do all the allan poe the raven, work you want by itself. Poor essays are often merely a patchwork of quotations stitched together by the briefest of comments, and it is a mistake to leave quotations hanging in mid-air, as it were, without comment or explanation. Quotations need to be framed. They should be introduced, not mechanically, but within a context provided by the logical development of your argument . Literacy Essay? ( See Example 1 at the end of to write essay this guide).
You should also provide some commentary on the quotations, particularly if they include difficult and/or controversial ideas or material. This is often likely to be the case as there is really little point in including 'bland' quotations in your essay. Literacy Narrative About? You may want to gloss, explain, qualify or modify the argumentative essay high school, quoted words, or you may have included quotations whose assumptions or arguments you strongly disagree with. About? The latter case can be useful, if handled well. Often an argument can be developed through contrast with opposing or differing arguments. This tactic in read my resume essay construction also displays independent thinking in that it demonstrates that you have not unthinkingly accepted and literacy narrative essay about reading, believed everything you have read. One final point on quotations: do not plagiarise . Using other people's work without saying so is a serious crime. Tutors have read widely on the subjects you will be writing on and are very likely to argumentative prompt school recognise when you are plagiarising. If you use other people's ideas and words they have to be acknowledged through proper footnoting and referencing . ( See Example 2 at the end of this guide). Essays need a conclusion , which for the sake of clarity should be relatively short.
It is generally best not to include new ideas or new material in essay reading your concluding comments, particularly since many people think that a conclusion should be a summary of the prior arguments. Read My Resume? You may, however, point to alternative conclusions or arguments, or briefly suggest areas of interest that have not been dealt with directly by the essay. People often get the wrong idea about conclusions and believe that this is the place to state firm convictions, and that a conclusion has to make a stand and come down on the side of one argument or another. This can be the case but it is not necessarily so. If an essay title comes in the form of a question, for example 'Is James Joyce seeking to distance himself from traditional forms of Irish culture?', and you cannot decide, do not think that this is a problem. It is as much a sign of intelligence to state that you cannot decide as it is to sift through the literacy narrative essay about reading, evidence and argumentative essay, decide one way or the other. Think about why you cannot decide. Perhaps the evidence is conflicting. Perhaps the literary text and its use of imagery is ambiguous, or even contradictory; as is often the case. Literacy About Reading? If you cannot decide, then say so, outlining why you cannot decide.
Alternatively, you may partly agree or partly disagree with the statements or questions raised by the title , or by questions raised directly in responding to the title. If so, say so. A forced conclusion to an essay can be as bad as the essay having no concluding remarks at all. In connection to the last point it should be emphasised that any essay should be about your ideas and your interpretation of the literature being studied . Of course your ideas may, and indeed should, develop through discussions with friends, fellow students, tutors and through the consultation of books and articles, but it is your ideas which should form the a persausive essay, basis of the essay. Literacy Essay? Whilst you will use material that is not your own, it is the way that you use, add to, adapt and modify this material that makes the argument your own and original. Your own voice should be heard.
This needs to be qualified by the understanding that there is a particular form and style in academic writing . This is generally formal, analytical , and to write essay, 'serious' rather than colloquial, emotional and conversational . About Reading? Your voice and your ideas need to be heard, but be careful of cultivating an overly idiosyncratic, 'individual' style. Remember that in writing you are communicating and that therefore your argument should be clearly expressed. This does not mean you should be simplistic: it is a very important skill to express complex ideas with clarity. One final point needs to be made on research, the subject of the literacy narrative essay, essays you write being about your ideas. Some of you may find this an extraordinary statement but it is a bad idea to tailor and construct your essay around what you believe your tutor or the head of the course thinks about the text, and what you think she or he wants to hear. If you have different methods or your interpretations differ from read my resume, those of the tutor, then develop them happily. Remember that essay writing is all about presenting an argument and using evidence from the text and elsewhere to literacy narrative essay back up your statements, and if you do this well you will be given credit for it whether or not the tutor agrees with the overall argument. It is not particularly interesting for lit review tutors to read in essays only what they have said in class, particularly if this is reproduced in a flat, unconvincing, and unconvinced manner. Of course you may agree and be persuaded by essay arguments and interpretations outlined in class but if you do not believe the arguments you reproduce in the essay it will be obvious and the tutor will wonder why you bothered to include them. Read My Resume? You will write a better essay if you are focusing on your own ideas, developed through discussion and reading, not least because you will be enthused by them.
Eventually your ideas will be thought through, outlines planned and re-planned, main points developed, written down on literacy narrative reading, paper, then rewritten, and finally given to your tutor. Argumentative Prompt School? Nevertheless your work on the essay has not yet finished. Literacy Essay Reading? Once the argumentative, essay has been graded and returned it is very important that you do not merely look at the grade you have received before putting it at the bottom of your files. Essay About Reading? Read through your tutor's comments carefully, and make sure you understand exactly why you have received the grade you have, even if you are happy with it. If you do not understand why, or you are not sure about your tutor's comments, then ask. Read My Resume? If it is not possible to ask during class or you would prefer to talk privately go to your tutor during office hours, or make an appointment if these clash with other classes. Literacy Essay About Reading? Writing is a skill which has to be learnt and practised, it is an ongoing process and you will learn more each time. Follow up work once the essay has been returned is an important part of this process. Example 1: Using Quotations.
The extract below, from a paper on Muriel Spark's The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie , shows how quotations can be used. Because the paper quotes from the novel extensively, page numbers are found within the main body of the text, in parentheses, after complete bibliographical details have been provided in a footnote to the first quotation. Quotations from secondary sources are referenced by footnotes. Short quotations are included, in quotation marks, within the main body of the allan research paper, paper, whilst the longer quotation, without quotation marks, makes up an indented paragraph. Note that even when the literacy narrative reading, writing by the author of the paper is combined with quotations from the novel and secondary sources the sentences are still grammatically correct and coherent. Jean Brodie is convinced of the school, rightness of her own power, and narrative essay reading, uses it in a frightening manner: 'Give me a girl at paper, an impressionable age, and she is mine for life'. 1 This is Miss Brodie's adoption of the Jesuit formula, but, whereas they claim the child for literacy about reading God, she moulds the child for lit review her own ends. Literacy Essay About Reading? 'You are mine,' she says, '. of my stamp and cut . ' (129).
When Sandy, her most perceptive pupil, sees the read my resume, 'Brodie set' 'as a body with Miss Brodie for reading the head' (36), there is, as David Lodge points out, a biblical parallel with the paper, Church as the body of Christ. 2 God is Miss Jean Brodie's rival, and this is demonstrated in a literal way when one of essay about her girls, Eunice, grows religious and is preparing herself for confirmation. She becomes increasingly independent of Miss Brodie's influence and decides to go on the Modern side in the Senior school although Jean Brodie makes clear her own preference for the Classical. Eunice refuses to continue her role as the group's jester, or to go with them to to write a persausive essay the ballet. Cunningly, her tutor tries to regain control by playing on her religious convictions:
All that term she tried to inspire Eunice to become at least a pioneer missionary in literacy about some deadly and dangerous zone of the allan raven, earth, for it was intolerable to Miss Brodie that any of her girls should grow up not largely dedicated to some vocation. 'You will end up as a Girl Guide leader in a suburb like Corstorphine', she said warningly to Eunice, who was in about reading fact secretly attracted to this idea and who lived in Corstorphine. (81) Miss Brodie has different plans for Rose; she is to be a 'great lover' (146), and her tutor audaciously absolves her from the sins this will entail: 'she is above the moral code, it does not apply to her' (146). This dismissal of possible retribution distorts the gonorrhea research, girls' judgement of Miss Brodie's actions. The above passage is taken from Ruth Whittaker, The Faith and reading, Fiction of Muriel Spark (London and Basingstoke: MacMillan, 1982), pp.106-7. Example 2: Laying out a bibliography.
The bibliography will usually include the relevant sources consulted in critique paper producing your essay , even if you have not referred to narrative essay reading or quoted from them directly. The order is lit review alphabetical and determined by the authors' names. Book titles appear in italics or are underlined , whilst article titles appear in inverted commas. When referring to books you should include the author's name, place of narrative reading publication, the publisher, and the date when the book was published. To reference the source of an article from a journal include the name of the journal, the number and/or volume number, the date of publication and the page numbers. There are several styles for laying out a bibliography, but the same elements appear in each, and gonorrhea, you must be consistent. Consult the handbooks to be found in the libraries for further details. This is a model used by literacy essay about many British universities and essay high school, publishers. Dahlgren, Pete, Television and the Public Sphere (London: Sage Publishers, 1995) Dubois, Ellen, 'Antipodean Feminism', New Left Review , no.206, July/August 1994, 127-33. Fussel, Paul, The Great War and Modern Memory (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975)
Gledhill, Christine, 'Melodrama', in The Cinema Book , ed. Pam Cook (London: BFI, 1985), pp.73-84. Lodge, David, 'The Uses and Abuses of Omniscience: Method and Meaning in Muriel Spark's The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie ' in David Lodge, The Novelist at the Crossroads and Other Essays on Fiction and Criticism (London: Routledge and literacy narrative essay reading, Kegan Paul, 1971), pp.119-44. Pettifer, James, The Greeks (London: Penguin, 1993) This is the of research paper, model recommended by the Modern Languages Association (MLA) and is used by most American universities and publishers. Dahlgren, Pete. Narrative About? Television and the Public Sphere . London: Sage Publishers, 1995.
Dubois, Ellen. Antipodean Feminism. New Left Review 206 (July/August 1994): 127-33. Fussel, Paul. The Great War and of research, Modern Memory . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975. Gledhill, Christine. Melodrama in The Cinema Book . Ed. Essay? Pam Cook. London: BFI, 1985.
73-84. Lodge, David. The Uses and Abuses of Omniscience: Method and Meaning in Muriel Spark's The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie in David Lodge The Novelist at lit review, the Crossroads and Other Essays on Fiction and Criticism . London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1971. 119-44. Pettifer, James. The Greeks. London: Penguin, 1993. The essential information provided by each model is given in the same order, but they differ in the way that the narrative essay reading, details are presented. Whichever model you choose or are instructed to use ensure that you stay consistent to gonorrhea paper it. Consult reference works for literacy narrative reading further advice.
These books are on the open shelves: · John Clanchy and Brigid Ballard, How to Write Essays (Melbourne: Longman Cheshire, 1992) · Joseph Gibaldi, MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (New York: MLA, 1995) 1 Muriel Spark, The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie (London: Macmillan, 1961), p.7. All further references are to argumentative essay prompt high this edition and literacy essay about reading, given in the text. 2 David Lodge, 'The Uses and Abuses of lit review Omniscience: Method and Meaning in Muriel Spark's The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie ', in David Lodge, The Novelist at the Crossroads and Other Essays on Fiction and Criticism (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1971), pp.119-44.
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Posted in Business Model versus Business Plan. As we prepared for the new Hacking for Defense class at Stanford, we had to stop and ask ourselves: How do we use the Business Model Canvas if the primary goal is not to earn money, but to fulfill a mission? In other words, how can we adapt the Business Model Canvas when the metrics of literacy essay about, success for an organization is not revenue? Alexander Osterwalder and I think we have the answer – the to write a persausive new Mission Model Canvas. Here are our collective thoughts. The Lean Startup is the way most innovators build startups and innovate inside of existing companies. As a formal method, the Lean Startup consists of about, three parts: The Business Model Canvas has been a great invention for critique paper everyone from startups to large companies. Unlike an org chart, which describes how a company executes to literacy narrative about deliver known products to known customers, the Business Model Canvas illustrates the search for the unknowns that most new ventures face. Edgar Raven Research? The 9 boxes of the canvas let you visualize all the components needed to turn customer needs/problems into a profitable company.
From Revenue Streams to Mission Achievement. The Business Model Canvas has served all of literacy narrative essay about reading, us well in thinking about building businesses – and therein lies the problem. In a business the lit review aim is to earn more money than you spend. What if you’re a government or a military organization or part of the reading intelligence community? In these cases you don’t earn money, but you mobilize resources and a budget to solve a particular problem and create value for a set of beneficiaries (customers, support organizations, warfighters, Congress, the country, etc.) For these organizations, the canvas box labeled Revenue Streams doesn’t make sense.
In a mission-driven organization such as the defense and intelligence community, there is no revenue to measure . So the of research paper first step in building a canvas for mission-driven organizations is to change the Revenue Stream box in the canvas and come up with a counterpart that would provide a measure of literacy essay reading, success. We’re calling this alternative Mission Achievement . Later in this post I’ll explain how we’ll measure and describe Mission Achievement , but first our Mission Model Canvas needs four more tweaks. Customer Segments is changed to Beneficiaries Cost Structure is changed to Mission Cost/Budget Channel is changed to Deployment Customer Relationships is changed to Buy-in/Support. The rest of this blog post explains the how and why of gonorrhea research, these changes to the canvas. Customer Segments Change to Beneficiaries.
At first glance, when developing a new technology for use in literacy narrative essay about, the defense and intelligence community, the customer appears obvious – it’s the lit review ultimate war fighter. They will articulate pains in terms of size, weight, form fit, complexity and literacy essay, durability. But there are other key players involved. Requirement writers and acquisition folks look at systems integration across the to write battlefield system, while contracting officers, yet another segment, will count beans, measure the degree of competition and assess the quality of market research involved. The support organizations need to worry about narrative essay reading maintainability of code or hardware. Does legal need to sign off for cyber operations? So yes, war fighters are one customer segment, but others need to be involved before the war fighter can ever see the product. So the read my resume first insight is narrative, that in the defense and intelligence community mission models are always multi-sided markets with the goal of not just building a great demo but getting the product adopted and deployed. Second, in the defense and intelligence communities almost all of the mission models look like that of an OEM supplier – meaning there are multiple layers of customers in the value chain. Your product/service is just part of someone else’s larger system. So to differentiate “customers” from the standard business model canvas we’ll call all the different customer segments and the layers in the defense and lit review, intelligence value chain beneficiaries . The Value Proposition Canvas.
Of all the nine boxes of the canvas, two important parts of the model are the relationship between the Value Proposition (what you’re building) and the beneficiaries. These two components of the business model are so important we give them their own name, Product/Market Fit. Because of the complexity of literacy about, multiple beneficiaries and to get more detail about their gains and pains, Osterwalder added an additional canvas called the Value Proposition Canvas. This functions like a plug-in to the Mission Model Canvas, zooming in to the value proposition to describe the interactions among these beneficiaries, war fighters, etc. and the product/service in more detail. Using the Value Proposition Canvas with the of research paper Mission Model Canvas lets you see both the literacy essay about reading big picture at the mission model level and lit review, the detailed picture of each beneficiary at the “product/market fit” level. In the defense and literacy narrative essay about reading, intelligence community mission models, there will always be multiple beneficiaries. It’s important that each beneficiary gets its own separate Value Proposition Canvas . Distribution Channel changes to Deployment. In the commercial world we ask, “What type of distribution channel (direct sales, app store, system integrator, etc.) do we use to get the product/service from our company to the customer segments?” For the Department of Defense or Intelligence organizations, we ask instead: “What will it take to critique paper deploy the literacy about product/service from our current Minimum Viable Product to widespread use among people who need it?” (What architecture components can they innovate on and what can’t they?) “What constitutes a successful deployment? (number of critique of research paper, users, units in the field, time to get it into the field, success in the field, etc.)” “How do we turn a Horizon 3 innovation into something that gets adopted by a Horizon 1 organization?”
Customer Relationships changes to Buy-In/Support. In an existing business, Customer Relationships is defined as establishing and maintaining a relationship to support existing customers. In a startup we redefined Customer Relationships to answer the question: How does a company get, keep and grow customers? For the defense and intelligence communities, we have modified Customer Relationships to mean, “For each beneficiary (customer segment), how does the literacy narrative essay about team get “Buy-In” from all the beneficiaries?” Customer discovery helps you understand whose buy-in is needed in order to deploy the product/service (legal, policy, procurement, etc.) and how to get those beneficiaries to buy-in? (Funding? Mandates? User requested? etc.) In addition, the long-term support and maintenance of prompt, new projects need to be articulated, understood and bought-into by the support organizations. At the Pentagon a favorite way to reading kill something is to coordinate it to death by requiring buy-in from critique, too many people too early. How to determine who are the small group of critical people to get buy-in from – and literacy, how to determine who are the next set required to sustain the iterative development of future MVP’s – is one of the arts of critique, entrepreneurship in the defense and intelligence community. Revenue Streams changes to Mission Achievement. Mission Achievement is the value you are creating for literacy reading the sum of all of the beneficiaries / the essay high greater good.
It’s important to distinguish between the value for individual beneficiaries (on the Value Proposition Canvas) and overall Mission Achievement . Narrative Essay About? For example, Mission Achievement could be measured in a variety of ways: the number of refugees housed and fed, the number of of research paper, soldiers saved from roadside bombs, the number of cyberattacks prevented, the increased target surveillance of sensor fusion, etc. None of these are measured in dollars and cents. Literacy Reading? Keep in critique of research paper, mind, there is only mission achievement if it delivers value to the end beneficiary. In the narrative essay about defense and intelligence community the a persausive essay metrics of success are not revenue but mission achievement We’ve modified the Business Model Canvas into a Mission Model Canvas Changed Revenue Streams to Mission Achievement Changed Customer Segments to Beneficiaries Changed Cost Structure to Mission Cost/Budget Changed Channel to Deployment Changed Customer Relationships to Buy-in/Support Organizations without specific revenue goals can now use a version of the Business Model Canvas. Why Build, Measure, Learn – isn’t just throwing things against the wall to see if they work – the Minimal Viable Product. I am always surprised when critics complain that the Lean Startup’s Build, Measure, Learn approach is essay about reading, nothing more than “throwing incomplete products out read my resume, of the building to see if they work.” Unfortunately the Build, Measure, Learn diagram is the cause of reading, that confusion.
At first glance it seems like a fire-ready-aim process. It’s time to update Build, Measure, Learn to what we now know is the best way to of research build Lean startups. Build, Measure, Learn sounds pretty simple. Build a product, get it into literacy narrative essay about the real world, measure customers’ reactions and paper, behaviors, learn from this, and use what you’ve learned to build something better. Reading? Repeat, learning whether to iterate, pivot or restart until you have something that customers love. While it sounds simple , the Build Measure Learn approach to research paper product development is a radical improvement over the traditional Waterfall model used throughout the narrative essay 20 th century to build and ship products. Back then, an entrepreneur used a serial product development process that proceeded step-by-step with little if any customer feedback. Lit Review? Founders assumed they understood customer problems/needs, wrote engineering requirements documents, designed the product, implemented /built the hardware/software, verified that it worked by testing it, and then introduced the product to customers in literacy about reading, a formal coming out called first customer ship . Waterfall Development was all about execution of the requirements document. While early versions of the product were shared with customers in Alpha and Beta Testing, the goal of early customer access to the product was to uncover bugs not to provide feedback on features or usability. Only after shipping and attempting to sell the product would a startup hear any substantive feedback from customers.
And too often, after months or even years of to write a persausive, development, entrepreneurs learned the hard way that customers were not buying their product because they did not need or want most of its features. It often took companies three tries to get products right. Version 1 was built without customer feedback, and before version 1 was complete work had already started on narrative reading version 2 so it took till version 3 before the customer was really heard (e.g. Of Research Paper? Microsoft Windows 3.0) Best practices in software development started to move to agile development in the early 2000’s. Narrative Essay? This methodology improved on waterfall by building software iteratively and involving the customer. But it lacked a framework for testing all commercialization hypotheses outside of the building. With Agile you could end up satisfying every feature a customer asked for and still go out of business.
Then came the Build-Measure-learn focus of the Lean Startup. The goal of Build-Measure-Learn is not to build a final product to ship or even to build a prototype of a product, but to maximize learning through incremental and iterative engineering. Gonorrhea Research Paper? (Learning could be about product features, customer needs, the essay about reading right pricing and essay prompt school, distribution channel, etc.) The “build” step refers to narrative building a minimal viable product (an MVP.) It’s critical to understand that an MVP is not the product with fewer features. Rather it is the simplest thing that you can show to customers to paper get the most learning at literacy about reading that point in time . Early on in a startup, an MVP could simply be a PowerPoint slide, wireframe, clay model, sample data set, etc. Each time you build an MVP you also define what you are trying to test/ measure . Later, as more is learned, the MVP’s go from low-fidelity to higher fidelity, but the goal continues to prompt be to maximize learning not to literacy narrative reading build a beta/fully featured prototype of the product. A major improvement over Waterfall development, Build Measure Learn lets startups be fast, agile and efficient. The three-circle diagram of Build Measure Learn is good approximation of the process.
Unfortunately, using the word “build” first often confuses people. The diagram does seem to argumentative prompt school imply build stuff and throw it out narrative essay about, of the prompt building. A more detailed version of the about reading Build Measure Learn diagram helps to clarify the meaning by adding three more elements: Ideas -Build- Code -Measure- Data -Learn. The five-part version of the Build Measure Learn diagram helps us see that the real intent of building is to test “ideas” – not just to build blindly without an objective. The circle labeled “code” could easily be labeled “build hardware” or “build artificial genome.” The circle labeled “data” indicates that after we measure our experiments we’ll use the data to further refine our learning. And the edgar allan research new learning will influence our next ideas.
So we can see that the goal of Build-Measure-Learn isn’t just to build things, the literacy essay about goal is to build things to validate or invalidate the initial idea. The focus on testing specific ideas counters the concern that build-measure-learn is edgar allan, just throwing things against essay about reading, the wall and see if they work. But it’s still not good enough. Argumentative Prompt? We can now do better. Start With Hypotheses. What Build-Measure-Learn misses is that new ventures (both startups and about reading, new ideas in essay, existing companies) don’t start with “ideas”, they start with hypotheses (a fancy word for literacy essay about reading guesses.) It’s important to understand that the words “idea ” and “hypotheses” mean two very different things. For most innovators the word “idea” conjures up an insight that immediately requires a plan to bring it to fruition. In contrast, a hypothesis means we have an educated guess that requires experimentation and data to validate or invalidate . These hypotheses span the gamut from who’s the customer(s), to what’s the value proposition (product/service features), pricing, distribution channel, and demand creation (customer acquisition, activation, retention, etc.) That the Lean Startup begins with acknowledging that your idea is simply a series of untested hypotheses is a big idea. It’s a really big idea because what you build needs to prompt school match the hypothesis you want to test . The minimum viable product you’ll need to about reading build to find the right customers is different from the minimum viable product you need for testing pricing, which is different from an MVP you would build to test specific product features.
And all of lit review, these hypotheses (and minimal viable products) change over time as you learn more. So instead of Build-Measure-Learn, the narrative essay about diagram for building minimal viable products in essay prompt high, a Lean Startup looks like Hypotheses – Experiments – Tests – Insights. Using this new Hypotheses – Experiments – Tests – Insights diagram the question then becomes, “What hypotheses should I test?” Luckily Alexander Osterwalder’s business model canvas presents a visual overview of the nine components of a business on one page. They are: value proposition, product/service the about company offers (along with its benefits to customers) customer segments, such as users and research paper, payers or moms or teens distribution channels to reach customers and offer them the value proposition customer relationships to create demand revenue streams generated by the value proposition(s) activities necessary to implement the business model resources needed to make the activities possible partners 3 rd parties needed to make the activities possible cost structure resulting from the business model. And it brings us to the definition of a startup: A startup is narrative about, a temporary organization designed to search for a repeatable and edgar poe the research paper, scalable business model . And once these hypotheses fill the Business Model Canvas, how does an entrepreneur go about testing them? If you’re a scientist the answer is easy: you run experiments. The same is true in a Lean Startup. (The National Science Foundation described the Lean LaunchPad class as the scientific method for narrative essay entrepreneurship.) The Customer Development process is a simple methodology for taking new venture hypotheses and gonorrhea research, getting out of the narrative about building to test them. Customer discovery captures the founders’ vision and turns it into to write a series of business model hypotheses.
Then it develops a series of experiments to literacy essay test customer reactions to those hypotheses and turn them into facts. The experiments can be a series of questions you ask customers but most often a minimal viable product to help potential customers understand your solution accompanies the questions. So another big idea here is startups are not building minimal viable products to build a prototype. They are building minimal viable products to learn the most they can . Finally, the goal of designing these experiments and minimal viable products is not to edgar get data . The data is not the endpoint. Anyone can collect data. Focus groups collect data. Literacy Essay? This is not a focus group. The goal is to of research get insight . The entire point of getting out narrative about, of the building is to inform the to write a persausive essay founder’s vision . The insight may come from analyzing customer responses, but it also may come from ignoring the data or realizing that what you are describing is a new, disruptive market that doesn’t exist, and that you need to change your experiments from measuring specifics to essay about inventing the future. Build, Measure, Learn is lit review, a great improvement over Waterfall product development and provided the framework to truly join the customer to agile development However, emphasizing “Build” or “Ideas” as the first step misses the essay key insight about a Lean Startup – you are starting with hypotheses to edgar poe the raven be tested and are searching for repeatable and scalable business model Hypotheses, Experiments, Test, Insights better represents the Lean startup process: Use the Business Model Canvas to literacy narrative about reading frame hypotheses, Customer Development to get out of the building to test hypotheses, and Agile Engineering to build the product iteratively and incrementally.
Fear of allan raven paper, Failure and Lack of reading, Speed In a Large Corporation. I just spent a day working with Bob, the Chief Innovation Officer of argumentative high school, a very smart large company I’ll call Acme Widgets. Bob summarized Acme’s impediments to innovation. “At our company we have a culture that fears failure. A failed project is considered a negative to a corporate career. Literacy Essay About? As a result, few people want to start a project that might not succeed. And worse, even if someone does manage to of research start something new, our management structure has so many financial, legal and HR hurdles that every initiative needs to match our existing business financial metrics, processes and procedures. So we end up in literacy essay, “paralysis by analysis” – moving slowly to ensure we don’t make mistakes and that everyone signs off on every idea (so we can spread the collective blame if it fails). And when we do make bets, they’re small bets on incremental products or acquisitions that simply add to the bottom line.”
Bob looked wistful, “Our founders built a company known for taking risks and moving fast. Now we’re known for “making the numbers,” living on our past successes. Critique Paper? More agile competitors are starting to eat into our business. How can we restart our innovation culture?” What Drives Innovation? I pointed out to literacy narrative essay reading Bob the high school irony – in a large company “fear of failure” inhibits speed and risk taking while in a startup “fear of literacy, failure” drives speed and urgency.
If we could understand the root cause of a persausive, that difference, I said, we could help Acme build a system for continuous innovation. I suggested the literacy narrative about best place to start the conversation is with the raven research paper 21 st century definition of a startup: A startup is a temporary organization designed to search for a repeatable and scalable business model. Startups have finite time and resources to find product/market fit before they run out of money. Therefore startups trade off certainty for narrative speed, adopting “good enough decision making” and read my resume, iterating and pivoting as they fail, learn, and discover their business model. The corollary for a large company is: A company is literacy narrative reading, a permanent organization designed to poe the paper execute a repeatable and scalable business model. That means in their core business, large companies have a series of knowns . Essay About? They’ve found product/market fit (what products customers want to buy). They’ve learned the argumentative essay school best distribution channel to get the product from their company to essay about the customer. They’ve figured out the revenue model (subscription, license, direct sale, etc.) and how to price the product. They know the activities, resources and partners (manufacturing, regulation, IP, supply chain, etc.) – and lit review, the costs to deliver the product/service and have well defined product development and product management tools that emphasize the linear nature of about reading, shipping products to read my resume existing customers. There are financial metrics (Return on literacy about Investment, Hurdle Rate, etc.) for new product development that emphasize immediate returns. And everyone has job titles and research, job descriptions that describe their role in execution . Why Execution and Innovation Need Different Tools, Cultures and Organizations.
Talking to Bob I realized that at Acme Widgets (and in literacy narrative reading, most large companies) the word “failure” was being used to describe two very different events: failure in execution of a known product in known market failure in lit review, searching for innovation when there are many unknowns. Therefore, in a large company, failure to meet a goal – revenue, product delivery, service, etc.– is a failure in execution of an individual and/or organization to perform to a known set of success criteria . In corporations the penalty for repeated failure on known tasks is being reassigned to other tasks or asked to leave the company. As I sat with Bob and his innovation team, I realized that all of Acme’s new product innovation initiatives were being held to the same standard as those of existing products . Acme was approaching innovation and disruptive product ideas using the same processes, procedures, schedules, and incentives within the same organizational structure and culture as its existing businesses. No wonder innovation at Acme had stalled. The Ambidextrous Organization – Execution and Innovation. That companies should be simultaneously executing and innovating isn’t a new insight. For decades others have observed that companies needed to be ambidextrous. So while we did not lack the insight that execution and innovation need to be separate, we did lack the processes, tools, culture and organizational structures to implement it . Corporate innovation initiatives have spent decades looking at other corporate structures as models for innovation when in literacy narrative about reading, fact we should have been looking at startups for innovation models – and adapting and adopting them for corporate use. What We Now Know about Corporate Innovation.
In the last five years, as the need for continuous innovation in companies has become critical, Lean innovation methodologies (Lean LaunchPad/I-Corps) have also emerged. These methods allow rapid experimentation – at startup speed – with the raven same rigor and discipline as traditional execution processes. Adopted by the National Science Foundation and large companies, over literacy essay, 1000 teams have used the high school process, and the resulting commercialization success speaks for itself. But running a Lean Startup inside an literacy narrative essay about reading, organization designed for execution is an exercise in prompt high, futility. Narrative Reading? Working with large corporations we’ve learned that innovation groups need their own structure, culture, tools (Lean, Design Thinking, etc.), metrics (validated/invalidated hypotheses, Investment Readiness Level) and processes. And both organizations – execution and innovation – need to understand that the success of the company rests on essay prompt high school how well they can cooperate. Bob’s eyes lit up as he said, “Now I understand why innovation seemed beyond our reach. Literacy Essay Reading? We were missing four ideas:
Accepting failure and gonorrhea paper, running at speed are part of an innovation culture. We need to separate out literacy narrative, innovation risks from execution risks. There are now proven Lean innovation methodologies (Lean LaunchPad/I-Corps) that we can use off the shelf in essay, building an literacy narrative reading, innovation culture without inventing our own. We need to argumentative essay prompt high school make sure that management no longer uses execution metrics to manage and judge our innovation teams. In a startup “fear of failure” drives speed and essay, urgency In a large company “fear of failure” inhibits speed and risk Innovation means experimentation in searching for a business model. Gonorrhea Research Paper? Often failure is the norm not the exception. Innovation processes and literacy narrative, metrics need to be different from those of the execution organizations There are proven Lean innovation methodologies that work in large existing companies. I’m on the Air – On Sirius XM Channel 111. Starting this Monday, March 9 th 4-6pm Pacific Time I’ll be on the radio hosting the Bay Area Ventures program on Sirius XM radio Channel 111 – the Wharton Business Radio Channel.
Over this program I’ll be talking to entrepreneurs, financial experts and academic leaders in the tech and essay prompt high, biotech industries. And if the literacy narrative past is prologue I guarantee you that this will be radio worth listening to. On our first show, Monday March 9 th 4-6pm Pacific Time join me, as I chat with Alexander Osterwalder – inventor of the Business Model Canvas, and Oren Jacob, ex-CTO of Pixar and now CEO of ToyTalk on Sirius XM Radio Channel 111 . Oren Jacob – CEO ToyTalk. Alex Osterwalder – Business Models. On Monday’s show we’ll be talking about to write a persausive a range of entrepreneurship topics: what’s a Business Model Canvas, how to build startups efficiently, the 9 deadly sins of a startup, the life of a startup CEO, how large companies can innovate at literacy narrative about reading startup speeds. But it won’t just be us talking; we’ll be taking your questions live and on the air by phone, email or Twitter. On April 27 th , on argumentative essay high school my next program, my guest will be Eric Ries the author of the Lean Startup. Future guests include Marc Pincus, founder of Zynga, and other interesting founders and investors. Is there anyone you’d like to hear on the air on future shows?
Any specific topics you’d like discussed? Leave me a comment. Mark your calendar for 4-6pm Pacific Time on Sirius XM Radio Channel 111 : Blowing up the Business Plan at U.C. Berkeley Haas Business School. During the literacy narrative about reading Cold War with the Soviet Union, science and engineering at to write essay both Stanford and U.C. Berkeley were heavily funded to develop Cold War weapon systems. Stanford’s focus was Electronic Intelligence and those advanced microwave components and narrative essay about reading, systems were useful in a variety of weapons systems. Paper? Starting in the 1950’s, Stanford’s engineering department became “outward facing” and developed a culture of narrative essay, spinouts and active faculty support and participation in the first wave of critique, Silicon Valley startups. At the same time Berkeley was also developing Cold War weapons systems. However its focus was nuclear weapons – not something you wanted to be spinning out. So Berkeley started a half century history of “inward facing innovation” focused on the Lawrence Livermore nuclear weapons lab. (See the reading presentation here.)
Given its inward focus, Berkeley has always been the neglected sibling in Silicon Valley entrepreneurship. That has changed in the last few years. Today the U.C. Berkeley Haas Business School is a leader in entrepreneurship education. It has replaced how to write a business plan with hands-on Lean Startup methods. It’s teaching the LaunchPad ® and allan raven, the I-Corps for narrative about reading the National Science Foundation and National Institutes of Health, as well as corporate entrepreneurship courses. Here’s the argumentative essay prompt high story from Andre Marquis, Executive Director of Berkeley’s Lester Center for essay Entrepreneurship.
When I came to U.C. Berkeley in 2010 to run the Lester Center for Entrepreneurship in the Haas School of Business we were teaching entrepreneurship the same way as when I was a student back in 1995. Our core MBA class used the seminal textbook New Venture Creation by Jeffrey Timmons of Babson College that was first published in 1977. The final deliverable for that class was a 30-page business plan. We had multiple business plan competitions. As I looked around at other schools, I saw pretty much the same landscape – business plan classes, business plan competitions and loosely coupled accelerators that focused primarily on mentoring. Over my career as a serial entrepreneur I observed that since the late 1990s, no early-stage Silicon Valley investor had used business plans to screen investments. Even those who asked for them never read them. Traction and read my resume, evidence from literacy narrative reading, customers were what investors were looking for – even in “slow” sectors like healthcare and energy.
There had been tectonic shifts in the startup world, but our business school curriculum had barely moved. There was a big gap in our educational paradigm. To create great entrepreneurs, we had to give our students the experience of navigating the chaos and uncertainty of running a lean startup while providing the critique paper same kind of rigorous framework the business plan did in its day. The advantage of following New Venture Creation is that it had a deep pedagogical infrastructure that students took away after they left school. The disadvantage is that its methodology was based on the old waterfall model of product development and essay reading, not the agile and argumentative high school, lean methods that startups use today. As I began my search to increase the relevance of literacy narrative essay about, our entrepreneurship curriculum with the same rigor as Timmons and New Venture Creation, I found the answer right here at Berkeley, in argumentative, Steve Blank’s Lean LaunchPad class. (Our founding Executive Director Jerry Engel, recently retired to become dean of faculty for the National Science Foundation I-Corps, had a tradition of narrative essay, incorporating leading practioners, like Steve.
These ‘pracademics’ proved to be some of the biggest innovators in entrepreneurship education.) Seeing Is Believing. The Lean LaunchPad class was completely different from a traditional entrepreneurship class. Allan Research? It taught lean theory (business model design, customer development and agile engineering) and practice. Every week, each student team stood in front of the literacy about class and presented their business model hypotheses, what they had learned from talking to argumentative essay prompt high school customers, demo’d their minimal viable products and had to explain what they were going to do next. Steve and literacy narrative essay, the venture capitalists at the back of the room relentlessly peppered them with questions and pushed them to get out of the essay building and call on the real decision-makers instead of talking to people they already knew. Some teams stepped down from the podium proud that they had made real progress that week while others were chastised because they stuck to their comfort zone, were not doing the tough work required by entrepreneurs and on the road to failure. I realized this class was teaching students exactly what it felt like to be an entrepreneur! Great entrepreneurs are on a search for the truth, no matter how wrong their initial conception is. Narrative Essay About? Being an entrepreneur is about starting out with no idea whether you are working on the next big thing or something no one wants and certainly no one will pay for.
It’s struggling to find the right path forward through chaos and allan research paper, uncertainty. Literacy Reading? Killing bad ideas quickly and to write a persausive, moving on. Staring at the phone while mentally wrestling to pick it up to make that next cold call. Literacy? It’s having investors tell you that you’re dead wrong and, perhaps with enough customer traction, showing them the path to a new future neither of of research paper, you could see at the time. And there it was. The Lean LaunchPad was unlike any class I’d ever seen.
As a Silicon Valley entrepreneur I had lived the lean approach, yet I had never seen it taught. Done informally as part of an accelerator, yes, but not with a framework based on a clear process and essay, clear pedagogy. The Lean LaunchPad was teaching students concepts and a process that they took away from the class and could use again for their next startup. I realized I was looking at a paradigm shift in entrepreneurial education – away from the business plan-focused model to a Lean Startup model. (The irony is research, that once you’ve gone through the lean cycle, you have all the information that goes in a business plan: customers, sales strategy, product features, and financial metrics. Literacy Narrative Essay About Reading? It’s just that they are validated instead of made up.) The Business Plan is Dead. Now, 4 years after I arrived at BerkeleyHaas, we don’t teach business plan writing in any of our entrepreneurship classes or in any of raven paper, our dozens of programs and competitions. We use Customer Development and the Lean LaunchPad to train and accelerate teams U.C. Berkeley-wide.
We’ve gone global as well. In the past year alone, we’ve taught over 250 teams, over 1,000 entrepreneurs and about, their mentors in dozens of paper, countries how to create scalable startups in domains from software and hardware to healthcare and literacy essay about reading, energy. Haas global footprint. The international teams watch the lectures online, get out of the lit review building, present to us each week via WebEx and get the literacy narrative reading same brand of relentless and direct feedback their U.C. Berkeley peers got in Steve’s class. Read My Resume? For example, our Intel Technology To Market Accelerator took 22 teams from 11 countries across 15 time zones, from northern Russia to southern Chile and from Saudi Arabia to the U.S. (Chicago) through the Lean LaunchPad process. Clearly, lean works globally. And we’ve been part of the U.S. effort to use the Lean LaunchPad to accelerate commercialization for the country’s best research spinouts from the narrative essay about National Science Foundation and National Institutes of Health. We do this by running classes for the NSF Innovation Corps and The I-Corps at the NIH. Read My Resume? And the same lean techniques work just as well in the corporate innovation programs we run such as the Intel Make It Wearable Challenge.
An important distinction is that these programs are accelerators. Narrative About Reading? The teams in them start with an idea or product, meet with customers, build prototypes and of research paper, search for a scalable business model. Literacy Narrative? All declare their startup a “go” or “no go” at the end. They learn it’s all about building to scale, pivoting or declaring failure, and moving on using a hypothesis-driven search for the truth. Even our venerable 15-year old business plan competition, once dubbed “bplan,” has transformed into LAUNCH, a multi-month accelerator with a rigorous process combining the research paper Lean LaunchPad, agile product development and a focus on measurable Lean Analytics. Narrative Reading? Ironically, LAUNCH has turned out to be much more rigorous than the prior business plan competition because we immerse every entrepreneur and their mentors in conquering the to write a persausive chaos and uncertainty that is normal for startups. We expect them to come out with specific knowledge of their markets and business ecosystem, verified metrics, a product and a plan for moving forward based on interacting with their actual customers – not honing the teams for a beauty pageant-like pitch fest or making them produce a business plan that’s fundamentally speculative. As educators, we are having a deep impact on these entrepreneurs and narrative essay about reading, their startups. Lean LaunchPad Works Across Industries. I often hear the concern that the Lean LaunchPad only works for gonorrhea research software.
After 700 teams in robotics, materials, hardware, therapeutics, diagnostics, medical devices, and enterprise software, it’s clear that Lean Startup methods work across all industries. We’ve taught versions of the Lean LaunchPad for literacy narrative about reading life sciences at UCSF and as part of the National Institutes of Health, for hardware-focused startups making wearable devices as part of the Intel Make It Wearable Challenge, for allan poe the research paper teams working on nanotechnology and in education (STEMKids and Build and Imagine). Two of our BerkeleyHaas Faculty, Jorge Calderon and Will Rosenzweig, created a Social Lean LaunchPad class that embraces the mission and literacy about reading, stakeholders central to social ventures. Whether it’s making iPhone apps or medical devices, every startup is looking for a repeatable and scalable business model. Focusing on finding customer needs, figuring out how they buy and how to lit review scale up product delivery are universal. Where We Are Going From Here. At U.C. Berkeley we’ve undergone a complete transformation in just four years. But the longer journey is to continue to build new lean-tools and literacy essay, classes separate from the 40 year-old, business plan-based tradition. We continue to ask ourselves, “What can we do to get our students out of the classroom, in cross-functional teams, building for specific customers and having the experience of critique of research, making hard decisions under conditions of essay reading, uncertainty?
What can we do to expand and deepen the rigor of the lit review Lean Startup methodologies and fully elaborate our curriculum?” At BerkeleyHaas we are sharing what we are learning (see below). By embracing lean, you can be assured you will be giving your students essential innovation skills they will use for the rest of their lives. You will see great startups focused on solving real customer problems emerge as well. This is an exciting journey and we are all right at literacy the start. Some resources for shifting the critique of research paradigm in your organization: Early-stage investors don’t read business plans We are in the middle of a shift in entrepreneurship education from teaching the waterfall model of startup development (enshrined in business plans) to teaching the lean startup model The Lean LaunchPad process works across a wide range of literacy narrative about reading, domains – from science and engineering to healthcare, energy, government, the read my resume social sector and for corporate innovation Customer Development works outside Silicon Valley. In fact, it works globally The Lean LaunchPad is literacy essay, a business process that teaches entrepreneurs and innovators to make business-focused, evidence-based decisions under conditions of read my resume, chaos and uncertainty.
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70 useful sentences for narrative essay about, academic writing. Back in the late 90s, in the process of lit review, reading for my MA dissertation, I put together a collection of hundreds of sentence frames that I felt could help me with my academic writing later on. And they did. Immensely. After the narrative essay about, course was over, I stacked my sentences away, but kept wondering if I could ever put them to good use and perhaps help other MA / PhD students. Paper! So here are 70 sentences extracted and adapted for from the original compilation, which ran for literacy narrative about reading, almost 10 pages. This list is organized around keywords. Before you start: 1. Critique Paper! Pay close attention to the words in bold , which are often used in conjunction with the main word. 2. [ ] means #8220;insert a suitable word here#8221;, while ( ) means #8220;this word is optional.#8221; 3. Narrative Essay! Keep in critique mind that, within each group, some examples are slightly more formal / less frequent than others. b. There seems to be no compelling reason to literacy narrative essay about, argue that ___. c. As a rebuttal to this point, it could be argued that ___. d. There are [three] main arguments that can be advanced to support ___. e. To Write! The underlying argument in literacy narrative essay favor of / against lit review, [X] is that ___. a. In this [paper], I put forward the claim that ___.
c. Literacy Narrative Reading! There is ample / growing support for the claim that ___. e. Taking a middle-ground position, [X] claims that ___. a. The data gathered in the [pilot study] suggest that ___. b. The data appears to lit review, suggest that ___. c. The data yielded by this [study] provide strong / convincing evidence that ___. d. A closer look at the data indicates that ___. Essay! e. The data generated by [X] are reported in read my resume [table 1]. f. Literacy Narrative Essay! The aim of this [section] is to generalize beyond the data and ___. b. There has been an research, inconclusive debate about whether ___. c. The question of whether ___ has caused much debate in [our profession] [over the years]. Literacy Narrative Reading! d. Paper! (Much of) the current debate revolves around ___. a. In this section / chapter, the discussion will point to narrative reading, ___. b. Essay High School! The foregoing discussion implies that ___. c. For the essay reading, sake of discussion , I would like to essay, argue that ___. Essay! d. In this study, the question under discussion is ___. Allan Poe The Raven Research! e. In this paper, the about reading, discussion centers on ___. f. [X] lies at the heart of the read my resume, discussion on ___. a. Essay! The available evidence seems to suggest that ___ / point to ___. b. On the basis of the argumentative, evidence currently available, it seems fair to suggest that ___. c. There is overwhelming evidence for the notion that ___. d. Further evidence supporting / against essay reading, [X] may lie in the findings of [Y], who ___. e. These results provide confirmatory evidence that ___. a. Edgar Allan Raven Paper! I will now summarize the narrative reading, ground covered in edgar raven paper this [chapter] by ___. Literacy Narrative Essay! b. Argumentative Essay School! On logical grounds , there is no compelling reason to argue that ___. c. Literacy! [X] takes a middle-ground position on [Y] and read my resume, argues that ___. d. On these grounds , we can argue that ___. e. [X]#8217;s views are grounded on the assumption that ___. a. This study is an attempt to address the issue of ___. b. In the literacy essay about reading, present study, the issue under scrutiny is edgar allan poe the raven research ___. Literacy Narrative About Reading! c. The issue of whether ___ is allan clouded by the fact that ___. d. To portray the issue in [X]#8217;s terms, ___. e. Given the literacy essay about, centrality of this issue to [my claim], I will now ___. f. This [chapter] is concerned with the issue of [how/whether/what] ___. a. Of Research! [X] is prominent in the literature on [Y]. b. There is a rapidly growing literature on [X], which indicates that ___. c. The literature shows no consensus on [X], which means that ___. d. The (current) literature on [X] abounds with examples of literacy about, ___. a. The main theoretical premise behind [X] is that ___. c. [X] is premised on the assumption that ___. d. The basic premises of [X]#8217;s theory / argument are ___. e. The arguments against high, [X]#8217;s premise rest on [four] assumptions: ___. a.This study draws on research conducted by ___. b. Although there has been relatively little research on / into [X], ___. c. In the last [X] years, [educational] research has provided ample support for the assertion that ___. d. Current research appears / seems to essay, validate the view that ___. e. Research on / into ___ does not support the view that ___. Read My Resume! f. Further research in this area may include ___ and ___. Essay Reading! g. Evidence for [X] is to write a persausive essay borne out by literacy narrative about, research that shows ___. h. There is insufficient research on / into ___ to to write essay, draw any firm conclusions about narrative essay reading / on ___. a. The consensus view seems to be that ___. b. [X] propounds the view that ___. c. Argumentative Essay High School! Current research (does not) appear(s) to validate such a view . d. There have been dissenters to the view that ___. e. Narrative About! The answer to [X] / The difference between [X] and [Y] is not as clear-cut as popular views might suggest. f. Lit Review! The view that _____ is in line with [common sense]. Literacy Narrative! g. I am not alone in my view that ___. Read My Resume! h. [X] puts forward the literacy narrative essay about, view that ___. i. [X]#8217;s views rest on the assumption that ___. If you found this list useful, check out The Only Academic Phrasebook You#8217;ll Ever Need , which contains 600 sentences, as well as grammar and vocabulary tips. E-book and paperback available on Amazon. 171 thoughts on “70 useful sentences for academic writing”
This is incredible! Many, many thanks! I#8217;ll start putting these into use immediately in my DipTESOL assignments. Higor, glad I could help. Um abraco! Thanks for letting out such a list. Seems to be of great help. Great list, Otavio! Thank you! You#8217;re welcome, Eduardo! #128578; Wonderful!
It will help indeed! Thanks very much! Be sure to check out my e-book, too, which contains 600 sentences, as well as grammar and vocabulary tips:https://goo.gl/tAvU3P. This is very helpful, I wish I had known about this fabulous choice of paper, words during my first year of graduate study. If you feel you need more help, check this out: Thanks, Luiz! This list is gonna be so useful! You#8217;re welcome, Michele! What a marvelous list. Thanks for your generosity. Melanie, thank you! my friend i cant access this book from my country pakistan#8230; can u please tell me another source. Really nice, Luiz.
I particularly like #8216;yielded#8217;. I#8217;ll definitely try to put them to literacy about, good use during my next assignment. I remember teaching you #8220;yielded#8221; back in gonorrhea 1875, in literacy reading MAC something. Edgar! Maybe that#8217;s why. #128578; 1875? You#8217;ve been around awhile. Wonderful Listing Dear Brother #128578; Why were some alphabets left out ? Sure there would have been a GR8 reason ! Am converting this into narrative essay about reading, a ppt and share it for many to more to access hope no problems brother #8230;.
LOL n Laughter all the way from Mumbai, INDIA. Thank you for dropping by. You can share the list with as many people as you like, of paper, course. Please do acknowledge the source, though, ok? Maybe this will encourage more people to visit the blog.
What a wonderful list, very much needed for essay, EAP learners (not to mention any academic writer). I#8217;ll definitely make use of read my resume, it. Thanks. #128578; Tyson, thank you for your kind words. Much appreciated! This is a great source and I will definitely use it in my current literature review class. My professor provide us with your Blog. I am very glad for literacy narrative about, two reasons, your Blog is a great source, and paper, I think you are Brazilian ? I am from literacy narrative reading Sao Paulo, and as an International student I struggle written in English.
Muito#8230; muito obrigada pelas dicas. Thank you, Dora! Yes, I am Brazilian. Such a great work! It helps me to improve my English#8230;Keep It Up. Data is the plural of datum.
Therefore, it should read #8220;The data appear#8230;#8221; Thanks for stopping by. Both usages are correct. If one treats #8220;data#8221; as a singular / mass noun, a singular noun should be used. Essay School! Here#8217;s what the Oxford Dictionary has to say: #8220;In Latin, data is the plural of literacy about reading, datum and, historically and in specialized scientific fields , it is also treated as a plural in English, taking a plural verb, as in the data were collected and classified . In modern non-scientific use, however , despite the complaints of traditionalists, it is often not treated as a plural. Instead, it is treated as a mass noun, similar to a word like information, which cannot normally have a plural and which takes a singular verb. Sentences such as data was (as well as data were ) collected over a number of years are now widely accepted in standard English.#8221; So I think it ultimately depends on the stylistic constraints of the piece of writing at hand and on the norms adopted by the academic institution you#8217;re writing for allan raven, / on narrative essay behalf of. But if history is anything to go by, I think very soon #8220;datum#8221; will be as rare as, for example, #8220;agendum.#8221; What a wonderful list: thank you for sharing. I#8217;m going (with your permission) to use it with my EAP class. I have other lists (including from the Manchester phrase bank) but this is a list of phrases that have been used rather than could be used. Edgar Research! Christine, I appreciate your kind words. Of course you can use it!
If you feel that your audience would profit from any of the stuff on this blog (aimed at teachers of English as a foreign language), please just say where the sentences were taken from, ok? Every little thing than can increase traffic helps! And you#8217;re so right about the #8220;what people do say#8221; vs. #8220;what people could say#8221; dilemma. Before I put this list together, I made a point of googling each one to check its approximate frequency. This alone sifted out at least half of my original list. Literacy! Best regards from Sao Paulo, Brazil. These are invaluable, and they#8217;ll be put to immediate use in ICELT tasks. Thanks a million! Jessica, I#8217;m so glad you#8217;ll be able to use some of them. Um abraco! Thanks a zillion for sharing, Luiz!
Assessors worldwide will be amazed at how much the quality of argumentative, candidates#8217; writing has improved! hehehe. We sure hope so, right, Marcia? #128578; Thanks for narrative essay reading, stopping by. Thanks for putting this work together. I am preparing my readings for the Dissertation and in my collection your list of phrases will be useful. Very useful Christine and thanks for sharing.
Thank you, Salma. What a fabulous resource for international students as well! Thank you. Cally, thank you! Just great! Thanks for sharing it. You#8217;re welcome, Bruno! Thanks for sharing. Definitely I will use some ideas for my TEFL essay. To Write A Persausive Essay! Patricia, I#8217;m glad you found the list helpful! Courageous, generous and much appreciated.
Thank you for your kind words, Chris. Bonjour, English is narrative essay reading not my first language and the information contained on this page helps me to construct proper essay sentences. Obrigada ! Bonjour, Denise. As a non-native speaker myself, I know the feeling and I#8217;m glad I was able to help! thank you for this! it helps me tremendously #128578; You seriously saved my life when I was writing a paper due the very next day. I have bookmarked it and it will be my go-to blog for future writing assignments! Thank you for argumentative essay prompt high, your contribution. Glad I could help, Johana! Thank you for narrative about, this- it is read my resume fabulous! Really helpful tips for about reading, writing good research papers also useful to of research paper, students of literacy narrative reading, literature.
Great tips indeed. I think these tips must be shared with every student of literature as there are lot many things they have to know. Thanks a lot. What an incredible work!! I will use it with my students #128578; Thank you, Serena. Incredible!
Senor Barros, thank you for sharing. I#8217;ve never seen something like this beforegood prompts for writing. Ken (ESL Teacher from critique paper Thailand) Thanks, Ken. I appreciate your feedback. These sentences are Fantabulous#8230;. Narrative Essay! (Thumbs Up For You) Completely agree. Fantastic expressions. Gonna have to study them for some upcoming papers!! Luizo, it was really generous of paper, you to have shared such a useful collection. English is my third language and was I having difficulty writing my dissertation. Literacy About Reading! Hopefully your gift will help.
I cannot thank you enough. To Write A Persausive Essay! I hope one day I too can help by uploading something this useful, free. You are a saint. your sentences are great I am going to use them as much as possible. ighly descriptive post, I l³ked that a lot. Will there. Essay About Reading! 10000 times thanks. To Write! Thank you a lot for sharing these useful and practical verbs and narrative essay, phrases ! Habib, glad I could help!
Nice Work! Exactly what I was looking for classroom debates! Honestly, I would seriously LOVE to see the original 10 page list. Thank you so much you have just saved me hours of allan raven research, trying to make my Masters assignment sound convincing! Thanks for what you#8217;ve done Luiz#8230; And give a try at updating the list, if possible. Thank you alto, this is a great list. Literacy Essay! I prepare for TOEFL but my writing is to write awful, I hope by using this list it improve.
Can I send my writing to you? The list is really wonderfully helpful for any teacher or student in writing a dissertation. Thank you so much are very goods to my tesis. THANKS FOR HELPING PEOPLE. Thanks so much for your generosity. Just about to embark upon literacy narrative essay my MA dissertation and paper, feeling very insecure, nervous and low in confidence: the cosmic kick in the bottom, desperately needed!
This is an awesome collection dude! I was looking something like this for my writing in TOEFL test! Thanks for the list! It#8217;ll really give me a boost for my future works! Thank you very much. It is very helpful. thank you for the list, most helpful. Literacy About! Luella. Read My Resume! i been using these for literacy about, a yr and critique of research, my grades incresed dramatically now i have got an op 2 i can#8217;t thank u enough for these thank u. This is very useful. IF I rate it I will 10. But I hope u will also common phrases that commonly use in school reporting.
Btw, I am a filipino. This is brilliant! thanks! Thank you so much. Great work. Thanks, I find many of the phrases very useful for my own work. However, I see in literacy narrative essay about general a tendency of being too wordy. This probably depends somewhat on research the branch of science you#8217;re working in. For example, a phrase such as #8220;The available evidence seems to literacy narrative essay about reading, suggest that#8221; uses two hedges (suggest, seem) to mitigate the strength of #8220;evidence#8221;). If there#8217;s a lot of such phrases in a paper, the readers just won#8217;t believe what your saying. First, I would like to say thank you so much for helpful idea and argumentative essay prompt school, I really need to improve me academic English vocabulary but I t is still problem to literacy about reading, improve it. Who will help me that.
Very good work and can be updated to help postgraduate students in their writing. Allan Poe The Raven Research! Thank you! There#8217;s some exciting news on narrative essay about reading the horizon, Abdulghadar. Stay tuned! I find the examples very helpfu and would like to have your permission to share these information for my students please.
Juliana,check out “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. What a great list, greetings from Poland! Titoszka,check out lit review, “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. These phrases are going to be very very very useful for essay about reading, me#8230; Thanks a lot. Akshita,check out “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. Thank you very much, these sentences will help a lot. Thank again. Djibril,check out gonorrhea, “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. Thank u so much:) Thank you for this list.
I m sharing it with my friends right now. It#8217;s a great source of good wordings))) Anastasia,check out “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. Hey this source is about reading great! Thanks for sharing. Jen,check out “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. A brilliant resource for teaching academic writing, thank you! Sharon,check out “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. It is edgar allan poe the raven research paper perfect list! Thanks a lot. Glad you found it useful!
Kostas, check out “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. Dear LUIZ OTAVIO, Nice list, It could be much greater If you could add any other vocabulary to use for academic writing in you blog. Dear Professor Avinash, check out literacy narrative, “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. Luiz your list is a time saver. you are very thoughtful. Thank you! Diana,check out “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW.
Thank you so much for posting this list, I#8217;ve been using it for last 3 years of my uni! Mac, check out “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. Ottotito, check out “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. from Saudi Arabia, i would like a to thank you for those great expressions LUIZ, I admit using some of them to improve my daily English Emails as well #128578; Majed, check out read my resume, “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. Dear Louiz, I am writing my PhD proposal and this is just what I need. Thanks a lot. Marie, check out “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. Thanks a lot.
It is very useful. Scorneo, check out narrative about, “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. Thanks a lot. Gonorrhea Paper! It is narrative essay about very useful#8230; This is what I am looking for !! Thank you so much.. Read My Resume! I will use them in may graduation research .. Hela, check out “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW.
Thank you for sharing your superb list! Naz,check out “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. Thanks a lot. It is very useful. Kasra, check out “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. Literacy Reading! Thank you so much, i am using your sentences in raven research my thesis.
Minoo,check out narrative, “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. Thank you for your help you realy helped me interms of academic work.please now will you help me on prepositions?this is when am learning English. Hi Micheal, check out “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZ. I heaved a sigh of read my resume, relief. Because this is my major struggle in writing academic papers. Remain blessed for sharing. Blossom, check out “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW.
Luiz, this is AWESOME! I#8217;m so grateful for this. Currently I#8217;m roasting over my dissertation and this prompts lubricate the brain and neuro pathways. Thank you so much for your generosity. Narrative Essay! Blessings to you! Sarah, check out #8220;The Only Academic Phrasebook You#8217;ll Ever Need#8221;, which I#8217;ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW.
Sarah, check out: “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. im impressed Luiz. Thank you. Check out “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. Sharing this list with my IELTS students in a persausive 3, 2, 1#8230; Thanks, Jorge. For those who want more sentences + grammar and vocabulary tips, you can also recommend “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published. It#8217;s available on narrative Amazon: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. Thank you. This is a bookmarked item. Be sure to check out of research, my e-book, too: It contains 600 sentences, as well as grammar and vocabulary tips. Literacy Narrative Essay About! A thousand million thanks. You’re welcome, Pat!
If you feel you need more help, check this out: 5 bucks only and it contains 600 sentences + lots of grammar and vocabulary tips. This seems a lot like the lit review, book They Say, I Say which was first published in 2006. Hi Joelle. Thanks for the reference. Just checked a sample on narrative essay about Amazon.
Seems like a great book. The sentences above, however, are all formal. As far as I could tell, They Say, I Say includes a number of more neutral #8220;templates#8221; that students can use, say, in high school essays. E-book is not available.. only the paperpack #128577; This is good, it will really help in preparing my research manuscripts for publication.
Glad you find it useful! Yo have no idea how much I use this page for essay, my papers. Special thanks to you! I#8217;m glad you find it useful! Thanks a lot for your tremendous work, it is helpful and sophisticated. Literacy About! May you be rewarded. Found the compilation very helpful. kudos! Thank you, Abdus.
Great list! You have just saved my Final degree project. I#8217;m non-native English speager, and taking writing class. it really helped alot. Thanks.
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Free Essays on Was Brutus A Noble Roman. Brutus vs. Macbeth through Power, Ambition, and Honor “Absolute power corrupts absolutely,” unless one knows how to use it, it shall not corrupt. Everyone has ambitions, a strong desire of achieving great things, and some will do whatever it takes to literacy narrative about reading achieve their goal. Honor is a title one receives. Tragedy of essay, Julius Caesar, Marcus Brutus and Julius Caesar are different characters, but somehow similar. Marcus Brutus is a Roman political leader, son-in-law of the Roman philosopher Marcus Porcius Cato the Younger, born in Rome, and educated in law.
Julius Caesar is a Roman general and statesman, who laid. Brutus and Cassius In Shakespeare’s play, “The Tragedy of Julius Caesar”, two important dynamic characters, Cassius and Brutus , play the role to bring the literacy narrative about reading tragedy into Julius’ life. Cassius is revealed to have villainous and disapproving elements towards Caesar which is significant. “Well Brutus you are noble , but I can tell that honorable qualities can be given in a new direction.” – Cassius. This quote spoken by Cassius shows his need to get Brutus to be part of the conspirators. This quote also reveals that many people adore Brutus and that he is a honorable man. The play “Julius. Marcus Brutus : An Honorable Man?
Could a murderer ever be considered “honorable”? Or would their reputation be tarnished forever by that one act? In the a persausive essay play Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare, Marcus Brutus is considered one of the essay reading most “honorable” men in Rome. When asked by Caius Cassius to join. Augustus and the Rise of the read my resume Roman Empire. Primary Sources 15 Source 1: Tacitus: Annals, Book 1., Translated by literacy narrative about reading, Alfred John Church and lit review William Jackson Brodribb. 15 Source 2: Cassius Dio, Roman History book 53 16 Source 3: Augustus, The Deeds of the Divine Augustus – Translated by Thomas Bushnell 17 Source 4: Suetonius, De Vita Caesarum. to determine whether or not Brutus had a reason to be put to the same punishment as Cassius for the murder of Julius Caesar. Why would Brutus , a highly regarded man in Roman society, agree to murder someone, especially a ruler, under his own power? He wouldn’t.
Brutus was plainly tricked into joining. happen ? Manipulation ? Letters believed to be from Roman citizens to Brutus ? Written by Cassius ? Persuade Brutus to help redress Rome • “O Rome, I make thee promise, if the redress will follow, thou receivest thy full petition at literacy narrative about the hand of Brutus .” (56-58) ? Flattery • “No man here but honors. Gladiator: Solider or Slave The Life of a Gladiator: Solider or Slave The life of a Roman gladiator is to write a persausive, usually portrayed as a glamorous and narrative about respected solider. Edgar Allan Poe The Research. He is literacy narrative essay about reading, strong, brave, handsome, and essay noble . How accurate is this image that is often conjured when the narrative term gladiator is spoken? This popular. Et tu Brute? Caesar's simple statement sums up Brutus ' round character in the development of The Tragedy of Julius Caesar.
Brutus was thought no threat and an ingenious right-hand man due to his nobility and his loyalty; however, these qualities are precisely why the story is such a catastrophe. What. 4: Roman Republic and Caesar S Assassination. entire essay here. Gonorrhea. Include any revisions your instructor asked you to make. I. Essay About. Brutus loved Rome and did not want to see it fall and crumple at the hands of Julius Caesar, therefore he was a patriot because of his actions. Romans , countrymen, and allan poe the raven paper lovers! Hear me for narrative essay about my cause, and read my resume be silent that you may hear. ? Brutus : Rise of the Tragic Hero William Shakespeare, in his play, Julius Caesar, displays Brutus as the archetypal hero and uses the supporting characters as surrounding archetypes. He supports this by relating Brutus’s characteristics to the traditional hero’s personality, its history, and by creating. refused it he was more gently about it 8. Cassius will send forged letters to Brutus A1 S3: 9. Literacy Essay About Reading. Casa “sees” many “unnatural” things; bad omens 10.
Cassius threatens to kill himself if JC becomes king A2 S1: 11. Scene opens on the ides of March (March 15) 12. Of Research Paper. Brutus is swayed by a. Tragedy of Julius Caesar, Brutus and Cassius are contrasting characters. They differ in the way they perceive Antony as a threat to the assassination plot, their dominance in personality, and their moral fiber. In Julius Caesar, Brutus is the more naive, dominant and about reading noble character, while Cassius is. The Idea of Conflicting Perspectives. between Brutus and gonorrhea Marc Antony.
Brutus believes the literacy essay reading assassination of Julius Caesar that he took part in was merely a patriotic act, as the conspirators believed Caesar to be a threat to Rome due to his ambition. Contrastingly, Marc Antony believed Caesar was god-like and not ambitious and was was helping. Hillin Professor Gibson HUM2020 8 October 2008 The Roman Colosseum “Today, Rome is a modern, cosmopolitan city, and the third most-visited tourist destination in Europe”. Edgar Allan Raven Paper. Rome stands on top of more than two and a half thousand years of history, was once the largest city in literacy narrative about the world and the center of. Julius Caesar - Character Analysis. Marc Antony was a very intelligent, loyal, persuasive leader in the story of Julius Caesar.
He is edgar allan poe the paper, among the intelligent characters in the play. Antony shows his great intelligence in the scene where he discovers Caesar’s bloody dead body on the floor. Narrative Essay. “I doubt not of your wisdom. Read My Resume. Let each man render. in who they believe is the tragic figure. Brutus is the literacy narrative about reading tragic figure of the lit review play Julius Caesar because he is a noble man, he is naive to the world around him and his fortunes turn from good too bad throughout the literacy narrative course of the play. Brutus is a very noble man who is always looking out for what is. The senate of the of research paper Roman Republic in 186 BC found it necessary to write a decree, the narrative reading Senatus consultum de Bacchanalibus, to prohibit all involvement in the Bacchanalia, which was a festival in honor of the Roman god Bacchus . It was to be followed not only by roman citizens, but also by the Latin. Brutus' Motivation in lit review Julius Caesar.
regarding someone’s life, it is of the utmost importance that it be thought out reading, carefully and examined intricately. In Shakespeare’s tragedy Julius Caesar, Brutus is cleverly tricked into gonorrhea joining the conspirators in a plot to assassinate Caesar. However, he rationalizes his position by telling himself it’s for. Interviewer: Ladies and gentlemen welcome to the Roman News Station. Rome is now facing a grave crisis; our well known Caesar was assassinated this morning under the statue of Pompey, by his beloved friend Brutus and his gang. After the literacy narrative about reading assassination, Brutus had set a speech in the Forum, where crowds were. poems. Julius Caesar was one of the allan poe the raven most famous tragic plays that he wrote. Although in many stories heroes defeats the evil and saves the world, the literacy essay hero in critique this play was not as lucky as all the other heroes and fell for the traps of others. Essay About Reading. Mark Antony, Caesar’s right hand man, was a dishonorable and.
To What Extent Was the Pontificate of Gregory Vii a Turning Point in the History of the Papacy Between C. Edgar Poe The Raven Paper. 950 and 1200? To what extent was the pontificate of Gregory VII a turning point in essay reading the history of the papacy between c. 950 and 1200? The period 950-1200 was one of critique paper, great papal reform, dominated by great reforming Popes. events: In order to evaluate whether the pontificate of Gregory VII was a turning point I shall. The Middle Ages, often referred to as the Dark Ages, was regarded to be a time of despair, disease, and death. Just as the name the “Dark Ages” suggests, this period of European history seemed to be surrounded by darkness and hopelessness. Unfortunately, the majority of people only see this side of literacy narrative about, the. to Julius Caesar. was ironically the ringleader for Caesar’s assassination. Brutus thinks that if he assassinates Julius Caesar he will be doing what was best for Rome. In this play, Brutus is often referred to as the tragic hero.
According to Aristotle, a tragic hero must be noble , demonstrate hubris. Gaius Julius Caesar was born 12 July 100 BCE (though some cite 102 as his birth year). His father, also Gaius Julius Caesar, was a Praetor who governed the province of Asia and his mother, Aurelia Cotta, was of noble birth. Both held to the Populare ideology of to write a persausive essay, Rome which favored democratization of government. Compare and Contrast the Funeral Speeches of narrative, Brutus and paper Mark Antony.
Which Is More Effective and Why? speeches of Brutus and Mark Antony. Which is more effective and why? When Brutus goes up to speak to narrative reading the crowd he appeals to them as “ Romans ” before all else. As this keeps with his reason for joining the conspiracy the audience can see that he is honourable and trustworthy. The roman public may also. character, Marcus Brutus , makes a speech to the Romans , Countrymen, and Lovers of Caesar, explaining why he killed Caesar, and to prove to them that he did it for argumentative high school the good of Rome. His speech is successful due to the use of literacy about, Logos and Ethos in his speech.
In his speech, Brutus uses Ethos to show. Shakespeare, Caesar was murdered on thought of a conspiracy by many Roman senators. Led by lit review, Gaius Cassius Longinus and Marcus Brutus , they stabbed Julius Caesar to death in a location adjacent to the Theatre of Pompey on the Ides of literacy essay about, March. As a result a few days later the roman people had funeral for. For instance, Julius Caesar, was known for his successful political and military career.
In addition, his great skills as a great warrior expanded the lit review Roman Republic through a series of narrative essay reading, battles across Europe. Unfortunately, to some people of high positions, thought he was an lit review, ambitious man, ambitious . ANTONY Friends, Romans , countrymen, lend me your ears; I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him. Literacy Essay Reading. The evil that men do lives after them; The good is oft interred with their bones; So let it be with Caesar. A Persausive Essay. The noble Brutus Hath told you Caesar was ambitious: If it were so, it was a grievous fault. Conflicting Perspectives, Julius Caesar + 2 Related. potential abuse of power. In the forum scene, Brutus extols the virtues of Caesar’s demise, “Had you rather Caesar were living and literacy narrative essay die all slaves, then that Caesar were dead, to live all freemen?” The antithetical erotesis highlights how the assassination was to prevent the loss of freedom in research paper Rome. However.
conspirators’ are Brutus and Cassius. Although Brutus and Cassius are alike in many ways, differences overpower. The way they show their feelings, how they take responsibility, and the reasons why they were a main conspirator are three reasons Brutus and Cassius are different. The way Brutus and Cassius. Marcus Brutus character analysis, from Julius Caesar. Marcus Brutus character analysis, from literacy essay Julius Caesar William Shakespeare's play, The Tragedy of Julius Caesar, is mainly based on the assassination of Julius Caesar. The character who was in charge of the assassination was , ironically, Marcus Brutus , a servant and close friend to a persausive Julius Caesar.
But. One of the biggest examples of the supernatural is introduced here – the witches. At the time Shakespeare wrote Macbeth the idea of witches was something that was taken very seriously by his audience – witches were believed to be real beings, living in secrecy among the essay about good, Christian citizens. Witches. Brutus as a tragic hero In the play Julius Caesar, William Shakespeare portrays Marcus Brutus as a dramatic character and develops him into a tragic hero. “Shakespeare’s tragedies often feature the death of the titular character at the play’s end” (Julius Caesar 1).
Maurice Charney sees Brutus as. Julius Caesar Comparative Essay: Mark Antony and Marcus Brutus. Marcus Brutus , who is a leader of the conspiracy against Caesar. While Antony and Brutus are both friends of Caesar, other character traits including courage, loyalty, and sincerity set them apart from each other. Antony and research Brutus are both admirably courageous. Narrative Reading. It took great courage for Brutus to kill.
Honors English II/5 Clem 11/10/08 Brutus vs. Of Research Paper. Cassius In William Shakespeare’s play Julius Caesar, two characters show dramatic characteristics throughout the literacy essay about reading play. Brutus and Cassius are two characters who are reflective in poe the paper many ways. Both of these characters relate to literacy essay each other. William Shakespeare revolves around the assassination of read my resume, Caesar and narrative about reading the ensuing civil war. Two important characters for triggering these events were Brutus and Caesar. These two characters can be considered polar opposites, a clash between an idealist and a realist. Both have different characteristics. country, would betray a friend.
This makes Brutus honorable to to write a persausive his country but not to literacy his friend. Depending on what he thought was for paper the greater good, Caesar becoming the sole leader, or the devotion that he has for literacy narrative essay his country; he honored what he thought was best for Rome. “Not that I loved Caesar. William Shakespeare’s play Julius Caesar; the character Marcus Brutus fits the definition of a tragic hero. He was respected throughout this story by all of the people in Rome. Brutus was a noble man, more noble than evil. Marcus Brutus is essay, a tragic hero because, though he has great nobility and is very.
Shakespeare: Close Reading Brutus`S Speech. Close Reading: Shakespeare `Julius Caesar` III. 2 lines 11- 48 ( Brutus ) Julius Caesar is an historical tragedy, written by Shakespeare in 1599. Set in ancient Rome it depicts the rise and fall of an about reading, emperor and a time of vast political change. Prompt. Presenting a tale of manipulation and a struggle for. by the title ‘Caesar’ showing the about reading audience that he is beginning to fill the role of the research paper murdered Julius Caesar. Octavius also finishes the play with Brutus ’ body in his ‘tent his boned to-night shall lie.’ This also shows the character of transition of power and links to the change of power Shakespeare. Roman Gladiators From stick fighting, to machine guns, fighting has always been a part of the human nature to fight when you are mad, upset, or forced. Literacy Narrative Reading. Most humans have always enjoyed watching these fights. Here we are in edgar allan Rome, in essay reading the Coliseum, gladiators battling to the death, or defeat. Humans fighting.
Justification of Julus Caesar's Assassination. assassinated Caesar believed that he was ambitious and he should die for the good of Rome. But his death created an argumentative school, avalanche of violence and murder. Literacy Reading. The assassination of his death was presented from gonorrhea research paper two points of views, Brutus’s and Antony’s. At Caesar’s funeral, Brutus tries to convince the people. Julius Caesar Marcus Brutus and Marck Antony, both Roman Senators at the time; give a speech at Julius Caesar's funeral. Both speakers introduce themselves to the crowd in their own unique way with the usage of reading, prodigiously different rhetorical strategies, therefore arousing in to write a persausive essay the Roman crowd greatly distinct.
1. About. I believe Brutus was honorable but was misled by those around him. In all the read my resume events leading up to narrative essay about Caesar’s death he did not once think about personal gain only that Caesar could be evil. Even after Caesar’s death he still believed he had done right. Another thing I think shows he was honorable is. Julius Caesar- Brutus Cassius: Who Is the better leader? In William Shakespeare?s Julius Caesar, Brutus and Cassius are very influential characters. Lit Review. Each character makes many mistakes with the assassination plans and the strategies at Philippi. Each man has his reasons for their mistakes, if it is either their idealism, being uncompassionate or not, fully. friend for a long time, but all the time hating Julius Caesar and resenting the fact that he is a servant to a dictator.
This is evident from when Brutus talks about Caesar fainting and essay offering crowds his throat to cut and Cassius says, “ if I would not have taken him at a word, I would I might go. How do you find Marcus Brutus and Julius Caesar compare as the main characters in Shakespeare’s play? Do you find them to be representative of good vs. evil? In the historical tragedy of Julius Caesar, there are a number of contrasting themes and characters who develop the read my resume theme of good vs. Narrative. evil and. a latch on a failing system of honor. In Shakespeare's play, Julius Caesar, the read my resume Roman emperor's death and its aftershocks are shown no better than in Marc Antony's oration when the elite's silver tongue convinces the Roman general populace to turn against the ill-fated conspirators. Literacy. With his skillful. How Did the lit review Romans Build a Strong Republic? Date of submission: January 2011 How did the Romans build a strong republic?
The Greeks and Etruscans influence Roman culture. Romans adopted Sicily’s alphabet, military techniques and literacy essay about styles of lit review, literature, art and architecture. Romans learned practical skills in sanitation, road building, architecture. Political Reasons Why Ceasar was Killed. It was in the early spring of March, 44 BC. Julius Caesar was gathering with senators to discuss local matters, but in fact other plans were made. Narrative. Once he entered, Caesar was held down by his robe as the senators rushed at him with daggers. A charged onslaught of flesh puncturing blows continued, first. The Empire of allan raven research, Deceit In the play Julius Caesar, written by the playwright William Shakespeare, the narrative essay characters Brutus and Mark Antony each recite a speech in the market place after Caesar’s death. These speeches, exemplifying parallelism, verbal irony, and witty use rhetoric, expose the true intensions. The Tragedy of BRUTUS Following emotions and paying attention to feelings will always show the way to satisfaction in the end.
Others aren’t strong enough to stay true to themselves; instead they are easily influenced by prompt school, the people among them. In the play “The Tragedy of Julius Caesar” by Shakespeare. would take their own lives if they did not have a male leader to tell them what to do. The author, William Shakespeare, uses the wives of Caesar and Brutus to show how they do not have their own voice. Calphurnia tells Caesar to literacy narrative essay stay home because she has a bad dream about Caesar and does not want.
Roman Dress Dress of Rome | | |[pic] |[pic] |[pic] |[pic] |[pic] | | | | | | | |Toga. The Tragedy of the Play Julius Caesar. In the play Julius Caesar, the tragedy of the play was directed mainly at a one specific character, Marcus Brutus . Brutus was the to write essay tragic hero of the literacy narrative play, because of his idealistic and pragmatic qualities. A Persausive. The mindset that Brutus possessed only allowed him to see the world and its people from one point. Rome, like Brutus , who makes change for his country. His changes consist of not killing Antony and not letting let Cicero in the group for the assination of reading, Caesar. Brutus assassinates his best friend, Caesar, for good intentions and even battles for his reputation. Throughout the play, Brutus demonstrates.
Who Is the More Effective Speaker, Brutus or Mark Anthony? Who Is the More Effective Politician? order to respond to these questions was the first speech the two men had to prove to their part of the story. Brutus , supporting his act in the murder of Caesar and Mark Antony, who was against the fact that it was good for Caesar to die and edgar poe the research gradually blaming Brutus for reading what wrong he had committed. Essay Prompt High School. .