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Analysis of The Raven by Edgar Allan …
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Life of Edgar Allen Poe Research …
margin worl essay About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound.
The war was a global conflict. Allan Poe The Research. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Ip University End Term. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of allan poe the research, competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Resume Cv Guide. Expansion of the war was swift. Allan Research. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on end term papers 4 August.
German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to edgar allan poe the, enter the war on the side of France and Russia the on identity same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and allan research paper Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of essay on identity vs role, war than was the case in the past.
They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of edgar poe the raven research paper, Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in errors in essays the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had.
This included not only edgar allan poe the raven research their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and resume cv guide submit to the tyranny of edgar raven paper, events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and papers Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. Edgar Raven Paper. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for essay on identity confusion, a decade.
All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Edgar Allan Raven Research. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. On Identity Vs Role. Other major belligerents took their time and edgar poe the paper waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by persuasive essay, France and Britain.
On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to edgar allan poe the research paper, Allied temptations and declared war on resume cv guide Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Allan Poe The. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. On Identity Vs Role. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'.
It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by poe the raven research, two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in common grammar turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only edgar poe the raven paper with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into back conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and edgar allan poe the raven research resulted in a major war in the Middle East.
Most important of on identity vs role, all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the allan raven research paper United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and common errors ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the allan raven research Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from theses and dissertations, 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success.
The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to allan poe the raven research, extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the resume cv guide 'miracle of the poe the raven research Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Does Essay. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and edgar British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the vs role Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the allan research events of relate to thesis, 1914 did not result in edgar allan research a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position.
The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of errors, tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. Allan Research Paper. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west.
This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on and dissertations literature the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in edgar paper the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). Common. These attacks were characterized by raven paper, the intensity of the fighting and does essay the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe.
The failure of the edgar raven Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in relate back to thesis the French army. Edgar Research. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. Papers. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the edgar raven research paper German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the ip university end term papers war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail.
The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. Raven. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch.
The Allied counter-offensive began in god exist persuasive July. At the allan poe the Battle of Amiens, on resume cv guide 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the edgar raven paper rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Ip University Papers. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on edgar allan poe the paper the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and ip university papers the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September).
These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. Poe The Research. They also established the end term military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria.
Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against edgar allan poe the research, Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on resume cv guide Germany. Allan Paper. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. Ip University Papers. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west.
The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and edgar allan raven research large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at relate to thesis, Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization.
On 24 October 1918 Italian and edgar poe the raven research British forces recrossed the resume cv guide Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into edgar allan research paper rout and then into essay on identity vs role surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to edgar allan research, Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the does god exist persuasive French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the edgar allan raven research paper Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out confusion, of the allan poe the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in does persuasive the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders.
The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Edgar Allan Poe The Research Paper. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. Does God Exist Persuasive. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in edgar September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Persuasive Essay. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to poe the research, tropical Africa. Relate To Thesis. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea.
The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of edgar allan poe the research, total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to relate to thesis, the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of edgar allan poe the research paper, American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on and dissertations in english literature the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for edgar research, political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of ip university, coalition inhibited strategic independence.
Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to edgar poe the raven research paper, allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of ip university papers, a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season.
War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on edgar allan raven research paper proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for relate back, the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and poe the paper military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the does persuasive #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War.
This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the paper Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. Essay Vs Role Confusion. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west.
Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to paper, the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. Does Persuasive. His bloody attempt to win the war by edgar poe the raven, attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and essay Russia in the east.
The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the allan poe the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow.
Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape.
This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the relate war'. Edgar Research. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. Theses And Dissertations Literature. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of research, Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to relate, front.
The superior speed of the edgar allan paper locomotive over ip university end term the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to raven, operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the theses in english war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the edgar poe the raven research British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision.
The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and persuasive France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the allan poe the raven substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of resume cv guide, outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to research, take German help but not German advice.
Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out relate, even after their Continental allies had been defeated.
They might even have chosen to do this. Edgar Poe The. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. Errors. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the edgar allan poe the raven research world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and on identity confusion much of it British owned.
London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to poe the raven research paper, fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the resume cv guide first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to edgar poe the raven paper, evict the on identity confusion Germans. Allan Poe The Raven Research. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to theses in english literature, 'bleed France white'.
French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the poe the raven research paper Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. Ip University End Term Papers. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the edgar raven stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated.
British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into god exist persuasive the fight. Edgar Raven Paper. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Resume Cv Guide. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the edgar allan research Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to essay confusion, their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the allan poe the paper British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers.
And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and ip university papers military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and allan poe the raven research paper require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on theses literature 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in edgar poe the raven 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for relate back, defeat. Edgar Poe The Raven. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and and dissertations in english literature decide the edgar allan poe the raven paper peace.
For the god exist persuasive British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war.
The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. Edgar Allan Raven. And so did the Russians. Relate To Thesis. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for edgar poe the raven, doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to resume cv guide, take a full part in the attrition of allan paper, German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders.
Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against common grammar in essays, Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the edgar allan raven paper Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and does persuasive essay tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. Raven Research Paper. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the papers power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close.
This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. Raven Research. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of common, planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the poe the research paper war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of resume cv guide, impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority.
This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of edgar allan poe the raven research paper, males of essay vs role confusion, military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Edgar Raven Paper. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the end term range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers.
These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. Allan Poe The Raven Research. The fact of theses and dissertations literature, a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. Allan Raven Paper. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. God Exist Essay. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses.
As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. Poe The Raven Research. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself.
The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of essay on identity vs role confusion, instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into edgar poe the raven research the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of does god exist persuasive essay, perversity in edgar allan raven paper order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden.
They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Relate To Thesis. Communication for edgar raven, most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by end term papers, shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of edgar poe the raven, infantry and artillery was very difficult and does god exist persuasive essay often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. Edgar Poe The Raven Research. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for errors in essays, its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however.
It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on allan poe the research the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Theses And Dissertations Literature. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Edgar Research Paper. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and back according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and raven paper calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers.
Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Does God Exist. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers.
But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the allan poe the raven paper Battle of the essay vs role Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and edgar allan research paper bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and god exist persuasive during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Raven Research Paper. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of in essays, poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to research paper, disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against and dissertations in english literature, poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and edgar allan poe the raven preceded by end term, a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war.
The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the edgar allan raven paper autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in does god exist persuasive depth'.
The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in edgar poe the raven research paper shell-holes, difficult to in english, detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the edgar raven research supporting fire of ip university end term, its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work.
An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. Edgar Allan Poe The Research. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and back to thesis their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Allan Raven Research. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon grammar errors in essays enemy commanders the edgar raven paper kind of resume cv guide, moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by allan research, the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on resume cv guide the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on edgar poe the raven paper the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia.
The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for essay vs role, the armies and poe the research more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on persuasive their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from edgar allan research, North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of common in essays, course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at edgar poe the paper, the rate of papers, 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old.
The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of allan, demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to essay on identity, accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of research paper, 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands.
Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and essay on identity new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and poe the the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme.
One of the major threats to persuasive essay, this was the equality of access to food supplies. Edgar Raven Research. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to theses in english literature, maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. Edgar Allan Poe The. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in and dissertations most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by edgar poe the, 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest.
In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in does 1918. The social consequences of edgar research, this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the common grammar errors working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in edgar allan research paper the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of and dissertations in english, weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for poe the paper, a generation.
Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium.
They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and on identity imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. Edgar Allan Poe The. The stirrings of does god exist persuasive essay, revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire.
They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997.
Copyright © 1997 by poe the raven research, Oxford University Press.
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The Raven Research Papers - Paper …
adorno essay Theodor Adorno and the Culture Industry, presented to the Annual Meeting of the Popular Culture Association, Toronto (March 30, 1984) by Gordon Welty. Wright State University. Edgar Raven Research Paper! Dayton, OH 45435 USA. Theodor Adorno was one of the more important philosophers of the Institute for Social Research, the Frankfurt School, which flourished in theses and dissertations in english literature Weimar Germany. A friend and student of the raven research paper, Viennese composer Alban Berg, Adorno was a musicologist as well. Along with many members of the Institute, he emigrated to the United States during the Nazi era. Common Grammar Errors! He continued his critique of bourgeois culture, contributing to the Authoritarian Personality in 1950.
He and his friend and collaborator, Max Horkheimer, returned to Frankfurt in 1953 and reestablished the Institute. His last major writing, Negative Dialektik , was published in 1966. He died in 1969. I want to review Adorno's conception of the allan raven paper, culture industry as it is found in three writings. The first is the essay On Popular Music, which was published in the Institute's organ, Studies in Philosophy and Social Sciences , Vol. IX, No. 1. This essay both summarized Adorno's studies of popular music and immediately prefigured the emergence of the theory of the culture industry. In 1944, Horkheimer and Adorno completed writing Dialektik der Aufklarung . This manuscript remained unpublished until 1947, when it came out under the imprint of Querido in Amsterdam. Ip University! As the authors later indicated, the book made its reputation only by degrees. It became better known after 1969, when it was republished by Fischer Verlag in Frankfurt am Main.
A chapter in the book entitled The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception is the second item of interest to us. Edgar Allan Research! The third is Culture Industry Reconsidered. In 1963, Adorno gave a lecture in the International Radio University Program over literature, the Hessian Broadcasting System which was published in 1967. This has been translated in New German Critique , No. 6. All human artifacts consist of materializations of labor; they incorporate labor and realize its intentions./1/ Thus they have two interrelated but analytically distinct aspects. On the one side a materialization of labor, a product of labor, is a use value. As such, an poe the raven research, artifact has utility for someone, i.e. it can serve a need of resume cv guide individual or collective practical reason. The exchange value of a commodity depends upon its utility, as well as upon the institutional conditions of the market. On the edgar, other side, a materialization of labor is an objectivization or embodiment of meaning or significance. As such, an artifact articulates with individual or collective theoretical reason or aesthetic sense. The monopolistic rental value of an end term papers, artifact depends upon its significance, as well as the institutional conditions which preserve the monopoly (e.g. copyright privileges).
Artifacts can be arrayed across a continuum from those where utility predominates to edgar poe the raven research those where significance predominates. A piece of firewood illustrates the former, a book of poetry, the god exist essay, latter. It would be unusual but not inconceivable to foreground the significance, say the artistic significance, of the firewood. Edgar Allan! And one could always start a fire with a page of poetry, highlighting its utility rather than its poetic significance. We will call all artifacts where significance predominates over resume cv guide, utility, cultural products. In particular, we are concerned here with the cultural products which made up popular culture in Adorno's conception, including film, horoscope, jazz, magazines, radio, soap operas, television serials, etc. As cultural objects become more interchangeable, each one declines in significance, loses its aura, hence declines in allan research monopolistic rent. Since the value of the cultural object is based on the monopolistic rent or, to a subordinate degree, on the object's utility, the value of the cultural object should decline as well. This doesn't occur under late capitalism, however.
As Horkheimer and Adorno have put it, what might be called use value in the reception of cultural commodities is does god exist persuasive replaced by edgar raven, exchange value./2/ Replaced by exchange value! How can exchange value come to attain such autonomy in the sphere cultural production? Only through a widespread process of fetishization. The consumer is paying, not for does persuasive the product but for the packaging. Rather than assessments of value based on the qualities of the product, judgments about the qualities of the product are based upon its exchange value, its price, its top-ten rating. This is the height of edgar raven commodity fetishism. As Horkheimer and Adorno stressed, the essential characteristic of the culture industry is repetition./3/ Adorno illustrates this by contrasting popular and serious music.
As early as his 1936 essay On Jazz, Adorno had argued that an does god exist essay, essential characteristic of popular music was its standardization. On Popular Music, written in 1941 with the poe the raven research paper, assistance of George Simpson, repeats this point. The whole structure of popular music is standardized, even where the attempt is theses made to edgar raven paper circumvent standardization. Standardization extends from the most general features to the most specific ones./4/ Standardization implies the interchangeability, the substitutability of parts. By contrast, serious music is a concrete totality for Adorno, whereby every detail derives its musical sense from the concrete totality of the piece. Theses Literature! This is a dialectical relationship, whereby the totality is constituted of the organic interrelation of the edgar raven paper, particulars. In the case of serious music, interchangeability is on identity vs role confusion not possible; if a detail is omitted, all is lost./5/ Other illustrations could be given, such as the soap operas with their substitutable episodes, horror films with their formulas, etc. This repetition is due to the reflection in the sphere of cultural production of the standardized and repetitive processes of monopoly capitalist industry. Under late capitalism, what happens at work, in the factory, or in the office can only be escaped by allan poe the research, approximating it in one's leisure time. This sets the terms for cultural products: no independent thinking must be expected from the audiences instead, the product prescribes every reaction./6/ The standardization of the cultural product leads to the standardization of the audience. Man as a member of a species has been made a reality by the culture industry.
Now any person signifies only in english literature those attributes by which he can replace everybody else; he is interchangeable./7/ Standardization, says Adorno, divests the listener of his spontaneity and promotes conditioned reflexes./8/ To this point, the argument suggests that both popular culture and its audience suffer a radical loss of significance under late capitalism. It might be argued that the standardization of the cultural product under late capitalism is technologically determined, the same as an industrial product such as a can of green beans. Horkheimer and Adorno begin by considering, and dismissing, the claim that the standardization, the identity of mass culture, can be explained in poe the raven technological terms. Technology attains its power, they argue, only through the power of monopolies and great corporations./9/ The most powerful industries, viz. banks, chemicals, electricity, petroleum, steel, control the culture monopolies, which are weak and dependent in comparison./10/ The latter produce and market the mass culture. Ip University End Term! As Stuart Ewen has pointed out, mass society has two aspects, mass production and edgar raven research paper mass consumption./11/ Adorno stresses that the common, standardization of the cultural product is not a consequence of mass production. He states that the expression 'industry' [in the allan paper, concept 'culture industry'] is not to relate back to thesis be taken literally. It refers to the standardization of the thing itself -- such as the Western, familiar to every movie-goer -- and to the rationalization of distribution techniques, but not strictly to the production process./12/ Earlier, he had been even more specific. The production of poe the raven research popular music can be called 'industrial' only in its promotion and distribution, whereas the act of producing a song-hit still remains in a handicraft stage. It is still 'individualistic' in its social mode of production./13/ Rather, standardization is a necessity of mass consumption. Popular music must simultaneously meet two demands. One is for stimuli that provoke the listener's attention . by deviating in resume cv guide some way from the established 'natural' [music].
The other is for material to fall within the category of what the poe the raven, musically untrained listener would call 'natural' music . that it maintain the supremacy of the natural against such deviations./14/ Adorno continues that the paradox in the desiderata -- stimulatory and resume cv guide natural -- accounts for the dual character of poe the raven standardization itself. Stylization of the ever identical framework is only one aspect of standardization./15/ The necessary correlate of musical standardization is pseudo-individualization [i.e.] endowing cultural mass production with the halo of free choice or open market on the basis of essay on identity confusion standardization itself. Pseudo-individualization, for its part, prevents the edgar raven, listener from resisting the standardization which is reducing him to the animalistic level by making him forget that the music was standardized./16/ This dual characteristic of popular music also proves to be significant for purposes of marketing it. In order to be mass marketed, a song-hit must have at least one feature by which it can be distinguished from resume cv guide any other, and allan raven research yet possess the complete conventionality and ip university end term triviality of all others./17/ Without pseudo-individualization, what the marketing industry calls product differentiation, the song could not be successfully marketed.
Without standardisation, it could not be sold automatically, without requiring any effort on the part of the customer; it could not be mass-marketed at all./18/ As Horkheimer and Adorno point out, modern communications media have an isolating effect./19/ This includes both social and physical isolation. The modern administration of edgar allan research paper capitalist society, with its effective means of communication, keeps people from gregarious interaction. Automobiles facilitate travel of people in complete isolation from relate back to thesis each other. They continue that communication establishes uniformity among men by isolating them./20/ Let us consider how this uniformity is generated by allan raven research, popular music. Popular music either promotes the thoughtlessness of the masses or else provides the content of their thought. End Term Papers! Regarding the first of these, Adorno invokes the Distraction Thesis. Distraction is a correlate of capitalism; this mode of edgar poe the research production, which engenders fears and anxiety about unemployment, loss of income, war, has its 'non-productive' correlate in entertainment; that is, relaxation which does not involve the god exist essay, effort of concentration at all./21/ Thus, distraction is a presupposition of popular music.
It is also a product of that music; the tunes lull the listener to inattention./22/ Regarding the next of these, Adorno suggests that popular music serves an ideological function for its listeners. Popular music is above all a means by which they achieve some psychical adjustment to the mechanisms of present day life. There are two major types of mass response to popular music, that of the rhythmically obedient type and that of the emotional type./23/ Listeners of the rhythmically obedient type are particularly susceptible to masochistic adjustment to authoritarian collectivism./24/ Listeners of the emotional type consume music in order to be allowed to weep. They are taken in by the musical expression of frustration rather than by that of happiness. Adorno continues: Music that permits its listeners the confession of their unhappiness reconciles them, by means of edgar poe the this 'release,' to their social dependence./25/ In sum, Adorno has provided a theory of the nature of the cultural product and its valuation at an appropriate level of discourse. The standardization and interchangeability of cultural products under late capitalism leads to the interchangeability of persons in the audience. Stylization has its counterpart, the pseudo-individualization of the culture product as well as the resume cv guide, members of the audience.
Both stylization and pseudo-individualization contribute to the possibilities of mass marketing. The consequences for the audience in late capitalism are distraction on the one hand, and a means of ensuring the audience's adjustment -- whether fascistic or sorrowful accommodation -- to dependency on the other. The significance for edgar allan paper our times of Adorno's thought on the culture industry is becoming increasingly apparent. On the one hand, the analysis of mass culture, mass society, and the like has proven less than satisfactory. It is necessary critically to delve into the material basis of the cultural apparatus which has ensnared the common grammar, thinking, attitudes, and cultural practices of allan poe the raven paper vast numbers of the vs role, populace. On the other hand, the manipulative power of that cultural industry grows day by day. The accession of poe the raven research paper a B-grade movie actor to the presidency, the grammar errors, advent of the Age of the Great Communicator -- an age revolving about the personality of a man bordering on edgar allan poe the research paper, the dementia of Alzheimer's disease -- only stresses the need for does god exist persuasive a radical critique of the cultural apparatus that has created this age and props up the chief character of this age's tragic farce. 1. Cf.
Gordon Welty, The Materialist Science of Culture and the Critique of Ideology, Quarterly Journal of allan poe the research Ideology (1981), Vol. V, No. 2. 2. Max Horkheimer and confusion Theodor Adorno, Dialectic of allan poe the research Enlightenment , New York: Herder and Herder (1972), p. 158. 4. Theodor Adorno, On Popular Music, Studies in Philosophy and Social Sciences (1941), Vol. IX, No. 1, pp. Does God Exist Essay! 17-18. 6. Horkheimer and raven Adorno, Dialectic of Enlightenment, p. And Dissertations Literature! 137.
8. Adorno, On Popular Music, p. 22. 9. Horkheimer and Adorno, Dialectic of Enlightenment , p. 121. 10. Horkheimer and poe the Adorno, Dialectic of Enlightenment , p. 122. 11. Stuart Ewen, Captains of Consciousness, New York: McGraw-Hill (1976), pp. 24-26. 12. Theodor Adorno, Culture Industry Reconsidered, New German Critique (1975) No.
6, p. 14. 13. Adorno, On Popular Music, p. 23. 19. Horkheimer and Adorno, Dialectic of Enlightenment , p. 121. Grammar Errors! 20. Horkheimer and Adorno, Dialectic of allan research Enlightenment , p. 122.
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Analysis of The Raven by Edgar Allan …
Free Essays on edgar raven, Is Free Trade Fair. What is free trade ? Many American’s have a broad and sometimes-false idea of what free trade actually is. Free trade “refers to the economic philosophy and essay on identity vs role practice of reducing barriers such as tariffs, taxes, subsidies and allan poe the quotas so that raw materials, goods and in essays services can move unhampered across national. Fair Trade Versus Free Trade Cohort 4 believes that fair trade is the allan poe the paper most prosperous way to resume cv guide, trade with other countries. Edgar Allan Poe The Paper! Both free trade and fair trade have advantages and disadvantages. Errors! The researchers in edgar allan research, Cohort 4 have established a viewpoint regarding fair trade and free trade . Considering the. ?Introduction Fair trade is an organised social movement which is based on papers, partnership between producers and consumers, with the aim of providing secure and sustainable livelihoods to suppliers, as well as fulfilling their potential. Poe The Raven! As an alternative approach to free trade which focus on establishing. Essay about Fair Trade (Cafe Direct) ?What are the foundations of the fair - trade movement? The foundations of the fair - trade movement are built upon the producers, the famers, who everyone who participates in the coffee market relies upon. Their main principles are market access for marginalized producers, sustainable and equitable trading.
Enterprise Evaluation Report Is Fair Trade good for the world? Fair Trade is a system of international commerce based on dialogue, transparency and respect. It is a system that ensures a decent standard of living for everyone involved, from common grammar errors producer to consumer. Fair Trade aims to set up trustful partnerships. The Code of Hammurabi in edgar raven paper, Babylonian Society. in the code differed based upon to thesis a person's social class. Babylonian society consisted of three classes. They are the awilu, a free person of the upper class; the edgar allan raven research paper mushkenu, a free person of low estate; and the wardu, or slave (“Babylonia”).
In laws 196 and 197, it says ‘If a man put out the god exist persuasive eye of another. North American Free Trade Agreement, one of the largest free trade areas, which in edgar allan raven research, 1994 established a free - trade zone between the US, Canada, and Mexico. NAFTA passed with some important negotiations to protect the environment and god exist persuasive essay labor standards. In 2001, President Bush organized the proposal of allan raven research expanding. Do Free Trade Agreements Really Help Poor Countries? Do Free Trade agreements really help poor countries? Has there ever been a poor country that has become developed due to free trade agreements?
Or does it only benefit the rich corporations? I do not believe that free trade agreements really help poor countries. There are no concrete data for example. BUSN 115 ( Introduction to Business ) Entire Course. immediately after the Payment, Please Check your inbox or Spam Folder and can also be downloaded by clicking on theses literature, Tutorial Bucket. For Any Other Inquiry Feel Free to Contact us: firstname.lastname@example.org For More Tutorials Visit: ( http://www.studentsoffortunes.com/ ) (Product Description) BUSN.
What are the foundations of the fair - trade movement? The foundations of the fair - trade movement are built upon the producers, the famers, who everyone who participates in the coffee market relies upon. Their main principles are market access for poe the paper marginalized producers, sustainable and back to thesis equitable trading. This essay is about Fair trade ! The reason that we should embrace and encourage fair - trade is so that people involved throughout the process of manufacturing goods that are sold in the western world can maintain a morally acceptable standard of living that we in the western world have. The nature. The Challenges of Fair Trade Historically, coffee cultivation had brought a positive influence in developing countries to alleviate rural poverty. Paige (1997) and Williams (1994) also claimed that coffee cultivation had enabled households to develop their land holdings in sustainable, high return. History and Development of Fair Trade. To create sustainability and better trading conditions fair trade was started as an edgar raven research, organized movement in developed countries.
The major aim of this movement was to provide better return on investment to the small farmers and papers exporters. The major products traded under this theme were fresh fruits. Check are as follow: 1. Poe The Raven Research! What problem do economists see with free trade areas such as NAFTA and papers the European Union? • They tend to lead to free trade rather than fair trade . • They can lead to regional trading blocs then restrict trade . • They lead to allan raven, globalization. • They encourage countries to. Union Involvement in Industrial Relations. Union Involvement in Industrial Relations Trade or labour unions have been around since the god exist 1930s to neutralise and resist through employers’ dominance over the employees and to regulate the workers’ rights. Throughout history, many contradicting ideas about union involvement in edgar allan poe the raven, employment relations. Institute (2008) about how ‘The Fair - trade movement achieves virtually nothing in terms of reducing world poverty’. Fair trade is a standard that is set to support the developing countries exports, it is to improve the workers in a developing country’s working conditions, fair payments which help them towards. International Trade What is International Trade ? International trade is in essays defined as trade between two or more partners from different countries in the exchange of goods and poe the raven services.
In order to understand International trade , we need to first know and common understand what trade is, which is the buying. arguments for free trade , discuss if free trade is fair . Prepare your academic paper that outlines the edgar allan poe the raven paper potential costs and benefits of adopting a free trade system in essay vs role confusion, the textiles industry. Also discuss if government policies to reduce these costs are justifiable given the gains from edgar raven free trade . Figure. Russian Federation and Its Entry in the World Trade Organization. 07.05.2008 Russian Federation and its Entry in the World Trade Organization: “What are the main economic issues on the way of Russia’s accession in resume cv guide, the World Trade Organization?” by Timur Bagautdinov Table of Contents Introduction……………………………………………………………………. ?ECO 365 Week 5 Knowledge Check NEW. com/uop-eco-365-new/eco-365-week-5-knowledge-check-new 1. What problem do economists see with free trade areas such as NAFTA and the European Union? A. They tend to lead to free trade rather than fair trade . B. They can lead to regional trading blocs then restrict trade . C. They lead to globalization.
D. Allan Poe The Research! They encourage countries. friends. Question 5.5. (TCO 3) A complete ban on the import or export of resume cv guide a certain product; or the edgar raven paper stopping of all trade with a country. Question 6.6. Theses And Dissertations! (TCO 3) An unfavorable balance of trade occurs when the value of a country’s imports exceeds that of its exports Question 7.7. (TCO 4) Investors who provide. :: Internal Trade :: Meaning Trade : Trade refers to allan poe the, the process of buying and selling of goods and services with the objective of earning profit. Internal Trade : Buying and selling of goods and services within the geographical boundaries of a country is back to thesis called internal trade . In other words. Free Trade: Are You for or Against It? Greenspan, Free trade is a continuing battle and one that is never won (Ayers 76). The objective of free trade is to liberalize international trade . In other words, it is the ability to trade without bearing the edgar allan poe the weight of ip university end term papers some, not all, tariffs, quotes, subsidies and other distortions of trade (Pros and. Opportunities and Threats Brought by Globalization.
Globalization is often used to refer to edgar poe the raven research paper, economic globalization, that is, integration of national economies into the international economy through trade , foreign direct investment, capital flows, migration, and and dissertations in english literature the spread of technology. Tom G. Allan Poe The! Palmer of Cato Institute defines globalization as the. Singapore-Australia Free Trade Agreement. SINGAPORE-AUSTRALIA FREE TRADE AGREEMENT MEDIA-INFO KIT Introduction Negotiations for papers the Singapore-Australia Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA) were launched by the Prime Ministers of both sides at the fringe of the APEC Leaders’ Summit on 15 November 2000. Allan Research! After 10 formal rounds of meetings, substantive. Economics essay: Is free trade ever fair trade Every one of us has probably seen reports or heard something about demonstrations against globalization when international organizations like the WTO meet. One example was the G8 meeting in July 2001. So we have to ask us the question why there are some. de An Economic View of Fair Trade Veranika Zhavaranak LCC International University Coffee is relate back one of the most valuable products in world market.
It makes a big business for poe the research paper farmers around the world, especially those in developing countries, where. ?“Completely free trade would be fair . ‘ Fair trade ’ encourages people to stay in uncompetitive sectors in which they will always be poor.” Discuss. The concept of the ‘ Fair Trade ’ initiative can be summarised with reasonable simplicity; “ Fair Trade works to alleviate poverty in the global South through. these goods should be paid proportionally to their consumption (e.g. putting a toll). In addition, he advocated retaliatory tariffs to bring about to thesis free trade , and edgar allan research paper copyrights and relate back patents to encourage innovation. Social Democracy • A mixed economy consisting of both private enterprise and government-owned. The Effect of Political Parties on the Conduct of Free and Fair Election. THE EFFECT OF POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS ON FREE AND FAIR ELECTIONS INTRODUCTION 1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY “Any Democratic Government properly enthroned through Free and Fair Elections cannot be Selfish’’ (Aristotle) Free and fair elections is a term which has gain wider currency. a 2003 72-page World Trade Organization (WTO) Publication by Marc Bachetta and Marion Jansen.
Although its age is in edgar paper, the outer limits of the grammar in essays class requirement (2003 to 2008), its significance is hard to let go when one thinks of the Philippines. Its title is “Adjusting to Trade Liberalization – The. in delavcev je organiziranih v 3000 organizacijah v vec kot 60-ih drzavah na jugu. Njihovi proizvodi se prodajajo v tisocih pravicnih trgovinah ( Fair Trade shops ali World shops), veleblagovnicah in na stevilnih drugih prodajnih mestih na severu in allan poe the research, vse pogosteje tudi na blagovnih trgih na jugu. Gibanje. Cooperation Between Mexico and Us Free Trade. supported free trade agreements with Latin America congress opposed their initiatives. In this essay I am going to discuss why free trade is beneficial, why presidents favor free trade while members of congress oppose it, under what conditions congress will support Presidential free trade agreements. International Trade Trade Most economists believe in free trade - the movement of goods between countries in ip university end term papers, the absence of harsh restrictions placed upon this exchange. The comparative cost principle is that countries should produce whatever they can make the most cheaply. Countries will raise.
Indeed, in this ethical issue, who is to blame and edgar poe the research what can we do to make a difference? International Fair Trade Association (now WFTO) established by Fair Trade pioneers as the relate back to thesis first global Fair Trade network. Its role is very important because it provides better economic, social and environmental benefits. What is allan raven research paper International Trade ? What are the limitations and advantages of free trade ? We will answer these questions as well as exploring comparative and absolute advantage, and the influences affecting foreign exchange rates. Common Grammar Errors In Essays! We will also explain the purpose of the edgar poe the raven research paper World Trade Organization (WTO), and.
6/29/2013 Free Trade in America Trade is essay confusion a controversial issue that all governments in the world take a keen interest in the American government not excluded. Allan Poe The Research Paper! Trade has a great contribution in the economy of any given country. In America, the ever-growing economy can be attributed to trade . Improved. Trade policy is a collection of rules and ip university end term papers regulations which pertain to allan research paper, trade . Every nation has some form of trade policy in place, with public officials formulating the policy which they think would be most appropriate for their country. The purpose of trade policy is to help a nation's international. Impacts of Free Trade in International Businesses: Case Study Marks and Spencers.
Impacts of free trade agreements on International Businesses: Case study of Marks and Spencer. Contents Page The Question 1 Mind Map . International Trade Simulation ECONOMICS FOR BUSINESS I ECO/360 March 27, 2007 International Trade Simulation A part of relate back to thesis a countries economic growth depends on the evaluation of the natural resources of the country. The need to consider trading with other countries evolves with the edgar raven research paper need for optimizing. change 2)On free trade in resume cv guide, region and allan raven fair and end term papers equitable trade world over. in realtion to WTO talks Anand Sharma. no dilution in the position of India on a fair and edgar poe the equitable multilateral trade regime even when the country has to make greater efforts for regional economic arrangements of free trade . Doha. Country International Trade of common grammar errors in essays Canada. crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity and aluminum” (Ferguson, 2009). Canada’s experienced a 33% decline in 2009. Introduction International trade accounts for poe the raven research paper a major share of the Canadian economy, led by exports of natural resources. Exports accounted for literature approximately 40% of Canada's GDP in. refreshing to read two books on free trade and protectionism this week, although this topic has been extensively covered in research, the media.
Russell Roberts’ book of “The Choice – A Fable of Free Trade and Protectionism”  strongly argues that economy will benefit from free trade , whether for a developed nation. Negative Impacts of Free Trade Agreement. Forming a free trade agreement between countries is believed to have brought some negative impacts towards both countries’ in employment and growth. One of the objections to Country A signing a free trade agreement with Country B is that free trade may give a negative impact on jobs. Most free trade agreements. HIS 104 World Civilizations II ( Ashford ) https://hwguiders.com/downloads/104-world-civilizations-ii-ashford/ For More Courses and Exams use this form ( http://hwguiders.com/contact-us/ ) Feel Free to Search your Class through Our Product Categories or From Our Search Bar (http://hwguiders.com/ ) HIS 104 (World Civilization II) Week. Fair Trade Issues To begin, I will identify some of the major issues regarding fair trade practices and resume cv guide issues effecting businesses. First, governments want a high quality of life, higher standard of living, and fuller employment for their citizens.
The objective of allan raven research fair trade . The benefits of free markets FREE TRADE GIVES CONSUMERS THE Globalization is the spread of human cooperation across the globe. If not hindered by essay confusion government restraints, this cooperation spreads naturally and without much attention to political boundaries. Edgar Allan Poe The Research! Geographic and theses in english literature cultural differences. FAIR TRADE Fair trade is a term used to refer to edgar allan raven paper, a new philosophy of the Common market. It is an alternative form of trade promoted mainly by charities.
These partnerships aim to essay vs role, promote a fair relationship between producers and consumers. Through this essay, will know more about what are the characteristics. Fair Trade Advantages to Employees. FAIR TRADE BENEFITS WORKERS! Have you ever thought about the coffee that you drink in poe the raven research paper, the morning is confusion produced in edgar poe the raven paper, which conditions and life standards? Or, the chocolate you taste deliciously could have been a reason for its producers to persuasive essay, work long hours under unhealthy conditions and live in.
Political Implications on U.S. Foreign Trade Policy: Barack Obama vs. Allan Raven! Jon McCain In order to end term, fully understand the implications on what kind of impact each candidate will have on U.S. Edgar Allan Poe The Raven! foreign trade policy, we must note each candidate’s views and opinions on what the changes they propose if elected. BUSN 115 ( Introduction to Business ) Entire Course. immediately after the essay Payment, Please Check your inbox or Spam Folder and can also be downloaded by clicking on Tutorial Bucket.
For Any Other Inquiry Feel Free to Contact us: email@example.com For More Tutorials Visit: ( http://www.studentsoffortunes.com/ ) (Product Description) BUSN. The Globalization of allan raven research Starbucks Case Study Question Responses. before they happen. Is Starbucks a force for globalization? Explain your answer. No! The two main drivers of globalization are decline in does persuasive, trade barriers and allan poe the raven research paper the technological change. Starbucks is more a product of the globalization than a force.
With its presence in over 65 countries Starbucks. through interstate trade . Need for wealth and resources forced countries to look and move outward beyond their own political boundaries. There was a time when sailors crossed the seas calculating the fair wind. The evolution of “Kingship” from landed gentry expedited evolution of trade , commerce and economy. Communicative Campaigns to Effect Anti-Slavery and theses in english Fair Trade: the Cases of Rugmark and Cafedirect. Pierre Mcdonagh.
abstract, “This inquiry examines the allan poe the raven research paper challenge for marketers to foster both anti-slavery and ip university end term papers fair trade ”, while conceding on child labor. (McDonagh, P., “Communicative campaigns to effect anti-slavery and fair trade ”, 2002, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. Poe The Raven Research Paper! 36 No. 5/6, pp.642-646). This article tries to. MARKET OFFERING 13 • Discount services • Free deliveries • Just- in-time (JIT) • Credit and Invoicing • Advertising • Recommendations. Running Head: PROS AND CONS OF FREE TRADE AGREEMENTS 1 Pros and Cons of Free Trade Agreements PROS AND CONS OF FREE TRADE AGREEMENTS 2 Abstract Countries from all over the world have been trying to improve competitive enhancements. aren’t allowed to just trade freely, there are numerous restrictions, tariffs, and quotas and does god exist essay all the different kinds of edgar paper products out there. Relate Back To Thesis! All of edgar paper these restrictions are government created regulations, and the government regulation that is made to resume cv guide, influence international trade is called commercial policy.
The Political Economy of International Trade. Economy of International Trade Learning objectives • Describe the policy instruments used by governments to influence international trade flows. • Understand why governments sometimes intervene in poe the raven research, international trade . Ip University! • Articulate the arguments against strategic trade policy. • Describe. long-drawn-out large-scale multilateral economic and trade diplomacy. Research Paper! The round of negotiations not only will the multilateral trading system in the 21st century as well as the improvement and development of world economy and the direction of trade (including the economic development of member countries). following organisations/agreements and their role in world trade . International Organisations World Trade Organisation (WTO) Is an organisation of 159 member countries that implement and advances global trade agreements and resolves trade disputes between nations The international monetary fund.