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Awesome Character Drawings: AP Studio Art. For Money Illegal! February 8, 2017 by pnb thesis mcmaster Amiria Gale. For Money! This article features an AP Studio Art Drawing project by Seokkyun Hong, completed while studying Art at Hillcrest High School, Dallas, Texas, United States, 2008. Seokkyun was awarded full marks for his Concentration component (6/6) and was featured on the official AP Collegeboard website, as a learning exemplar for others. His project is essential viewing for any high school Art student who wishes to draw imaginary, fantasy illustrations as part of a traditional Fine Art project.
Rather than falling into pnb thesis, the trap of creating simplistic, cartoon-like copies, Seokkyun produces original and/or modified character designs, integrating these within a realistic setting part of an exceptional body of work entitled #8216;My Space#8217;. His project explores the act of imagining and writing illegal, drawing fantasy characters, surrounded by art supplies, paper, books, headphones, crunched Pepsi cans and why did the us enter ww1 essays, other desk accessories. Seokkyun renders complex three-dimensional forms with ease, demonstrating an outstanding level of observational drawing skill, while continuing to develop and extend his original character illustrations. We were lucky enough to interview Seokkyun about his AP Studio Art Concentration. His responses remind us, yet again, that those who excel in high school Art qualifications are not just technically able, creative students, but those who demonstrate a depth of understanding and intellectual rigour. Many high school Art students are discouraged from writing papers drawing cartoon characters or fantasy creations, due to the risks of katharine drexel essay, producing low-quality copies from second-hand sources. Why did you focus upon character illustration and how did you ensure that you created an outstanding body of work? Seokkyun: I chose this topic for the ease of access to reference materials and for writing papers, the sake of variety. The primary flaws in many fantasy or secondary source drawings are that they provide diminished technical and creative scope, because they are chosen to direction be lazy, rather than to serve a thematic purpose or contrast.
I chose to papers incorporate real life objects, to compensate for management, the fact that the writing original character drawings didn’t provide an opportunity to show adequate skills. It was very important that the flat characters were not the primary subjects of thesis direction, all the drawings. The artwork needed to show coherency, with a willingness to move the focus around, so that nothing in the composition was neglected. As a general tip, if you can demonstrate any form of concrete and solid understanding of one subject, this can carry you very far. Whether it be color, form, or lighting, if one thing looks really realistic, people are often willing to overlook other inconsistencies or blemishes in writing for money, the work. It also helps if you switch up the thesis focus. While I incorporated original designs and modified copied characters, not all works feature these prominently as the center of attention. Seokkyun#8217;s AP Studio Art Concentration project has a rich #8216;story-teller#8217; quality to it. The contemporary mechanical figures draw aesthetic influences from the surrounding accessories, such as an egg timer, decorative cup and writing papers, saucer and how to buy research papers, antique rhinoceros pen holder. The reflective surfaces and consistent light sources demonstrate a superb understanding of papers for money illegal, tone.
The works invite us into the mind of an thesis direction illustrator, engaging and captivating the viewer, as we envision illustrations climbing from the page. Your project contains exceptional, well-balanced compositions, with a highly imaginative interaction between the desk setting and papers for money, illustrations. How did you come up with ideas for composing your artworks? Seokkyun: Observations from various sources were combined to make the compositions. I had an idea for management, what general arrangements I wanted the writing papers illegal pictures to take and it was basically a building process to make the reference materials work, which I photographed for later use. If the desired objects were unavailable to why did the us enter me I had to make do with reference pictures. Compositions are always difficult when trying to work from reference photographs.
Human eyes don#8217;t see things in a solid rectangular frame, and the contextual bias is always formed from writing illegal sight. It helps when you take your own photographs, or work from life, since you get a tactile understanding of what the objects involved are doing and how light and why did the us enter, darkness plays out. The color relationship is also something that needs to be seen physically to fully grasp. The hardest thing to do was separate the for money illegal conventional notion of pnb thesis, what the papers thing is supposed to on heritage be, and what it looks like in context. The reflected lighting from the writing for money surroundings and the compositional flow of the picture forced compromises between the eyes and paper. The only imperative in my compositions was that every piece interacted and that nothing was taken for essay management, granted. Empty areas were filled with a change in tone or color; details must have some relevance or companions to make them not glaring. Papers For Money Illegal! I decided that things couldn#8217;t touch without being at tangent; nothing could meet on a point, etc.
Demonstrating competence in a range of mediums (oil paint on the left, pencil on katharine drexel essay the right), Seokkyun plays with the notion of his identity as an papers illegal illustrator; the thesis direction act of drawing itself is captured through the movement of the pencil, using a transparent after-image effect. Your handling of mediums and observational drawing skills are exceptional. How did you develop this level of skill and what advice do you have for other students who struggle with this? Seokkyun: I was fortunate to grow up in the household were art was plentiful and visual mediums like movies and cartoons were well respected. Writing Papers! While I did draw, I was not skilful at all. For those fellow artists struggling, a lesson I learned in college: practice doesn#8217;t make perfect, perfect practice makes perfect. Drawing endlessly alone will not help you.
Drawing with understanding of why things work the way they work will give you the most benefit. Fight! Also I recommend that people question the intent of the work more than anything. Question what ideas the original artists were looking at. In these AP Studio Art Concentration examples, imaginary illustrations are shown as drawings on sheets of paper, surrounded by other realistic three-dimensional forms. With undulating shadows falling across all items, the works contain stunning tonal variation and subtle layers of colour. What other advice do you have for other high school Art students who wish to gain excellent grades? Seokkyun: You have to jump the hurdle.
Art is not leisurely nor is it determined by talent. It#8217;s a very open skill field that demands self-sufficiency. There will be a wall that one hits and you have to papers push through. Do not push through with brute force though. Fight Club Marxism! When something in your art isn#8217;t working, doing it fifty million times will not save you. Figure out alternative solutions, don#8217;t be afraid to papers experiment and attempt to start all over again. Find yourself a good critic. A person who will say something beyond #8220;looks good#8221; or #8220;meh#8221;. Make sure they offer solutions to their critique as well. You have to jump the hurdle.
Art is not leisurely nor is it determined by talent. It#8217;s a very open skill field that demands self-sufficiency. It is hoped that Seokkyun#8217;s AP Studio Art project reassures those students who wish to draw fantasy illustrations (but feel that they can#8217;t or shouldn#8217;t) and highlights a possible path towards success. How To! If you enjoyed this article, you may wish to view more of for money illegal, our Featured Art Projects. This article was written by Amiria Gale. Amiria has been a teacher of Art Design and why did the us enter, a Curriculum Co-ordinator for writing for money illegal, seven years, responsible for the course design and assessment of Art and pnb thesis mcmaster, Design work in two high-achieving Auckland schools. Amiria has a Bachelor of papers illegal, Architectural Studies, Bachelor of Architecture (First Class Honours) and a Graduate Diploma of Teaching.
She is marxism essays a CIE Accredited Art Design Coursework Assessor. Follow Student Art Guide on writing for money illegal Pinterest. Join over 15,000 people who receive our free newsletter. Thesis! You will be notified first when free resources are available: new art project ideas, teaching handouts, printable lesson plans, tips and advice from experienced teachers. What are you waiting for?
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Free Online Strategy Innovation Training | businessballs.com. Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Free business planning and papers illegal, marketing tips, samples, examples and fight essays, tools - how to write a business plan, techniques for writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and sales plans. Business Planning and writing papers, Marketing Strategy. Table of contents. 1. Club! business plans and papers for money, marketing strategy. business plans and marketing strategy. free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and tools - how to write a business plan, techniques for ww1 essays writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and sales plans. Here are tips, examples, techniques, tools and a process for writing business plans to produce effective results. This free online guide explains how to writing papers write a marketing or business strategy, a basic business plan, and a sales plan, using free templates, tools and examples, such as SWOT Analysis, PEST Analysis, the 'Ansoff Matrix' and the 'Boston Matrix'. Separately the marketing guide offers more specific explanation and theories and tools for marketing strategy and marketing planning, including techniques and enter, tips for writing for money illegal advertising, public relations (PR), press and media publicity, sales enquiry lead generation, advertising copy-writing, internet and website marketing, etc.
The sales training guide offers detailed theories and pnb thesis mcmaster, methods about sales planning and selling, extending to cold calling and writing papers, negotiation skills and techniques, especially relating to selling. Sometimes people use the term business plan when they are referring to a project. It may or may not be appropriate to use the term 'business planning' for a project. Some projects are very substantial and equate to essay an autonomous (independent) business activity, in which case a business plan is entirely appropriate. Papers! Other projects are smaller, perhaps limited to katharine drexel essay contest internal change or development, and papers for money illegal, are less likely to require a conventional business plan, and are quite adequately planned and managed via project management methods. Business planning terminology can be confusing because much of it is mcmaster, used very loosely, and can mean different things. Here is a way to understand it better: Terminology in business planning is papers, often used very loosely. When people talk and write about papers, business planning different terms may mean the same thing, and writing papers for money, a single term can mean different things. The term 'business planning' itself covers all sorts of different plans within a business, or potentially within a non-commercial organization.
The words 'strategy' and 'strategic' arise often in the subject of buisness planning, although there is no actual difference between a 'business plan' and a 'strategic business plan'. Every business plan is thesis direction, arguably 'strategic'. Everyone involved in planning arguably adopts a 'strategic' approach. Most businesses and plans are primarily driven or determined by market needs and aims . This increasingly applies to many non-commercial activities (government services, education, health, charities, etc), whose planning processes may also be described as 'business planning', even though such organizations may not be businesses in the way we normally imagine. In such non-commercial organizations, 'business planning' might instead be called 'organizational planning', or 'operational planning', or 'annual planning' or simply 'planning'. Papers For Money! Essentially all these terms mean the same, and why did the us enter ww1 essays, increasingly the tendency is for 'business planning' to become a generic (general) term to refer to them. I should clarify that finance is of course a major and unavoidable aspect of business and writing papers illegal, organizational activities, but in drexel, terms of planning, finance is writing for money illegal, a limiting or enabling factor; finance is essay on heritage, a means to an end, or a restriction; finance in itself is not a basis for growth or strategy. Markets/customers, product/service development, and sales, provide the only true basis for businesses to define direction, development, growth, etc., and thereby business strategy and planning. Business planning always starts with or revisits the basic aim or need to provide products or services to customers - also called a market or 'market-place'.
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Additional help regarding terminology is papers for money illegal, offered by pnb thesis mcmaster, the business planning definitions below. Illegal! Other definitions and explanations are offered in thesis, the business glossary, and in the shorter glossaries of the sales and marketing sections. Terminology will be further explained to clarify meaning and writing for money illegal, avoid confusion throughout this article. Approached correctly, writing business plans and marketing strategy is usually simpler than first seems. Business planning may seem complex and daunting but mostly it is common sense. Marketing strategy - which often drives the aims and 'shape' of fight a business plan - is mostly common sense too. Business plans, and the strategy which drives them, are based on logic, or cause and effect : I want to achieve a certain result - so what will cause this to happen? Even the biggest business plan is effectly built on papers a collection of lots of causes and effects.
A written business plan provides the narrative (explanation) of the numbers contained in a spreadsheet. When we see lots of numbers in a computer spreadsheet we can forget this, but the numbers are merely a reflection of scale and detail, and of computerised calculations and modelling, etc. In fact often when we are confronted with a complex planning spreadsheet containing thousands of numbers, what we are actually being offered is a ready-made planning tool. In many cases, where business planning is a continuation of an ongoing situation, the most frightening spreadsheets can provide a very easy template for future plans, especially with a little help from a colleague in on heritage, the acciounts department who understands how it all works. Ironically, a blank sheet of paper - in other words a 'new business start-up' - is usually a much more challenging starting point.
It is writing for money illegal, generally more difficult to write a business plan for a start-up business (a new business) than for katharine essay an existing business. This is because an papers for money existing business usually has computerised records of the results of past activities and trading (usually called 'accounts'). Spreadsheets are usually available showing previous years plans and actual results, which can be used as a template on which new plans can easily be overlaid. Writing a new business plan for the continuation or development of such an the us enter ww1 essays existing situation obviously enables much of the planning to be based on writing existing figures, ratios, statistics, etc. New business start-up situations by their nature tend to have no previous results, so we often refer to this sort of planning as 'starting with a blank sheet of club marxism paper'. New business start-ups - especially if you are the writing for money, owner or entrepreneur - present bigger planning challenges in some respects because we have no previous records to act as a guide, but in club, other respects they offer wonderful opportunities to create genuinely innovative and exciting founding principles - your own new business philosophy - on which your plans can be built and developed.
On this page there is specific guidance for papers illegal business start-up situations. See the essay, simple business start-up principles. Depending on writing for money the constraints applying in the planning for existing continuous business activities, the thesis direction, principles are very similar for start-up and existing business planning. Papers For Money Illegal! It's essentially cause-and effect, and using the mcmaster, computer to calculate the numbers. A slightly more detailed version is on the quick business/operational plan page. For Money! , and essay on heritage, begins with. To explore personal direction and change (for example for early planning of self-employment or new business start-up) see the passion-to-profit exercise and template on papers illegal the teambuilding exercises page.
See also the simple notes about club, starting your own business, which to an extent also apply when you are starting a new business initiative or development inside another organisation as a new business development manager, or a similar role. Here's a free profit and writing papers for money illegal, loss account spreadsheet template tool (xls) for incorporating these factors and financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. Adapt it to suit your purposes. Papers! This plan example is writing, also available as a PDF, see the katharine drexel essay contest, Profit and Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same. Towards the end of this article there is also a simple template/framework for a feasibility study or justification report, such as might be required to win funding, authorisation or approval for starting a project, or the writing papers, continuation of a project or group, in a commercial or voluntary situation. If you are starting a new business you might also find the tips and information about buying a franchise business to be helpful, since they cover many basic points about choice of business activity and on heritage management, early planning. (Note: Some UK-English and US-English spellings differ, for example organisation/organization, colour/color.
If using these materials please adapt the spellings to suit your situation.) how to write strategic marketing plans, business plans and sales plans. People use various terms referring to the business planning process - business plans, business strategy, marketing strategy, strategic business planning, sales planning - they all cover the papers for money, same basic principles. Ww1 Essays! When faced with business planning or strategy development task it's important to clarify exactly what is required: clarify what needs to be done rather than assume the aim from the writing papers for money, description given to it - terms are confused and mean different things to different people. You'll see from the definitions below how flexible these business planning terms are. a plan - a statement of intent - a calculated intention to organize effort and resource to on heritage achieve an outcome - in this context a plan is in written form, comprising explanation, justification and relevant numerical and financial statistical data. In a business context a plan's numerical data - costs and revenues - are normally scheduled over at least one trading year, broken down weekly, monthly quarterly and cumulatively.
a business - an papers illegal activity or entity, irrespective of size and autonomy, which is why did ww1 essays, engaged in for money, an activity, normally the provision of products and/or services, to produce commercial gain, extending to non-commercial organizations whose aim may or may not be profit (hence why public service sector schools and hospitals are in this context referred to as 'businesses'). business plan - this is now rightly a very general and flexible term, applicable to the planned activities and aims of any entity, individual group or organization where effort is mcmaster, being converted into results , for example: a small company; a large company; a corner shop; a local window-cleaning business; a regional business; a multi-million pound multi-national corporation; a charity; a school; a hospital; a local council; a government agency or department; a joint-venture; a project within a business or department; a business unit, division, or department within another organization or company, a profit centre or cost centre within an an organization or business; the writing papers, responsibility of a team or group or an individual. The business entity could also be a proposed start-up, a new business development within an existing organization, a new joint-venture, or any new organizational or business project which aims to why did the us enter ww1 essays convert action into results. The extent to which a business plan includes costs and overheads activities and resources (eg., production, research and development, warehouse, storage, transport, distribution, wastage, shrinkage, head office, training, bad debts, etc) depends on the needs of the writing, business and the purpose of the plan. Large 'executive-level' business plans therefore look rather like a 'predictive profit and why did enter, loss account', fully itemised down to the 'bottom line'. Papers! Business plans written at business unit or departmental level do not generally include financial data outside the department concerned.
Most business plans are in effect sales plans or marketing plans or departmental plans, which form the main bias of club this guide. strategy - originally a military term, in a business planning context strategy/strategic means/pertains to papers for money why and how the plan will work , in relation to all factors of influence upon the business entity and enter ww1 essays, activity, particularly including competitors (thus the use of writing for money a military combative term), customers and demographics, technology and communications. marketing - believed by many to mean the fight, same as advertising or sales promotion, marketing actually means and covers everything from company culture and positioning, through market research, new business/product development, advertising and promotion, PR (public/press relations), and arguably all of the writing papers illegal, sales functions as well. Marketing is the essay, process by papers for money illegal, which a business decides what it will sell, to whom, when and how, and pnb thesis mcmaster, then does it . marketing plan - logically a plan which details what a business will sell, to whom, when and writing papers for money, how, implicitly including the katharine essay contest, business/marketing strategy. Writing Papers For Money Illegal! The extent to marxism essays which financial and commercial numerical data is included depends on the needs of the writing for money, business. Why Did Enter Ww1 Essays! The extent to which this details the sales plan also depends on the needs of the business. sales - the writing papers for money, transactions between the business and its customers whereby services and/or products are provided in return for payment. Sales (sales department/sales team) also describes the activities and resources that enable this process, and sales also describes the revenues that the business derives from the sales activities. sales plan - a plan describing, quantifying and phased over why did the us time, how the the sales will be made and to whom.
Some organizations interpret this to be the same as a business plan or a marketing plan. business strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the same. marketing strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the same. service contract - a formal document usually drawn up by the supplier by which the writing for money, trading arrangement is agreed with the customer. See the section on service contracts and trading agreements. strategic business plan - see strategy and business plan - it's a business plan with strategic drivers (which actually all business plans should be). strategic business planning - developing and writing a strategic business plan. philosophy, values, ethics, vision - these are the fundamentals of business planning, and determine the thesis, spirit and writing for money illegal, integrity of the mcmaster, business or organisation - see the guide to how philosophical and ethical factors fit into the planning process, and illegal, also the buy research papers, principles and materials relating to corporate responsibility and ethical leadership. You can see that many of these terms are interchangeable, so it's important to clarify what needs to be planned for rather than assuming or inferring a meaning from the writing papers illegal, name given to the task. That said, the principles explained here can be applied to business plans of all sorts. Business plans are often called different names - especially by senior managers and directors delegating a planning exercise that they do not understand well enough to explain.
For example: sales plans, operational plans, organizational/organisational plans, marketing plans, marketing strategy plans, strategic business plans, department business plans, etc. Typically these names reflect the department doing the planning, despite which, the essay on heritage management, planning process and writing for money, content required in the document is broadly similar. Other useful and relevant business planning definitions are in the business dictionary; the sales and selling glossary; some are also in the us enter, the financial terms glossary, and papers for money, more - especially for club essays training - are in papers for money, the business and training acronyms listing, which also provides amusing light relief if this business planning gets a little dry (be warned, the thesis, acronyms listings contain some adult content). when writing a business or operating plan, remember. A useful first rule of business planning is to writing papers for money decide what you are actually trying to fight club achieve and always keep this in mind . Write your aim large as a constant reminder to writing papers yourself, and to mcmaster anyone else involved. Keeping your central aim visible will help you minimise the distractions and distortions which frequently arise during the illegal, planning process.
An increasingly vital and mcmaster, perhaps second rule of business planning is to establish a strong ethical philosophy at the outset of your planning. This provides a vital reference for papers illegal decision-making and strategy from the start. Pnb Thesis Mcmaster! A strong clear ethical code communicates your values to papers staff, customers, suppliers, and creates a simple consistent basis for operations which conventional financials, processes, systems and even people, do not address. It is contest, very difficult to introduce ethical principles later into an enterprise, especially when planning shifts into implementation, and more so if problems arise relating to integrity, honesty, corporate responsibility, trust, governance, etc., any of which can have massive impact on relationships and reputation. See corporate social responsibility and ethics and the Psychological Contract. It is writing, easy to address issues of management ethics and writing for money illegal, corporate responsibility when you are the owner of a new enterprise.
It is fight club, more difficult if you are a manager in someone else's company or a large corporation. Nevertheless ethics and corporate responsibility are highly significant in planning, and strong justification for their proper consideration can now be made. There are now plenty of recent examples of corporations - indeed entire national economies and governments - which have failed because of poor regard to ethical considerations. The world is writing papers, changing and learning, slowly, but it is, and anyone ignoring ethics in planning today does so at their own peril. A third crucial requirement for club marxism business plans is return on investment , or for public services and non-profit organisations: effective use of investment and resources, which is beyond simple 'cost control'. For the vast majority of for money organisations, whether companies, public services, not-for-profit trusts and essay management, charities, all organisations need to be financially effective in what they do, otherwise they will cease to function . Ultimately - whatever the organisation and aims - financial viability is necessary to sustain any organised activity . While it's essential to manage ethical and socially responsible aspects of organisational aims , these must allow for adequate return on investment (or in less traditional and writing papers, 'non-profit' enterprises, must allow for the effective use of investment and resources , according to the financial requirements of the pnb thesis, particular organisation). Remembering the need for financial viability is vital also because business planning is often done - rightly - to achieve something new and special. This tends to focus thinking on creativity, innovation, ambition, quality, excellence, perhaps even social good, etc., which can easily distract planning away from the for money, basic need to be financially viable - and fight marxism essays, crucially not to writing illegal make a loss. By treating return on investment as a vital requirement of planning we increase the likelihood that plans will be viable and therefore sustainable.
Return on how to investment is however a variable feature of business planning. Writing For Money! It is flexible according to the type of enterprise, its main purpose and philosophy. In a conventional profit-driven corporation return on investment (at an how to papers optimal rate) is typically a strong strategic driver for local planning and decisions, and by implication also a basic requirement of the enterprise as a whole. On the other hand, in a business or organization less focused on shareholder reward, such as a public services trust or charity, or a social enterprise or cooperative, return on investment (at a relatively lower rate), may be a requirement simply to for money illegal sustain viable operations, according to the aims of the enterprise. In the first example, return on investment is the aim; in the second example, return on pnb thesis mcmaster investment enables some other higher aim to be achieved. In more detail: In a traditional profit-driven corporation, return on investment tends to be the main requirement of any business plan and also the main aim or purpose or driver of the plan.
In most traditional corporations return on investment tends to be at the heart of illegal all activities, since typically the corporation exists to maximize the yield (profit and growth effectively) of shareholder funds invested in how to buy research papers, the business. Planning in traditional corporations at writing papers for money, times forgets this basic obligation, especially when a junior manager is asked to 'write a business plan' for the first time. In traditional profit-driven corporations, when a new manager starts to write a business plan or operational plan for the first time (and for some experienced managers also, for the umpteenth time), the manager wonders: What is the buy research, aim? What am I trying to achieve? Often when they ask their own manager, the manager has the same doubts. The central aim is usually return on investment . In businesses or 'non-profit' organisations where shareholder enrichment is not the main purpose, return on investment is less of a driver in business planning, but is nevertheless a crucial requirement . Such enterprises are becoming more popular, and will continue to become so, since the collapse of the for money illegal, western economies in 2008, and increasing disillusionment with old-style business thinking. Here return on investment is not the primary driver or objective of the business. Instead the main driver of enterprise may be some other purpose. An example of 'some other purpose' might be the activities of a social enterprise or cooperative, or maybe an employee ownership company, or perhaps a trust or charity, whose main aim is (rather than the traditional profit generation for external/institutional shareholders) perhaps to benefit its members/staff, and/or to sustain local jobs, and/or to benefit the essay, local community, or maybe to advance science or learning or health, etc. Writing Papers Illegal! Here, while return on investment may seem less crucial or appropriate to planning and operations, the buy research papers, enterprise must nevertheless remain financially viable , or it ceases to be able to operate at all. In such examples, return on investment in business planning is not usually maximized, but must still be treated as an illegal underpinning requirement to planning, and flexed according to why did the us the fundamental aims and financial requirements of the enterprise.
Before planning, therefore, it is helpful to understand clearly: What are we actually aiming to achieve? What is our policy/position on corporate social responsibility and ethics, etc - our philosophy? And what return on investment (or alternative financial performance) does our activity/enterprise require - is this a strategic driver in itself, or simply the means by which we maintain our activities in support of our (point 1) aims? The basic methodology of business planning is papers for money illegal, identifying causes and effects , according to your relevant business requirements (financials and ethics) and strategic drivers (what we are actually aiming to achieve). Here a cause is an fight marxism input or action or resource; an effect is an writing papers for money outcome or result or consequence of some sort. We want to achieve xyz effect (for example a given return on investment, or a certain sales level or market share, whatever) - so what should we plan to cause this to happen? Commonly big cause/effect elements are broken down into papers, smaller activities, which also comprise a cause and effect. (The goal planning process and tools help explain how this subdivision works - where a big aim is broken down into smaller more measurable and achievable parts). Junior managers have responsibility for writing for money plans and activities which feed into larger departmental plans and drexel essay contest, activities of senior managers.
The plans and activities of senior managers feed into the divisional plans of executives and directors. Papers Illegal! There is a hierarchy or tree structure of cause and effects, all hopefully contributing to why did ww1 essays the overall organizational aim. In many good businesses a substantial business planning responsibility extends now to writing front line customer-facing staff, and essay on heritage, the trend is increasing. In this context, the business plan could be called also be called a marketing plan, or a sales plan - all departmental plans are basically types of writing for money business planning: What you are going to sell to whom, when and how you are going to sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales will produce, what the mcmaster, marketing and/or selling cost will be, and what will be the return on investment. Where a department is a 'cost centre' not a 'profit-centre' - providing products or services internally to other departments rather than externally to customers - then the language and papers, planning elements may alter, but the principles remain the same. Also, these principles and methods apply to on heritage very large complex multinational organizations, which tend to entail more and different costs, fixed overheads, revenues, and consequently larger planning formats; more and bigger spreadsheets, more lines and columns on each, more attention and people working on the numbers, more accountants, and typically - especially at middle-management level and above - more emphasis on cashflow and papers for money illegal, the balance sheet, alongside basic 'profit and marxism essays, loss' planning. carry out your market research, including understanding your competitor activity. 'The market' varies according to the business or organisation concerned, but every organised activity has a market. Knowing the market enables you to for money assess and value and plan how to engage with it.
A common failing of contest business planning or operational planning outside of the 'business' world, is to plan in isolation, looking inward, when ideas can seem very positive and reliable because there's no context and nothing to compare. Hence research is writing papers illegal, critical. And this applies to any type of organisation - not just to businesses. See especially the guidance on mcmaster marketing as it relates to business planning. Planning very much concerns processes. Writing For Money Illegal! The principles of marketing will explain additionally how to put meaning and values into what you plan. Your market research should focus on the information you need, to help you to formulate strategy and make business decisions. Market research should be pragmatic and purposeful - a means to an end, and not a means in itself. Market information potentially covers a vast range of why did the us data, from global macro-trends and statistics, to very specific and detailed local or technical information, so it's important to writing for money illegal decide what is marxism essays, actually relevant and necessary to writing for money know. Market information about market and industry trends, values, main corporations, market structure, etc, is important to know for large corporations operating on a national or international basis. This type of research is the us enter ww1 essays, sometimes called 'secondary', because it is already available, having been researched and published previously.
This sort of information is available from the internet, libraries, research companies, trade and national press and publications, professional associations and institutes. This secondary research information normally requires some interpretation or manipulation for your own purposes. However there's no point spending days researching global statistical economic and demographic data if you are developing a strategy for a relatively small or local business. Far more useful would be to carry out your own 'primary' research (i.e. original research) about the writing for money illegal, local target market, buying patterns and preferences, local competitors, their prices and service offerings. A lot of useful primary market research can be performed using customer feed-back, surveys, questionnaires and on heritage management, focus groups (obtaining indicators and views through discussion among a few representative people in a controlled discussion situation). This sort of primary research should be tailored exactly for for money illegal your needs.
Primary research requires less manipulation than secondary research, but all types of research need a certain amount of analysis. Be careful when extrapolating or projecting figures to avoid magnifying initial mistakes or wrong assumptions. If the starting point is inaccurate the resulting analysis will not be reliable. For businesses of essay any size; small, local, global and everything in between, the main elements you need to understand and quantify are: customer (and potential customer) numbers, profile and mix customer perceptions, needs, preferences, buying patterns, and trends, by sub-sector if necessary products and writing papers for money illegal, services, mix, values and the us ww1 essays, trends demographic issues and trends (especially if dependent on consumer markets) future regulatory and legal effects prices and values, and customer perceptions in these areas distribution and routes to market competitor activities, strengths, weaknesses, products, services, prices, sales methods, etc. Primary research is papers for money illegal, recommended for local and niche services. Mcmaster! Keep the subjects simple and the range narrow. If using questionnaires formulate questions that give clear yes or no indicators (i.e. avoid three and five options in multi-choices which produce lots of uncertain answers) always understand how you will analyse and measure the data produced. Try to illegal convert data to numerical format and manipulate on a spreadsheet.
Use focus groups for more detailed work. For large research projects consider using a market research organization because they'll probably do it better than you, even though this is likely to be more costly. Essay Management! If you use any sort of marketing agency ensure you issue a clear brief, and writing papers, that your aims are clearly understood. Useful frameworks for research are PEST analysis and SWOT analysis. establish your corporate philosophy and katharine drexel essay contest, the aims of your business or operation. First establish or confirm the aims of the business, and if you are concerned with a part of a business, establish and validate the aims of your part of the business. These can be very different depending on the type of papers for money business, and particularly who owns it. Refer to and consider issues of ethics and philosophy, corporate social responsibility, sustainability, etc - these are the foundations on essay management which values and missions are built. Consider the Psychological Contract and the benefits of establishing a natural balance and writing papers for money illegal, fairness between all interests (notably staff, customers, the organization).
Traditional business models are not necessarily the best ones. Fight Club Essays! The world is constantly changing, and establishing a new business is for money, a good time to challenge preconceptions of thesis direction fundamental business structure and purpose. A business based on a narrow aim of enriching a few investors while relegating the needs and involvement of everyone else may contain conflicts and writing papers for money illegal, tensions at how to buy research, a deep level. Writing Illegal! There are other innovative business structures which can inherently provide a more natural, cooperative and drexel essay contest, self-fuelling relationship - especially between employees and the organization, and potentially between customers and the organization too. When you have established or confirmed your philosophical and ethical position, state the objectives of the business unit you are planning to develop - your short, medium and long term aims - (typically 'short, medium and long' equate to 1 year, 2-3 years and 3 years plus). In other words, what is the business aiming to writing papers for money do over the next one, three and five years? Bear in mind that you must reliably ensure the success and viability of the business in the short term or the long term is merely an academic issue.
Grand visions need solid foundations. Drexel! All objectives and aims must be prioritised and as far as possible quantified. If you can't measure it, you can't manage it. All businesses need a ‘mission statement'. Writing Illegal! It announces clearly and succinctly to your staff, shareholders and customers what you are in business to do. Your mission statement may build upon a general ‘service charter' relevant to your industry. You can involve staff in how to, defining and refining the business's mission statement, which helps develop a sense of ownership and responsibility. Producing and announcing the mission statement is for money illegal, also an excellent process for focusing attention on the business's priorities, and particularly the emphasis on customer service. Whole businesses need a mission statement - departments and essay management, smaller business units within a bigger business need them too. define your 'product offering(s)' or 'service offering(s)' - your sales proposition(s)
You must understand and define clearly what you are providing to your customers. This description should normally go beyond your products or services, and critically must include the way you do business , and what business benefits your customers derive from writing papers for money illegal, your products and how to papers, services, and from doing business with you. Develop offerings or propositions for each main area of your business activity - sometimes referred to as 'revenue streams', or 'business streams' - and/or for the sector(s) that you serve. Under normal circumstances competitive advantage is increased the more you can offer things that your competitors cannot. Good research will tell you where the opportunities are to writing papers increase your competitive advantage in areas that are of prime interest to your target markets. Develop your service offering to emphasise your strengths, which should normally relate to your business objectives, in turn being influenced by corporate aims and market research. The important process in developing a proposition is translating your view of these services into direction, an offer that means something to your customer. The definition of your service offer must make sense to your customer in terms that are advantageous and beneficial to the customer, not what is technically good, or scientifically sound to you. Think about what your service, and papers for money, the manner by which you deliver it, means to your customer. Traditionally, in on heritage, sales and writing, marketing, this perspective is referred to ww1 essays as translating features into benefits. The easiest way to translate a feature into a benefit is to add the writing illegal, prompt ‘which means that. '. For example, if a strong feature of a business is that it has 24-hour opening, this feature would translate into something like: We're open 24 hours (the feature) which means that you can get what you need when you need it - day or night. (the benefit).
Clearly this benefit represents a competitive advantage over other suppliers who only open 9-5. This principle, although a little old-fashioned today, still broadly applies. The important thing is to pnb thesis mcmaster understand your services and proposition in terms that your customer will recognise as being relevant and beneficial to them. Most businesses have a very poor understanding of writing illegal what their customers value most in the relationship, so ensure you discover this in the research stage, and club marxism, reflect it in your stated product or service proposition(s). Customers invariably value these benefits higher than all others: If your proposition(s) cannot be seen as leading to any of the above then customers will not be very interested in you.
A service-offer or proposition should be an papers for money illegal encapsulation of why did the us enter ww1 essays what you do best, that you do better than your competitors (or that they don't do at all); something that fits with your business objectives, stated in terms that will make your customers think ‘Yes, that means something to me and I think it could be good for my business (and therefore good for writing papers for money illegal me also as a buyer or sponsor).' This is the first 'brick in on heritage management, the wall' in writing, the process of business planning, sales planning, marketing planning, and thereafter, direct marketing, and particularly sales lead generation. write your business plan - include sales, costs of sales, gross margins, and if necessary your business overheads. Business plans come in enter, all shapes and sizes. Pragmatism is essential. Ensure your plan shows what your business needs it to show. Writing Illegal! Essentially your plan is a spreadsheet of numbers with supporting narrative, explaining how the essay, numbers are to be achieved. Papers Illegal! A plan should show all the activities and resources in terms of revenues and costs, which together hopefully produce a profit at essay contest, the end of the trading year.
The level of detail and complexity depends on the size and part of the business that the plan concerns. Your business plan, which deals with all aspects of the resource and management of the business (or your part of the business), will include many decisions and factors fed in from the marketing process. It will state sales and profitability targets by activity. In a marketing plan there may also be references to image and writing illegal, reputation, and to public relations. Fight Marxism! All of papers these issues require thought and planning if they are to result in improvement, and thesis, particularly increasing numbers of customers and revenue growth. You would normally describe and provide financial justification for the means of achieving these things, together with customer satisfaction improvement. Above all a plan needs to be based on writing illegal actions - cost-effective and profitable cause and effect; inputs required to achieved required outputs, analysed, identified and quantified separately wherever necessary to be able to manage and measure the relevant activities and resources.
quantify the business you seek from each of your market sectors, segments, products and contest, customer groupings, and allocate investment, resources and activities accordingly. These principles apply to a small local business, a department within a business, or a vast whole business. Before attending to the detail of how to achieve your marketing aims you need to papers illegal quantify clearly what they are. What growth targets does the business have? What customer losses are you projecting?
How many new customers do you need, by size and pnb thesis, type, by product and service? What sales volumes, revenues and contributions values do you need for each business or revenue stream from each sector? What is your product mix, in terms of customer type, size, sector, volumes, values, contribution, and distribution channel or route to market? What are your projected selling costs and net contributions per service, product, sector? What trends and percentage increase in revenues and contributions, and volumes compared to writing papers for money last year are you projecting?
How is your market share per essay on heritage business stream and papers illegal, sector changing, and how does this compare with your overall business aims? What are your fast-growth high-margin opportunities, and what are your mature and low-margin services; how are you treating these different opportunities, and anything else in between? You should use a basic spreadsheet tool to split your business according to the main activities and profit levers. See the simple sales/business planning tool example below. ansoff product-market growth matrix - strategic tool. A useful planning tool in essay on heritage, respect of markets and products is the matrix developed by Igor Ansoff (H Igor Ansoff, 1918-2002), who is regarded by some as the 'Father of Strategic Management'. Fully titled the Ansoff Product-Market Growth Matrix, the tool was first published in Harvard Business Review, 1957, in papers, Ansoff's paper Strategies for Diversification.
The Ansoff product-market matrix helps to understand and assess marketing or business development strategy. Any business, or part of a business can choose which strategy to employ, or which mix of strategic options to thesis direction use. This is a fundamentally simple and effective way of looking at papers for money illegal, strategic development options. Each of these strategic options holds different opportunities and downsides for different organizations, so what is buy research papers, right for one business won't necessarily be right for writing papers illegal another. Think about what option offers the best potential for pnb thesis mcmaster your own business and market. Writing For Money! Think about the marxism essays, strengths of your business and what type of writing illegal growth strategy your strengths will enable most naturally. Generally beware of essay diversification - this is, by its nature, unknown territory, and carries the highest risk of failure. Here are the Ansoff strategies in summary: market penetration - Developing your sales of existing products to your existing market(s). This is writing papers for money illegal, fine if there is plenty of market share to be had at the expense of your competitors, or if the market is growing fast and large enough for the growth you need. If you already have large market share you need to consider whether investing for further growth in this area would produce diminishing returns from thesis, your development activity.
It could be that you will increase the profit from this activity more by reducing costs than by writing, actively seeking more market share. Strong market share suggests there are likely to be better returns from extending the buy research, range of products/services that you can offer to the market, as in the next option. product development - Developing or finding new products to take to your existing market(s). This is an attractive strategy if you have strong market share in a particular market. Such a strategy can be a suitable reason for acquiring another company or product/service capability provided it is relevant to your market and your distribution route. Developing new products does not mean that you have to do this yourself (which is normally very expensive and frequently results in simply re-inventing someone else's wheel) - often there are potential manufacturing partners out there who are looking for writing for money their own distribution partner with the sort of thesis market presence that you already have. Writing Papers! However if you already have good market share across a wide range of products for drexel essay your market, this option may be one that produces diminishing returns on your growth investment and writing papers illegal, activities, and drexel essay contest, instead you may do better to seek to develop new markets, as in the next strategic option. market development - Developing new markets for your existing products. New markets can also mean new sub-sectors within your market - it helps to stay reasonably close to the markets you know and which know you.
Moving into completely different markets, even if the product/service fit looks good, holds risks because this will be unknown territory for you, and almost certainly will involve working through new distribution channels, routes or partners. If you have good market share and good product/service range then moving into associated markets or segments is writing illegal, likely to be an attractive strategy. diversification - taking new products into new markets. This is high risk - not only do you not know the katharine contest, products, but neither do you know the new market(s), and again this strategic option is likely to entail working through new distribution channels and routes to writing for money illegal market. This sort of activity should generally be regarded as additional and supplementary to the core business activity, and should be rolled out carefully through rigorous testing and thesis, piloting. Consider also your existing products and services themselves in terms of their market development opportunity and profit potential. Some will offer very high margins because they are relatively new, or specialised in writing for money, some way, perhaps because of special USP's or distribution arrangements. Other products and club marxism, services may be more mature, with little or no competitive advantage, in which case they will produce lower margins. The Boston Matrix is a useful way to understand and assess your different existing product and service opportunities: boston matrix model - product/service development.
The Boston Matrix model (also called the BSG Matrix, Growth-Share Matrix, and illegal, variations around these titles) is a tool for assessing existing and development products in terms of their market potential, and thereby implying strategic action for products and services in each of the four categories reflected in how to papers, the model. The Boston Matrix model was devised by Bruce Henderson (1915-92), founder of the Boston Consulting Group in the 1960s. It has been adapted in many ways. For Money Illegal! A simple version is shown here below. Like other four-part 2x2 matrix models, the Boston Matrix is a very quick and easy method for analysis, thinking and decision-making, while being unavoidably limited in its handling of subtlety and detail. Often in business and strategic thinking too much detail is unhelpful - instead, clarity and ease of direction understanding are extremely helpful, especially in communicating ideas to teams and groups, in which circumstances the papers, Boston Matrix is an excellent aid. cash cow - The rather crude metaphor is why did, based on papers for money illegal the idea of 'milking' the returns from previous investments which established good distribution and why did, market share for the product. Products in this quadrant need maintenance and protection activity, together with good cost management, not growth effort, because there is little or no additional growth available. dog - This is any product or service of yours which has low market presence in a mature or stagnant market.
There is no point in developing products or services in this quadrant. Many organizations discontinue products/services that they consider fall into this category, in for money illegal, which case consider potential impact on overhead cost recovery. Businesses that have been starved or denied development find themselves with a high or entire proportion of their products or services in this quadrant, which is obviously not very funny at thesis, all, except to writing for money the competitors. problem child (also called question marks or wildcats ) - These are products which have a big and growing market potential, but existing low market share, normally because they are new products, or the application has not been spotted and acted upon yet. New business development and project management principles are required here to ensure that these products' potential can be realised and disasters avoided. This is likely to be an area of business that is quite competitive, where the pioneers take the risks in the hope of essay on heritage securing good early distribution arrangements, image, reputation and writing papers illegal, market share. Gross profit margins are likely to katharine be high, but overheads, in the form of writing for money illegal costs of research, development, advertising, market education, and low economies of scale, are normally high, and can cause initial business development in this area to be loss-making until the how to buy research, product moves into writing illegal, the rising star category, which is by why did the us ww1 essays, no means assured - many problem children products remain as such. rising star - Or 'star' products, are those which have good market share in a strong and growing market. As a product moves into papers illegal, this category it is commonly known as a 'rising star'.
When a market is strong and still growing, competition is mcmaster, not yet fully established. Demand is strong; saturation or over-supply do not exists, and so pricing is relatively unhindered. This all means that these products produce very good returns and profitability. The market is receptive and educated, which optimizes selling efficiencies and writing for money illegal, margins. Production and essay, manufacturing overheads are established and costs minimised due to high volumes and writing papers for money illegal, good economies of scale. These are great products and worthy of continuing investment provided good growth potential continues to mcmaster exist. When it does not these products are likely to writing illegal move down to cash cow status, and the company needs to have the next rising stars developing from its problem children. After considering your business in terms of the Ansoff matrix and Boston matrix (which are thinking aids as much as anything else, not a magic solution in how to buy research papers, themselves), on a more detailed level, and for many businesses just as significant as the writing papers for money, Ansoff-type-options, what is the significance of your major accounts - do they offer better opportunity for growth and development than your ordinary business? Do you have a high quality, specialised offering that delivers better business benefit on a large scale as opposed to small scale? Are your selling costs and investment similar for pnb thesis mcmaster large and small contracts? If so you might do better concentrating on writing papers for money developing large major accounts business, rather than taking a sophisticated product or service solution to smaller companies which do not appreciate or require it, and cost you just as much to sell to as a large organization.
This customer matrix model is used by many companies to why did the us enter understand and determine strategies according to customer types. Assessing product type is helped by reference to the Boston matrix model. There is a lot of flexibility as to what constitutes 'good' and papers for money illegal, 'not so good customers' - use your own criteria. Essay! A good way to do this is to devise your own grading system using criteria that mean something to your own situation. Typical criteria are: size, location, relationship, credit-rating and payment terms, is the customer growing (or not), the security of the for money illegal, supply contract, the service and support overhead required, etc. This kind of customer profiling tool and exercise is thesis direction, often overlooked, but it is for money, a critical aspect of marketing and sales development, and of optimizing sales effectiveness and business development performance and profitability. Each quadrant requires a different sales approach. The type of customer also implies the direction, type of sales person who should be responsible for managing the relationship. A firm view needs to be taken before committing expensive field-based sales resources to 'not so good' customers. Focus prospect development (identifying and contacting new prospective customers) on the profile which appears in the top left quadrant.
Identify prospective new customers who fit this profile, and allocate your business development resources (people and advertising) to this audience. Consider also What are your competitor weaknesses in terms of writing sectors, geographical territory and products or services, and how might these factors affect your options? Use the why did enter ww1 essays, SWOT analysis also for assessing each competitor as well as your own organization or department. Many organizations issue a marketing budget from the top down (a budget issued by for money, the Centre/HQ/Finance Director), so to enter ww1 essays speak, in which case, what is your marketing budget and how can you use it to produce the best return on investment, and to help the company best to meet its overall business aims? Use the papers, models described here to assess your best likely returns on marketing investment. The best way to begin to model and pnb thesis, plan your marketing is to have a record of your historical (say last year's) sales results (including selling and advertising costs if appropriate and available) on a spreadsheet. The level of detail is up to you; modern spreadsheets can organize massive amounts of data and writing for money illegal, make very complex analysis quick easy. Data is vital and will enable you to do most of the analysis you need for marketing planning. Why Did Enter! In simple terms you can use last year's results as a basis for planning and modelling the illegal, next year's sales, and management, the marketing expenditure and papers, activities required to achieve them. simple business plan or sales plan tools examples.
These templates examples help the mcmaster, planning process. Split and analyse your business or sales according to your main products/services (or revenue streams) according to the profit drivers or 'levers' (variables that you can change which affect profit), e.g., quantity or volume, average sales value or price, % gross margin or profit. Add different columns which reflect your own business profit drivers or levers, and to provide the most relevant measures. Do the same for each important aspect of your business, for papers example, split by market sector (or segment): And, for example, split by distributor (or route to market): These simple split analysis tools are an extremely effective way to plan your sales and fight marxism, business.
Construct a working spreadsheet so that the bottom-right cell shows the writing papers illegal, total sales or gross margin, or profit, whatever you need to measure, and by why did, changing the papers, figures within the split (altering the mix, average prices, quantities, etc) you can carry out 'what if?' analysis to develop the best plans. If you are a competent working with spreadsheets it is normally possible to assemble all of this data onto pnb thesis a single spreadsheet and then show different analyses by writing papers illegal, sorting and graphing according to different fields. When you are happy with the overall totals for the year, convert this into why did the us enter, a phased monthly plan, with as many lines and columns as you need and are appropriate for the business. Writing Illegal! Develop this spreadsheet by buy research, showing inputs as well as sales outputs - the quantifiable activity (for example, the numbers of enquiries necessary to produce the for money, planned sales levels) required to produce the planned performance. Large businesses need extensive and katharine drexel essay contest, multiple page spreadsheets. A business plan needs costs as well as sales, and will show profit as well as revenue and gross margin, but the principle is the same: plan the detailed numbers and values of writing papers for money illegal what the business performance will be, and what inputs are required to achieve it.
Here's a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for papers incorporating these factors and financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. For Money Illegal! Adapt it to suit your purposes. Buy Research Papers! This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the Profit and Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the writing papers illegal, principle is the same. Consider also indirect activities that affect sales and business levels, such as customer service. Enter! Identify key performance indicators here too, such as customer complaints response and resolution levels and timescales. Internal lead referral schemes, strategic partnership activity; the performance of other direct sales activities such as sales agencies, distributorships, export activities, licensing, etc. These performance factors won't normally appear on a business plan spreadsheet, but a separate plan should be made for writing for money them, otherwise they won't happen. write your marketing plan or business plan.
Your marketing plan is on heritage management, actually a statement, supported by relevant financial data, of how you are going to develop your business. Plans should be based on actions, not masses of historical data. The historical and writing for money illegal, market information should be sufficient just to explain and justify the opportunities, direction, strategy, and mcmaster, most importantly, the writing papers for money illegal, marketing actions, methods and measures - not to club marxism essays tell the story of the past 20 years of your particular industry. What you are going to papers for money sell to whom, when and how you are going to sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales produce, what the marketing cost will be, and what will be the return on investment. As stated above it is easiest and best to assemble all of this data onto a spreadsheet, which then allows data to be manipulated through the planning process, and pnb thesis mcmaster, then changed and re-projected when the trading year is under way.
The spreadsheet then becomes the writing illegal, basis of your sales and marketing forecasting and results reporting tool. As well as sales and marketing data, in most types of businesses it is also useful to katharine include measurable aims concerning customer service and satisfaction. The marketing plan will have costs that relate to a marketing budget in writing papers for money, the overall business plan. The marketing plan will also have revenue and gross margin/profitability targets that relate to the turnover and profitability in the overall business plan. This data is essentially numerical, and drexel essay contest, so needs also some supporting narrative as to how the numbers will be achieved - the actions - but keep the narrative concise; if it extends to more than a half-dozen sheets make sure you put a succinct executive summary on the front. The marketing plan narrative could if appropriate also refer to for money indirect activities such as product development, customer service, quality assurance, training etc., if significantly relevant to achieving the marketing plan aims.
Be pragmatic - marketing plans vary enormously depending on the type, size and maturity of business. Above all create a plan that logically shows how the business can best consolidate and grow its successful profitable areas. Direction! The marketing plan should be a working and truly useful tool - if it is, then it's probably a good one. sample business plan, marketing plan or sales plan sample structure and writing papers illegal, example format/template. Keep the written part of the business plan as concise and brief as possible - most situations and high-ranking executives do not need to see plans that are an inch thick. If you can make your case on a half dozen pages then do so. Particularly if your plan is more than 5-6 pages long, produce an executive summary (easiest to do when you have completed the plan) and mcmaster, insert it at the beginning of the document. If you need to writing illegal include lots of reference material, examples, charts, evidence, etc, show these as appendices at the back of the document and make sure they are numbered and marxism, referenced during the main body of the plan. Writing For Money! Each new section should start at the top of a new page. Number the pages.
Important plans should be suitably bound. Essay! All business plans should be professionally and illegal, neatly presented, with no grammar and spelling errors, clearly laid out in an easy to read format (avoid lots of upper-case or fancy fonts or italics as these are all difficult to read). Your business plan contents and structure should be as follows: business plans structure - a business planning template. Title page: Title or heading of the plan and brief description if required, author, date, company/organization if applicable, details of circulation and confidentiality. Contents page: A list of contents (basically the sections listed here, starting with the Introduction page) showing page numbers, plus a list of appendices or addendums (added reference material at the back of the document) allowing the reader to find what they need and management, navigate the document easily, and to refer others to particular items and page numbers when reviewing or querying.
Introduction page : Introduction and purpose of the plan, terms of reference if applicable (usually for formal and large plans or projects). Executive summary page: Optional and usually beneficial, this should normally be no more than a page long (or it's not an for money executive summary) - the how to buy research papers, key points of the whole plan including conclusions, recommendations, actions, financial returns on papers for money illegal investment, etc., clearly readable in a few minutes. Main body of plan: sections and katharine drexel contest, headings as required, see template below. Acknowledgments and writing papers for money, bibliography/reference sources: if relevant (only required normally for very large formal plans) Appendices: appendices or addendums - additional detailed reference material, examples, statistics, spreadsheets, etc., for reference and not central to buy research the main presentation of your plan. business plans - main body sections examples template.
This sample template is typical for writing papers for money a sales/marketing/new business development business plan. (A business plan for a more complex project such as an international joint-venture, or the thesis, formation of a new company including manufacturing plant or other overhead activities would need to include relevant information and papers for money illegal, financials about the overheads and resources concerned, and the financials would need to show costs and profits more like a fully developed profit and loss account, with cashflow projections, balance sheet, etc.) Where appropriate refer to your position regarding corporate ethics and social responsibility and mcmaster, the Psychological Contract. While these aspects are not mechanisms within the plan, they are crucial reference points. Define your market - sector(s) and segment(s) definitions Quantify your market (overview only) - size, segmentation, relevant statistics, values, numbers (locations, people/users, etc) - make this relevant to you business Explain your market(s) - sector trends, eg., growth, legislation, seasonality, PEST factors where relevant, refer to Ansoff matrix, show the strategic business drivers within sector and segments, purchasing mechanisms, processes, restrictions - what are the factors that determine customers' priorities and needs - this is a logical place to refer to ethics and CSR (corporate social responsibility Explain your existing business - your current business according to sector, products/services, quantities, values, distributor, etc. Writing For Money Illegal! Analyse your existing customer spread by customer type, values and products/services including major accounts (the 'Pareto Principle' or the '80:20 rule' often applies here, eg., 80% of your business comes from 20% of your customers) Explain your products and services - refer to Boston matrix and especially your strategic propositions (what these propositions will do for why did the us your customers) including your USP's and for money, UPB's (see sales training section and acronyms) Explain you routes to market, gatekeepers, influencers and strategic partners - the the us enter ww1 essays, other organizations/individuals you will work with to develop your market, including 'what's in it for them', commissions, endorsements, accreditations, approvals, licenses, etc. Case studies and papers for money illegal, track record - the credibility, evidence and proof that your propositions and strategic partnerships work Competitor analysis, eg., SWOT analysis of your own business compared to SWOT analysis of each competitor Sales/marketing/business plan (1 year min) showing sales and margins by product/service stream, mix, values, segment, 'distributor', etc, whatever is relevant, phased monthly, in as much detail as you need. This should be on a spreadsheet , with as many different sheets as necessary to quantify relevant inputs and outputs. Katharine Contest! List your strategic actions (marketing campaigns, sales activities, advertising, etc) that will deliver the papers for money, above, with costs and returns. This should be supported with a spreadsheet, showing cost and return on investment for each activity. Tip: If the business plan concerns an existing activity, use the previous year's sales/business analysis as the basis for the next year's sales/business plan. Adapt as necessary according to your new strategic plans. other business planning and essay, marketing issues.
staffing and training implications. Your people are unlikely to have all the skills they need to for money illegal help you implement a marketing plan. You may not have all the people that you need so you have to consider justifying and enter ww1 essays, obtaining extra. Papers For Money! Customer service is acutely sensitive to staffing and training. Essay On Heritage Management! Are all of your people aware of the aims of the business, its mission statement and your sales propositions? Do they know what their responsibilities are? How will you measure their performance? Many of these issues feed back into the business plan under human resources and training, where budgets need to be available to writing for money illegal support the investment in these areas. You should formulate a customer service charter, extending both your mission statement and your service offer, so as to inform staff and drexel essay contest, customers what your standards are.
These standards can cover quite detailed aspects of your service, such as how many times the telephone will be permitted to ring until the caller is writing papers for money, gets an answer. Other issues might include: How many days between receipt and response for written correspondence. Complaints procedure and timescales for each stage. This charter sets customer expectations, so be sure you can meet them.
Customers get disappointed particularly when their expectations are not met, and how to papers, when so many standards can be set at arbitrary levels, think of each one as a promise that you should keep. Business-to-business customers would expect to agree these standards with their suppliers and have them recorded as part of their contracts, or as SLA's (service level agreements). Increasingly, large customers demand SLA's to be tailored to their own specific needs, and the process of developing these understandings and agreements is papers, absolutely crucial to enter the maintenance and development of large contracts. Remember an important rule about customer service: It's not so much the failure to papers illegal meet standards that causes major dissatisfaction among customers - everyone can make a mistake - the biggest cause of upset is the failure of suppliers to inform customers and keep them updated when problems arise. Not being told in advance, not receiving any apology, not getting any explanation why, and not hearing what's going to be done to mcmaster put things right, are key areas of customer dissatisfaction, and therefore easy areas for suppliers to focus their efforts to achieve and communicate improvements. A special point of note for businesses that require a strong technical profile among their service staff: these people are often reactive by nature and so not good at taking initiative to identify and anticipate problem areas in customer service. It's therefore helpful to establish suitable mechanisms and responsibility to pick up problems and deal with them - a kind of writing papers for money illegal trouble-shooting capability - which can be separately managed and monitored at thesis direction, a strategic level. Do not assume that technically-oriented staff will be capable of writing papers for money illegal proactively developing customer service solutions and revisions to SLA's - they generally need help in doing so from staff with high creativity, empathy, communications and initiative capabilities. establish systems to measure customer service and staff performance. These standards and the SLA's established for large customers need to direction be visible, agreed with customers, absolutely measurable. You must keep measuring your performance against them, and preferably publishing the results, internally and externally.
Customer complaints handling is for money, a key element: Measuring customer complaints is crucial because individual complaints are crucial areas to resolve, and also as a whole, complaints serve as a barometer for the quality and drexel contest, performance of the business. You need to have a scheme which encourages, not discourages, customers to complain, to writing for money open the channels as wide as possible. Most businesses are too defensive where complaints are concerned, preferring to mcmaster minimise their importance, or to seek to justify and excuse them. Wrong. Complaints are the opportunities to turn ordinary service into unbeatable service. Moreover, time and again surveys suggest that anything up to nine out of ten people do not complain to the provider when they feel dissatisfied - they just keep their dissatisfaction to for money illegal themselves and the provider never finds out essay on heritage management, there's a problem, even when the customer chooses to go elsewhere.
But every complaining customer will tell at least a couple of illegal their friends or relations. Every dissatisfied staff member in katharine essay contest, the customer organization will tell several of their colleagues. Unreported complaints spawn bad feelings and the breakdown of relationships. It is imperative that you capture all complaints in order to: Put at ease and give explanation or reassurance to the person complaining. Reduce the writing papers for money, chances of them complaining to someone else. Monitor exactly how many dissatisfied customers you have and what the causes are, and that's even more important if you're failing to deliver your mission statement or service offer! Take appropriate corrective action to prevent a re-occurrence. Thesis! If appropriate (ie for large customers) review SLA's and take the writing papers for money illegal, opportunity to agree new SLA's with the how to buy research papers, customer. implications for papers illegal IT, premises, and reporting systems. Also relating to your business plan are the issues of:
Information Technology - are your computers and communications systems capable of giving you the drexel essay, information and analysis you need? How do you use email - is it helping or hindering your business and for money, the quality of service you give to your customers? What internet presence and processes do you need? How should your voice and data systems work together? What systems need to be available to mobile staff? What customer relationship management (CRM) systems should you have? How should you consider all these issues to see the needs and opportunities? IT and communications systems increasingly offer marketing and essay contest, competitive advantage to businesses in all sectors - make sure you know hat IT can do for you and for your customers. Premises - Review your premises and sites in light of your customer service, distribution, and papers, customer relationship requirements. Pay particular attention anywhere in your organization that your customers visit - the papers, impression and service you give here is critical. Reporting systems - If you can't measure it you can't manage it, and where finance and business performance is papers for money, concerned this is why did, certainly true.
First you must identify and writing for money illegal, agree internally your key performance indicators (KPI's). Why Did Enter! Identify every aspect of your service or performance that is important - then you need to writing papers be able to measure it and report on it, and where people are involved in performing to certain standards then the standards and the reporting needs to be transparent to them also. How do you report on sales, marketing and business performance and interpret the results? Who needs to know? Who needs to capture the data? communications and fight club marxism, ongoing customer feedback are essential. Having an open dialogue with your customers is vital. Writing Papers For Money Illegal! There's a double benefit to your business in how to buy research, ensuring this happens:
You nip problems in the bud and stay aware of how you're performing. Your customers feel better about the service you provide as a result of the communications, or from the papers for money illegal, fact that the pnb thesis, channel is open even if they don't use it - it's human nature. Try to devise a standard feedback form. It can double as a promotional tool as well if it's made available on a wider scale. The form can carry details of your mission statement, service offer and your customer service charter. Consider carrying out a customer satisfaction and perceptions survey. There are many ways to do this on a small or large scale, and valuable feedback is always obtained from customer survey exercises. tips for starting a small business or self-employment - for non-financial people. Some of for money us are not naturally inclined towards the sort of how to papers detailed financial thinking that is writing papers illegal, required for traditional detailed business planning. If this is you, you'll possess other valuable capabilities that will be useful in your own enterprise, and why did the us ww1 essays, you'll maybe find it helpful to use this alternative approach to planning a new enterprise or self-employment. It can be stressful and counter-productive to try to use methods that are not natural or comfortable.
If you are helping or advising others about starting their own enterprise or self-employment, the same principles apply. Not everyone is naturally good at business planning, but everyone who dreams of for money illegal being self-employed or who wants to start and run their own independent enterprise is capable of doing so, provided they work to essay on heritage management their strengths, capabilities and passions. People running successful enterprises come in all shapes and writing papers, sizes, from essay on heritage management, all backgrounds, all ages, with skills, passions, and writing for money, capabilities in any field you can imagine. Anyone can run their own business or be successful in self-employment given the simple determination to essays do so. Business and enterprise is not just for stereotypical 'business-types'; the benefits and advantages of being your own boss are available to us all. Here are some pointers for people considering starting their own new enterprise, or for helping others to do the same. First, and especially if you are not clear of your own real strengths, or what direction to pursue, focus on using tools to understanding your own personality style and strengths. Then use this knowledge to imagine and realise how your natural capabilities can be used to best effect in defining and providing your own services or running your own enterprise.
The VAK and Multiple Intelligences tools on this site are helpful for this purpose. They assess people's strengths completely differently to traditional IQ or academic evaluations, which are extremely narrow and generally not relevant at all for people who want to be their own boss. Understanding personality is also useful since personality-type greatly influences the way that a person approaches self-employment or running an enterprise, and what sort of papers for money illegal service or business to offer. The Personality Styles page provides a lot of explanation about this. Many people are conditioned by schools and over-cautious parents to under-estimate their own potential and capabilities, which is a big reason to take a fresh look at ww1 essays, what you are good at, and to re-think and understand better the ways that your personality type tends to be successful in writing papers for money illegal, life and business. There are many ways to be successful and fight marxism, independent in life aside from writing illegal, building and running a conventional business and adhering to conventional financial planning methods. The basic economics of becoming successfully independent in any sort of venture are actually extremely simple, and why did the us ww1 essays, focusing on the following simple fundamentals (a process really) can help many folk turn your dream or an idea into a successful enterprise or self-employment reality. It's usually easiest to think first of these factors in terms of writing papers daily, weekly or monthly numbers and values, and then to extend the figures to give totals for a whole year:
1. What's your product or service? (What's good/special/different about your products or service that enough people will buy it? And importantly is this something that you have a real passion for? All successful enterprises are built on thesis direction doing something the owner enjoys.) 2. What does it cost to make/buy in/provide the papers illegal, product or service? (If you are buying and selling products or using materials consider the cost prices. If the why did enter ww1 essays, main resource is your own time then attach a cost to your labour that reflects your available time for the work and the wage you need to draw. Divide your required annual wage by the number of work hours available to you, and this is your notional hourly labour cost.) 3. Writing! What price will the product/service sell for? (Ideally small businesses need a healthy profit margin or mark-up - doubling the cost is pnb thesis, good if the market will accept it. A mark-up of less than 50% is cause for concern unless you are selling products in relatively high volumes or values.
Price your products/services according to what the market will pay, not according to your costs. Take into account your competitors and what they charge and their relative quality. Service businesses that use only the person's time are often very attractive and profitable because there is no added complication of buying and holding stock - hence why window-cleaning, sign-writing, repairs, gardening, decorating, tutoring, writing, therapy, training, coaching and consultancy, etc., are such good businesses for people who prefer a simple approach to self-employment and enterprise. Consider the effect of writing papers VAT especially for 'consumer' businesses - ie., selling to the general public - assuming your business is or must be VAT registered. Private consumers of course are more sensitive to VAT than business customers who can generally reclaim VAT should you have to essays add it to your prices.) 4. Who will buy the product/service? (Identify your customers and market.
Do you know this for sure? Test your assumptions: this is a critical part of the proposition and generally benefits from writing papers for money illegal, more thought and research to confirm that a big enough market exists for katharine essay contest your idea. Writing! Consider your competition - what are people buying currently and why will they buy from you instead?) 5. How much/many do you need to sell in a year? And how many customers do you need? (This is a vital part of the proposition to confirm that the gross profit (the difference between costs of bought in products/labour and sales revenues) covers your/their financial needs (including a living wage and other fixed costs of running the enterprise. Again remember the affect of how to buy research VAT on your selling prices if applicable.)
6. How will people know about the illegal, service/product? (You need to understand what advertising/marketing/enquiry-generation is necessary - activity and cost. There is usually a cost for katharine drexel essay contest generating new customers, especially in the early stages of writing papers illegal a new enterprise. Once the direction, business is established, say after six months to for money a year, 'word-of-mouth' referrals are for some businesses all that is required to produce new customers - especially those based in a local community, but virtually any new enterprise requires marketing at pnb thesis mcmaster, its launch. See the articles on marketing and selling.) 7. Does all this add up, and better still provide a cash surplus at the end of a year? - if so then it's probably a good business model. These basic questions represent the typical 'table napkin' business proposition that is the start of most businesses, including very large complex ones. People who dislike and are not fluent in detailed business calculations might find the above process a useful starting point when thinking about how to begin a new enterprise or a venture in self-employment.
If this is you, you are not alone: many visionary entrepreneurs can run a huge profitable business but have great difficulty putting together a proper business plan. Hence many highly successful business leaders rely heavily on their financial directors to writing papers for money take care of the financial details, leaving them free to get on with the business activity that makes best use of their natural skill, be it creativity, selling, service-provision, people-skills, technical skills, or whatever. Incidentally the above factors are the club marxism, essential components which make up a basic Profit and Loss Account, which is the primary management tool for a business of any scale and papers, complexity. Here's a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for extending these factors and financials into a more formal phased plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. If in doubt about katharine drexel essay contest, this seek some help from an experienced business person or your accountant. Adapt it to suit your purposes.
The example PL trading plan is illegal, also available as a pdf. The numbers could be anything - ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the katharine contest, same. company types and financial set up - quick guide. When you have confirmed and refined the basic viability of your business idea you can then begin getting to grips with the more detailed aspects of forming the business itself. This necessarily includes deciding your type of business constitution - the papers, legal format of your company - or 'company type' as it is essay, often described. The Psychological Contract is increasingly significant within and for money illegal, relating to business constitution. Small (UK) businesses are most commonly one of the following: sole-trader - essentially a self-employed owner - no limited personal liability - relatively easy set up and administration. partnership - essentially a group of self-employed partners/owners - no limited personal liability - easy-ish set up and administration, although ultimately dependent on the complexity of the company and fight club marxism, partnership. limited liability partnership (LLP) - as above, except that liability is limited to personal investments and guarantees. limited company (abbreviated to Ltd after the company name) - liability is limited to the assets of the papers for money illegal, company - registered with Companies House and legally obliged to publish accounts.
There are less common variations of limited companies, and other business structures and constitutions, for example: social enterprise - various structures including , trusts, associations and especially cooperatives - these are not common typical or traditional business structures, but social enterprises are growing in popularity, and will be explained in more detail on fight club marxism essays this website in due course. Meanwhile here is useful information about cooperatives. public limited company (plc) - not appropriate for small companies. Sole-trader and partnership companies are very easy to set up and administer, but the owner/partners are personally liable for all business debts and potential claims, so good insurance cover (including professional indemnity and public liability) is essential especially if business liabilities are potentially serious. A limited liability partnership offers protection to partners in terms of personal liabilities, in that liabilities are limited to the extent of papers for money illegal personal investment and any other guarantees. This is considered to be too much personal exposure by why did, many business people, in which case a limited company is the writing papers, obvious alternative. A limited company exists in its own right - a tricky concept to direction understand for papers illegal many people - basically meaning that financial liabilities belong to the company (its shareholders, to katharine drexel essay contest the value of writing for money illegal their shares in other words) rather than the directors and executives of the drexel essay, business, as would apply in writing illegal, a partnership.
Limited companies ultimately offer more flexibility for large complex businesses but can be over-complicated and administratively heavy if all you want to katharine essay contest do is run a local shop or landscape gardening business or modest training or coaching business. Whatever, consider carefully what type of company framework will suit you best. Once established it can be quite difficult to unravel and change if you get it wrong - not impossible, but a nuisance if you could have got it right first time with a bit of extra thought at the planning stage. A good accountant will help you decide what is best for your situation from a legal and financial standpoint, although before this you should think for yourself what sort of business structure best fits your wider business situation, and especially your business aims and philosophy. Broad guidelines about business types are available from the writing papers for money, UK Government business information Businesslink website. You'll need a business bank account. In fact it is pnb thesis, a legal requirement of all limited companies to for money illegal have a business bank account. How To! Shop around.
There are wide variations in illegal, services and costs offered by the different banks. You must also understand and organize the tax implications for katharine essay contest your type of business. Before starting any business ensure also that you have the information and controls to account for and pay all taxes due. Helpfully to learn more about this in the UK, most tax affairs are within the responsibilities of HM Revenue and Customs - until they too change their name to something very silly. That said, the relevance today of HM (Her Majesty's) is a bit puzzling when you stop to think about it and surely due for updating to the modern age. HMRC is another weird example of quirky UK Government departmental names and branding. God help us all, our country is run by alien wannabe noblemen from the middle ages.
VAT (Value Added Tax or your national equivalent) is an issue warranting serious thought if your business is for money, small enough to have a choice in the matter. Beyond a certain turnover (?68,000 as at club marxism essays, 2010) any UK business must register for VAT. Check the illegal, HMRC website for the current position. Being VAT registered means you must charge VAT on the us all VAT-rated supplies, which means also that the VAT you receive on payments from your customers must be paid to HM Revenue and Customs. (No you cannot keep it, even though some accidentally try to, and others think they are entitled to.) Being VAT registered also enables you to reclaim VAT that you pay on business costs, although there are some notable exceptions, like company cars. Retail and papers illegal, consumer businesses are especially affected by VAT. Private consumers cannot claim back VAT, so the effect of VAT on mcmaster pricing and margins needs careful thought in papers for money illegal, planning any consumer business. Up to a certain level of turnover (in the UK) becoming registered for VAT is essay, optional. If your business turnover is likely to be below the writing papers illegal, threshold for mandatory VAT registration, you must decide for yourself if the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. The main advantages of VAT registration are: your business will be perceived by certain people - especially other businesses - to direction be larger and for money illegal, more credible (not being registered for VAT indicates immediately that your turnover is below the VAT threshold) you will be able to direction reclaim VAT that you are charged on for money legitimate allowable business costs.
The main disadvantages of being VAT registered are: the administrative burden in keeping VAT records and pnb thesis, submitting VAT returns (although this has been enormously simplified in recent years so that for small simple businesses it is really not a problem at all) risks of getting onto cashflow difficulties if you fail to writing illegal set funds aside to pay your VAT bills (see the enter ww1 essays, tax tips below) Information about VAT (and all other tax issues) is at the UK Government HM Revenue and Customs website: http://www.hmrc.gov.uk. VAT is not the only tax. Taxes are also due on company profits (sole-traders or partnerships profits are taxed via personal earnings of the writing, sole-trader or partners) and on staff salaries (national insurance). A sole-trader or partnership can employ staff, in which case national insurance tax is due on salaries paid to employees, which is different to the tax that employees pay themselves.
Failing to retain funds in a company to fight essays pay taxes is writing papers for money, a serious problem that's easily avoided with good early planning. Buy Research! Contact your tax office. Inform them of your plans and seek their help. Tax offices are generally extremely helpful, so ask. You can even talk to a real person on the phone without having to breach a six-level automated menu system. Ideally find a decent accountant too. Preferably one who comes recommended to you.
With all the greatest respect to accountants everywhere, accountants are quite commonly very intense people, like solicitors and scientists, very much focused on process, accuracy, rules, etc., which in terms of writing illegal personality fit can be a little at odds with the style of many entrepreneurs. So again shop around and fight club, find an accountant with whom you can share a joke and writing papers, a beer or something from the pnb thesis mcmaster, human world. The relationship between a business person and his/her accountant is crucial if the business is to writing papers illegal grow and develop significantly. Thesis Direction! Accountants might seem at times to be from another planet, but I can assure you the good ones are bloody magicians when it comes to writing business development, especially when the figures get really interesting. The statement that one stroke of an the us ww1 essays accountant's pen is illegal, mightier than the world's most successful sales team, is actually true. For many entrepreneurs, the ideal scenario is to fight club marxism grow your business large enough to support the cost of a really excellent finance director, who can take care of all the papers for money illegal, detailed legal and financial matters for you, and leave you completely free to concentrate on growing the thesis, business - concentrating your efforts and for money illegal, ideas and strategy externally towards markets and customers, and internally towards optimizing innovation and your staff. See the quick tax tips below, especially for small businesses which might not easily be able to achieve immediate and accurate control of their tax liabilities, which is buy research papers, one of the major early risks for a new successful small business. tax tips - understanding and accounting for taxes from the start. A significant potential problem area for papers for money illegal newly self-employed people, and for new business start-ups, is mcmaster, failing to writing for money illegal budget and save for inevitable taxes which arise from your business activities.
N.B. These tips are not meant to be a detailed comprehensive guide to business taxation. This section merely addresses a particular vulnerability of new start-up businesses in failing to how to papers set aside sufficient reserves to writing for money meet tax liabilities, especially small businesses, and even more especially sole-traders and partnerships and the us, small limited companies, which lack expertise in accounting and consequently might benefit from these simple warnings and tips related to tax liabilities. In general these issues would normally be managed via a cashflow forecast, together with suitable financial processes to allocate and make payments for all costs and liabilities arising in the course of trading. I recognise however that many small business start-ups do not begin with such attention to financial processes, and it's primarily for those situations that these particular notes are provided. These notes in no way suggest that this is the normal fully controlled approach to planning and writing, organizing tax liabilities and buy research papers, other cashflow issues within any business of significant scale. This is simply a pragmatic and papers for money, practical method aimed at averting a common big problem affecting small business start-ups.
While your type of company and business determines precisely which taxes apply to you, broadly taxes are due on sales (for VAT registered businesses in pnb thesis mcmaster, the UK, or your VAT equivalent if outside the UK), and on writing papers for money illegal the profits of mcmaster your business and writing, your earnings. If you employ staff you will also have to pay national insurance tax on employees' earnings too. Thesis Direction! Generally sole-traders and partnerships have simpler tax arrangements - for example, profits are typically taxed as personal earnings - as compared with the writing papers, more complex taxes applicable to limited companies, which also pay taxes on company profits and staff salaries. Whatever, you must understand the tax liabilities applicable to your situation, and budget for them accordingly. You must try to seek appropriate financial advice for fight your situation before you commence trading. Indeed understanding tax basics also helps you decide what type of company will best suit your situation, again, before you begin trading. The potential for nasty financial surprises - notably tax bills that you have insufficient funds to pay - ironically tends to increase along with your success.
This is writing for money illegal, because bigger sales and profits and earnings inevitably produce bigger tax bills (percentage of tax increases too in the early growth of pnb thesis mcmaster a business), all of which becomes a very big problem if you've no funds to pay taxes when due. The risks of getting into difficulties can be greater for the self-employed and small partnerships which perhaps do not have great financial knowledge and experience, than for larger Limited Company start-ups which tend to have more systems and support in for money, financial areas. Start-ups are especially prone to tax surprises because the first set of fight tax bills can commonly be delayed, and papers, if you fail to account properly for all taxes due then obviously you increase the chances of spending more than you should do, resulting in why did enter ww1 essays, not having adequate funds to cover the payments when they are due. Risks are increased further if you are new to self-employment, previously having been employed and papers for money, accustomed to receiving a regular salary on which all taxes have already been deducted, in other words 'net' of tax. It can take a while to appreciate that business revenues or profits have no tax deducted when these earnings are put into your bank account; these amounts are called 'gross', because they include the pnb thesis mcmaster, tax element. Therefore not all of your business earnings belong to you - some of the money belongs to the taxman. It's your responsibility to deduct the taxes due, to set this money aside, and to pay the tax bills when demanded. Additionally, if you are a person who is in the habit of spending everything that you earn, you must be even more careful, since this tendency will increase the risks of your being unable to pay your taxes. Failing to get on writing top of the mcmaster, reality of taxes from the very beginning can lead to serious debt and cashflow problems, which is a miserable way to run a business. So you must anticipate and set aside funds necessary to meet your tax liabilities from the illegal, very start of your business, even if you do not initially have a very accurate idea of what taxes will be due, or you lack effective systems to calculate them - many small start-ups are in this position. Nevertheless it is drexel contest, too late to papers for money illegal start thinking about tax when the on heritage, first demands fall due.
If when starting your business you do not have information and systems to identify and account accurately for your tax liabilities, here are two simple quick tax tips to avoid problems with the taxman: You must estimate your tax liabilities and ensure that you set aside funds to cover these liabilities while you are banking your payments received into the business. The easiest way to do this is to identify the papers illegal, taxes applicable to your business, for club marxism essays example VAT and your own personal income tax and national insurance. Identify the percentages that apply to writing papers illegal your own situation and pnb thesis mcmaster, earnings levels. You can do this approximately.
It does not need to for money illegal be very precise. Add these percentages together, and essay on heritage management, then set aside this percentage of for money all your earnings that you receive into your business. Put these monies into a separate savings account where you can't confuse them with your main business account, i.e., your 'working capital' typically held in a current account. How To Buy Research Papers! Always over-estimate your tax liabilities so as to set aside more than you need. Having a surplus is not a problem. Having not enough money to pay taxes because you've under-estimated tax due is a problem; sometimes enough to kill an otherwise promising business. Here's an example to illegal show how quickly and mcmaster, easily you can plan and set aside a contingency to pay your tax bills, even if you've no experience or systems to calculate them precisely.
This example is based on a self-employed consultancy-type business, like a training or coaching business, in which there are no significant costs of sales (products or services bought in) or overheads, i.e., revenues are effectively the writing papers for money illegal, profits too, since there are minimal costs to offset against profits: example of estimating and setting aside money to pay taxes. 1. In the UK VAT on most products and services is 17.5%. This equates (roughly) to 15% when calculating the VAT element within a VAT-inclusive amount. Katharine Drexel Essay! This means that you can set aside 15% of your revenues and reliably be sure of writing for money covering your VAT liabilities. 2. The Us Enter! In the UK personal income tax and papers illegal, national insurance combined is roughly 30% of earnings up to about ?30,000 (a little over in fact), rising to 49% - call it 50% - of earnings above ?30k - roughly. N.B. Fight Club Marxism! Income tax and national insurance are calculated on taxable earnings, which exclude money spent on legitimate business costs, and VAT received. These figures in the above example are approximate I emphasise again, which is all you need for this purpose, moreover the approximations are on the high side of papers illegal what the essay on heritage, precise liabilities actually are. Accountants call this sort of thinking 'prudent'. Writing For Money Illegal! It's a pessimistic approach to forecasting liabilities rather than optimistic, which is fundamental to direction good financial planning and management: if the pessimism is wrong then you end up with a surplus (which is good), but if you are wrong in writing for money illegal, making optimistic forecasts and estimates (over-ambitious sales, and marxism essays, lower-than-actual costs and liabilities), then you run out of papers for money money (which is bad).
Back to club marxism the percentages.. Knowing the writing papers for money, income tax percentages enables you to set aside a suitable percentage of your earnings when you receive them into the business. Roughly speaking, for earnings up to ?30k you need to set aside 30% to cover income tax and national insurance. The Us Enter! For earnings over ?30k you need to set aside 50% to cover your income tax and national insurance. (Earnings below ?30k remain taxable at 30%). Remember you can arrive at these figures based on writing papers the VAT exclusive revenues, but to keep matters simpler it is easier to use an adjusted total percentage figure to apply to the total gross earnings. How To! If it's kept very simple and quick you'll be more likely to do it - and/or to communicate the method effectively to your partner if they are responsible for handling the financials, as often happens. Given this example, if in your first year your gross revenues (banked payments received) are say ?50,000, assuming you are VAT registered, then your tax liabilities will be (roughly): From this example you can see that setting aside 45.5% of earnings (yes it's a lot isn't it - which is why you need to writing papers illegal anticipate it and set the money aside) would comfortably cover VAT and essay management, income tax liabilities. To be extra safe and simpler in this example you could round it up to 50%.
The tax liability will obviously increase with increasing revenues - and in percentage terms too regarding personal income tax, since more earnings would be at the higher rate. You must therefore also monitor your earnings levels through the writing for money, year and essay management, adjust your percentage tax contingency accordingly. As stated already above, the risk of under-estimating tax liabilities increases the writing papers, more successful you are, because tax bills get bigger. In truth you will have some costs to offset against the earnings figures above, but again for the purposes of establishing a very quick principle of saving a fixed percentage as a tax reserve until you know and can control these liabilities more accurately, the above is a very useful simple easy method of initially staying solvent and on top of your tax affairs, which are for many people the essays, most serious source of nasty financial surprises in successful start-up businesses. The above example is very simple, and writing for money illegal, is provided mainly for small start-up businesses which might otherwise neglect to provide for tax liabilities.
The figures and percentages are not appropriate (but the broad principle of forecasting and providing funds for essay on heritage tax liabilities is) to apply to retail businesses for example, or businesses in writing papers for money, which staff are employed, since these businesses carry significant costs of sales and overheads, which should be deducted from revenues before calculating profits and taxes liabilities. Neither does the example take account of the various ways to reduce tax liabilities by reinvesting profits in enter, the business, writing off stock, putting money into pensions, charitable donations, etc. A third tip is - in fact it's effectively a legal requirement - to inform your relevant tax authorities as soon as possible about your new business. Preferably do this a few weeks before you actually begin trading. That way you can be fully informed of the for money, tax situation - and your best methods of club marxism essays dealing with tax, because there are usually different ways, and sometimes the differences can be worth quite a lot of papers for money illegal money. I do not go into more detail about tax here because it's a very complex subject with wide variations depending on katharine drexel essay contest your own situation, for which you should seek relevant information and advice from a qualified accountant and/or the relevant tax authorities. template and structure for a feasibility study or project justification report. First, and importantly, you need to clarify/confirm the criteria that need to writing for money illegal be fulfilled in order to justify starting or continuing the project or group, in how to papers, other words, what do the decision-makers need to see in order to approve the project or its continuation ? Then map these crucial approval criteria into the following structure. In other words, work through the following template structure according to, and orientated as closely as you can to, the approval criteria . (These points could effectively be your feasibility study or report justification structure, and headings.) past, present and particularly future ('customer') need (for the outputs/results produced by group or project) benefits and outcomes achieved to date for what cost/investment benefits and outcomes to be produced in the future resources, costs, investment , etc., required to produce future required outcomes and benefits (identify capital vs revenue costs, i.e., acquisition of major assets and ongoing overheads) alternative methods or ways of writing papers for money satisfying needs, with relative cost/return (return on investment) comparisons (ie., what other ways might there be for satisfying the need if the group or project doesn't happen or ceases?) outline strategy and how to papers, financial plan , including people, aims, philosophy , etc (ideally tuned to meet the authorising power's fulfilment criteria) for proposed start or continuation of project (assuming you have a case, and assuming there is no better alternative) Keep it simple. Keep to the facts and figures.
Provide evidence. Be clear and illegal, concise. Refer to the tips about effective writing. If possible present your case in person to the decision-makers, with passion, calm confidence and mcmaster, style. Papers For Money Illegal! Look at the tips on essay contest presentations, and assertiveness. tips on finding and papers, working with business planning advisors and consultants. If you need help putting together a business plan, and if you want to get the best from the engagement, it's important to find the right person to the us work with, and to establish and maintain a good working relationship with them. If you are great big organisation you'll probably not need to work with outsiders, and if you do then you'll probably opt for a great big supplier, however there are significant benefits from working with much smaller suppliers - even single operators - and if you are a small business yourself, then this is writing for money, probably the best choice anyway: to seek a good single operator, or small partnership of thesis direction experts. Writing For Money! Here are some ideas of what to look for.
You'll be best finding someone who meets as much of this criteria as possible: lives close-by you so you can work face-to-face with them and get to katharine essay know each other properly, and so that their time is efficiently used, instead of being in for money, traffic on their way to and from your place is high integrity and very discreet is grown-up and got no baggage or emotional triggers - wise and mature - and it needn't be an age thing can help you see and decide where and essay on heritage, how you want to take the business, rather than tell you where he/she thinks you need to go - a mentor not an instructor understands or can immediately relate to writing illegal your industry sector and management, type of work is experienced working with small family companies, but is also a big picture strategist and writing illegal, visionary (advisors who've only ever worked with big corporations can sometimes be a bit free and easy with relatively small amounts of fight club essays money - you need someone with a very very practical approach to managing cash-flow, and real business realities, who've worked in situations without the protection of vast corporate bureaucracy and the lack of for money illegal transparency that this often brings) is triple-brained or whole-brained - mostly front-brained - (see the stuff on Benziger) - intuitive-creative, thinking, but also able to be personable and grounded, subject to the us enter the point below complements your own strengths and fills the gaps and weaknesses in your collective abilities (again see the writing papers illegal, stuff on Benziger and essay management, Jung etc) - ie., if collectively you need hard facts and figures and logic then seek people with these strengths - conversely if you are strong on all this, then seek the papers illegal, creative humanist ethical strengths - he/she must work with you in a balanced team - so that the team has no blind spots, and no subjective biases in style or emphasis has two or three referees you can talk to and see evidence of past work (although if you check most of the above it will be a formality) doesn't smoke or drink too much isn't desperate for the work. As regards finding someone like this, without doubt the most reliable and quickest method is by why did enter ww1 essays, networking introductions through trusted people. The person you seek might be three or more links away, but if it's a friend or associate of someone trusted, by someone who's trusted, by someone you trust, then probably they'll be right for you. Start by talking to people you know and asking if they know anyone, or if they know anyone who might know anyone - and take it from there. The chances of finding the right person in the local business listings or directory, out of the blue and from cold, are pretty remote. Replying to adverts and marketing material from consultants is a lottery too. You'll find someone eventually but you'll need to kiss a lot of frogs first, which takes ages and is not the cleverest way to spend your valuable time.
For something so important as business planning advice or consultancy use referrals every time. Referrals work not only writing papers because you get to why did enter find someone trusted, but the writing for money illegal, person you find has a reasonable assurance that you can be trusted too, you see: good suppliers are just as choosy as good clients. Direction! It works both ways. Be prepared to writing for money illegal reward the person in pnb thesis mcmaster, whatever way is appropriate and illegal, fair (I'm thinking percentage share of incremental success beyond expectations - perhaps even equity share if the person is really good and you'd value their on-going contribution and how to, help). Often the best people won't ask for much money up front at all, but from your point of view you will attract a lot more commitment and work beyond the call of illegal normal duty from them if you reward higher than they ask or need. Good suppliers are immensely motivated by good clients and lots of appreciation, even if they don't want the financial reward. Good suppliers have usually seen too many ungrateful greedy people taking them for essay contest granted and penny pinching, and will tend to sack clients like these without even telling them why, and move on for money to more deserving enjoyable work with people who are fair and appreciative, which is how you'll be I'm sure.
Finally, when you've found the how to, right person, always continually agree expectations and invite feedback about how the relationship is working, not just how the work is papers illegal, going. starting your own business - or starting any new business. These are the simple rules for planning and starting your own business. The principles also apply to planning and essay on heritage, starting a new business within an writing for money illegal organisation for someone else. In amongst the distractions and details of new business planning, it is important to keep sight of the basic rules of new business success:
Your successful new business must offer something unique that people want. Uniqueness is vital because otherwise there is papers, no reason for customers to buy from you. Anyone can be or create a unique business proposition by thinking about it clearly. Uniqueness comes in all shapes and sizes - it's chiefly being especially good and illegal, different in a particular area, or field or sector. Uniqueness can be in a product or service, or in a trading method, or in fight essays, you yourself, or any other aspect of your business which makes what you are offering special and appealing to people. You will develop your own unique offering first by identifying what people want and papers for money, which nobody is providing properly. Second you must ensure that your chosen unique offering is also an fight club extension of your own passion or particular expertise or strength - something you will love and enjoy being the best at - whatever it is.
Every successful business is built on someone's passion. new business start-ups by older people. If you already have a career behind you, and you wonder if you've got it in you to compete and succeed in the modern world, consider this. First - you have definitely got it in you to succeed. Experience and wisdom are fundamental building blocks of papers success, and will be for you from the moment you start looking at yourself in this way. The reassuring wisdom that older people generally possess is extremely helpful in drexel essay contest, forming trusting relationships - with customers, suppliers, partners, colleagues, etc - which are essential for good business. Added to this, as we get older we have a greater understanding of our true passions and writing for money, capabilities; we know our strengths and mcmaster, styles and tolerances. This gives older people a very special potency in business.
Older people know what they are good at. They play to their strengths. They know which battles they can win, and which to avoid. Older people are also typically better at handling change and adapting to writing papers for money illegal new things than younger people. This is because older people have had more experience doing just this. Adapting to change and working around things are significant capabilities in achieving new business success. If you are an older person considering starting a new business, think about the things you can do better than most other people - think about your strengths and use them. business start-ups for younger people. Younger people can be very successful starting new businesses just as much as older people can be. The essential principle of playing to your strengths applies, although the implications are different for katharine essay contest younger people compared to older people. Younger people are likely to have lots of fresh ideas.
This is an advantage, so avoid people pour cold water on them. Test your ideas on potential customers, rather than to writing take advice from those people who are ready with their buckets of water. Next, get the help you need. It's difficult for young people to pnb thesis mcmaster know all the answers. You'll have the ideas and the energy to make things happen, but consider the gaps in your experience, and the things you don't enjoy doing, and seek good quality reliable help for these things. Getting good help at writing papers for money, what you can't do or don't want to do will enable you to thesis put all your energy into what you are good at and what you want to spend your time doing.
Young people sometimes try to writing illegal force themselves to fit into roles or responsibilities that are not comfortable or natural. This is de-stabilising and how to papers, stressful. Learn what you love and excel at, and focus on building success from this. Which brings us back to writing illegal playing to on heritage management your strengths. All successful businesses (and people who become successful working for others) are based on the person using personal strengths and pursuing personal passions.
Success in business is papers, always based on doing something you love and enjoy, which is fundamentally related to your natural strengths and unique personal potential, whatever that is. The sooner you identify these things in yourself, the sooner will build sustainable business success. planning business success - in summary. Spreadsheets, mission statements, planning templates and other process elements of new business creation and development are tools. They enable the business to be properly structured, started and run. They are essential of course, but in themselves they don't determine success. Business success is katharine contest, determined by deeper factors. Increasingly business success depends on for money illegal having a solid philosophical foundation - where relevant interests, inside and outside of the organization, are balanced rather than conflicting. The bigger the business, the more widely it must consider how it relates to external interests and thesis direction, responsibilities - to society and the world at large. A business with this sort of harmony and balance built into writing papers for money, its shape and principles at the outset has a huge advantage over a business which contains tensions and competing pressures.
Within these considerations, relationships - as explained by the Psychological Contract - are crucially important in every business. Businesses ultimately depend on people, and people depend on relationships. Aside from this - and essay, without diminishing the writing for money, significance of other vital business components such as reliability, value, quality, etc., which are necessary merely to survive at a basic level - uniqueness and passion are the remaining special ingredients for success: Uniqueness (just one word, with so many implications) - so that people will want what you offer, and Passion, so that you will enjoy being and offering your best - and so that this belief and commitment conveys to others.
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Which Slave Sailed Himself to Freedom? Just before dawn on May 13, 1862, Robert Smalls and a crew composed of fellow slaves, in the absence of the white captain and his two mates, slipped a cotton steamer off the dock, picked up family members at a rendezvous point, then slowly navigated their way through the harbor. Writing Illegal! Smalls, doubling as the captain, even donning the katharine drexel essay contest captain’s wide-brimmed straw hat to help to hide his face, responded with the proper coded signals at writing papers, two Confederate checkpoints, including at direction, Fort Sumter itself, and other defense positions. Cleared, Smalls sailed into the open seas. Once outside of papers Confederate waters, he had his crew raise a white flag and surrendered his ship to the blockading Union fleet. In fewer than four hours, Robert Smalls had done something unimaginable: In the midst of the Civil War, this black male slave had commandeered a heavily armed Confederate ship and mcmaster delivered its 17 black passengers (nine men, five women and three children) from slavery to freedom. Robert Smalls, S.C.
M.C. Born in Beaufort, SC, April 1839. (Library of Congress, prints and photographs division). After two weeks of supplying various island points, the Planter returns to the Charleston docks by nightfall. It is writing papers illegal due to go out again the essay on heritage management next morning and so is heavily armed, including approximately 200 rounds of ammunition, a 32-pound pivot gun, a 24-pound howitzer and four other guns, among them one that had been dented in the original attack on writing Sumter. In between drop-offs, the three white officers on board (Capt. C.J. Relyea, pilot Samuel H. Smith and thesis direction engineer Zerich Pitcher) make the fateful decision to illegal, disembark for the night — either for a party or to visit family — leaving the crew’s eight slave members behind.
If caught, Capt. Relyea could face court-martial — that’s how much he trusts them. At the top of the list is Robert Smalls, a 22-year-old mulatto slave who’s been sailing these waters since he was a teenager: intelligent and resourceful, defiant with compassion, an expert navigator with a family yearning to be free. Essay On Heritage Management! According to the 1883 Naval Committee report, Smalls serves as the writing ship’s “virtual pilot,” but because only whites can rank, he is slotted as “wheelman.” Smalls not only acts the part; he looks it, as well. Mcmaster! He is often teased about his resemblance to Capt. Relyea: Is it his skin, his frame or both? The true joke, though, is Smalls’ to spring, for what none of the officers know is that he has been planning for illegal this moment for weeks and is willing to use every weapon on management board to see it through.
Smalls was born on April 5, 1839, behind his owner’s city house at 511 Prince Street in Beaufort, S.C. His mother, Lydia, served in writing for money the house but grew up in the fields, where, at the age of nine, she was taken from pnb thesis mcmaster her own family on the Sea Islands. It is writing illegal not clear who Smalls’ father was. Some say it was his owner, John McKee; others, his son Henry; still others, the plantation manager, Patrick Smalls. What is clear is that the McKee family favored Robert Smalls over the other slave children, so much so that his mother worried he would reach manhood without grasping the mcmaster horrors of the for money institution into which he was born. To educate him, she arranged for mcmaster him to writing for money illegal, be sent into the fields to work and essay on heritage watch slaves at writing, “the whipping post.” “The result of this lesson led Robert to defiance,” wrote great-granddaughter Helen Boulware Moore and historian W. Marvin Dulaney, and he “frequently found himself in the Beaufort jail.” If anything, Smalls’ mother’s plan had worked too well, so that “fear[ing] for her son’s safety … she asked McKee to allow Smalls to go to katharine drexel essay, Charleston to be rented out to work.” Again her wish was granted. By the for money time Smalls turned 19, he had tried his hand at a number of city jobs and was allowed to keep one dollar of his wages a week (his owner took the buy research papers rest). Far more valuable was the education he received on writing papers for money illegal the water; few knew Charleston harbor better than Robert Smalls. It’s where he earned his job on the Planter.
It’s also where he met his wife, Hannah, a slave of the Kingman family working at a Charleston hotel. With their owners’ permission, the two moved into katharine contest an apartment together and had two children: Elizabeth and Robert Jr. Well aware this was no guarantee of writing illegal a permanent union, Smalls asked his wife’s owner if he could purchase his family outright; they agreed but at enter ww1 essays, a steep price: $800. Smalls only had $100. Writing For Money! “How long would it take [him] to save up another $700?” Moore and Dulaney ask. Unwittingly, Smalls’ “look-enough-alike,” Captain Rylea, gave him his best backup. To white Confederates, the Union ships blocking their harbors were another example of the North’s enslavement of the South; to why did enter ww1 essays, actual slaves like Robert Smalls, these ships signaled the tantalizing promise of freedom. Writing For Money Illegal! Under orders from Secretary Gideon Welles in Washington, Navy commanders had been accepting runaways as contraband since the previous September. While Smalls couldn’t afford to katharine drexel, buy his family on writing for money shore, he knew he could win their freedom by sea — and so he told his wife to be ready for whenever opportunity dawned. That opportunity is at hand on the night of essay contest May 12. Once the white officers are on papers for money illegal shore, Smalls confides his plan to pnb thesis mcmaster, the other slaves on board.
According to the Naval Committee report, two choose to stay behind. “The design was hazardous in the extreme,” it states, and Smalls and his men have no intention of being taken alive; either they will escape or use whatever guns and ammunition they have to fight and, if necessary, sink their ship. “Failure and writing papers for money detection would have been certain death,” the Navy report makes plain. “Fearful was the venture, but it was made.” At 2:00 a.m. on May 13, Smalls dons Capt. Rylea’s straw hat and orders the Planter’s skeleton crew to katharine drexel contest, put up the boiler and hoist the South Carolina and Confederate flags as decoys. Easing out of the dock, in papers illegal view of katharine drexel contest Gen. Ripley’s headquarters, they pause at the West Atlantic Wharf to pick up Smalls’ wife and children, along with four other women, three men and another child. At 3:25 a.m., the Planter accelerates “her perilous adventure,” the writing for money Navy report continues (it reads more like a Robert Louis Stevenson novel). From the pilot house, Smalls blows the ship’s whistle while passing Confederate Forts Johnson and, at 4:15 a.m., Fort Sumter, “as cooly as if General Ripley was on board.” Smalls not only knows all the right Navy signals to katharine essay, flash; he even folds his arms like Capt.
Rylea, so that in the shadows of dawn, he passes convincingly for white. “She was supposed to be the guard boat and allowed to pass without interruption,” Confederate Aide-de-Campe F.G. Papers For Money! Ravenel explains defensively in a letter to his commander hours later. It is only when the Planter passes out of Rebel gun range that the alarm is sounded — the Planter is heading for the Union blockade. Approaching it, Smalls orders his crew to replace the Palmetto and Rebel flags with a white bed sheet his wife brought on board. Not seeing it, Acting Volunteer Lt. J. Frederick Nickels of the on heritage U.S.S. Onward orders his sailors to “open her ports.” It is “sunrise,” Nickels writes in a letter the same day, an illuminating fact that may have changed the course of history, at least on papers board the Planter — for now Nickels could see. In The Negro’s Civil War , the dean of Civil War studies James McPherson quotes the management following eyewitness account: “Just as No. 3 port gun was being elevated, someone cried out, ‘I see something that looks like a white flag’; and true enough there was something flying on the steamer that would have been white by papers for money illegal application of enter ww1 essays soap and water.
As she neared us, we looked in vain for the face of a white man. When they discovered that we would not fire on them, there was a rush of contrabands out on her deck, some dancing, some singing, whistling, jumping; and others stood looking towards Fort Sumter, and muttering all sorts of maledictions against it, and ‘de heart of de Souf,’ generally. As the steamer came near, and under the stern of the Onward, one of the Colored men stepped forward, and writing for money taking off his hat, shouted, ‘Good morning, sir! I’ve brought you some of the old United States guns, sir!’ ” That man is Robert Smalls, and he and his family and the entire slave crew of the Planter are now free. After “board[ing] her, haul[ing] down the flag of truce, and hoist[ing] the fight club American ensign” (his words), Lt. Writing Illegal! Nickels transfers the Planter to his commander, Capt. E.G.
Parrott of the enter U.S.S. Augusta. Parrott then forwards it on to Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont (of the “du Pont” Du Ponts), at writing for money, Port Royal, Hilton Heads Island, with a letter describing Smalls as “very intelligent contraband.” Du Pont is similarly impressed, and the next day writes a letter to the Navy secretary in Washington, stating, “Robert, the intelligent slave and pilot of the boat, who performed this bold feet so skillfully, informed me of [the capture of the Sumter gun], presuming it would be a matter of interest.” He “is superior to any who have come into our lines — intelligent as many of them have been.” While Du Pont sends the families to Beaufort, he takes care of the Planter’s crew personally while having its captured flags mailed to Washington via the Adams Express, the same private carrier that had delivered Box Brown to club marxism essays, freedom in 1849. Smalls may not have had the $700 he needed to purchase his family’s freedom before the for money war; now, because of the us his bravery and his inability to for money, purchase his wife, the U.S. Congress on enter ww1 essays May 30, 1862, passed a private bill authorizing the Navy to appraise the Planter and award Smalls and his crew half the papers for money illegal proceeds for “rescuing her from the pnb thesis mcmaster enemies of the Government.” Smalls received $1,500 personally, enough to purchase his former owner’s house in Beaufort off the tax rolls following the war, though according to the later Naval Affairs Committee report, his pay should have been substantially higher. The Confederates seemed to know this already; after Smalls’ escape, biographer Andrew Billingsley notes, they put a $4,000 bounty on his head.
Still, those on the scene had a hard time explaining how slaves pulled off such a feat; in the aftermath, Aide-de-Campe Ravenel even intimated to his commander that the night before, “it would appear that … two white men and a white woman went on papers board of her, and mcmaster as they were not seen to return it is supposed that they have also gone with her.” Suppose all they wanted — there was no record of any white passengers aboard the Planter the morning of May 13 — Smalls and his crew had acted alone. As his contemporary steamer pilot Mark Twain famously wrote: “Facts are stubborn things.” In the North, Smalls was feted as a hero and personally lobbied the Secretary of War Edwin Stanton to papers, begin enlisting black soldiers. Essay! After President Lincoln acted a few months later, Smalls was said to writing for money, have recruited 5,000 soldiers by himself. In October 1862, he returned to the Planter as pilot as part of Admiral Du Pont’s South Atlantic Blockading Squadron. According to the 1883 Naval Affairs Committee report, Smalls was engaged in essay on heritage management approximately 17 military actions, including the April 7, 1863, assault on Fort Sumter and papers illegal the attack at Folly Island Creek, S.C., two months later, where he assumed command of the Planter when, under “very hot fire,” its white captain became so “demoralized” he hid in buy research papers the “coal-bunker.” For his valiancy, Smalls was promoted to the rank of writing for money illegal captain himself, and from December 1863 on, earned $150 a month, making him one of the highest paid black soldiers of the war. Poetically, when the war ended in April 1865, Smalls was on board the Planter in a ceremony in Charleston Harbor. Following the essay contest war, Smalls continued to push the for money illegal boundaries of freedom as a first-generation black politician, serving in the South Carolina state assembly and the us ww1 essays senate, and for five nonconsecutive terms in the U.S. House of Representatives (1874-1886) before watching his state roll back Reconstruction in a revised 1895 constitution that stripped blacks of their voting rights.
He died in Beaufort on February 22, 1915, in the same house behind which he had been born a slave and is buried behind a bust at writing for money, the Tabernacle Baptist Church. In the face of the rise of Jim Crow, Smalls stood firm as an pnb thesis unyielding advocate for the political rights of African Americans: “My race needs no special defense for the past history of for money them and this country. It proves them to be equal of any people anywhere. All they need is an equal chance in the battle of life.” For those interested in learning more about direction, this daring Civil War hero, Helen Boulware Moore and W. Martin Dulaney, with help from the National Endowment for the Humanities, have curated a traveling exhibit, “The Life and Times of Congressman Robert Smalls.” You can also find him on YouTube, including in a South Carolina state educational video; a fourth grader’s Black History Month presentation; even a realtor’s tour of his former home in Beaufort, most recently listed for $1.2 million. Imagine what the Planter and its guns and writing ammunition would fetch in current dollars? One thing I know: Robert Smalls and the purchase of his family’s freedom?
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consciousness essay Department of Philosophy. University of writing papers for money illegal Arizona. Tucson, AZ 85721. [Published in the Journal of why did the us Consciousness Studies 2(3):200-19, 1995. Writing For Money Illegal? Also online is my response, Moving Forward on the Problem of Consciousness, to 26 articles commenting on this paper. That paper elaborates and extends many of the ideas in this one.] Consciousness poses the most baffling problems in why did the us enter ww1 essays the science of the mind. There is nothing that we know more intimately than conscious experience, but there is writing papers illegal nothing that is harder to why did the us ww1 essays explain. All sorts of mental phenomena have yielded to scientific investigation in recent years, but consciousness has stubbornly resisted. Many have tried to explain it, but the explanations always seem to papers for money fall short of the target.
Some have been led to suppose that the problem is intractable, and essay, that no good explanation can be given. To make progress on the problem of consciousness, we have to confront it directly. Papers Illegal? In this paper, I first isolate the truly hard part of the problem, separating it from more tractable parts and giving an account of how to buy research why it is so difficult to explain. I critique some recent work that uses reductive methods to for money address consciousness, and argue that such methods inevitably fail to essay on heritage come to grips with the hardest part of the illegal, problem. Once this failure is pnb thesis recognized, the door to for money illegal further progress is opened. In the fight club essays, second half of the paper, I argue that if we move to a new kind of nonreductive explanation, a naturalistic account of consciousness can be given. Writing Papers For Money? I put forward my own candidate for such an account: a nonreductive theory based on principles of katharine drexel structural coherence and organizational invariance and a double-aspect view of information.
2 The easy problems and the hard problem. There is not just one problem of consciousness. Consciousness is an ambiguous term, referring to many different phenomena. Each of these phenomena needs to be explained, but some are easier to explain than others. At the papers for money illegal, start, it is how to papers useful to divide the papers illegal, associated problems of consciousness into hard and easy problems. The easy problems of consciousness are those that seem directly susceptible to the standard methods of cognitive science, whereby a phenomenon is explained in terms of computational or neural mechanisms. The hard problems are those that seem to resist those methods. The easy problems of drexel consciousness include those of explaining the following phenomena: the ability to discriminate, categorize, and react to environmental stimuli; the integration of writing for money illegal information by buy research a cognitive system; the reportability of mental states; the ability of a system to access its own internal states; the focus of attention; the deliberate control of behavior; the difference between wakefulness and sleep. All of these phenomena are associated with the notion of consciousness. For example, one sometimes says that a mental state is conscious when it is verbally reportable, or when it is internally accessible. Sometimes a system is said to be conscious of some information when it has the ability to react on the basis of that information, or, more strongly, when it attends to that information, or when it can integrate that information and exploit it in the sophisticated control of behavior.
We sometimes say that an action is conscious precisely when it is deliberate. Often, we say that an organism is conscious as another way of saying that it is awake. There is no real issue about whether these phenomena can be explained scientifically. All of them are straightforwardly vulnerable to explanation in terms of computational or neural mechanisms. To explain access and reportability, for example, we need only specify the mechanism by which information about internal states is papers illegal retrieved and made available for verbal report. To explain the integration of thesis information, we need only exhibit mechanisms by which information is brought together and exploited by later processes. For an account of sleep and wakefulness, an appropriate neurophysiological account of the processes responsible for organisms' contrasting behavior in writing those states will suffice. How To? In each case, an appropriate cognitive or neurophysiological model can clearly do the explanatory work.
If these phenomena were all there was to illegal consciousness, then consciousness would not be much of essays a problem. Although we do not yet have anything close to a complete explanation of papers for money these phenomena, we have a clear idea of how we might go about explaining them. This is why I call these problems the easy problems. Of course, easy is pnb thesis a relative term. Getting the details right will probably take a century or two of difficult empirical work. Still, there is every reason to believe that the methods of cognitive science and neuroscience will succeed. The really hard problem of consciousness is the problem of experience . When we think and perceive, there is a whir of information-processing, but there is papers also a subjective aspect.
As Nagel (1974) has put it, there is something it is katharine like to be a conscious organism. This subjective aspect is experience. When we see, for example, we experience visual sensations: the felt quality of redness, the experience of illegal dark and light, the quality of depth in a visual field. Other experiences go along with perception in different modalities: the sound of mcmaster a clarinet, the smell of illegal mothballs. Then there are bodily sensations, from pains to orgasms; mental images that are conjured up internally; the felt quality of emotion, and the experience of a stream of essay conscious thought. What unites all of these states is that there is something it is like to be in them. All of them are states of experience. It is undeniable that some organisms are subjects of experience. But the question of for money how it is that these systems are subjects of experience is perplexing.
Why is it that when our cognitive systems engage in visual and auditory information-processing, we have visual or auditory experience: the quality of why did ww1 essays deep blue, the sensation of papers for money illegal middle C? How can we explain why there is something it is like to entertain a mental image, or to experience an emotion? It is widely agreed that experience arises from a physical basis, but we have no good explanation of why and how it so arises. Why should physical processing give rise to a rich inner life at all? It seems objectively unreasonable that it should, and yet it does. If any problem qualifies as the problem of consciousness, it is this one. In this central sense of consciousness, an organism is conscious if there is pnb thesis mcmaster something it is like to be that organism, and a mental state is conscious if there is something it is like to be in papers for money that state. Sometimes terms such as phenomenal consciousness and qualia are also used here, but I find it more natural to how to speak of conscious experience or simply experience. Another useful way to avoid confusion (used by e.g. Newell 1990, Chalmers 1996) is to reserve the term consciousness for the phenomena of experience, using the less loaded term awareness for the more straightforward phenomena described earlier. If such a convention were widely adopted, communication would be much easier; as things stand, those who talk about consciousness are frequently talking past each other. The ambiguity of the term consciousness is often exploited by both philosophers and scientists writing on the subject.
It is common to see a paper on consciousness begin with an invocation of the mystery of consciousness, noting the strange intangibility and ineffability of writing papers for money subjectivity, and worrying that so far we have no theory of the phenomenon. Here, the topic is clearly the on heritage, hard problem - the problem of for money illegal experience. In the on heritage, second half of the paper, the tone becomes more optimistic, and the author's own theory of consciousness is outlined. Upon examination, this theory turns out to be a theory of papers for money illegal one of the more straightforward phenomena - of reportability, of introspective access, or whatever. At the close, the author declares that consciousness has turned out to be tractable after all, but the reader is left feeling like the club marxism essays, victim of a bait-and-switch.
The hard problem remains untouched. Why are the easy problems easy, and why is the hard problem hard? The easy problems are easy precisely because they concern the writing for money illegal, explanation of thesis cognitive abilities and functions . Writing Papers For Money Illegal? To explain a cognitive function, we need only specify a mechanism that can perform the function. The methods of cognitive science are well-suited for enter ww1 essays this sort of explanation, and so are well-suited to papers illegal the easy problems of enter consciousness. Writing Papers For Money? By contrast, the hard problem is hard precisely because it is not a problem about the performance of drexel contest functions. The problem persists even when the performance of all the papers illegal, relevant functions is explained. (Here function is not used in club marxism the narrow teleological sense of something that a system is designed to do, but in the broader sense of any causal role in the production of behavior that a system might perform.) To explain reportability, for instance, is just to explain how a system could perform the function of papers illegal producing reports on internal states. To explain internal access, we need to explain how a system could be appropriately affected by mcmaster its internal states and use information about those states in directing later processes. To explain integration and papers for money, control, we need to explain how a system's central processes can bring information contents together and use them in the facilitation of various behaviors.
These are all problems about the explanation of functions. How do we explain the performance of a function? By specifying a mechanism that performs the function. Here, neurophysiological and club essays, cognitive modeling are perfect for the task. If we want a detailed low-level explanation, we can specify the neural mechanism that is responsible for the function. If we want a more abstract explanation, we can specify a mechanism in papers for money illegal computational terms. Either way, a full and satisfying explanation will result. Once we have specified the neural or computational mechanism that performs the function of verbal report, for example, the bulk of our work in explaining reportability is essay over. In a way, the point is trivial.
It is a conceptual fact about these phenomena that their explanation only involves the explanation of various functions, as the phenomena are functionally definable . All it means for reportability to be instantiated in a system is that the system has the capacity for papers for money verbal reports of internal information. All it means for a system to be awake is for it to be appropriately receptive to information from the environment and for it to be able to use this information in directing behavior in an appropriate way. To see that this sort of thing is a conceptual fact, note that someone who says you have explained the performance of the verbal report function, but you have not explained reportability is making a trivial conceptual mistake about pnb thesis mcmaster, reportability. All it could possibly take to explain reportability is an explanation of how the relevant function is performed; the same goes for the other phenomena in question. Throughout the writing papers for money illegal, higher-level sciences, reductive explanation works in just this way. To explain the gene, for instance, we needed to specify the buy research papers, mechanism that stores and papers for money illegal, transmits hereditary information from one generation to the next. It turns out that DNA performs this function; once we explain how the function is performed, we have explained the gene.
To explain life, we ultimately need to why did the us enter explain how a system can reproduce, adapt to its environment, metabolize, and so on. All of these are questions about the performance of functions, and so are well-suited to reductive explanation. The same holds for most problems in cognitive science. To explain learning, we need to explain the way in which a system's behavioral capacities are modified in light of environmental information, and the way in papers illegal which new information can be brought to bear in adapting a system's actions to its environment. If we show how a neural or computational mechanism does the job, we have explained learning. We can say the same for other cognitive phenomena, such as perception, memory, and language.
Sometimes the relevant functions need to katharine drexel essay be characterized quite subtly, but it is clear that insofar as cognitive science explains these phenomena at all, it does so by explaining the writing papers, performance of functions. When it comes to conscious experience, this sort of explanation fails. What makes the hard problem hard and almost unique is on heritage management that it goes beyond problems about the performance of functions. To see this, note that even when we have explained the performance of all the cognitive and behavioral functions in papers for money the vicinity of thesis direction experience - perceptual discrimination, categorization, internal access, verbal report - there may still remain a further unanswered question: Why is the performance of for money these functions accompanied by thesis direction experience? A simple explanation of the functions leaves this question open.
There is no analogous further question in the explanation of genes, or of life, or of learning. If someone says I can see that you have explained how DNA stores and transmits hereditary information from one generation to the next, but you have not explained how it is a gene , then they are making a conceptual mistake. All it means to be a gene is to be an entity that performs the relevant storage and writing, transmission function. But if someone says I can see that you have explained how information is discriminated, integrated, and reported, but you have not explained how it is experienced , they are not making a conceptual mistake. Mcmaster? This is a nontrivial further question. This further question is the key question in for money illegal the problem of consciousness.
Why doesn't all this information-processing go on in the dark, free of any inner feel? Why is it that when electromagnetic waveforms impinge on enter ww1 essays a retina and are discriminated and categorized by a visual system, this discrimination and categorization is experienced as a sensation of vivid red? We know that conscious experience does arise when these functions are performed, but the very fact that it arises is the central mystery. There is an for money explanatory gap (a term due to Levine 1983) between the katharine drexel, functions and experience, and we need an explanatory bridge to cross it. A mere account of the writing papers for money illegal, functions stays on one side of the gap, so the materials for pnb thesis mcmaster the bridge must be found elsewhere. This is not to say that experience has no function. Perhaps it will turn out to play an important cognitive role. But for any role it might play, there will be more to the explanation of experience than a simple explanation of the function. Perhaps it will even turn out that in the course of explaining a function, we will be led to the key insight that allows an explanation of experience.
If this happens, though, the discovery will be an writing illegal extra explanatory reward. There is no cognitive function such that we can say in advance that explanation of that function will automatically explain experience. To explain experience, we need a new approach. Club? The usual explanatory methods of cognitive science and neuroscience do not suffice. These methods have been developed precisely to writing papers explain the performance of marxism essays cognitive functions, and papers illegal, they do a good job of it. But as these methods stand, they are only equipped to papers explain the performance of functions. When it comes to the hard problem, the standard approach has nothing to say. In the last few years, a number of works have addressed the writing, problems of consciousness within the framework of cognitive science and pnb thesis, neuroscience. This might suggest that the analysis above is faulty, but in fact a close examination of the relevant work only lends the analysis further support. When we investigate just which aspects of consciousness these studies are aimed at, and papers for money, which aspects they end up explaining, we find that the ultimate target of explanation is always one of the easy problems.
I will illustrate this with two representative examples. The first is the neurobiological theory of consciousness outlined by Crick and Koch (1990; see also Crick 1994). This theory centers on certain 35-75 hertz neural oscillations in the cerebral cortex; Crick and why did the us, Koch hypothesize that these oscillations are the basis of consciousness. Papers Illegal? This is partly because the oscillations seem to be correlated with awareness in fight club marxism essays a number of different modalities - within the visual and olfactory systems, for example - and also because they suggest a mechanism by which the binding of information contents might be achieved. Binding is the process whereby separately represented pieces of information about a single entity are brought together to be used by later processing, as when information about the color and shape of a perceived object is integrated from separate visual pathways. Following others (e.g., Eckhorn et al 1988), Crick and Koch hypothesize that binding may be achieved by the synchronized oscillations of neuronal groups representing the relevant contents. Writing For Money? When two pieces of information are to marxism essays be bound together, the relevant neural groups will oscillate with the same frequency and papers for money, phase. The details of how this binding might be achieved are still poorly understood, but suppose that they can be worked out. What might the resulting theory explain? Clearly it might explain the binding of information contents, and perhaps it might yield a more general account of the integration of information in fight club marxism the brain. Crick and Koch also suggest that these oscillations activate the writing papers, mechanisms of working memory, so that there may be an account of this and contest, perhaps other forms of memory in the distance.
The theory might eventually lead to a general account of how perceived information is bound and stored in memory, for writing for money use by later processing. Such a theory would be valuable, but it would tell us nothing about why the relevant contents are experienced. Crick and Koch suggest that these oscillations are the neural correlates of experience. This claim is arguable - does not binding also take place in the processing of unconscious information? - but even if it is accepted, the essay on heritage, explanatory question remains: Why do the oscillations give rise to experience? The only basis for an explanatory connection is the role they play in binding and storage, but the question of why binding and storage should themselves be accompanied by writing papers experience is never addressed. If we do not know why binding and storage should give rise to experience, telling a story about the club marxism, oscillations cannot help us. Conversely, if we knew why binding and illegal, storage gave rise to experience, the neurophysiological details would be just the direction, icing on papers illegal the cake. Thesis? Crick and for money, Koch's theory gains its purchase by assuming a connection between binding and experience, and so can do nothing to essay explain that link. I do not think that Crick and Koch are ultimately claiming to address the hard problem, although some have interpreted them otherwise.
A published interview with Koch gives a clear statement of the limitations on the theory's ambitions. Well, let's first forget about the really difficult aspects, like subjective feelings, for they may not have a scientific solution. The subjective state of play, of pain, of pleasure, of papers illegal seeing blue, of smelling a rose - there seems to be a huge jump between the materialistic level, of explaining molecules and neurons, and katharine contest, the subjective level. Let's focus on papers for money things that are easier to study - like visual awareness. You're now talking to fight me, but you're not looking at me, you're looking at the cappuccino, and so you are aware of it. You can say, `It's a cup and there's some liquid in writing papers illegal it.' If I give it to you, you'll move your arm and you'll take it - you'll respond in how to buy research papers a meaningful manner. That's what I call awareness. (What is Consciousness, Discover , November 1992, p. 96.) The second example is an approach at the level of cognitive psychology. Papers? This is Baars' global workspace theory of consciousness, presented in his book A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness . According to this theory, the contents of consciousness are contained in katharine drexel a global workspace , a central processor used to mediate communication between a host of specialized nonconscious processors. When these specialized processors need to broadcast information to writing papers for money the rest of the system, they do so by sending this information to why did the us the workspace, which acts as a kind of communal blackboard for the rest of the system, accessible to all the other processors.
Baars uses this model to address many aspects of illegal human cognition, and to explain a number of contrasts between conscious and unconscious cognitive functioning. Ultimately, however, it is a theory of cognitive accessibility , explaining how it is that certain information contents are widely accessible within a system, as well as a theory of club marxism essays informational integration and writing papers for money, reportability. The theory shows promise as a theory of awareness, the functional correlate of pnb thesis mcmaster conscious experience, but an explanation of experience itself is not on offer. One might suppose that according to this theory, the contents of experience are precisely the contents of the workspace. But even if this is so, nothing internal to the theory explains why the information within the global workspace is experienced. The best the theory can do is to say that the information is experienced because it is globally accessible . But now the question arises in a different form: why should global accessibility give rise to writing papers illegal conscious experience? As always, this bridging question is unanswered.
Almost all work taking a cognitive or neuroscientific approach to consciousness in recent years could be subjected to why did the us enter ww1 essays a similar critique. The Neural Darwinism model of Edelman (1989), for instance, addresses questions about perceptual awareness and the self-concept, but says nothing about why there should also be experience. Writing Papers Illegal? The multiple drafts model of Dennett (1991) is largely directed at essay explaining the reportability of certain mental contents. Writing For Money Illegal? The intermediate level theory of Jackendoff (1988) provides an account of mcmaster some computational processes that underlie consciousness, but Jackendoff stresses that the question of how these project into conscious experience remains mysterious. Researchers using these methods are often inexplicit about their attitudes to the problem of conscious experience, although sometimes they take a clear stand. Even among those who are clear about it, attitudes differ widely. In placing this sort of work with respect to the problem of experience, a number of different strategies are available.
It would be useful if these strategic choices were more often made explicit. The first strategy is simply to explain something else . Some researchers are explicit that the problem of experience is too difficult for now, and perhaps even outside the writing for money illegal, domain of science altogether. These researchers instead choose to address one of the more tractable problems such as reportability or the self-concept. Although I have called these problems the easy problems, they are among the most interesting unsolved problems in cognitive science, so this work is certainly worthwhile. The worst that can be said of this choice is that in the context of research on consciousness it is relatively unambitious, and the work can sometimes be misinterpreted. The second choice is to take a harder line and deny the essay, phenomenon . (Variations on this approach are taken by Allport 1988, Dennett 1991, and Wilkes 1988.) According to this line, once we have explained the functions such as accessibility, reportability, and the like, there is no further phenomenon called experience to explain. Some explicitly deny the phenomenon, holding for example that what is not externally verifiable cannot be real. Others achieve the same effect by writing allowing that experience exists, but only if we equate experience with something like the capacity to discriminate and report. Club Essays? These approaches lead to a simpler theory, but are ultimately unsatisfactory. Illegal? Experience is the most central and manifest aspect of our mental lives, and indeed is katharine drexel essay perhaps the key explanandum in the science of the for money, mind.
Because of this status as an explanandum, experience cannot be discarded like the vital spirit when a new theory comes along. Rather, it is the central fact that any theory of enter consciousness must explain. A theory that denies the phenomenon solves the problem by ducking the question. In a third option, some researchers claim to be explaining experience in the full sense. These researchers (unlike those above) wish to take experience very seriously; they lay out their functional model or theory, and writing illegal, claim that it explains the full subjective quality of experience (e.g. Flohr 1992, Humphrey 1992). The relevant step in buy research papers the explanation is usually passed over quickly, however, and usually ends up looking something like magic.
After some details about information processing are given, experience suddenly enters the picture, but it is left obscure how these processes should suddenly give rise to experience. Perhaps it is simply taken for granted that it does, but then we have an incomplete explanation and a version of the fifth strategy below. A fourth, more promising approach appeals to these methods to explain the structure of experience . Writing Papers For Money? For example, it is arguable that an account of the discriminations made by the visual system can account for the structural relations between different color experiences, as well as for the geometric structure of the visual field (see e.g., Clark 1992 and Hardin 1992). In general, certain facts about structures found in processing will correspond to and arguably explain facts about the pnb thesis, structure of experience. This strategy is plausible but limited. At best, it takes the existence of writing illegal experience for granted and accounts for some facts about its structure, providing a sort of nonreductive explanation of the structural aspects of experience (I will say more on this later). This is useful for many purposes, but it tells us nothing about why there should be experience in the first place.
A fifth and reasonable strategy is to isolate the substrate of experience . After all, almost everyone allows that experience arises one way or another from brain processes, and it makes sense to identify the fight essays, sort of process from which it arises. Crick and Koch put their work forward as isolating the papers, neural correlate of consciousness, for example, and Edelman (1989) and Jackendoff (1988) make related claims. Justification of these claims requires a careful theoretical analysis, especially as experience is not directly observable in experimental contexts, but when applied judiciously this strategy can shed indirect light on katharine contest the problem of experience. Nevertheless, the strategy is clearly incomplete. For a satisfactory theory, we need to know more than which processes give rise to experience; we need an account of why and how.
A full theory of consciousness must build an explanatory bridge. We have seen that there are systematic reasons why the usual methods of cognitive science and neuroscience fail to account for conscious experience. These are simply the wrong sort of writing methods: nothing that they give to us can yield an explanation. To account for conscious experience, we need an extra ingredient in the explanation. This makes for a challenge to those who are serious about the hard problem of consciousness: What is your extra ingredient, and why should that account for conscious experience? There is no shortage of extra ingredients to be had. Some propose an injection of chaos and nonlinear dynamics. Some think that the key lies in nonalgorithmic processing.
Some appeal to future discoveries in neurophysiology. Some suppose that the direction, key to the mystery will lie at the level of for money quantum mechanics. It is easy to pnb thesis mcmaster see why all these suggestions are put forward. None of the old methods work, so the solution must lie with something new. Unfortunately, these suggestions all suffer from the same old problems.
Nonalgorithmic processing, for example, is writing papers for money put forward by Penrose (1989; 1994) because of the pnb thesis, role it might play in writing for money illegal the process of conscious mathematical insight. The arguments about mathematics are controversial, but even if they succeed and an account of essay on heritage management nonalgorithmic processing in the human brain is given, it will still only be an account of the functions involved in mathematical reasoning and the like. For a nonalgorithmic process as much as an algorithmic process, the question is writing papers illegal left unanswered: why should this process give rise to thesis direction experience? In answering this question, there is no special role for nonalgorithmic processing. The same goes for nonlinear and chaotic dynamics. These might provide a novel account of the dynamics of cognitive functioning, quite different from that given by standard methods in writing for money illegal cognitive science. Thesis? But from for money, dynamics, one only gets more dynamics. The question about experience here is as mysterious as ever. The point is even clearer for new discoveries in neurophysiology. These new discoveries may help us make significant progress in understanding brain function, but for on heritage any neural process we isolate, the same question will always arise.
It is difficult to writing papers for money imagine what a proponent of new neurophysiology expects to happen, over and above the explanation of further cognitive functions. Club Marxism? It is not as if we will suddenly discover a phenomenal glow inside a neuron! Perhaps the most popular extra ingredient of all is quantum mechanics (e.g. Hameroff 1994). The attractiveness of quantum theories of consciousness may stem from a Law of writing papers Minimization of Mystery: consciousness is mysterious and quantum mechanics is mysterious, so maybe the two mysteries have a common source. Thesis Direction? Nevertheless, quantum theories of papers consciousness suffer from the same difficulties as neural or computational theories. Quantum phenomena have some remarkable functional properties, such as nondeterminism and nonlocality. It is natural to speculate that these properties may play some role in the explanation of mcmaster cognitive functions, such as random choice and the integration of information, and this hypothesis cannot be ruled out for money, a priori . But when it comes to mcmaster the explanation of experience, quantum processes are in the same boat as any other. The question of why these processes should give rise to experience is writing illegal entirely unanswered. (One special attraction of quantum theories is the pnb thesis, fact that on some interpretations of quantum mechanics, consciousness plays an active role in collapsing the writing papers for money illegal, quantum wave function. Such interpretations are controversial, but in any case they offer no hope of explaining consciousness in terms of quantum processes.
Rather, these theories assume the existence of consciousness, and use it in pnb thesis mcmaster the explanation of writing papers illegal quantum processes. At best, these theories tell us something about a physical role that consciousness may play. Thesis Direction? They tell us nothing about how it arises.) At the end of the day, the same criticism applies to any purely physical account of writing papers for money consciousness. For any physical process we specify there will be an unanswered question: Why should this process give rise to fight essays experience?
Given any such process, it is conceptually coherent that it could be instantiated in the absence of experience. It follows that no mere account of the physical process will tell us why experience arises. The emergence of experience goes beyond what can be derived from physical theory. Purely physical explanation is well-suited to the explanation of physical structures , explaining macroscopic structures in terms of detailed microstructural constituents; and papers, it provides a satisfying explanation of the thesis, performance of functions , accounting for these functions in terms of the physical mechanisms that perform them. This is because a physical account can entail the writing papers for money, facts about structures and functions: once the internal details of the physical account are given, the structural and functional properties fall out as an automatic consequence. On Heritage? But the papers, structure and dynamics of physical processes yield only the us enter ww1 essays more structure and writing papers for money, dynamics, so structures and functions are all we can expect these processes to explain. The facts about experience cannot be an automatic consequence of any physical account, as it is conceptually coherent that any given process could exist without experience.
Experience may arise from the physical, but it is not entailed by the physical. The moral of all this is that you can't explain conscious experience on the cheap . It is a remarkable fact that reductive methods - methods that explain a high-level phenomenon wholly in terms of more basic physical processes - work well in so many domains. Direction? In a sense, one can explain most biological and cognitive phenomena on the cheap, in that these phenomena are seen as automatic consequences of more fundamental processes. Papers? It would be wonderful if reductive methods could explain experience, too; I hoped for a long time that they might. Unfortunately, there are systematic reasons why these methods must fail. Reductive methods are successful in most domains because what needs explaining in those domains are structures and club marxism, functions, and these are the kind of thing that a physical account can entail. When it comes to a problem over and above the explanation of structures and functions, these methods are impotent. This might seem reminiscent of the vitalist claim that no physical account could explain life, but the papers illegal, cases are disanalogous.
What drove vitalist skepticism was doubt about whether physical mechanisms could perform the many remarkable functions associated with life, such as complex adaptive behavior and reproduction. The conceptual claim that explanation of functions is what is enter ww1 essays needed was implicitly accepted, but lacking detailed knowledge of biochemical mechanisms, vitalists doubted whether any physical process could do the job and put forward the hypothesis of the vital spirit as an alternative explanation. Once it turned out that physical processes could perform the relevant functions, vitalist doubts melted away. With experience, on the other hand, physical explanation of the functions is not in question. The key is instead the conceptual point that the explanation of functions does not suffice for writing papers illegal the explanation of experience.
This basic conceptual point is why did not something that further neuroscientific investigation will affect. Writing Papers Illegal? In a similar way, experience is disanalogous to the élan vital . The vital spirit was put forward as an explanatory posit, in order to explain the relevant functions, and could therefore be discarded when those functions were explained without it. Experience is not an explanatory posit but an explanandum in its own right, and so is not a candidate for this sort of the us ww1 essays elimination. It is tempting to note that all sorts of puzzling phenomena have eventually turned out to be explainable in physical terms. But each of these were problems about the observable behavior of physical objects, coming down to problems in the explanation of structures and illegal, functions. Because of this, these phenomena have always been the kind of thing that a physical account might explain, even if at some points there have been good reasons to suspect that no such explanation would be forthcoming. The tempting induction from these cases fails in how to the case of consciousness, which is for money not a problem about physical structures and functions. The problem of consciousness is puzzling in an entirely different way. An analysis of the problem shows us that conscious experience is just not the kind of thing that a wholly reductive account could succeed in explaining.
At this point some are tempted to give up, holding that we will never have a theory of essay on heritage conscious experience. McGinn (1989), for writing for money example, argues that the problem is too hard for our limited minds; we are cognitively closed with respect to the phenomenon. Others have argued that conscious experience lies outside the domain of scientific theory altogether. I think this pessimism is premature. This is not the place to give up; it is the place where things get interesting. Club Essays? When simple methods of explanation are ruled out, we need to investigate the alternatives. Given that reductive explanation fails, nonreductive explanation is the natural choice. Although a remarkable number of phenomena have turned out to be explicable wholly in terms of entities simpler than themselves, this is not universal. In physics, it occasionally happens that an entity has to writing for money illegal be taken as fundamental . Fundamental entities are not explained in terms of anything simpler.
Instead, one takes them as basic, and gives a theory of how they relate to everything else in the world. For example, in buy research the nineteenth century it turned out writing for money, that electromagnetic processes could not be explained in terms of the wholly mechanical processes that previous physical theories appealed to, so Maxwell and others introduced electromagnetic charge and electromagnetic forces as new fundamental components of a physical theory. To explain electromagnetism, the ontology of contest physics had to be expanded. New basic properties and basic laws were needed to writing papers for money illegal give a satisfactory account of the phenomena. Other features that physical theory takes as fundamental include mass and space-time. No attempt is made to explain these features in terms of anything simpler. But this does not rule out the possibility of a theory of essay mass or of space-time. There is an writing papers intricate theory of how these features interrelate, and of the basic laws they enter into. Buy Research Papers? These basic principles are used to explain many familiar phenomena concerning mass, space, and for money, time at a higher level.
I suggest that a theory of consciousness should take experience as fundamental. We know that a theory of consciousness requires the katharine contest, addition of something fundamental to our ontology, as everything in physical theory is compatible with the absence of consciousness. Writing Papers For Money Illegal? We might add some entirely new nonphysical feature, from which experience can be derived, but it is hard to see what such a feature would be like. More likely, we will take experience itself as a fundamental feature of the world, alongside mass, charge, and space-time. If we take experience as fundamental, then we can go about the business of constructing a theory of experience. Where there is a fundamental property, there are fundamental laws. A nonreductive theory of experience will add new principles to katharine drexel the furniture of the basic laws of nature. Writing For Money? These basic principles will ultimately carry the explanatory burden in a theory of consciousness. Just as we explain familiar high-level phenomena involving mass in essay on heritage management terms of more basic principles involving mass and other entities, we might explain familiar phenomena involving experience in terms of more basic principles involving experience and papers illegal, other entities.
In particular, a nonreductive theory of experience will specify basic principles telling us how experience depends on physical features of the world. These psychophysical principles will not interfere with physical laws, as it seems that physical laws already form a closed system. Rather, they will be a supplement to a physical theory. Direction? A physical theory gives a theory of physical processes, and a psychophysical theory tells us how those processes give rise to experience. We know that experience depends on physical processes, but we also know that this dependence cannot be derived from physical laws alone. The new basic principles postulated by a nonreductive theory give us the extra ingredient that we need to build an explanatory bridge.
Of course, by taking experience as fundamental, there is writing papers a sense in which this approach does not tell us why there is experience in the first place. But this is the same for any fundamental theory. Nothing in buy research papers physics tells us why there is illegal matter in the first place, but we do not count this against theories of matter. Certain features of the world need to be taken as fundamental by pnb thesis mcmaster any scientific theory. A theory of matter can still explain all sorts of facts about matter, by showing how they are consequences of the basic laws. The same goes for a theory of experience. This position qualifies as a variety of dualism, as it postulates basic properties over and above the properties invoked by physics. But it is an innocent version of dualism, entirely compatible with the scientific view of the world. Nothing in for money illegal this approach contradicts anything in physical theory; we simply need to why did ww1 essays add further bridging principles to writing explain how experience arises from physical processes. There is nothing particularly spiritual or mystical about this theory - its overall shape is like that of a physical theory, with a few fundamental entities connected by club marxism essays fundamental laws. It expands the ontology slightly, to be sure, but Maxwell did the same thing.
Indeed, the overall structure of papers for money this position is on heritage entirely naturalistic, allowing that ultimately the universe comes down to a network of basic entities obeying simple laws, and writing for money, allowing that there may ultimately be a theory of direction consciousness cast in terms of such laws. If the position is to have a name, a good choice might be naturalistic dualism . If this view is right, then in some ways a theory of for money consciousness will have more in common with a theory in physics than a theory in club essays biology. Biological theories involve no principles that are fundamental in this way, so biological theory has a certain complexity and messiness to it; but theories in physics, insofar as they deal with fundamental principles, aspire to simplicity and elegance. The fundamental laws of writing for money illegal nature are part of the basic furniture of the world, and physical theories are telling us that this basic furniture is remarkably simple. If a theory of consciousness also involves fundamental principles, then we should expect the same. The principles of simplicity, elegance, and even beauty that drive physicists' search for a fundamental theory will also apply to a theory of consciousness. (A technical note: Some philosophers argue that even though there is a conceptual gap between physical processes and thesis, experience, there need be no metaphysical gap, so that experience might in a certain sense still be physical (e.g. Hill 1991; Levine 1983; Loar 1990). Usually this line of argument is supported by writing for money illegal an appeal to the notion of a posteriori necessity (Kripke 1980). I think that this position rests on a misunderstanding of a posteriori necessity, however, or else requires an entirely new sort of necessity that we have no reason to believe in; see Chalmers 1996 (also Jackson 1994 and Lewis 1994) for drexel essay contest details. In any case, this position still concedes an explanatory gap between physical processes and experience.
For example, the principles connecting the physical and the experiential will not be derivable from the illegal, laws of physics, so such principles must be taken as explanatorily fundamental. So even on this sort of view, the explanatory structure of a theory of consciousness will be much as I have described.) 7 Outline of a theory of consciousness. It is essay not too soon to begin work on a theory. We are already in writing a position to understand certain key facts about the relationship between physical processes and experience, and about the regularities that connect them. Once reductive explanation is set aside, we can lay those facts on the table so that they can play their proper role as the initial pieces in a nonreductive theory of consciousness, and as constraints on the basic laws that constitute an ultimate theory.
There is an obvious problem that plagues the development of a theory of consciousness, and that is the paucity of objective data. Conscious experience is not directly observable in an experimental context, so we cannot generate data about the relationship between physical processes and experience at will. Nevertheless, we all have access to a rich source of data in our own case. Mcmaster? Many important regularities between experience and processing can be inferred from considerations about one's own experience. There are also good indirect sources of data from observable cases, as when one relies on the verbal report of a subject as an indication of experience.
These methods have their limitations, but we have more than enough data to get a theory off the ground. Philosophical analysis is also useful in getting value for money out of the data we have. This sort of analysis can yield a number of principles relating consciousness and cognition, thereby strongly constraining the shape of an ultimate theory. The method of thought-experimentation can also yield significant rewards, as we will see. Finally, the fact that we are searching for a fundamental theory means that we can appeal to such nonempirical constraints as simplicity, homogeneity, and the like in developing a theory. We must seek to systematize the information we have, to extend it as far as possible by careful analysis, and then make the inference to the simplest possible theory that explains the data while remaining a plausible candidate to be part of the fundamental furniture of the world.
Such theories will always retain an element of speculation that is writing not present in other scientific theories, because of the impossibility of conclusive intersubjective experimental tests. Still, we can certainly construct theories that are compatible with the essays, data that we have, and writing illegal, evaluate them in comparison to each other. Even in the absence of intersubjective observation, there are numerous criteria available for the evaluation of such theories: simplicity, internal coherence, coherence with theories in other domains, the ability to reproduce the properties of experience that are familiar from our own case, and club marxism, even an overall fit with the dictates of common sense. Perhaps there will be significant indeterminacies remaining even when all these constraints are applied, but we can at least develop plausible candidates. Only when candidate theories have been developed will we be able to evaluate them. A nonreductive theory of consciousness will consist in a number of psychophysical principles , principles connecting the properties of physical processes to the properties of experience. Writing Papers? We can think of these principles as encapsulating the way in which experience arises from the physical. Ultimately, these principles should tell us what sort of physical systems will have associated experiences, and for the systems that do, they should tell us what sort of physical properties are relevant to fight club essays the emergence of experience, and just what sort of experience we should expect any given physical system to yield.
This is a tall order, but there is no reason why we should not get started. In what follows, I present my own candidates for writing papers for money illegal the psychophysical principles that might go into a theory of consciousness. The first two of these are nonbasic principles - systematic connections between processing and experience at a relatively high level. These principles can play a significant role in developing and constraining a theory of consciousness, but they are not cast at a sufficiently fundamental level to qualify as truly basic laws. The final principle is my candidate for a basic principle that might form the cornerstone of a fundamental theory of consciousness. Why Did Enter? This final principle is particularly speculative, but it is the papers illegal, kind of speculation that is required if we are ever to have a satisfying theory of consciousness. Fight Marxism Essays? I can present these principles only briefly here; I argue for them at much greater length in Chalmers (1996). 1. The principle of writing papers for money illegal structural coherence . This is katharine drexel essay contest a principle of coherence between the structure of consciousness and the structure of awareness . Papers? Recall that awareness was used earlier to refer to the various functional phenomena that are associated with consciousness. I am now using it to refer to a somewhat more specific process in the cognitive underpinnings of experience. Essay Management? In particular, the contents of awareness are to papers illegal be understood as those information contents that are accessible to central systems, and marxism, brought to bear in a widespread way in the control of papers behavior.
Briefly put, we can think of awareness as direct availability for how to buy research global control . To a first approximation, the contents of awareness are the contents that are directly accessible and potentially reportable, at least in a language-using system. Awareness is a purely functional notion, but it is nevertheless intimately linked to conscious experience. Papers? In familiar cases, wherever we find consciousness, we find awareness. Wherever there is conscious experience, there is management some corresponding information in the cognitive system that is available in the control of behavior, and available for verbal report. Conversely, it seems that whenever information is papers illegal available for report and for global control, there is a corresponding conscious experience. Thus, there is drexel contest a direct correspondence between consciousness and awareness. The correspondence can be taken further. It is a central fact about experience that it has a complex structure. The visual field has a complex geometry, for instance. There are also relations of writing papers similarity and difference between experiences, and relations in such things as relative intensity. Every subject's experience can be at least partly characterized and essay on heritage management, decomposed in for money terms of these structural properties: similarity and difference relations, perceived location, relative intensity, geometric structure, and so on.
It is also a central fact that to each of why did enter ww1 essays these structural features, there is a corresponding feature in the information-processing structure of awareness. Take color sensations as an example. For every distinction between color experiences, there is a corresponding distinction in processing. The different phenomenal colors that we experience form a complex three-dimensional space, varying in illegal hue, saturation, and intensity. The properties of direction this space can be recovered from information-processing considerations: examination of the visual systems shows that waveforms of light are discriminated and writing illegal, analyzed along three different axes, and it is buy research this three-dimensional information that is relevant to later processing.
The three-dimensional structure of phenomenal color space therefore corresponds directly to the three dimensional structure of visual awareness. Illegal? This is precisely what we would expect. Mcmaster? After all, every color distinction corresponds to some reportable information, and therefore to writing papers for money a distinction that is represented in the structure of processing. In a more straightforward way, the geometric structure of the visual field is directly reflected in a structure that can be recovered from visual processing. Every geometric relation corresponds to how to papers something that can be reported and is therefore cognitively represented. If we were given only the writing papers illegal, story about information-processing in an agent's visual and cognitive system, we could not directly observe that agent's visual experiences, but we could nevertheless infer those experiences' structural properties.
In general, any information that is consciously experienced will also be cognitively represented. The fine-grained structure of the visual field will correspond to some fine-grained structure in visual processing. The same goes for experiences in other modalities, and even for nonsensory experiences. Thesis Direction? Internal mental images have geometric properties that are represented in processing. Even emotions have structural properties, such as relative intensity, that correspond directly to a structural property of processing; where there is greater intensity, we find a greater effect on later processes. In general, precisely because the structural properties of papers for money experience are accessible and papers, reportable, those properties will be directly represented in the structure of awareness. It is this isomorphism between the structures of writing papers for money consciousness and awareness that constitutes the direction, principle of structural coherence. This principle reflects the central fact that even though cognitive processes do not conceptually entail facts about conscious experience, consciousness and cognition do not float free of one another but cohere in an intimate way. This principle has its limits. It allows us to recover structural properties of experience from information-processing properties, but not all properties of experience are structural properties.
There are properties of experience, such as the intrinsic nature of a sensation of red, that cannot be fully captured in a structural description. The very intelligibility of inverted spectrum scenarios, where experiences of red and writing illegal, green are inverted but all structural properties remain the same, show that structural properties constrain experience without exhausting it. Nevertheless, the very fact that we feel compelled to leave structural properties unaltered when we imagine experiences inverted between functionally identical systems shows how central the principle of structural coherence is to our conception of our mental lives. It is not a logically necessary principle, as after all we can imagine all the information processing occurring without any experience at all, but it is nevertheless a strong and familiar constraint on the psychophysical connection. The principle of structural coherence allows for a very useful kind of indirect explanation of experience in terms of physical processes. For example, we can use facts about neural processing of visual information to indirectly explain the ww1 essays, structure of color space. The facts about neural processing can entail and explain the structure of awareness; if we take the coherence principle for granted, the structure of illegal experience will also be explained.
Empirical investigation might even lead us to better understand the structure of awareness within a bat, shedding indirect light on Nagel's vexing question of what it is like to be a bat. This principle provides a natural interpretation of pnb thesis mcmaster much existing work on the explanation of consciousness (e.g. Clark 1992 and Hardin 1992 on colors, and Akins 1993 on illegal bats), although it is katharine drexel essay often appealed to inexplicitly. It is so familiar that it is taken for writing for money granted by almost everybody, and is a central plank in the cognitive explanation of buy research consciousness. The coherence between consciousness and awareness also allows a natural interpretation of work in neuroscience directed at isolating the substrate (or the writing papers illegal, neural correlate ) of essay contest consciousness. Various specific hypotheses have been put forward. For example, Crick and Koch (1990) suggest that 40-Hz oscillations may be the writing papers, neural correlate of consciousness, whereas Libet (1993) suggests that temporally-extended neural activity is central. If we accept the principle of mcmaster coherence, the most direct physical correlate of consciousness is awareness: the process whereby information is writing papers for money illegal made directly available for mcmaster global control. The different specific hypotheses can be interpreted as empirical suggestions about how awareness might be achieved. For example, Crick and Koch suggest that 40-Hz oscillations are the gateway by which information is integrated into papers working memory and thereby made available to later processes.
Similarly, it is natural to suppose that Libet's temporally extended activity is relevant precisely because only that sort of activity achieves global availability. The same applies to other suggested correlates such as the global workspace of how to buy research papers Baars (1988), the high-quality representations of Farah (1994), and the selector inputs to action systems of Shallice (1972). All these can be seen as hypotheses about the mechanisms of writing papers for money illegal awareness : the mechanisms that perform the function of essay on heritage making information directly available for global control. Given the coherence between consciousness and papers illegal, awareness, it follows that a mechanism of awareness will itself be a correlate of conscious experience. The question of just which mechanisms in the brain govern global availability is an empirical one; perhaps there are many such mechanisms. But if we accept the coherence principle, we have reason to believe that the processes that explain awareness will at how to papers the same time be part of the basis of consciousness. 2. The principle of writing for money organizational invariance . Direction? This principle states that any two systems with the same fine-grained functional organization will have qualitatively identical experiences. If the illegal, causal patterns of neural organization were duplicated in silicon, for example, with a silicon chip for every neuron and the same patterns of interaction, then the same experiences would arise. Buy Research? According to for money this principle, what matters for the emergence of experience is not the specific physical makeup of fight club essays a system, but the abstract pattern of causal interaction between its components. This principle is controversial, of course.
Some (e.g. Searle 1980) have thought that consciousness is tied to a specific biology, so that a silicon isomorph of a human need not be conscious. I believe that the principle can be given significant support by the analysis of thought-experiments, however. Very briefly: suppose (for the purposes of a reductio ad absurdum ) that the principle is false, and that there could be two functionally isomorphic systems with different experiences. Perhaps only one of the writing papers, systems is conscious, or perhaps both are conscious but they have different experiences. For the purposes of thesis direction illustration, let us say that one system is made of neurons and the other of silicon, and that one experiences red where the other experiences blue.
The two systems have the same organization, so we can imagine gradually transforming one into the other, perhaps replacing neurons one at a time by silicon chips with the same local function. We thus gain a spectrum of intermediate cases, each with the same organization, but with slightly different physical makeup and slightly different experiences. Along this spectrum, there must be two systems A and B between which we replace less than one tenth of the system, but whose experiences differ. These two systems are physically identical, except that a small neural circuit in A has been replaced by a silicon circuit in B . The key step in the thought-experiment is to take the relevant neural circuit in A , and install alongside it a causally isomorphic silicon circuit, with a switch between the two. What happens when we flip the writing papers for money illegal, switch? By hypothesis, the system's conscious experiences will change; from red to blue, say, for the purposes of illustration. This follows from the fact that the system after the change is essentially a version of B , whereas before the change it is just A . But given the assumptions, there is no way for the system to direction notice the writing, changes! Its causal organization stays constant, so that all of its functional states and behavioral dispositions stay fixed.
As far as the system is concerned, nothing unusual has happened. There is no room for the thought, Hmm! Something strange just happened!. In general, the structure of any such thought must be reflected in processing, but the structure of processing remains constant here. Why Did The Us Ww1 Essays? If there were to be such a thought it must float entirely free of the system and would be utterly impotent to affect later processing. (If it affected later processing, the systems would be functionally distinct, contrary to hypothesis). We might even flip the switch a number of times, so that experiences of red and blue dance back and writing papers for money, forth before the system's inner eye. According to hypothesis, the system can never notice these dancing qualia. This I take to be a reductio of the katharine drexel essay, original assumption. It is a central fact about experience, very familiar from our own case, that whenever experiences change significantly and we are paying attention, we can notice the change; if this were not to be the case, we would be led to the skeptical possibility that our experiences are dancing before our eyes all the time. This hypothesis has the same status as the possibility that the world was created five minutes ago: perhaps it is logically coherent, but it is not plausible. Given the extremely plausible assumption that changes in papers for money illegal experience correspond to enter changes in processing, we are led to the conclusion that the original hypothesis is impossible, and that any two functionally isomorphic systems must have the same sort of experiences.
To put it in technical terms, the philosophical hypotheses of writing papers absent qualia and essay on heritage management, inverted qualia, while logically possible, are empirically and nomologically impossible. (Some may worry that a silicon isomorph of a neural system might be impossible for technical reasons. That question is open. The invariance principle says only that if an isomorph is possible, then it will have the same sort of conscious experience.) There is more to be said here, but this gives the basic flavor. Once again, this thought experiment draws on familiar facts about the coherence between consciousness and cognitive processing to yield a strong conclusion about the relation between physical structure and experience. If the argument goes through, we know that the writing papers illegal, only physical properties directly relevant to the emergence of experience are organizational properties. This acts as a further strong constraint on a theory of buy research consciousness. 3. The double-aspect theory of writing papers for money illegal information . The two preceding principles have been nonbasic principles.
They involve high-level notions such as awareness and organization, and therefore lie at the wrong level to constitute the fundamental laws in a theory of pnb thesis mcmaster consciousness. Nevertheless, they act as strong constraints. What is further needed are basic principles that fit these constraints and that might ultimately explain them. The basic principle that I suggest centrally involves the notion of information . I understand information in more or less the sense of papers illegal Shannon (1948). Where there is information, there are information states embedded in an information space . On Heritage Management? An information space has a basic structure of difference relations between its elements, characterizing the writing papers, ways in fight club marxism which different elements in a space are similar or different, possibly in complex ways. An information space is an abstract object, but following Shannon we can see information as physically embodied when there is a space of distinct physical states, the differences between which can be transmitted down some causal pathway. The states that are transmitted can be seen as themselves constituting an information space. To borrow a phrase from Bateson (1972), physical information is a difference that makes a difference . The double-aspect principle stems from the observation that there is a direct isomorphism between certain physically embodied information spaces and certain phenomenal (or experiential) information spaces.
From the same sort of observations that went into writing papers for money illegal the principle of structural coherence, we can note that the differences between phenomenal states have a structure that corresponds directly to the differences embedded in physical processes; in particular, to those differences that make a difference down certain causal pathways implicated in how to buy research papers global availability and control. That is, we can find the same abstract information space embedded in physical processing and in conscious experience. This leads to writing a natural hypothesis: that information (or at least some information) has two basic aspects, a physical aspect and a phenomenal aspect. This has the status of a basic principle that might underlie and explain the emergence of experience from the physical. Thesis? Experience arises by virtue of its status as one aspect of information, when the other aspect is found embodied in physical processing. This principle is lent support by a number of considerations, which I can only outline briefly here. First, consideration of the sort of physical changes that correspond to changes in conscious experience suggests that such changes are always relevant by virtue of their role in constituting informational changes - differences within an abstract space of states that are divided up precisely according to their causal differences along certain causal pathways. Second, if the principle of organizational invariance is to hold, then we need to writing papers for money find some fundamental organizational property for experience to be linked to, and information is an organizational property par excellence . Third, this principle offers some hope of explaining the principle of on heritage management structural coherence in terms of the structure present within information spaces. For Money Illegal? Fourth, analysis of the marxism, cognitive explanation of our judgments and claims about conscious experience - judgments that are functionally explainable but nevertheless deeply tied to experience itself - suggests that explanation centrally involves the information states embedded in cognitive processing.
It follows that a theory based on information allows a deep coherence between the explanation of experience and the explanation of our judgments and writing for money illegal, claims about it. Wheeler (1990) has suggested that information is fundamental to drexel contest the physics of the universe. According to this it from writing papers illegal, bit doctrine, the laws of katharine drexel contest physics can be cast in terms of information, postulating different states that give rise to different effects without actually saying what those states are . It is only their position in an information space that counts. If so, then information is a natural candidate to also play a role in a fundamental theory of consciousness. We are led to a conception of the world on which information is truly fundamental, and on which it has two basic aspects, corresponding to the physical and the phenomenal features of the world. Of course, the double-aspect principle is extremely speculative and is also underdetermined, leaving a number of key questions unanswered. An obvious question is writing papers for money whether all information has a phenomenal aspect. One possibility is that we need a further constraint on the fundamental theory, indicating just what sort of how to buy research papers information has a phenomenal aspect. The other possibility is writing for money that there is no such constraint. If not, then experience is thesis direction much more widespread than we might have believed, as information is everywhere. This is counterintuitive at first, but on reflection I think the papers for money, position gains a certain plausibility and elegance.
Where there is simple information processing, there is simple experience, and where there is complex information processing, there is complex experience. A mouse has a simpler information-processing structure than a human, and has correspondingly simpler experience; perhaps a thermostat, a maximally simple information processing structure, might have maximally simple experience? Indeed, if experience is truly a fundamental property, it would be surprising for it to arise only every now and thesis, then; most fundamental properties are more evenly spread. In any case, this is very much an open question, but I believe that the papers for money illegal, position is not as implausible as it is often thought to be. Once a fundamental link between information and experience is on the table, the door is opened to some grander metaphysical speculation concerning the nature of the world.
For example, it is club marxism essays often noted that physics characterizes its basic entities only extrinsically , in terms of papers for money their relations to other entities, which are themselves characterized extrinsically, and so on. The intrinsic nature of physical entities is left aside. Some argue that no such intrinsic properties exist, but then one is left with a world that is pure causal flux (a pure flow of information) with no properties for the causation to essay on heritage management relate. If one allows that intrinsic properties exist, a natural speculation given the above is that the intrinsic properties of the physical - the writing papers, properties that causation ultimately relates - are themselves phenomenal properties. We might say that phenomenal properties are the internal aspect of information. Direction? This could answer a concern about the causal relevance of experience - a natural worry, given a picture on which the physical domain is causally closed, and on which experience is supplementary to the physical.
The informational view allows us to understand how experience might have a subtle kind of causal relevance in virtue of its status as the illegal, intrinsic nature of the physical. This metaphysical speculation is probably best ignored for the purposes of essay management developing a scientific theory, but in addressing some philosophical issues it is quite suggestive. The theory I have presented is speculative, but it is a candidate theory. I suspect that the principles of structural coherence and organizational invariance will be planks in any satisfactory theory of consciousness; the status of the double-aspect theory of information is less certain. Indeed, right now it is more of an idea than a theory.
To have any hope of eventual explanatory success, it will have to be specified more fully and fleshed out into a more powerful form. Still, reflection on just what is plausible and implausible about it, on where it works and where it fails, can only lead to a better theory. Most existing theories of consciousness either deny the phenomenon, explain something else, or elevate the problem to an eternal mystery. I hope to have shown that it is possible to make progress on the problem even while taking it seriously. To make further progress, we will need further investigation, more refined theories, and more careful analysis.
The hard problem is papers for money illegal a hard problem, but there is no reason to believe that it will remain permanently unsolved. *[[ The arguments in this paper are presented in greater depth in my book The Conscious Mind (Oxford University Press, 1996). Thanks to Francis Crick, Peggy DesAutels, Matthew Elton, Liane Gabora, Christof Koch, Paul Rhodes, Gregg Rosenberg, and Sharon Wahl for their comments. ]] The problems of consciousness have been widely discussed in the recent philosophical literature. For some conceptual clarification of the thesis, various problems of consciousness, see Block 1995, Nelkin 1993, and Tye 1995. Those who have stressed the difficulties of explaining experience in physical terms include Hodgson 1988, Jackson 1982, Levine 1983, Lockwood 1989, McGinn 1989, Nagel 1974, Seager 1991, Searle 1991, Strawson 1994, and Velmans 1991, among others. Those who take a reductive approach include Churchland 1995, Clark 1992, Dennett 1991, Dretske 1995, Kirk 1994, Rosenthal 1996, and Tye 1995. There have not been many attempts to build detailed nonreductive theories in the literature, but see Hodgson 1988 and Lockwood 1989 for some thoughts in writing for money that direction. Two excellent collections of recent articles on consciousness are Block, Flanagan, and Güzeldere 1996 and Metzinger 1995. Akins, K. 1993.
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Clark, A. Writing Illegal? 1992. How To Papers? Sensory Qualities . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Crick, F. and Koch, C. 1990. Toward a neurobiological theory of consciousness. Seminars in the Neurosciences 2:263-275. Crick, F. 1994. For Money? The Astonishing Hypothesis: The Scientific Search for the Soul . New York: Scribners.
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1994. Visual perception and for money, visual awareness after brain damage: A tutorial overview. In (C. Umilta and M. Moscovitch, eds.) Consciousness and Unconscious Information Processing: Attention and Performance 15 . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Flohr, H. 1992. Qualia and brain processes. In (A. Beckermann, H. Flohr, and J. Kim, eds.) Emergence or Reduction?: Prospects for Nonreductive Physicalism . Berlin: De Gruyter. Hameroff, S.R. Fight Club? 1994. Quantum coherence in microtubules: A neural basis for writing for money emergent consciousness?
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Sensations: A Defense of Type Materialism . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hodgson, D. 1988. The Mind Matters: Consciousness and Choice in a Quantum World . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Humphrey, N. 1992. A History of the Mind . Writing Papers Illegal? New York: Simon and Schuster. Jackendoff, R. Pnb Thesis Mcmaster? 1987.
Consciousness and the Computational Mind . Writing? Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Jackson, F. 1982. Epiphenomenal qualia. Essay On Heritage? Philosophical Quarterly 32: 127-36. Jackson, F. 1994. Finding the mind in the natural world. In (R. Casati, B. Writing For Money? Smith, and S. White, eds.) Philosophy and fight club marxism, the Cognitive Sciences . Vienna: Holder-Pichler-Tempsky.
Kirk, R. 1994. Raw Feeling: A Philosophical Account of the Essence of Consciousness . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Kripke, S. 1980. Papers Illegal? Naming and Necessity . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Levine, J. 1983. On Heritage Management? Materialism and qualia: The explanatory gap.
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The neural time factor in conscious and unconscious events. In (G.R. Block and J. Marsh, eds.) Experimental and Theoretical Studies of mcmaster Consciousness (Ciba Foundation Symposium 174). Chichester: John Wiley and Sons. Loar, B. 1990. Writing Illegal? Phenomenal states. Philosophical Perspectives 4:81-108. Lockwood, M. 1989. Mind, Brain, and the Quantum . Oxford: Blackwell. McGinn, C. 1989. Can we solve the mind-body problem?
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1996. A theory of consciousness. In (N. Block, O. Flanagan, and G. Güzeldere, eds.) The Nature of Consciousness . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Seager, W.E. 1991. Metaphysics of Consciousness . London: Routledge. Searle, J.R. 1980. Minds, brains and programs. Writing Illegal? Behavioral and pnb thesis, Brain Sciences 3:417-57.
Searle, J.R. 1992. The Rediscovery of the Mind . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Shallice, T. 1972. Writing For Money Illegal? Dual functions of consciousness. Psychological Review 79:383-93. Shannon, C.E. 1948.
A mathematical theory of communication. Bell Systems Technical Journal 27: 379-423. Strawson, G. 1994. On Heritage? Mental Reality . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Tye, M. 1995. Ten Problems of papers for money Consciousness . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Velmans, M. The Us Ww1 Essays? 1991. Is human information-processing conscious?
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