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bibliographic essay Mohamed El Baradei’s views can be found at twitter.com/#!/ElBaradei. Chapter 1: So Close and nursing core values essay Yet So Different. A good discussion of the Spanish exploration of the Rio de La Plata is Rock (1992), chap. 1. On the thesis statement, discovery and colonization of the Guarani, see Ganson (2003). The quotations from de Sahagun are from de Sahagun (1975), pp. 47–49. Gibson (1963) is fundamental on nursing core values, the Spanish conquest of Mexico and the institutions they structured. The quotations from de las Casas come from de las Casas (1992), pp. 39, 117–18, and 107, respectively. On Pizarro in Peru, see Hemming (1983).
Chaps. 1–6 cover the meeting at Cajamarca and the march south and the capture of the in cold blood ap essay, Inca capital, Cuzco. See Hemming (1983), chap. 20, on de Toledo. Bakewell (1984) gives an overview of the functioning of the Potosi mita, and Dell (2010) provides statistical evidence that shows how it has had persistent effects over time. Nursing Core Values? The quote from Arthur Young is reproduced from Sheridan (1973), p. 8. There are many good books that describe the early history of Jamestown: for example, Price (2003), and Kupperman (2007). Our treatment is heavily influenced by Morgan (1975) and Galenson (1996). The quote from Anas Todkill comes from p. 38 of Todkill (1885). The quotes from John Smith are from Price (2003), p. 77 (“Victuals . . .”), p. 93 (“If your king . . .”), and p. 96 (“When you send . . Ap Essay? .”). The Charter of Maryland, the nursing core essay, Fundamental Constitutions of essays learning, Carolina, and other colonial constitutions have been put on the Internet by Yale University’s Avalon Project.
Bakewell (2009), chap. 14, discusses the independence of Mexico and the constitution. See Stevens (1991) and Knight (2011) on postindependence political instability and presidents. Coatsworth (1978) is the seminal paper on the evidence on economic decline in Mexico after independence. Haber (2010) presents the comparison of the development of banking in Mexico and the United States. Sokoloff (1988) and Sokoloff and Khan (1990) provide evidence on the social background of innovators in the United States who filed patents. See Israel (2000) for a biography of Thomas Edison. Haber, Maurer, and Razo (2003) proposes an interpretation of the political economy of the regime of Porfirio Diaz very much in nursing core values essay the spirit of our discussion. Haber, Klein, Maurer, and Middlebrook (2008) extend this treatment of Mexico’s political economy into history statement the twentieth century. On the differential allocation of frontier lands in North and Latin America, see Nugent and Robinson (2010) and Garcia-Jimeno and Robinson (2011).
Hu-DeHart (1984) discusses the deportation of the Yaqui people in chap. 6. On the fortune of Carlos Slim and core essay how it was made, see Relea (2007) and Martinez (2002). Our interpretation of comparative economic development of the Americas builds on our own previous research with Simon Johnson, particularly Acemoglu, Johnson, and reserve bank of india research papers Robinson (2001, 2002), and has also been heavily influenced by Coatsworth (1978, 2008) and Engerman and Sokoloff (1997). Chapter 2: Theories That Don’t Work. Core Values? Jared Diamond’s views on world inequality are laid out in his book Guns, Germs and Steel (1997). Sachs (2006) sets out his own version of geographical determinism. Views about culture are widely spread throughout the academic literature but have never been brought together in one work. Weber (2002) argued that it was the Protestant Reformation that explained why it was Europe that had the Industrial Revolution. Thesis Sheet? Landes (1999) proposed that Northern Europeans developed a unique set of cultural attitudes that led them to work hard, save, and be innovative. Harrison and Huntington, eds. (2000), is a forceful statement of the importance of culture for comparative economic development. Values? The notion that there is some sort of superior British culture or superior set of British institutions is widespread and used to explain U.S. Essays? exceptionalism (Fisher, 1989) and also patterns of core, comparative development more generally (La Porta, Lopez-de-Silanes, and Shleifer, 2008).
The works of Banfield (1958) and Putnam, Leonardi, and Nanetti (1994) are very influential cultural interpretations of how one aspect of culture, or “social capital,” as they call it, makes the south of Italy poor. For a survey of how economists use notions of culture, see Guiso, Sapienza, and Zingales (2006). Tabellini (2010) examines the correlation between the extent to which people trust each other in Western Europe and levels of history thesis statement, annual income per capita. Nunn and Wantchekon (2010) show how the lack of core essay, trust and social capital in Africa is correlated with the historical intensity of the slave trade. The relevant history of the Kongo is presented in Hilton (1985) and Thornton (1983). On the historical backwardness of African technology, see the works of statement, Goody (1971), Law (1980), and Austen and Headrick (1983). The definition of economics proposed by Robbins is from nursing core values essay Robbins (1935), p. 16. The quote from Abba Lerner is in Lerner (1972), p. 259. The idea that ignorance explains comparative development is implicit in most economic analyses of economic development and policy reform: for angel's example, Williamson (1990); Perkins, Radelet, and Lindauer (2006); and Aghion and Howitt (2009).
A recent, forceful version of this view is developed in Banerjee and Duflo (2011). Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson (2001, 2002) provide a statistical analysis of the relative role of institutions, geography, and culture, showing that institutions dominate the other two types of explanations in accounting for differences in per capita income today. Chapter 3: The Making of Prosperity and Poverty. The reconstruction of the meeting between Hwang Pyo ?ng-Wo ?n and his brother is taken from James A. Foley’s interview of Hwang transcribed in Foley (2003), pp. 197–203. The notion of extractive institutions originates from Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson (2001). The terminology of inclusive institutions was suggested to us by Tim Besley.
The terminology of economic losers and the distinction between them and political losers comes from core values Acemoglu and Robinson (2000b). The data on Barbados comes from Dunn (1969). Our treatment of the experiences, Soviet economy relies on Nove (1992) and Davies (1998). Allen (2003) provides an alternative and more positive interpretation of Soviet economic history. In the social science literature there is a great deal of research related to core, our theory and argument. See Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson (2005b) for an overview of this literature and our contribution to it. The institutional view of in cold ap essay, comparative development builds on a number of important works.
Particularly notable is the work of North; see North and Thomas (1973), North (1982), North and Weingast (1989), and North, Wallis, and Weingast (2009). Olson (1984) also provided a very influential account of the political economy of economic growth. Nursing Essay? Mokyr (1990) is a fundamental book that links economic losers to comparative technological change in world history. The notion of economic losers is very widespread in social science as an explanation for why efficient institutional and policy outcomes do not occur. Our interpretation, which builds on Robinson (1998) and Acemoglu and Robinson (2000b, 2006b), differs by emphasizing the idea that the most important barrier to the emergence of inclusive institutions is elites’ fear that they will lose their political power. Jones (2003) provides a rich comparative history emphasizing similar themes, and Engerman and Sokoloff’s (1997) important work on the Americas also emphasizes these ideas. Essays Learning Experiences? A seminal political economy interpretation of African underdevelopment was developed by Bates (1981, 1983, 1989), whose work heavily influenced ours.
Seminal studies by Dalton (1965) and values essay Killick (1978) emphasize the role of politics in African development and particularly how the fear of losing political power influences economic policy. The notion of political ?losers was previously implicit in other theoretical work in political economy, for instance, Besley and Coate (1998) and Bourguignon and Verdier (2000). Charlotte's Essay? The role of political centralization and state institutions in development has been most heavily emphasized by historical sociologists following the work by values essay, Max Weber. Notable is the work of Mann (1986, 1993), Migdal (1988), and Evans (1995). Bank Of India Research Papers? In Africa, work on the connection between the state and development is emphasized by Herbst (2000) and Bates (2001). Economists have recently begun to contribute to this literature; for example, Acemoglu (2005) and Besley and Persson (2011). Finally, Johnson (1982), Haggard (1990), Wade (1990), and Amsden (1992) emphasized how it was the particular political economy of East Asian nations that allowed them to nursing values essay, be so economically successful. Finley (1965) made a seminal argument that slavery was responsible for the lack of technological dynamism in the classical world. The idea that growth under extractive institutions is angel's music, possible but is also likely to run out of steam is emphasized in Acemoglu (2008). Chapter 4: Small Differences and Critical Junctures. Benedictow (2004) provides a definitive overview of the Black Death, though his assessments of how many people the plague killed are controversial.
The quotations from Boccaccio and Ralph of Shrewsbury are reproduced from Horrox (1994). Hatcher (2008) provides a compelling account of the nursing values, anticipation and learning arrival of the essay, plague in reserve of india papers England. The text of the nursing essay, Statute of Laborers is available online from the Avalon Project. The fundamental works on the impact of the Black Death on the divergence of Eastern and Western Europe are North and Thomas (1973) and particularly Brenner (1976), whose analysis of how the initial distribution of political power affected the consequences of the plague has greatly influenced our thinking. Joseph Conrad Heart Of Darkness? See DuPlessis (1997) on the Second Serfdom in Eastern Europe. Conning (2010) and nursing core values essay Acemoglu and Wolitzky (2011) develop formalizations of Brenner’s thesis. The quote from James Watt is reproduced from Robinson (1964), pp. Bank Research Papers? 223–24. In Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson (2005a) we first presented the argument that it was the interaction between Atlantic trade and initial institutional differences that led to the divergence of nursing values, English institutions and in cold ultimately the Industrial Revolution.
The notion of the nursing values, iron law of oligarchy is due to Michels (1962). The notion of a critical juncture was first developed by conrad, Lipset and Rokkan (1967). On the role of institutions in the long-run development of the Ottoman Empire, the research of nursing values, Owen (1981), Owen and Pamuk (1999), and Pamuk (2006) is fundamental. Chapter 5: “I’ve Seen the angel's, Future, and It Works” On Steffens’s mission to Russia and his words to Baruch, see Steffens (1931), chap. 18, pp.
790–802. For the number of people who starved in the 1930s, we use the figures of Davies and Wheatcroft (2004). On the core values essay, 1937 census numbers, see Wheatcroft and Davies (1994a, 1994b). The nature of innovation in the Soviet economy is studied in Berliner (1976). Our discussion of how Stalinism, and particularly economic planning, really worked is based on Gregory and Harrison (2005). On how writers of U.S. economics textbooks continually got Soviet economic growth wrong, see Levy and Peart (2009). Our treatment and interpretation of the Lele and in cold the Bushong is based on the research of Douglas (1962, 1963) and Vansina (1978). On the concept of the Long Summer, see Fagan (2003). An accessible introduction to the Natufians and archaeological sites we mention can be found in Mithen (2006) and Barker (2006).
The seminal work on Abu Hureyra is Moore, Hillman, and Legge (2000), which documents how sedentary life and institutional innovation appeared prior to farming. See Smith (1998) for a general overview of the nursing values, evidence that sedentary life preceded farming, and see Bar-Yosef and Belfer-Cohen (1992) for the case of the Natufians. Our approach to the Neolithic Revolution is inspired by Sahlins (1972), which also has the anecdote about the Yir Yoront. Our discussion of Maya history follows Martin and blood Grube (2000) and Webster (2002). The reconstruction of the population history of Copan comes from Webster, Freter, and Gonlin (2000). The number of dated monuments is from Sidrys and Berger (1979). The discussion of the nursing core, Venetian case follows Puga and Trefler (2010), and chaps.
8 and 9 of Lane (1973). The material on Rome is contained in any standard history. Our interpretation of learning, Roman economic institutions follows Finlay (1999) and Bang (2008). Our account of Roman decline follows Ward-Perkins (2006) and nursing values Goldsworthy (2009). On institutional changes in the late Roman Empire, see Jones (1964). The anecdotes about Tiberius and Hadrian are from Finley (1999).
The evidence from shipwrecks was first used by Hopkins (1980). See De Callatay (2005) and Jongman (2007) for an overview of this and the Greenland Ice Core Project. The Vindolanda tablets are available online at vindolanda.csad.ox.ac.uk. The quote we use comes from TVII Pub. no.: 343. The discussion of the factors that led to the decline of Roman Britain follows Cleary (1989), chap. 4; Faulkner (2000), chap.
7; Dark (1994), chap. 2. On Aksum, see Munro-Hay (1991). The seminal work on European feudalism and its origins is essay, Bloch (1961); see Crummey (2000) on Ethiopian feudalism. Phillipson (1998) makes the comparison between the collapse of Aksum and the collapse of the Roman Empire. The story of Lee’s machine and meeting with Queen Elizabeth I is available at calverton.homestead.com/willlee.html. Allen (2009b) presents the core values, data on real wages using Diocletian’s Edict on Maximum Prices. Our argument about the causes of the writing history, Industrial Revolution is highly influenced by the arguments made in North and Thomas (1973), North and Weingast (1989), Brenner (1993), Pincus (2009), and Pincus and Robinson (2010). These scholars in turn were inspired by earlier Marxist interpretations of British institutional change and the emergence of capitalism; see Dobb (1963) and Hill (1961, 1980).
See also Tawney’s (1941) thesis about how the state building project of Henry VIII changed the English social structure. The text of the nursing core values, Magna Carta is available online at charlotte's web' the Avalon Project. Elton (1953) is the seminal work on nursing core essay, the development of state institutions under Henry VIII, and Neale (1971) relates these to the evolution of parliament. On the Peasants’ Revolt, see Hilton (2003). The quote from reserve bank of india Hill on monopolies is from Hill (1961), p. 25. On Charles I’s period of core essay, “personal rule,” we follow Sharp (1992). History Statement? Our evidence on how different groups and regions sided either for or against Parliament comes from Brunton and Pennington (1954), Hill (1961), and Stone (2001). Pincus (2009) is fundamental on the Glorious Revolution and discusses many of the specific changes in policies and economic institutions; for example, the repeal of the Hearth Tax and the creation of the Bank of England. Nursing Values? See also Pincus and in cold blood Robinson (2010). Pettigrew (2007, 2009) discusses the nursing core essay, attack on monopolies, including the Royal African Company, and of india research papers our data on petitioning comes from his papers.
Knights (2010) emphasizes the political importance of petitioning. Our information on Hoare’s Bank comes from Temin and Voth (2008). Our information about Superviser Cowperthwaite and the excise tax bureaucracy comes from Brewer (1988). Our overview of the core values essay, economic history of the in cold blood, Industrial Revolution rests on Mantoux (1961), Daunton (1995), Allen (2009a), and Mokyr (1990, 2009), who provide details on the famous inventors and inventions we discuss. The story about the Baldwyn family is from nursing core values Bogart and Richardson (2009, 2011), who stress the connection between the Glorious Revolution, the reorganization of property rights, and the construction of roads and canals. On the Calicoe Acts and Manchester Acts, see O’Brien, Griffiths, and Hunt (1991), which is the source of the quotes from the legislation. On the essays learning experiences, dominance of new people in industry, see Daunton (1995), chap. 7, and Crouzet (1985).
Our account of why the major institutional changes first took place in England is based on Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson (2005a) and Brenner (1976). The data on the number of nursing core, independent merchants and their political preferences come from Zahedieh (2010). On the opposition to the printing press in the Ottoman Empire, see Savage-Smith (2003) pp. 656–59. Comparative historical literacy comes from Easterlin (1981). Our discussion of political institutions of Spain follows Thompson (1994a, 1994b). For evidence on the economic decline of Spain over this period, see Nogal and Prados de la Escosura (2007). Our discussion of the impediments to economic development in Austria-Hungary follows Blum (1943), Freudenberger (1967), and Gross (1973). The quotation from Maria Theresa comes from Freudenberger, p. 495. All other quotations from Count Hartig and Francis I are from Blum. Francis’s reply to of darkness, the delegates from the Tyrol is quoted from Jaszi (1929), pp.
80–81. The comment of Friedrich von Gentz to Robert Owen is also quoted from Jaszi (1929), p. 80. The experience of the nursing values, Rothschilds in blood ap essay Austria is discussed in chap. 2 of Corti (1928). Our analysis of Russia follows Gerschenkron (1970). The quotation from Kropotkin is from p. Core Essay? 60 of the 2009 edition of his book.
The conversation between Nicholas and Mikhail is quoted from Saunders (1992), p. 117. Kankrin’s quote on railways is in Owen (1991), pp. 15–16. Joseph Conrad? The speech by Nicholas to the manufacturers is reproduced from Pintner (1967), p. 100. The quote from A. A. Zakrevskii is from nursing values essay Pintner (1967), p. 235. On Admiral Zheng, see Dreyer (2007). The economic history of early Modern China is covered by of darkness, Myers and Wang (2002). The quote from T’ang Chen is quoted from Myers and Wang, pp. 564–65.
See Zewde (2002) for an overview of the relevant Ethiopian history. The data on how extractive Ethiopia has been historically come from Pankhurst (1961), as do all the quotes we reproduce here. Our description of Somali institutions and history follows Lewis (1961, 2002). The heer of the Hassan Ugaas is reproduced on nursing core values, p.177 of Lewis (1961); our description of a feud comes from chap. 8 of Lewis (1961), where he reports many other examples. On the Kingdom of joseph conrad of darkness, Taqali and writing, see Ewald (1988). Our discussion of the takeover of Ambon and Banda by the Dutch East India Company and the company’s negative effect on nursing, the development of thesis statement, Southeast Asia follows Hanna (1978) and particularly Reid (1993), chap. 5. The quotes from Reid on Tome Pires are from p. 271; the Dutch factor in ????Maguindanao, p. 299; the sultan of Maguindanao, pp. 299–300. Data on values essay, the impact of the Dutch East India Company on the price of spices come from web' essay O’Rourke and Williamson (2002).
A definitive overview of slavery in African society and the impact of the slave trade is Lovejoy (2000). Lovejoy, p. 47, Table 31, reports consensus estimates of the extent of the slave trade. Nunn (2008) provided the first quantitative estimates of the impact of the slave trade on values essay, African economic institutions and economic growth. Reserve Of India Papers? The data on firearms and gunpowder imports are from Inikori (1977). The testimony of Francis Moore is nursing essay, quoted from Lovejoy (2000), pp. 89–90. Law (1977) is a seminal study of the expansion of the Oyo state. The estimates of the in cold blood ap essay, impact of the slave trade on population in Africa are taken from Manning (1990). Lovejoy (2000), chap. 8, the essays in Law (1995), and the important book of Austin (2005) are the basis for our discussion of the analysis of the core essay, period of “legitimate commerce.” Data on the proportion of Africans who were slaves in Africa comes from joseph heart of darkness Lovejoy (2000), e.g., p. 192, Table 9.2.
Data on labor in Liberia is from core values Clower, Dalton, Harwitz, and Walters (1966). The dual economy idea was developed by Lewis (1954). Reserve Bank Of India Papers? Fergusson (2010) develops a mathematical model of the dual economy. The notion that this was a creation of colonialism was first proposed in the seminal collection of essays edited by Palmer and Parsons (1977). Our account of South Africa is based on Bundy (1979) and Feinstein (2005).
The Moravian missionary is quoted in Bundy (1979), p. 46, and John Hemming is quoted in Bundy, p. 72. The spread of land ownership in Griqualand East is from Bundy, p. 89; the exploits of essay, Stephen Sonjica are from Bundy, p. 94; the quote from Matthew Blyth is from p. 97; and the quote from a cruel music a European observer in Fingoland 1884 is from Bundy, pp. 100–101. George Albu is quoted in Feinstein (2005), p. 63; secretary for native affairs is quoted from Feinstein, p. 45; and Verwoerd is quoted from Feinstein, p. 159. Data on the real wages of African gold miners are from p. 66 of nursing essay, Wilson (1972). G. In Cold Blood Ap Essay? Findlay is values, quoted in Bundy (1979), p. 242. The notion that the development of the rich countries of the West is the mirror image of the underdevelopment of the rest of the world was originally developed by Wallertsein (1974–2011), though he emphasizes very different mechanisms than we do. Chapter 10: The Diffusion of Prosperity. This chapter builds heavily on our previous research with Simon Johnson and in cold ap essay Davide Cantoni: Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson (2002) and Acemoglu, Cantoni, Johnson, and core essay Robinson (2010, 2011).
Our discussion of the development of early institutions in Australia follows the seminal work of Hirst (1983, 1988, 2003) and Neal (1991). The original manuscript of the writ issued to blood ap essay, Judge Collins is available (thanks to the Macquarie University Law School in Australia). Nursing Values? Macarthur’s characterization of Wentworth’s supporters is quoted from Melbourne (1963), pp. 131–32. Our discussion of the origins of the Rothschilds follows Ferguson (1998); Mayer Rothschild’s remark to his son is reproduced from Ferguson, p. 76.
Our discussion of the impact of the French on European institutions is taken from Acemoglu, Cantoni, Johnson, and Robinson (2010, 2011) and the references therein. See Doyle (2002) for a standard overview of the French Revolution. Information on the feudal dues in Nassau-Usingen is from Lenger (2004), p. 96. Ogilivie (2011) overviews the historical impact of guilds on blood, European development. For a treatment of the life of O ?kubo Toshimichi, see Iwata (1964). Sakamoto Ryu ?ma’s eight-point plan is reproduced from Jansen (2000), p. 310. Core? Our discussion of the Black Act follows Thompson (1975). Baptist Nunn’s report of June 27 is from Thompson (1975), pp. 65–66.
The other quotes are from Thompson’s section on the rule of law, pp. 258–69, which is well worth reading in experiences its entirety. Our approach to democratization in England is based on nursing essay, Acemoglu and Robinson (2000a, 2001, and 2006a). Earl Grey’s speech is quoted from Evans (1996), p. 223. Stephens’s comment about democracy is quoted in Briggs (1959), p. 34. Thompson’s quote is from Thompson (1975), p. 269.
The quote from Burke is taken from Burke (1790/1969), p. 152. Lindert (2004, 2009) is a seminal treatment of the coevolution of democracy and public policy over the past two hundred years. Keyssar (2009) is a seminal introduction to music, the evolution of political rights in the United States. Vanderbilt is quoted in Josephson (1934), p. 15. The text of Roosevelt’s address is at www.theodore-roosevelt.com/sotu1.html. Nursing Core Values? The quote from Woodrow Wilson is from Wilson (1913), p. 286.
Data on the relative tenure of Supreme Court justices in Argentina and the United States is presented in Iaryczower, Spiller, and Tommasi (2002). Helmke (2004) discusses the history of court packing in Argentina and quotes Justice Carlos Fayt. This chapter heavily relies on web', our theoretical and nursing core empirical research on research papers, institutional persistence, particularly Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson (2005b) and Acemoglu and Robinson (2008a). Nursing? Heath (1972) and Kelley and Klein (1980) made a seminal application of the iron law of oligarchy to the 1952 Bolivian Revolution. The quote from the British parliamentary papers is reproduced from p. Angel's Thesis Music? 15 of House of Commons (1904). The early political history of postindependence Sierra Leone is nursing values essay, well told in Cartwright (1970).
Though interpretations differ as to why Siaka Stevens pulled up the railway line, the salient one is essays learning, that he did this to isolate Mendeland. In this we follow Abraham and Sesay (1993), p. 120; Richards (1996), pp. Core Values Essay? 42–43; and Davies (2007), pp. 684–85. Reno (1995, 2003) are the best treatments of Stevens’s regime. The data on the agricultural marketing boards comes from Davies (2007). On the murder of Sam Bangura by defenestration, see Reno (1995), pp.
137–41. Jackson (2004), p. 63, and Keen (2005), p. 17, discuss the acronyms ISU and SSD. Bates (1981) is the seminal analysis of how marketing boards destroyed agricultural productivity in post-independence Africa, see Goldstein and Udry (2009) on how political connections to chiefs determine property rights to land in Ghana. On the relation between politicians in 1993 and the conquistadors, see Dosal (1995), chap. 1, and Casaus Arzu (2007). Our discussion of the policies ???????of the Consulado de Comercio follows Woodward (1966). The quote from President Barrios is from McCreery (1994), pp. 187–88. Our discussion of the regime of Jorge Ubico follows Grieb (1979). Our discussion of the underdevelopment of the U.S. Joseph Conrad Heart Of Darkness? South follows Acemoglu and Robinson (2008b).
See Wright (1978) on nursing core values, the pre–Civil War development of the slave economy, and Bateman and a cruel angel's Weiss (1981) on the dearth of industry. Core? Fogel and Engerman (1974) give a different and controversial interpretation. Wright (1986) and Ransom and Sutch (2001) give overviews of the extent to which the joseph heart, southern economy after 1865 really changed. Values? Congressman George Washington Julian is quoted in Wiener (1978), p. 6. The same book contains the learning, analysis of the persistence of the southern landed elite after the Civil War. Naidu (2009) examines the impact of the introduction of poll taxes and literacy tests in the 1890s in southern states.
The quotation from W.E.B. Du Bois is in his book Du Bois (1903), p. 88. Clause 256 of the Alabama constitution can be found at www.legislature.state.al.us/CodeOfAlabama/Constitution/1901/CA-245806.htm. Alston and Ferrie (1999) discuss how southern politicians blocked federal legislation they thought would disrupt the South’s economy. Woodward (1955) gives a seminal overview of the core, creation of Jim Crow. Overviews of the Ethiopian revolution are provided in essays learning experiences Halliday and Molyneux (1981). On the Emperor’s cushions, see Kapus ?cin ?ski (1983). The quotes from Dawit Wolde Giorgis are from Dawit Wolde Giorgis (1989), pp. 49 and 48, respectively.
Chapter 13: Why Nations Fail Today. For the BBC report on Mugabe’s lottery success, including the public statement of Zimbank, see news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/621895.stm. Our treatment of the creation of nursing values essay, white rule in Rhodesia follows Palmer (1977) and Alexander (2006). Meredith (2007) provides a good overview of more recent Zimbabwean politics. Our account of the civil war in Sierra Leone follows Richards (1996), Truth and Reconciliation Commission (2004), and Keen (2005). The analysis published in a newspaper in the capital city of Freetown in 1995 is writing thesis, quoted from Keen (2005), p. 34. The text of the RUF’s “Footpaths to Democracy” can be found at www.sierra-leone.org/AFRC-RUF/footpaths.html. The quotation from the teenager from Geoma is from Keen (2005), p. 42. Our discussion of the Colombian paramilitaries follows Acemoglu, Robinson, and Santos (2010) and Chaves and Robinson (2010), which in nursing core values turn heavily rely on charlotte's web' essay, the extensive work by Colombian scholars, particularly Romero (2003), the essays in Romero (2007), and Lopez (2010). Leon (2009) is an accessible and balanced account of the nature of contemporary conflicts in Colombia. Also fundamental is the Web site run by the weekly news-paper Semana, www.verdadabierta.com/.
All the quotes come from nursing values Acemoglu, Robinson, and Santos (2010). The contract between Martin Llanos and the mayors in Casanare is available in Spanish at www.verdadabierta.com/victimarios/los-jefes/714-perfil-hector-german-buitrago-alias-martin-llanos. The origins and consequences of El Corralito are well presented in a series of articles in writing history thesis The Economist magazine, available at www.economist.com/search/apachesolr_search/corralito. On the role of the interior in Argentine development, see Sawers (1996). Core? Hassig and Oh (2009) provides an excellent, valuable account of life in North Korea. Chap.
2 covers the luxurious lifestyle of the leadership, and chaps. 3 and 4, the economic realities that most people face. The BBC coverage of the currency reform can be found at news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8500017.stm. On the pleasure palace and brandy consumption, see chap. 12 of history thesis statement, Post (2004). Nursing Values? Our discussion of child labor and its use for picking cotton in Uzbeksitan follows Kandiyoti (2008), available at www.soas.ac.uk/cccac/events/cotton-sector-in-central-asia-2005/file49842.pdf. The quote from Gulnaz is on p. 20 of in cold ap essay, Kandiyoti.
On the Andijon uprising, see International Crisis Group (2005). The description of the election of Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union is reproduced from Denny (1937). Our analysis of “crony capitalism” in Egypt follows Sfakianakis (2004). Our treatment of Botswana follows Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson (2003); Robinson and Parsons (2006); and Leith (2005). Schapera (1970) and Parsons, Henderson, and Tlou (1995) are fundamental works. High Commis???????sioner Rey is quoted in Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson (2003), p. 96. The discussion of the three chiefs’ visit to nursing values essay, England follows Parsons (1998), and all quotes relating to this come from his book: Chamberlain, pp. 206–7; Fairfield, p. Thesis Sheet Music? 209; and Rhodes, p. 223. Schapera is quoted from Schapera (1940), p. 72. The quote from Quett Masire is from Masire (2006), p. 43.
On the ethnic composition of the Tswana tribes, see Schapera (1952). Our treatment of change in the U.S. South follows Acemoglu and Robinson (2008b). On the population movement out of the values, U.S. South, see Wright (1999); on the mechanization of cotton picking, Heinicke (1994). Learning Experiences? “FRDUM FOOF SPETGH” is quoted from values essay Mickey (2008), p. A Cruel Angel's Thesis Music? 50. Nursing? Thurmond’s 1948 speech is taken from www.slate.com/id/2075151/, where you also can listen to the audio recording.
On James Meredith and Oxford, Mississippi, see Doyle (2001). See Wright (1999) on the impact of civil rights legislation on black voting in the South. On the nature and politics of China’s political transition after the death of Mao, see Harding (1987) and MacFarquhar and charlotte's essay Schoenhals (2008). Deng’s quote about the cat is from Harding, p. 58. The first point of the Cultural Revolution is from Schoenhals (1996), p. 33; Mao on Hitler is from MacFarquhar and Schoenhals, p. 102; Hua on the “Two Whatevers” is from values Harding, p. 56. Chapter 15: Understanding Prosperity and Poverty. For the story of Dai Guofang, see McGregor (2010), pp. 219–26.
The story of red telephones is also from charlotte's McGregor, chap. 1. On the control of the party over media, see Pan (2008), chap. Core? 9, and McGregor (2010), pp. 64–69 and 235–62. The quotes on the party’s attitudes toward entrepreneurs are from McGregor (2010), pp. 200–201 and 223.
For Wen Jiabao’s comments on political reforms in China, see www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/aug/29/wen-jiabao-china-reform. The modernization hypothesis is clearly articulated in Lipset (1959). The evidence against it is discussed in detail in Acemoglu, Johnson, Robinson, and Yared (2008, 2009). George H. W. Bush’s quote is from news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/752224.stm. Our discussion of NGO activity and foreign aid in Afghanistan after December 2001 draws on Ghani and reserve Lockhart (2008). See also Reinikka and Svensson (2004) and Easterly (2006) on problems of foreign aid. Our discussion of problems of macroeconomic reform and inflation in Zimbabwe is from Acemoglu, Johnson, Robinson, and Querubin (2008).
The Seva Mandir discussion is drawn from Banerjee, Duflo, and Glennerster (2008). The formation of the core values, Workers’ Party in Brazil is covered in joseph conrad of darkness Keck (1992); on the Scania strike, see chap. 4. The quote from nursing core values essay Cardoso is from Keck, pp. In Cold Ap Essay? 44–45; the quote from Lula is on Keck, p. 65. The discussion of the efforts of Fujimori and Montesinos to control the media is from McMillan and Zoido (2004), and the quote on the Chinese Communist Party’s control is from McGregor (2010), p. 69. Map 1: The Inca Empire and road system are adapted from John V. Core? Murra (1984), “Andean Societies before 1532,” in Leslie Bethell, ed., The Cambridge History of Latin America, vol. 1 (New York: Cambridge University Press). The map of the mita catchment area is taken from Melissa Dell (2010), “The Persistent Effects of Peru’s Mining Mita,” Econometrica 78:6, 1863–1903. Map 2: Drawn using data from ap essay Miriam Bruhn and Francisco Gallego (2010), “The Good, the core values, Bad, and the Ugly: Do They Matter for Economic Development?” forthcoming in the Review of Economics and Statistics. Map 3: Drawn using data from World Development Indicators (2008), the World Bank.
Map 4: Map of angel's sheet music, wild pigs adapted from W. L. R. Oliver; I. L. Brisbin, Jr.; and S. Takahashi (1993), “The Eurasian Wild Pig (Sus scrofa),” in W. L. R. Oliver, ed., Pigs, Peccaries, and nursing Hippos: Status Survey and Action Plan (Gland, Switzerland: IUCN), pp. 112–21. Wild cattle adapted from a cruel thesis music map of aurochs from Cis van Vuure (2005), Retracing the Aurochs (Sofia: Pensoft Publishers), p. 41. Map 5: Adapted from Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf (2001), The Domestication of Plants in the Old World, 3rd edition (New York: Oxford University Press), wheat map 4, p. 56; barley map 5, p. 55. Map of rice distribution adapted from core values essay Te-Tzu Chang (1976), “The Origin, Evolution, Cultivation, Dissemination, and Diversification of Asian and African Rices,” Euphytica 25, 425–41, figure 2, p. 433. Map 6: The Kuba Kingdom is based on Jan Vansina (1978), The Children of Woot (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press), map 2, p. 8. Kongo based on Jan Vansina (1995), “Equatorial Africa Before the Nineteenth Century,” in Philip Curtin, Steven Feierman, Leonard Thompson, and Jan Vansina, African History: From Earliest Times to Independence (New York: Longman), map 8.4, p. Blood Ap Essay? 228. Map 7: Drawn using data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS), which reports images of the Earth at night captured from values 20:00 to 21:30 local time from an altitude of 830 km (www.ngdc.noaa.gov/dmsp/sensors/ols.html). Map 8: Constructed from data in Jerome Blum (1998), The End of the Old Order in Rural Europe (Princeton: Princeton University Press). Map 9: Adapted from the maps in Colin Martin and Geoffrey Parker (1988), The Spanish Armada (London: Hamilton), pp. Of Darkness Essay? i–ii, 243. Nursing Core Essay? Map 10: Adapted from Simon Martin and Nikolai Gribe (2000), Chronicle of the Maya Kings and web' Queens: Deciphering the Dynasties of the Ancient Maya (London: Thames and Hudson), p. 21. Map 11: Map adapted from Mark A. Kishlansky, Patrick Geary, and Patricia O’Brien (1991), Civilization in the West (New York: HarperCollins Publishers), p. 151.
Map 12: Somali clan families adapted from Ioan M. Lewis (2002), A Modern History of Somalia (Oxford: James Currey), map of “Somali ethnic and clan-family distribution 2002”; map of Aksum adapted from Kevin Shillington (1995), History of Africa, 2nd edition (New York: St. Martin’s Press), map 5.4, p. 69. Map 13: J. R. Walton (1998), “Changing Patterns of Trade and Interaction Since 1500,” in R. A. Butlin and R. A. Dodgshon, eds., An Historical Geography of Europe (Oxford: Oxford University Press), figure 15.2, p. 326. Map 14: Adapted from Anthony Reid (1988), Southeast Asia in the Age of Commerce, 1450–1680: Volume 1, The Land Below the Winds (New Haven: Yale University Press), map 2, p. 9. Map 15: Drawn from data taken from Nathan Nunn (2008), “The Long Term Effects of essay, Africa’s Slave Trades,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 123, no. 1, 139–76. Map 16: Maps based on the following maps: for South Africa, A. J. Christopher (2001), The Atlas of Changing South Africa (London: Routledge), fig???????ure 1.19, p. 31; for Zimbabwe, Robin Palmer (1977), Land and Racial Domination in Rhodesia (Berkeley: University of California Press), map 5, p. 245. A Cruel Angel's Sheet Music? Map 17: Adapted from Alexander Grab (2003), Napoleon and the Transformation of Europe (London: Palgrave Macmillan), map 1, p. 17; map 2, p. 91.
Map 18: Drawn using data from the 1840 U.S. Census, downloadable at the National Historical Geographic Information System: www.nhgis.org. Map 19: Drawn using data from the 1880 U.S. Census, downloadable at the National Historical Geographic Information System: www.nhgis.org. Map 20: Daron Acemoglu, James A. Robinson, and core values Rafael J. Santos (2010), “The Monopoly of Violence: Evidence from Colombia,” at scholar.harvard.edu/jrobinson/files/jr_formationofstate.pdf. Copyright 2012 Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson. All rights reserved. Header photograph Kirk Mastin/Getty images.
Author photographs Peter Tenzer (Acemoglu) and Maria Angelica Bautista (Robinson).
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colgate sample essay Dasani’s Homeless Life data-summary=There are more than 22,000 homeless children in a city with the greatest concentration of nursing values essay wealth in America. Essay! data-pubdate=Published: December 9, 2013 S he wakes to the sound of breathing. The smaller children lie tangled beside her, their chests rising and nursing core essay, falling under winter coats and ap essay, wool blankets. Core Values! A few feet away, their mother and web', father sleep near the mop bucket they use as a toilet. Two other children share a mattress by the rotting wall where the core essay, mice live, opposite the baby, whose crib is warmed by a hair dryer perched on a milk crate. Slipping out from her covers, the joseph conrad heart of darkness, oldest girl sits at the window. On mornings like this, she can see all the values, way across Brooklyn to the Empire State Building, the first New York skyscraper to reach 100 floors.
Her gaze always stops at that iconic temple of stone, its tip pointed celestially, its facade lit with promise. “It makes me feel like there’s something going on out there,” says the 11-year-old girl, never one for patience. This child of New York is always running before she walks. Ap Essay! She likes being first the nursing core values, first to be born, the first to go to school, the first to make the history thesis statement, honor roll. Even her name, Dasani, speaks of a certain reach. The bottled water had come to nursing Brooklyn’s bodegas just before she was born, catching the fancy of her mother, who could not afford such indulgences. It hinted at a different, upwardly mobile clientele, a set of newcomers who over the next decade would transform the borough. Dasani’s own neighborhood, Fort Greene, is conrad essay, now one of gentrification’s gems. Her family lives in the Auburn Family Residence, a decrepit city-run shelter for the homeless.
It is a place where mold creeps up walls and roaches swarm, where feces and vomit plug communal toilets, where sexual predators have roamed and small children stand guard for their single mothers outside filthy showers. It is no place for children. Core Essay! Yet Dasani is among 280 children at the shelter. Beyond its walls, she belongs to web' essay a vast and invisible tribe of more than 22,000 homeless children in New York, the highest number since the Great Depression, in nursing core essay, the most unequal metropolis in America. Nearly a quarter of joseph heart of darkness Dasani’s childhood has unfolded at Auburn, where she shares a 520-square-foot room with her parents and seven siblings. Nursing Core Values! As they begin to in cold blood stir on this frigid January day, Dasani sets about core values, her chores. Her mornings begin with Baby Lele, whom she changes, dresses and feeds, checking that the in cold ap essay, formula distributed by the shelter is not, once again, expired.
She then wipes down the family’s small refrigerator, stuffed with lukewarm milk, Tropicana grape juice and containers of leftover Chinese. After tidying the nursing values, dresser drawers she shares with a sister, Dasani rushes her younger siblings onto the school bus. “I have a lot on my plate,” she says, taking inventory: The fork and spoon are her parents and web' essay, the macaroni, her siblings except for Baby Lele, who is a plump chicken breast. “So that’s a lot on my plate with some corn bread,” she says. “That’s a lot on my plate.” Dasani guards her feelings closely, dispensing with anger through humor. Beneath it all is a child whose existence is defined by her siblings. Her small scrub-worn hands are always tying shoelaces or doling out peanut butter sandwiches, taking the ends of the loaf for herself. Values! The bond is a cruel music, inescapable. In the presence of her brothers and sisters, Dasani has no peace.
Without them, she is incomplete. Today, Dasani rides the creaky elevator to the lobby and walks past the guards, the metal detector and the tall, iron fence that envelops what she calls “the jail.” She steps into the light, and is met by the worn brick facade of the Walt Whitman projects across the street. She heads east along Myrtle Avenue and, three blocks later, has crossed into nursing core values essay, another New York: the shaded, graceful abode of Fort Greene’s brownstones, which fetch millions of charlotte's web' dollars. “Black is nursing core, beautiful, black is me,” she sings under her breath as her mother trails behind. Dasani suddenly stops, puzzling at the pavement. Its condition, she notes, is clearly superior on this side of Myrtle.
“Worlds change real fast, don’t it?” her mother says. In the short span of in cold Dasani’s life, her city has been reborn. The skyline soars with luxury towers, beacons of a new gilded age. More than 200 miles of fresh bike lanes connect commuters to high-tech jobs, passing through upgraded parks and nursing core values essay, avant-garde projects like the High Line and Jane’s Carousel. Reserve Bank Of India Research! Posh retail has spread from its Manhattan roots to the city’s other boroughs. These are the values, crown jewels of Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg’s long reign, which began just seven months after Dasani was born. In the shadows of this renewal, it is Dasani’s population who have been left behind. The ranks of the poor have risen, with almost half of New Yorkers living near or below the poverty line.
Their traditional anchors affordable housing and charlotte's essay, jobs that pay a living wage have weakened as the city reorders itself around the nursing essay, whims of the wealthy. Long before Mayor-elect Bill de Blasio rose to power by denouncing the city’s inequality, children like Dasani were being pushed further into the margins, and not just in New York. Cities across the nation have become flash points of polarization, as one population has bounced back from the recession while another continues to struggle. One in five American children is in cold ap essay, now living in core essay, poverty, giving the United States the highest child poverty rate of any developed nation except for Romania. This bodes poorly for the future. Decades of research have shown the staggering societal costs of angel's thesis children in poverty. Nursing Core Values! They grow up with less education and lower earning power. They are more likely to have drug addiction, psychological trauma and disease, or wind up in prison. Dasani does not need the proof of abstract research. All of these plights run through her family. Her future is further threatened by the fact of her homelessness, which has been shown, even in short spells, to bring disastrous consequences.
Dasani’s circumstances are largely the outcome of parental dysfunction. Thesis Statement! While nearly one-third of New York’s homeless children are supported by core values essay, a working adult, her mother and father are unemployed, have a history of arrests and are battling drug addiction. Yet Dasani’s trials are not solely of angel's sheet her parents’ making. They are also the result of decisions made a world away, in the marble confines of City Hall. With the economy growing in 2004, the Bloomberg administration adopted sweeping new policies intended to push the homeless to become more self-reliant.
They would no longer get priority access to public housing and other programs, but would receive short-term help with rent. Poor people would be empowered, the mayor argued, and homelessness would decline. But the opposite happened. As rents steadily rose and low-income wages stagnated, chronically poor families like Dasani’s found themselves stuck in a shelter system with fewer exits. Families are now languishing there longer than ever a development that Mr. Bloomberg explained by values, saying shelters offered “a much more pleasurable experience than they ever had before.” Just three days before the in cold blood, mayor made that comment at a news conference in August 2012, an inspector at Auburn stopped by Dasani’s crowded room, noting that a mouse was “running around and going into the walls,” which had “many holes.” “Please assist,” the inspector added. “There is infant in room.” Dasani was about to start sixth grade at nursing values a promising new school.
This would be a pivotal year of her childhood one already marked by charlotte's, more longing and loss than most adults ever see. A tangle of three dramas had yet to unspool. There was the question of nursing core values whether Dasani’s family would remain intact. Her mother had just been reunited with the children on the condition that she and her husband stay off drugs. A Cruel Thesis Music! The city’s Administration for Children’s Services was watching closely. Any slips, and the siblings could wind up in core, foster care, losing their parents and, most likely, one another.
The family’s need for a home was also growing desperate. The longer they stayed in that one room, the writing history, more they seemed to fall apart. Yet rents were impossibly high in the city, and a quarter-million people were waiting for core essay, the rare vacancy in public housing. Families like Dasani’s had been leaving the state. This was the thesis sheet, year, then, that her parents made a promise: to save enough money to go somewhere else, maybe as far as the Pocono Mountains, in Pennsylvania. Dasani could close her eyes and see it. “It’s quiet and nursing essay, it’s a lot of in cold ap essay grass.”
In the absence of this long-awaited home, there was only school. Nursing Core Values Essay! But it remained to be seen whether Dasani’s new middle school, straining under budget cuts, could do enough to fill the joseph conrad heart of darkness essay, voids of her life. For children like Dasani, school is not just a place to cultivate a hungry mind. It is a refuge. The right school can provide routine, nourishment and the guiding hand of responsible adults. But school also had its perils. Dasani was hitting the age when girls prove their worth through fighting.
And she was her mother’s daughter, a fearless fighter. She was also on the cusp of nursing core values essay becoming something more, something she could feel but not yet see, if only the right things happened and the right people came along. D asani is a short, wiry girl whose proud posture overwhelms her 4-foot-8 frame. She has a delicate, oval face and essays experiences, luminous brown eyes that watch everything, owl-like. Her expression veers from wonder to mischief. Strangers often remark on nursing essay, her beauty her high cheekbones and smooth skin but the comments never seem to register.
What she knows is of india, that she has been blessed with perfect teeth. In a family where braces are the nursing core values, stuff of fantasy, having good teeth is essay, a lottery win. On the subway, Dasani can blend in nursing core values essay, with children who are better off. It is an ironic fact of being poor in a rich city that the heart, donated garments Dasani and her siblings wear lend them the veneer of affluence, at least from a distance. Core Essay! Used purple Uggs and Patagonia fleeces cover thinning socks and fraying jeans. A Phil Teds rain cover, fished from a garbage bin, protects Baby Lele’s rickety stroller. Dasani tells herself that brand names don’t matter.
She knows such yearnings will go unanswered, so better not to have them. Charlotte's Web'! But once in nursing values, a while, when by some miracle her mother produces a new pair of Michael Jordan sneakers, Dasani finds herself succumbing to the same exercise: She wears them sparingly, and only indoors, hoping to keep them spotless. It never works. Best to try to in cold blood blend in, she tells herself, while not caring when you don’t. She likes being small because “I can slip through things.” In the blur of her city’s crowded streets, she is just another face. What people do not see is core, a homeless girl whose mother succumbed to crack more than once, whose father went to prison for selling drugs, and whose cousins and aunts have become the anonymous casualties of gang shootings, AIDS and domestic violence.
Dasani speaks with certainty. She often begins a sentence with “Mommy say” before reciting, verbatim, some new bit of learned wisdom, such as “camomile tea cures a bad stomach” or “that lady is a dope fiend.” She likes facts. Bank Of India Research Papers! She rarely wavers, or hints at nursing core essay doubt, even as her life is a cruel angel's music, consumed by it. When strangers are near, Dasani refers to Auburn as “that place.” It is separate from her, and distant. But in the company of her siblings, she calls it “the house,” transforming a crowded room into an imaginary home. In reality, Auburn is neither. The forbidding, 10-story brick building, which dates back almost a century, was formerly Cumberland Hospital, one of seven public hospitals that closed because of the city’s 1970s fiscal crisis. In 1985, the city repurposed the former hospital into values, a shelter for families. This was the dawn of the a cruel thesis sheet, period known as “modern homelessness,” driven by wage stagnation, Reagan-era cutbacks and the rising cost of nursing core values essay homes. By the time Mayor Bloomberg took office in 2002, New York’s homeless population had reached 31,063 a record for the city, which is in cold blood, legally obligated to provide shelter. Among the city’s 152 family shelters, Auburn became known as a place of nursing core values essay last resort, a dreaded destination for the chronically homeless.
City and state inspectors have repeatedly cited the shelter for deplorable conditions, including sexual misconduct by staff members, spoiled food, asbestos exposure, lead paint and vermin. Auburn has no certificate of occupancy, as required by music, law, and core values, lacks an operational plan that meets state regulations. Most of the shelter’s smoke detectors and alarms have been found to be inoperable. There are few signs that children live at Auburn. Locked gates prevent them from setting foot on statement, the front lawn. In a city that has invested millions of dollars in new “green spaces,” Auburn’s is essay, often overrun with weeds. Inside, prepackaged meals are served in a cafeteria where Dasani and her siblings wait in one line for their food before heading to another line to heat it in one of two microwaves that hundreds of ap essay residents share. Tempers fly and fights explode.
The routine can last more than an hour before the children take their first bite. The family’s room is the scene of debilitating chaos: stacks of dirty laundry, shoes stuffed under a mattress, bicycles and coats piled high. Essay! To the left of the door, beneath a decrepit sink where Baby Lele is bathed, the reserve research papers, wall has rotted through, leaving a long, dark gap where mice congregate. A few feet away, Dasani’s legally blind, 10-year-old sister, Nijai, sleeps on a mattress that has come apart at the seams, its rusted coils splayed. Hand-washed clothes line the guards on the windows, which are shaded by nursing core values essay, gray wool blankets strung from the ceiling.
A sticky fly catcher dangles overhead, dotted with dead insects. There is no desk or chair in the room just a maze of mattresses and dressers. Of India Research Papers! A flat-screen television rests on two orange milk crates. To eat, the children sit on the cracked linoleum floor, which never feels clean no matter how much they mop. Homework is a challenge. The shelter’s one recreation room can hardly accommodate Auburn’s hundreds of children, leaving Dasani and her siblings to study, hunched over, on nursing values essay, their mattresses. Sometimes it feels like too many bodies sharing the same air. “There’s no space to research papers breathe ’cause they breathe up all the core values essay, oxygen,” Dasani says. She carves out small, sacred spaces: a portion of the floor at joseph conrad heart mealtime, an upturned crate by the window, a bathroom stall. The children spend hours at essay the playgrounds of the surrounding housing projects, where a subtle hierarchy is at work.
If they are seen enough times emerging from Auburn, they are pegged as the neighborhood’s outliers, the so-called shelter boogies. Nothing gnaws at Dasani more. A mucus-stained nose suggests a certain degradation, not just the absence of tissues, but of a parent willing to wipe or a home so unclean that a runny nose makes no difference. Dasani and her siblings can get hungry enough to lose their concentration in school, but they are forever wiping one another’s noses. When Dasani hears “shelter boogies,” all she can think to charlotte's essay say is nursing core essay, what her mother always tells her that Auburn is thesis, “just a pit stop.” “But you will live in the projects forever, as will your kids’ kids, and your kids’ kids’ kids.” She knows the battle is asymmetrical. The projects may represent all kinds of inertia. Nursing Core Values Essay! But to live at Auburn is to admit the ultimate failure: the inability of one’s parents to meet that most basic need. D asani ticks through their faces, the girls from the projects who might turn up at this new school. Charlotte's Web'! Some are kind enough not to gossip about where she lives. #9632; The others might be distracted by the sheer noise of this first day the start of sixth grade, the new uniform, the new faces.
She will hopefully slip by those girls unseen. She approaches the school’s steps on a clear September morning. Fresh braids fall to one side of her face, clipped by bright yellow bows. Her required polo and khakis have been pressed with a hair straightener, since Auburn forbids irons. Her heart is pounding. She will be sure to take a circuitous route home. Values! She will focus in charlotte's, class and mind her manners in the schoolyard. She only nursing core values has to climb those steps. “Come on, there’s nothing to be scared about,” her 34-year-old mother, Chanel, finally says, nudging Dasani up the stairs.
She passes through the metal detector, joining 507 other middle and in cold ap essay, high school students at the Susan S. Nursing Core! McKinney Secondary School of the Arts. Housed in reserve bank papers, a faded brick building two blocks from Auburn, McKinney is a poor-kids’ version of LaGuardia Arts, the elite Manhattan public school that inspired the television series “Fame.” Threadbare curtains adorn its theater. Stage props are salvaged from a nearby trash bin. Dance class is so crowded that students practice in intervals. An air of core essay possibility permeates the school, named after the angel's thesis sheet, first African-American woman to become a physician in nursing values essay, New York State. There is charlotte's essay, Officer Jamion Andrews, the security guard who moonlights as a rap lyricist, and nursing values essay, Zakiya Harris, the a cruel angel's music, dance teacher who runs a studio on the side. And there is nursing core values, Faith Hester, the comedic, eyelash-batting humanities teacher who wrote a self-help book titled “Create a Life You Love Living” and fancies her own reality show. The children also strive.
Among them is a voice that periodically lifts the heart of darkness essay, school with a “Madama Butterfly” aria. When the students hear it, they know that Jasmine, a sublimely gifted junior, is singing in nursing values essay, the office of the principal, Paula Holmes. The school matriarch closes her eyes as she listens. It may be her only tranquil moment. Miss Holmes is charlotte's web' essay, a towering woman, by turns steely and values essay, soft. Essay! She wears a Bluetooth like a permanent earring and nursing core values, tends toward power suits.
She has been at McKinney’s helm for 15 years and web' essay, runs the school like a naval ship, peering down its gleaming hallways as if searching the seas for enemy vessels. Students stammer in her presence. She leaves her office door permanently open, like a giant, unblinking eye. A poster across the hall depicts a black man in sagging jeans standing before the White House, opposite nursing core values essay, President Obama. “To live in thesis sheet, this crib,” the poster reads, “you have to look the part.” Miss Holmes has no tolerance for sagging sartorial, attitudinal or otherwise. McKinney’s roots run deep.
Dasani’s own grandmother studied there as a girl. Core! Most of the middle school students are black, live in the surrounding projects and qualify for free or reduced meals. They eat in shifts in the school’s basement cafeteria, watched over by the avuncular Frank Heyward, who blasts oldies from in cold ap essay a boombox, telling students, “I got shoes older than you.” For all of McKinney’s pluck, its burdens are great. In the last six years, the city has cut the core values, school’s budget by a quarter as its population declined. Fewer teachers share a greater load. After-school resources have thinned, but not the needs of writing history thesis statement students whose families are torn apart by nursing essay, gun violence and drug use. McKinney’s staff psychologist shuttles between three schools like a firefighter.
And now, a charter school is angling to move in. Conrad Heart Essay! If successful, it will eventually claim McKinney’s treasured top floor, home to its theater class, dance studio and art lab. Teachers and parents are bracing for nursing essay, battle, announced by fliers warning against the “apartheid” effects of a charter co-location. Dasani knows about charter schools. Her former school, P.S. 67, shared space with one. She never spoke to learning those children, whose classrooms were stocked with new computers.
Dasani’s own school was failing by the time she left. At McKinney, Dasani quickly draws the notice of the older students, and not because she is short, though the nickname “Shorty” sticks. It is her electricity. When they dote on her, she giggles. But say the wrong thing and she turns fierce, letting the nursing core, four-letter words fly. It is still September when Dasani’s temper lands her in the principal’s office. “Please don’t call my mother,” Dasani whispers. Miss Holmes is seated in a rolling pleather chair held together by duct tape. She stares at the anguished girl. Writing History Statement! She has been at McKinney long enough to know when a child’s transgressions at school might bring a beating at home. The principal slowly scoots her chair up to Dasani and leans within inches of her face.
From that day forward, Dasani will be on her best behavior. In turn, Miss Holmes will keep what happens at school in school. With that, she waves Dasani off, fighting the urge to smile. She can’t help but like this feisty little girl. D asani closes her eyes and tilts her head toward the ceiling of core values her classroom. She has missed breakfast again. #9632; She tries to in cold blood ap essay drift. She sees Florida. For a child who has never been to the beach, television ads are transporting. She is walking in nursing values essay, the sand. In Cold Blood! She crashes into the waves.
“Dasaaaaaani!” her teacher sings out. She opens her eyes. There is Miss Hester, batting those lashes. Both she and another teacher, Kenya Mabry, were raised in the projects. They dress and values, talk with a polish that impresses Dasani, who studies them. Miss Hester is also watching Dasani. She does not yet know where Dasani lives, or how hungry she gets. But Miss Hester finds two things striking: how late she arrives some mornings and how capable this girl is in spite of history thesis statement it. Without even trying, she keeps up. Dasani possesses what adults at McKinney consider an intuitive approach to learning, the kind that comes when rare smarts combine with extreme life circumstances. Nursing! Her intelligence is joseph conrad heart essay, “uncanny” and nursing core values, “far surpasses peers her age,” one counselor writes. “Student is continuously using critical analysis to reflect upon blood ap essay situations and interactions.”
Principal Holmes is also taking note. She can already see in this “precocious little button” the kind of girl who could be anything even a Supreme Court justice if only nursing essay she harnesses her gifts early enough. “Dasani has something that hasn’t even been unleashed yet,” Miss Holmes says. “It’s still being cultivated.” For now, Dasani’s most honed skill might be obfuscation. She works hard to hide her struggles, staying quiet as other children brag about their new cellphones or sleepovers with friends. If there is one place she feels free, it is dance class.
When she walks into McKinney’s studio, and the music starts, her body releases whatever she is feeling. “When I’m happy I dance fast,” she says. “When I’m sad I dance slow. When I’m upset I dance both.” Dasani has been dancing for as long as she can remember, well before she earned her first dollar a few years ago break-dancing in joseph heart of darkness essay, Times Square. Nursing Core Values! But the study of dance, as something practiced rather than spontaneous, this is joseph heart of darkness, new. She is learning to point her toes like a ballerina, and to fall back into a graceful bridge. Perhaps it is no accident that amid the bedlam of nursing values essay Dasani’s home life the missed welfare appointments and piles of unwashed clothes she is essay, drawn to a craft of discipline. Here, in this room, time is kept and routines are mapped with precision and focus.
Dasani never tires of rehearsing the same moves, or scrutinizing more experienced dancers. Her gaze is values essay, often fixed on a tall, limber eighth grader named Sahai. Sahai is the middle school’s valedictorian. A breathtaking dancer, she has long silky hair and carries herself like a newly crowned queen. She is a girl with enough means to accessorize elegantly. When Dasani looks at Sahai, she is essays learning experiences, taking the measure of all she is not.
You can be popular in values, one of charlotte's web' essay three ways, Dasani’s mother always says. Dress fly. Essay! Do good in school. Fight. The first option is out of the question. Joseph Heart Of Darkness! While Dasani clings to her uniform, other students wear coveted Adidas hoodies and Doc Marten boots. In dance class, Dasani does not even have a leotard. So she applies herself in school. “I have a lot of possibility,” she says. Nursing Core! “I do.”
Her strongest subject is English, where a poem she writes is tacked to a teacher’s wall. By October, she is on the honor roll, just as her life at Auburn is coming apart. I t is essays, something of an core art to sleep among nine other people. One learns not to hear certain sounds or smell certain smells. #9632; But some things still intrude on Dasani’s sleep. There is the ceaseless drip of in cold ap essay that decaying sink, and nursing essay, the scratching of hungry mice. It makes no difference when the family lays out traps and hangs its food from the ceiling in a plastic bag. Auburn’s mice always return, as stubborn as the “ghetto squirrels,” in Chanel’s lingo, that forage the trash for Chinese fried chicken. Dasani shares a twin mattress and three dresser drawers with her mischievous and portly sister, Avianna, only charlotte's web' one year her junior. Nursing Core Values! Their 35-year-old stepfather, Supreme, has raised them as his own. They consider him their father and call him Daddy. Supreme married Chanel nine years earlier, bringing two children from a previous marriage.
The boy, Khaliq, had trouble speaking. He had been trapped with his dead, pregnant mother after she fell down a flight of stairs. The girl, Nijai, had a rare genetic eye disease and was going blind. They were the in cold ap essay, same tender ages as Dasani and Avianna, forming a homeless Brady Bunch as Supreme and Chanel had four more children. Two of Dasani’s half-sisters, 7-year-old Maya and 6-year-old Hada, share the mattress to her right. The 5-year-old they call Papa sleeps by core values essay, himself because he wets the bed. In the crib is Baby Lele, who is tended to by Dasani when her parents are listless from their daily dose of charlotte's methadone.
Chanel and Supreme take the synthetic opioid as part of their drug treament program. It has essentially become a substitute addiction. The more time they spend in this room, the smaller it feels. Nothing stays in order. Nursing Core! Everything is exposed marital spats, frayed underwear, the onset of joseph conrad heart of darkness puberty, the mischief other children hide behind closed doors. Supreme paces erratically.
Chanel cannot check her temper. For Dasani and values, her siblings, to act like rambunctious children is to risk a beating. By late fall, Chanel and Supreme are fighting daily about money. It has been years since Supreme lost his job as a barber and Chanel stopped working as a janitor for the parks department. He cuts hair inside the shelter and a cruel thesis sheet music, sells pirated DVDs on the street while she hawks odds and ends from discount stores.
In a good month, their combined efforts can bring in a few hundred dollars. This is not one of those times. Supreme is keeping tight control of the family’s welfare income $1,285 in core essay, food stamps and $1,122 in survivor benefits for his first wife’s death. He refuses to give Chanel cash for laundry. Soon, all of Dasani’s uniforms are stained. At school, she is now wearing donated clothes and her hair is unkempt, inviting the reserve of india research papers, dreaded designation of “nappy.” Rumors are circulating about where she lives. Only six of the middle school’s 157 students reside in shelters. When the nursing, truth about joseph conrad of darkness essay, Dasani emerges, she does nothing to contradict it. She is a proud girl.
She must find a way to turn the truth, like other unforeseeable calamities, in her favor. She begins calling herself “ghetto.” She dares the core values, girls to fight her and challenges the boys to thesis sheet arm-wrestle, flexing the biceps she has built doing pull-ups in Fort Greene Park. The boys watch slack-jawed as Dasani demonstrates the core, push-ups she has also mastered, earning her the nickname “muscle girl.” Her teachers are flummoxed. Writing History Thesis! They assume that she has shed her uniform because she is nursing core essay, trying to act tough. In fact, the reverse is true. A chilly, November wind whips across Auburn Place, rustling the plastic cover of a soiled mattress in thesis, a trash bin outside the shelter. #9632; Chanel and Supreme stand nearby, waiting for their children to come from school. Nursing Core! They are still short on cash.
The children had pitched in $5.05, from collecting cans and bottles over statement, the weekend. Chanel inspects the mattress. Clean, it might fetch $10. But it is stained with feces. Janitors wearing masks and values, gloves had removed it from joseph conrad heart of darkness essay a squalid room where three small children lived, defecating on the floor. Their mother rarely bathed them, and they had no shoes on the day she gathered them in a hurry and left. “You can smell it?” Chanel asks Supreme. “No, I can see it,” he says, curling his lip. “Those are the people that they need to be calling A.C.S. on,” Chanel says. At the core, shelter, the abbreviation for the Administration for Children’s Services is uttered with the same kind of history statement alarm that the C.I.A. Core Essay! can stoke overseas. “Nasty girl,” Chanel says, scrunching her nose.
Everyone knows Chanel. Essays Learning Experiences! She weighs 215 pounds and her face is a constellation of freckles lit by a gaptoothed smile. She wraps her copper-hued hair in a tubular scarf. Nursing Core Essay! The street is essays experiences, her domain. When she walks, people often step to the side not in deference to nursing core her ample frame so much as her magisterial air.
Chanel is in everyone’s business, scoping out snitches, offering homeopathic remedies, tattling on a girl’s first kiss. A five-minute walk through Fulton Mall can take Chanel hours for all the greetings, gossip, recriminations and nostalgia. She has a remarkable nose for people, sniffing out a cruel sheet, phoniness in seconds. Those who smile too much are wearing “a frown turned upside down.” She is often spoiling for a fight, or leaving people in the stitches of laughter. While others want the life of the music mogul Jay-Z, Chanel would settle for being his pet. “Just let me be the essay, dog. I don’t care where you put me.” When Chanel laughs, she tilts her head back and unleashes a thunderous cackle. Dasani can detect her mother’s laugh from charlotte's blocks away. Today, she returns from school lugging a plastic bag of clothes donated by a security guard at McKinney. Dasani begins rummaging through the bag.
She pulls out a white Nautica ski jacket and holds it up to her shoulders. It is nursing values, too wide, but she likes it. A Cruel Thesis Music! “It’s dirty,” she says forgivingly. “Look, Mommy!” she says, modeling her new coat. “That fits you real nice,” Chanel coos. Suddenly, Supreme leaps into the air. Values! His monthly benefits have arrived, announced by a recording on his prepaid welfare phone. He sets off to reclaim his gold teeth from the pawnshop and buy new boots for the children at Cookie’s, a favored discount store in Fulton Mall. Essays! The money will be gone by week’s end. Supreme and Chanel have been scolded about their lack of nursing essay financial discipline in countless meetings with the city agencies that monitor the family. But when that monthly check arrives, Supreme and learning experiences, Chanel do not think about abstractions like “responsibility” and “self-reliance.” They lose themselves in the delirium that a round of ice creams brings.
They feel the nursing core values essay, sudden, exquisite release born of essay wearing those gold fronts again of appearing like a person who has rather than a person who lacks. The next day, Dasani goes to school wearing her new Cookie’s boots. Feeling amped, she gets into a verbal spat with some boys in gym class and nursing, must spend her lunch hour in charlotte's, the principal’s office. Miss Holmes glowers at Dasani, who tries to leaven the mood by bragging about her place on the honor roll. The principal is unmoved. Values Essay! Dasani still has a B average. “I want the highest end of the reserve bank of india research, honor roll,” Miss Holmes says. “I want more. Values! You have to want more, too.” Dasani stares at her tray. The discussion returns to sheet music her behavior in nursing core values essay, gym class. “While we care for you, we’re not going to of india papers take any crap,” Miss Holmes says. Nursing Core Values! “You understand?”
Trying not to cry, Dasani examines her food a slice of learning experiences cheese pizza, chocolate milk, a red apple. She wrinkles her nose. Miss Holmes has seen it before, the child too proud to show hunger. “Can you hurry up?” Miss Holmes says. “The drama with the pizza is not working for me.” “I’ll feed you,” Miss Holmes says. “I will feed you. You don’t think I’ll feed you? Bring the essay, tray.” Dasani slowly lifts the reserve bank of india research, pizza slice to nursing core essay her mouth, cracking a smile.
Miss Holmes has seen plenty of distressed children, but few have both the depth of essays Dasani’s troubles and the height of values her promise. There is not much Miss Holmes can do about life outside school. She knows this is a child who needs a sponsor, who “needs to see ‘The Nutcracker,’” who needs her own computer. There are many such children. Here at school, Miss Holmes must work with what she has. “Apples are very good for you,” she says, smiling. “Bananas are, too.” When Dasani is finished, she brings her empty tray to the principal for inspection.
Miss Holmes gestures at Dasani’s milk-stained mouth. T he tree is covered in Christmas lights that mask the essay, lack of ornaments. #9632; The children gather around it inside a dilapidated, two-story rowhouse in East New York, Brooklyn the closest thing they have to core a home. It belongs to a cruel angel's Chanel’s ailing godmother, Sherry, whom the children call Grandma. Sherry’s day care center once occupied the first floor, where fading decals of Bambi now share space with empty liquor bottles. Chanel’s two unemployed brothers, 22-year-old Josh and 39-year-old Lamont, stay in the dark, musty basement. Nursing Core! When the children visit, they spend most of their time upstairs, sleeping on a drafty wooden floor beneath a Roman-numeral clock that is permanently stopped at writing thesis 2:47. Sherry’s electricity has been cut, but the tree remains lit and core, the heat stays on, via a cable illicitly connected to a neighbor’s power supply. Christmas gifts are scarce: coloring books, a train set, stick-on tattoos, one doll for in cold blood, each girl. A few nights later, the children are roused by shouts and a loud crash. Uncle Josh has punched his hand through a window and is threatening to kill Uncle Lamont. Josh lunges at his brother with a knife.
The men tumble to the floor as Chanel throws herself between them. Core Essay! Upstairs, the children cower and scream. Dasani calls out orders: “Nobody move! Let the adults handle it!” Sirens rattle the block. Josh is taken away in handcuffs as an ambulance races Lamont to the hospital with a battered eye. Writing Statement! They had been fighting over a teenage girl. January brings relief, but not because of the nursing values, new year.
It is the start of tax season, when Dasani’s parents and joseph essay, everyone they seem to know rush to file for the earned-income tax credit, a kind of bonanza for the poor. Their tax refunds can bring several thousand dollars, which could be enough to put down a rent deposit and essay, leave the shelter. On Jan. Blood! 7, the family heads to Manhattan for a rare outing. Nursing Values Essay! They take the Q train, which barrels high across the East River. Charlotte's Web'! The city’s lights shimmer, making Chanel think of opportunity. They will start looking for a home soon, she says.
“I wanna go somewhere where it’s quiet,” Dasani says. “I wanna go somewhere where there’s trees,” Chanel says. “I just wanna see a bunch of values trees and grass.” “Daddy say that he gonna buy this house with a lot of land with grass,” Dasani says, “so that each of us would get a part, so that you can do whatever you want with that part of the angel's music, land.” Supreme sits far-off, listening to music on core values, his phone. Conrad Essay! Baby Lele wails. Suddenly, Chanel spots Chinatown. The children squeal.
Dasani mentions a book she read about the Great Wall of nursing China. “That’s not this town,” Chanel says. “It’s a big wall though,” Dasani says. “That’s the real Chinatown,” Chanel says. “This is the New York Chinatown, where they got Chinese people in Popeyes.” Dasani presses her forehead against essays learning experiences the window and cups her hands around her eyes, as if preserving the view for herself. O pportunity comes rarely, but Dasani is always waiting. She wakes early on Jan. 18, hours in advance of a track competition known for values, rescuing girls from the ghetto. #9632; She has no running shoes, just a pair of imitation Converses.
She is unknown in the rarefied world of joseph conrad essay athletic recruiters and private coaches. Values Essay! But ask anyone in sheet, her small corner of Brooklyn, from the values, crossing guards to the drunks, and in cold ap essay, they will say two things about this tiny girl with the wayward braids: She is strong like a boy and can run like the wind. Dasani heads out in the icy cold with her mother and two of nursing values essay her sisters. Joseph Conrad Heart Of Darkness Essay! They walk a mile before arriving at nursing core the manicured grounds of the Pratt Institute in the Brooklyn neighborhood of Clinton Hill, which is hosting the in cold blood ap essay, Colgate Women’s Games. The amateur track and field series is nursing core, a magnet for athletic recruiters, and joseph heart, some of its champions have gone as far as the Olympics. Nursing Values Essay! Dasani will compete in the 200-meter dash. She heads to the bathroom to change. “She got shorts to put on?” one of the organizers asks. Dasani reaches for her leggings. “Those are the sneakers?” the woman frowns.
Wearing no socks, Dasani ties her rainbow laces and walks to the track. When her number is called, she takes her place among four other girls. The blank fires and she is off, ahead of the pack. Win, Dasani tells herself. Win. At the first bend, she trips and learning experiences, falls behind. By the nursing core, second turn, Dasani has caught up with the lead runner. They are in a dead heat for the finish line.
Dasani comes in second. In Cold Blood Ap Essay! It hardly matters that her time is insufficient to make it past the preliminaries. They leave the stadium feeling euphoric. “My baby’s going to the Olympics,” Chanel crows. As they walk west along Willoughby Avenue, they talk of finding a trainer. Chanel starts singing her favorite Luther Vandross song, “A House Is Not a Home.” The girls have heard it enough times to sing along. A chair is nursing values essay, still a chair. Even when there’s no one sittin’ there. But a chair is not a house. And a house is not a home.
When there’s no one there. to hold you tight. They turn north on Carlton Avenue, passing a renovated brick townhouse with sleek, metal window frames. A skinny brunette is unloading her station wagon. At the heart essay, sight of Dasani’s family, she freezes. She smiles nervously and moves slowly to her car, grabbing an core values infant from the car seat. The mood shifts. “She thinks we gonna jump her,” Chanel says as she keeps walking. The shelter is only three blocks away.
“Why do they feel like they’re so apart? She’s just two steps away from us. If you got jumped out here, a black man would be the first to save your ass. That’s what I feel like telling her.” When they reach Myrtle Avenue, Chanel goes searching for a beer at her favorite corner store. Dasani trails her. Inside, the short-order cook, a Mexican girl, stares at Chanel suspiciously. “You so nice, that’s why I see you,” the girl responds cockily.
“You better watch that grill,” Chanel says. “I don’t want to scare you.” “You think you scare me?” the girl yells. “Let’s fight right now!” Chanel shouts. “Wait for me outside!” the in cold, girl calls back. Chanel moves toward her, reaching for a mop. The owner, Salim, races toward Chanel. “I’ll crack her with a stick!” Chanel yells as Salim holds her back. Dasani is frozen. “I’ma wait for your ass when you come out,” Chanel says. “What time she get off?” “You run your mouth,” Salim says, gently leading Chanel away, as he has done before. As they leave, Dasani turns to core values the cook.
“She gonna knock you stupid, Chinese lady,” Dasani says. “Don’t use those words,” Salim cries out. “You’re not supposed to turn out like your mother.” The Times used small video cameras as an in cold additional reporting tool. The reporter Andrea Elliott, Dasani and her family regularly recorded interviews and other candid moments. Andrea Elliott Talks to Chanel About Interviewing.
G racie Mansion is something of an nursing core oddity. In a city with a 2 percent vacancy rate and a shortage of public housing, the mayoral residence sits uninhabited on charlotte's web' essay, 11 pristine acres of the Upper East Side. #9632; It has been more than a decade since Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg chose to remain in his opulent townhouse, consigning Gracie Mansion to the status of a museum and venue for civic events. Dasani knows none of nursing core values essay these particulars when she steps through Gracie’s doors on a school trip in February. She is a cruel angel's thesis, looking for the mayor. She wants to core values essay see him up close, this mysterious “Wizard of Oz” figure who makes decisions about her life from behind a curtain of political power.
It never occurs to Dasani that the mayor does not live there. Who could have a mansion and not live in it? “Look at that fireplace!” she marvels as her classmates step into the parlor where Mr. Bloomberg has given news conferences. Writing History Statement! The tour guide, a woman wearing gold-clasp earrings and tangerine lipstick, moves the children along, reminding them not to touch. They shuffle into the library. Nursing Core Values Essay! Still no mayor. Dasani scans for clues like the F.B.I. agents of her favorite television show, “Criminal Minds.” She inspects a telephone. “His last call was at 11:15,” she whispers.
The tour guide opens French doors onto the veranda where New York’s mayors have entertained dignitaries from around the world. “It’s a very gracious way of living,” she says. “Very elegant.” What impresses Dasani most are not the architectural details or the gold-bound volumes of Chaucer and Tolstoy, but the astonishing lack of dust. In Cold Blood Ap Essay! She runs her hand lightly over the top of a Steinway piano. “I tell you,” she says. “This house is clean.” Dasani was still an infant when Mr. Bloomberg took office in 2002. Nursing! Declaring Gracie Mansion “the people’s house,” he gathered $7 million in private donations much of it his own money to rehabilitate the pale yellow 18th-century home, which overlooks the East River. In came new plumbing, floors, lighting and ventilation, along with exquisite touches like an 1820s chandelier and a four-poster mahogany bed. Facing that same river, six miles away on the opposite side, is the Auburn Family Residence, the essays experiences, squalid city-run homeless shelter where Dasani has lived for values essay, more than two years. She shares a crowded, mouse-infested room with her parents and web' essay, seven siblings, who sleep doubled up on torn mattresses.
Dasani spends her days in the care of another city institution: her public school in Fort Greene, Brooklyn. The Susan S. Core! McKinney Secondary School of the learning, Arts has suffered its own troubles under the Bloomberg administration: a shrinking budget and fewer teachers. Dasani shuttles between Auburn and McKinney, just two blocks apart. They form the core of nursing core her life and the bedrock of her future, one that is in peril. Adults who are homeless often speak of feeling “stuck.” For children, the experience is blood ap essay, more like a free-fall. With each passing month, they slip further back in every category known to predict long-term well-being. They are less likely to graduate from the nursing core essay, schools that anchor them, and charlotte's, more likely to nursing core end up like their parents, their lives circumscribed by teenage pregnancy or shortened by crime and illness. In the absence of a steady home or a reliable parent, public institutions have an outsize influence on the destiny of bank of india research papers children like Dasani. Nursing Core Values Essay! Whether she can transcend her circumstances rests greatly on the role, however big or small, that society opts to play in joseph conrad heart of darkness, her life. The question of nursing core public responsibility has gained urgency in recent decades.
By the time Mr. Bank Of India Papers! Bloomberg was elected, children made up 40 percent of shelter residents. “We’re not walking away from taking care of the core values essay, homeless,” the mayor said early on. Blood Ap Essay! “I have a responsibility, the city has a responsibility, to make sure that the facilities we provide are up to some standards.” The Bloomberg administration set out to revamp the shelter system, creating 7,500 units of temporary housing, a database to nursing core essay track the blood, shelter population and a program intended to prevent homelessness with counseling, job training and short-term financial aid. The new system also made it harder for families to be found eligible for shelter. For a time, the numbers went down. But in the wake of profound policy changes and values, a spiraling economy, more children wound up in shelters than at any time since the creation of the shelter system in the early 1980s.
While the Bloomberg administration spent $5 billion on shelter services, the conditions at Auburn remained grim. Dasani and her siblings have grown numb to experiences life at the shelter, where knife fights break out and values, crack pipes are left on the bathroom floor. Joseph Conrad Heart! In the nursing core essay, words of their mother, they have “become the place.” She has a verb for it: shelternized. For Dasani, school is everything the provider of writing thesis meals, on-the-spot nursing care, security and substitute parenting. On the Gracie trip, Dasani wears the Nautica coat donated by a school security guard and matching white gloves bestowed to her that morning by the principal. A school like McKinney can also provide a bridge to the wider world.
It does not matter that Dasani’s entire sixth grade must walk a mile to the subway in icy winds, take two trains, then walk another 10 minutes before arriving. This round-trip journey, which occupies much of the day, is a welcome escape. As Dasani leaves Gracie that afternoon, she refastens her neon-pink snow hat. She has given up on essay, the mayor. “He lives somewhere else,” she says, waving an arm along East End Avenue before heading back to essays the subway. T here is no sign announcing the shelter at 39 Auburn Place, which rises over the neighboring Walt Whitman Houses like an accidental fortress. Its stately, neo-Georgian exterior hints at the shelter’s former life as a city hospital. Two sweeping sycamores shade the entrance, where smokers linger under brick arches, flicking cigarette ashes onto an empty, untended lawn. A concrete walkway leads to the heavily guarded front door, where residents pass through a metal detector and core, their bags are searched for forbidden objects like canned food, hair dryers and irons. Visitors are restricted to the bleak lobby.
Upstairs, cries and charlotte's, laughter echo along the dim corridors that Dasani’s legally blind sister, Nijai, has learned to feel her way around. Nursing Core Essay! The shelter is ill equipped to handle the learning experiences, needs of its numerous disabled residents, among them premature infants and severely autistic children. Yet the manual given to incoming families boasts a “full complement of professional and support personnel” who are “available to assist you 24 hours a day, seven days per week.” The booklet guarantees residents “protection from harm” and “the right to live in a secure, safe facility.” A starkly different Auburn the nursing, one to which Dasani is conrad heart of darkness, witness emerges from stacks of handwritten complaints, calls to 911, internal staff reports and dozens of inspections over the last decade. It is less a haven than a purgatory. There is the nursing values essay, 12-year-old boy who writes, on Oct. Essay! 29, 2012, that a female resident touched “my private area and I didn’t like it.” His mother also files a complaint, saying the woman was showing pornography to children. The police are never notified. Nor do they hear about core essay, a 15-year-old girl who says she was sexually assaulted by a security guard one year earlier. The complaint, written by her mother in Spanish, never appears to have been translated. The pleas of a 12-year-old girl that same month also go unreported to the police.
She writes of a man who exposes his genitals in a cruel angel's sheet, a girls’ bathroom, making her too afraid to nursing essay go back without a parent: “I am still scared that someone will come in.” It stands to reason that the complaints of children would be ignored, given how often the warnings of blood ap essay inspectors go nowhere. Over the last decade, city and state inspectors have cited Auburn for more than 400 violations many of them repeated including for inadequate child care, faulty fire protection, insufficient heat, spoiled food, broken elevators, nonfunctioning bathrooms and the presence of mice, roaches, mold, bedbugs, lead and asbestos. Dasani can pick out the inspectors by their clipboards and focused expressions. They work for the State Office of nursing Temporary and charlotte's web', Disability Assistance, which supervises homeless housing around the state. Given that Auburn is values essay, partly funded by the state, these inspectors should presumably hold sway. Year after year, their reports read like a series of unheeded alarms. Responses by the city’s Department of Homeless Services attribute Auburn’s violations to ap essay a lack of money. To the state’s complaint, in 2003, that only nursing values one staff member is tending to 177 school-age children in the shelter’s recreation room, the agency responds: “We lack resources for teenagers!” Auburn’s children have yet to assume their parents’ air of defeat. The children’s complaints recount their fear or discomfort as reason enough for action.
The adults write as if no one is listening. Many sound like the parent in April 2012 who has spotted a dead mouse in the cafeteria and asks a janitor to remove it. The next day, the mouse is still there. “A child could have touched it,” the parent recounts telling the janitor, to which the janitor laughs and responds, “Well then you should have cleaned it up.” There is no place on the inspection forms for the most common complaint: the disrespect accorded to residents by the shelter staff. Were there such a box to check, it could never capture how these encounters reverberate for days, reinforcing the learning experiences, rock-bottom failure that Auburn represents. Even egregious incidents are sometimes mentioned in passing.
One mother summarizes her grievance, at the top of the form, as “All of nursing core values essay my belongs went in essays learning, garbbage.” In explaining how her possessions were discarded, she mentions, tangentially, that her caseworker had “groped” her. She ends the complaint on a conciliatory note: “Peace.” The signature at core the bottom belongs to Dasani’s mother, Chanel. A Cruel Angel's Sheet Music! After she filed the nursing core essay, complaint in September 2011, the worker was taken off her case, but kept his job and recently got a raise. Chanel never told Dasani, for fear of passing on the shame she feels whenever she sees the man. Like most children, Dasani absorbs more than her mother would like. She can see how the shelter shrinks Chanel’s self-regard. Dasani is there when the guards rip through her mother’s carefully folded laundry in the name of “inspection,” or when a caseworker dresses her down like a cheeky adolescent. “Sometimes it feels like, ‘Why you guys messin’ with my mom?’” Chanel is not the a cruel, first woman to encounter sexual advances by an Auburn employee. Another resident complains that a security guard is core, “having sex with clients in the restrooms and in his black Dodge Charger.” A 2012 letter by state inspectors to the Department of Homeless Services mentions a security supervisor and guards having “improper sexual contact” with a resident. This environment is especially punishing considering that some of writing thesis statement Auburn’s women have fled violent men.
After a caseworker touched his 46-year-old client on the breast in February 2012, another male employee smiled at her the next day and asked “if I was being good,” she wrote in a complaint, adding, “I walk around every day feeling violated.” Auburn initially suspended the caseworker, Kenneth Durieux, for core values, 30 days. Blood Ap Essay! But he kept his job for nearly a year, even after the police charged him with sexual abuse. He was dismissed last January, before pleading guilty to forcible touching. Just this year, there have been some 350 calls to 911 from the shelter including 24 reported assaults, four calls about possible child abuse and nursing values essay, one reporting a rape. City officials declined to comment on the reports of a cruel angel's thesis sheet music sexual abuse. They attribute other lapses to the building’s aging infrastructure, saying plans are in the works for an upgraded fire safety system, bathrooms and enhanced security. Since Mr. Bloomberg took office, the city has spent nearly $10 million on repairs and renovations at Auburn.
In the past decade, Auburn’s directors have fared well, receiving raises even as the shelter’s problems persisted. One former director, Susan Nayowith, was promoted to nursing essay head of client advocacy at the Department of in cold Homeless Services. These kinds of facts are lost on the shelter’s children, who see only core values what is essay, before them like the Swedish meatballs that come frozen in prepackaged trays or the Cheerios served one night for dinner. And then there are the elevators, which frequently break down. Core Essay! Even when they are working, children cannot ride them unless accompanied by an adult. A month before the trip to Gracie Mansion, when Dasani’s sister Avianna walks into the shelter gasping from an asthma attack, a guard refuses to take her up in the elevator.
Dasani lifts her wheezing sister, twice her girth, and carries her up four flights of stairs to their room. Six months later, it will be Dasani who falls gravely ill when the elevators are broken. She rocks and vomits bile one evening, trying to distract herself by joseph conrad of darkness, watching television. At 3:02 a.m., Chanel calls 911. She helps Dasani down four sets of stairs before she collapses on a row of chairs in the lobby. There is values, no ambulance, so Chanel calls again. One of the guards gets nervous, making a third call to report that the child “is in in cold, severe abdominal pain.” Two more calls are placed. At 4:02 a.m., a full hour later, an ambulance finally arrives to take Dasani to nursing Brooklyn Hospital Center, where her doctor asks what she last ate. Her answer: a shelter dinner of blood ap essay spinach lasagna. In the years that Dasani has lived in Room 449, city and state inspectors have cited at least 13 violations there, including the presence of roaches, mice and a lead paint hazard. Yet when Auburn’s staff members conduct their own inspections of 449, they focus on the family’s transgressions.
The room is found to be chaotic and insufficiently clean. There are few mentions of Auburn’s own lapses the absence of dividers for core, privacy or assistance with permanent housing. Instead, inspectors focus on the family’s forbidden turtle or hidden microwave. Dasani finds this curious: “They not talking about putting us in a house; they looking for a microwave that don’t work.” Lately, it is the family’s sink, with its rotting wall and leaky pipe, that fails to get fixed.
For weeks, the pipe drips through the web', night. Finally, Dasani is fed up. She crouches down and examines the pipe as her siblings watch. “Nobody thought about pushing it in and twisting it,” she says in her cocksure manner. A few quick jerks and she triumphs. Core Essay! The children squeal. It goes unremarked that here, in this shelter with a $9 million annual budget, operated by an agency with more than 100 times those funds, the in cold ap essay, plumbing has fallen to an 11-year-old girl. D asani’s homeroom at McKinney is a cozy haven of core values essay book-lined shelves and inspirational words scrawled in chalk, like “Success does not come without sacrifice and reserve bank of india papers, struggle.” #9632; Every morning, she quietly tucks her coat and backpack in the classroom closet, a precious ritual for a girl who has no other closet. She then slips into her small wooden desk, opposite her humanities teacher, Faith Hester. Miss Hester can best be described as electric. She paces the room, throwing her arms in the air as her booming voice travels along McKinney’s hallways.
Long after she gave up dreams of acting, her class is the stage and her students, a rapt audience. Sometimes she arrives in nursing core essay, an Audrey Hepburn updo; other days, she dons the blood, brightly patterned prints procured in Senegal on a trip to nursing “learn the truth about my motherland.” She favors expressions like “Oh my gooney goo hoo!” and “Okie pokie dokie shmokie!” If a student is ap essay, stumped, she will break into improvised song, with the class soon chanting along: “I know you know it!” clap, clap “I know you know it!” clap, clap. Miss Hester knows that students learn when they get excited.
It bothers her that McKinney lacks the nursing values, sophisticated equipment of other public schools. She shelled out more than $1,000 of her own money, as a single mother, to give her classroom a projector and writing history statement, document camera. When Miss Hester looks around her classroom, she sees a glimpse of nursing values essay her younger self. She was raised by history, a single mother in the Marcy projects of Bedford-Stuyvesant, Brooklyn, a monotonous spread of 27 brick buildings with the singular distinction of being where Jay-Z grew up. She could never quite numb herself, like other children did, to the addicts shooting up in the elevator or the dead bodies on gurneys. Her salvation came at church and school. In 1979, Miss Hester was one of the first black students to be bused from Marcy to the predominantly white Edward R. Murrow High School in Midwood, Brooklyn. Outside, children would chase after her, yelling, “Go back to your neighborhood!” Inside the school, she applied herself fastidiously. A teacher made all the difference, guiding her to college applications. She was only 16 when she graduated, bound for SUNY Cortland. Thirty-three years and two master’s degrees later, it is Miss Hester who searches for values, the student in need of saving.
She sees promise in Dasani, who landed on the honor roll last fall. But lately, she is reserve bank research papers, skipping homework and arriving moody and tired, if she makes it to nursing core essay school at all. New York’s homeless children have an thesis abysmal average attendance rate of 82 percent, well below what is typically needed to advance to the next grade. Since the start of the school year, Dasani has already missed a week of class and arrived late 13 times. Her attendance is being closely tracked by a social worker in the school whose nonprofit organization, Partnership With Children, offers counseling and nursing essay, other services to some of the city’s most vulnerable students. Miss Hester told Partnership about Dasani. She saw no point in turning to the school’s guidance counselor or psychologist, who serves two other schools.
They jump from crisis to crisis, like E.R. doctors in in cold ap essay, triage, treating problems that have become acute or irreversible. Prevention is a luxury reserved for schools with enough counselors. In their absence, McKinney turns to Partnership, which has weathered its own post-recession budget cuts and layoffs. Graduate students are filling in as interns. This is how Dasani finds herself sitting across from Roxanne, who is pursuing a master’s degree in social work at Fordham University. She has been assigned to lead one-on-one counseling sessions with Dasani. Dasani has never had a counselor. They meet once a week, passing the time playing Mancala as Roxanne tries to draw Dasani out, which proves far more difficult than any board game. Dasani knows how to deflect questions with humor, avoiding talk about her family and the shelter. She is also studying Roxanne.
There is something soft about essay, this Minnesota native, who uses words like “sweetie” and melts into giggles. Dasani is puzzled by experiences, Roxanne’s attire the rumpled shirts and core, distressed boots that pass for hip in other Brooklyn quarters. Nothing she wears seems to match, and essays, yet her clothes are spotless. This leads Dasani to conclude that Roxanne lives in a clean, suburban home like the kind shown on “Criminal Minds,” where detectives search for murder clues. It is not the core values essay, murders themselves that intrigue Dasani so much as the bank of india papers, enormous, orderly closets of the crime scenes closets big enough to live in. Miss Hester wonders about values, these counseling sessions. She finds Roxanne bright and devoted, but worries that Dasani will run circles around the intern, whose overriding quality is heart of darkness essay, sweetness.
B ack at nursing essay the shelter, Dasani spends countless hours with her siblings playing games on a Nintendo Wii. #9632; If Dasani could design her own video game, she would call it “Live or Die.” The protagonist would be an 11-year-old girl fighting for her own salvation. In the first round, she confronts the of darkness, easy villains her chores scrambling to bathe, dress and feed her siblings. She cannot find Baby Lele, who is crying. The baby’s tears turn into nursing core values, lethal rocks that fall from the joseph conrad heart, sky, which the girl must dodge. Next, she encounters her parents battling social workers in the guise of angry pirates. Chanel tosses magical powers to the girl, who defeats the pirates, melting them to the ground. In the third round, she goes to school, finding danger and core, deliverance. Her math teacher is a supervillain whose weapon is writing thesis statement, numbers. “Ten” turns into 10 charging porcupines.
Down the hall, the girl must rescue Miss Hester from giant, rolling cans. “If she dies, all the kids die, too.” Finally, the girl faces off against her longtime rival from the projects, a purple hulk who picks up cars and hurls them. If the girl survives, she reaches the queen the principal, Paula Holmes who decides her future. Winning brings the nursing core essay, prize of a new house. Losing means returning to the shelter, “which is death.” “My goal is to make it to the end, but I keep dying,” Dasani says. It is easier for Dasani to think of Auburn as the worst possible outcome because the blood ap essay, alternative winding up on the street is nursing core values, unfathomable. She knows that if she and her siblings were to conrad heart lose the shelter, they might land in foster care, losing one another. So as bad as it is, the children try to make the core values essay, place their own. Reserve Bank Of India! When the lights are on, their room is core, flatly fluorescent, which prompts them to climb a dresser, remove the plastic lamp cover from the conrad, ceiling and nursing essay, color it in with crayons the writing thesis statement, shades of values a rainbow. When the lights are off, the of darkness essay, room assumes a gray aura not unlike, Dasani imagines, the nursing core essay, hospital ward it once was. “This was where they put the crazies,” she declares, citing as proof a rusted intercom by the door.
The communal bathroom closest to Dasani is, indeed, reminiscent of “One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest.” Tiled in steely green, its centerpiece is an old, industrial bathtub with no partition. A limp plastic curtain divides the a cruel angel's sheet music, sole shower from the rest of the bathroom, which is marked by vulgar graffiti and shared by dozens of women and girls, though men sometimes intrude. The floor is filthy. The children routinely wipe it down with bleach stolen from the nursing values, janitors, as residents are forbidden to bring the cleaning solvent into Auburn. Blood! A changing table hangs off its hinge, pointing to the floor like a slide. At night, the children hear noises. Core Essay! They are sure Auburn is haunted. Five-year-old Papa calls the ghost in their room “I-it.” When it is dark, they are far too afraid to use the bathroom, so they relieve themselves in a bucket. Yet that bathroom has become Dasani’s makeshift sanctuary. She practices hip-hop routines across the floor. She sits alone in the toilet stall, the lid closed beneath her.
Sometimes she reads, or just closes her eyes. Her mind feels crowded anywhere else. Lately, she is worried about her mother, who has been summoned on Feb. 13 to an urgent meeting at the Administration for Children’s Services, the agency tasked with protecting the children. Photographs of joseph conrad of darkness essay smiling children line the walls of the agency’s lobby in nursing core, Bedford-Stuyvesant, where Chanel is a cruel angel's thesis, greeted by her caseworker, who uses the nursing core values, nickname “Mr. Charlotte's Web'! James.” “We’re not having this meeting because we want to take your kids away,” he says cheerfully. Nursing Core Values Essay! “We’re having this meeting because we want you to move to an apartment.” Chanel stares at him. “Why don’t you ever tell my lawyer about these meetings?” she asks, even though she cannot recall the name of the essays learning, last public defender to represent her. “You don’t need a lawyer to nursing essay attend an angel's sheet music A.C.S. meeting,” he responds. They ride the elevator up to core essay a conference room, where Chanel is charlotte's, jarred to find the nursing core values essay, director of Auburn, Derrick Aiken, waiting.
He is there to issue a warning: If Chanel and her husband, Supreme, do not comply with the Department of Homeless Services’ requirements, the family may be forced to leave the shelter system. At issue is their public assistance case, which has closed because Supreme failed to report to a job placement program, one of charlotte's web' essay dozens of such lapses in the past decade. Currently, the nursing core values essay, family receives only food stamps and survivor benefits. An open public assistance case allows the agency to be reimbursed with federal funds, while also making the family eligible for child care and job training the kind of supports that could help in finding a home. But the problem for Chanel and Supreme comes down to writing basic math: Even with two full-time jobs, on minimum wage, they would have combined salaries of only $2,300 per month just enough to cover the average rent for a studio in Brooklyn. New York, it often strikes Chanel, has no place for the poor. Auburn offers plenty of proof.
Residents like Jenedra, a home health aide, and her daughter, who works at a Pinkberry in Park Slope, Brooklyn, cannot afford city prices. The gap between income and housing costs was widening when Mayor Bloomberg took office in 2002. Nursing Values Essay! The homeless population was also growing. For decades, the city had tried to stem the numbers by angel's sheet, giving homeless families priority access to public housing, Section 8 vouchers and core values essay, subsidized city apartments. While the policy was in essays learning experiences, place, only 11.5 percent of the nursing essay, families returned to shelters within five years. To Mr.
Bloomberg, priority referrals were an incentive to enter the shelter system. “Our own policies needlessly encourage entry and prolong dependence on shelters,” he said in 2004. Mr. Bloomberg’s approach to homelessness mirrored his views on poverty at large. The mayor’s best-known effort was the Center for Economic Opportunity, which spent $662 million on joseph conrad heart essay, poverty prevention programs that emphasized education and core values, job training as a means to blood self-reliance. In line with that agenda, the mayor ended the priority-referrals policy in November 2004. Nursing Essay! Instead, the city began offering homeless families time-limited rental assistance, including through a program called Advantage. Yet more than a quarter of reserve papers them wound up back in shelters once their subsidies ran out. Among them was Dasani’s family. After their $1,481 rent subsidy expired in nursing core, 2010, they returned to papers a shelter system that spends roughly $3,000 per month on every family. Core Essay! It would end up costing the city $400,000 to house Dasani’s family over a decade.
In 2011, Mr. Bloomberg ended Advantage after the state withdrew its funding. Six months later, the conrad essay, city’s homeless population hit a record that included more than 16,000 children, many of whom had been homeless before. These children have come to be known, among the city’s homeless advocates, as “the lost generation.” D asani is well versed in city politics, but not because she follows the news. She is simply forced to notice what other children miss. Nursing Core! #9632; When Mr. Essays Learning Experiences! Bloomberg tried to ban the sale of large, sugary drinks, Dasani began calculating what two sodas would cost in place of the nursing values essay, supersize cup that, in her family, is typically passed among eight small mouths. Now it is the citywide bus strike that has called Dasani’s attention, by heart, virtue of the fact that she must walk three of values her younger siblings to school.
It is no small feat to corral Papa, Hada and web', Maya, who form a tempestuous gaggle of untied shoelaces, short tempers and yogurt-stained mouths. Dasani shepherds them five long blocks to Public School 287, stepping around used condoms and empty beer cans. “Double up!” she yells in the manner of nursing her mother. The children go silent and reach for bank of india papers, each other’s hands, waiting for the traffic to pause. Suddenly, they dash like spirits across the six-lane street that runs under the nursing essay, Brooklyn-Queens Expressway. The strike has worn on for a month when, on Valentine’s Day, Dasani stops into a corner store outside McKinney. She scans the angel's thesis music, aisles before settling on an iced honey bun, a bag of nacho-flavored sunflower seeds and some red gummy bears a rare $3 breakfast earned as part of her allowance for watching Baby Lele all weekend. She glides into nursing essay, class only a few minutes late.
Today’s lesson is about context clues, in preparation for standardized tests that are coming. “You come across an essay unfamiliar word,” Miss Hester explains. “You look at nursing core the surrounding words and ideas and you unpack that word.” The theatrics begin. “Flabbergasted,” she says. “I was flabbergasted when I found a million dollars in my purse.” The class erupts in laughter. “A million dollars!” Miss Hester hoots. “I know that that’s a lot of money. And it’s in my purse. And I’m supposed to be broke,” she says, batting her long lashes. “‘Flabbergasted’ means ‘delightfully surprised.’” Dasani is reserve bank of india papers, delightfully surprised whenever she is in nursing values, Miss Hester’s presence. It does not matter that her mother finds the teacher “weird.” She makes Dasani want to learn. One can only imagine the heights Dasani might reach at a school like Packer Collegiate Institute, just 12 blocks west of the shelter.
Its campus has a theater with computerized lighting, “green” science labs and a menu offering chipotle lime tilapia and roasted herb chicken. Of Darkness Essay! Its middle school cultivates the interests of the “whole child,” for whom doors will open to the “public arenas of the world.” Packer’s students might learn something from Dasani, too. Parents from five private Brooklyn schools recently filed into Packer, where tuition is over $35,000, to values hear a clinical psychologist give a talk on how to raise “self-reliant, appreciative children in web' essay, a nervous and nursing core, entitled world.” That world is unlikely to become Dasani’s. She is not the kind of child to writing thesis statement land a coveted scholarship to private school, which would require a parent with the wherewithal to nursing values essay seek out such opportunities and reserve bank research papers, see them through. For the same reason, Dasani does not belong to New York’s fast-growing population of charter school students. In fact, the reverse is happening: a charter school is coming to core McKinney. Approved last December by conrad of darkness essay, the Education Department, Success Academy Fort Greene will soon claim half of McKinney’s third floor. This kind of nursing core co-location arrangement has played out in schools across the city, stoking deep resentments in poor communities.
The guiding ethos of the charter school movement has been “choice” the power to choose a school rather than capitulate to a flawed education system and a muscular teachers’ union. In Cold! But in communities like McKinney’s, the core values, experience can feel like a lack of choice. Dasani watched, wide-eyed, during a protest last December as McKinney’s parents and teachers held up signs comparing the charlotte's, co-location to apartheid. Charter schools, which are publicly funded but privately operated, serve fewer students with special needs, and are sometimes perceived as exclusive. A web posting for Success Academy Fort Greene does little to counter that notion. Nursing Core! Parents, it says, “shouldn’t have to trek to charlotte's other Brooklyn neighborhoods or spend $30,000+ on a private school in order to essay find excellence and rigor.”
By late February, Dasani’s grades have plummeted. On her wrist is a bite mark left by a classmate whom she had fought after the history statement, girl called her “musty.” The next day, Dasani lunges at a girl in gym class. Miss Hester has had enough. “I’m really not happy with the way that you are victimizing others,” she says sternly. “I need it to stop immediately. Core! Do you understand me?” She nods at Miss Hester, her eyes dropping.
For Dasani, school and reserve bank papers, life are indistinguishable. When school goes well, she is whole. When it goes poorly, she can’t compartmentalize like some students, who simply “focus” on their studies. It is a place to love or leave. Minutes later, Dasani is sitting in McKinney’s packed auditorium for nursing core, an assembly on Black History Month. She hates Black History Month. “It’s always the same poems,” she says. The new honor roll is essay, called out. Dasani’s name is missing.
It must be a mistake, she tells herself. But when she hears all the other names, the truth sinks in. She slumps in her chair as a group of boys takes the stage to nursing core values essay recite Langston Hughes. What happens to a dream deferred? like a raisin in the sun?
Dasani knows this poem well. They read it every year. She stares blankly at the stage. Maybe it just sags. Like a heavy load. Or does it explode? The Times used small video cameras as an additional reporting tool. Charlotte's Web' Essay! The reporter Andrea Elliott, Dasani and her family regularly recorded interviews and other candid moments. O n the Brooklyn block that is essay, Dasani’s dominion, shoppers can buy a $3 malt liquor in an airless deli where food stamps are traded for cigarettes. Or they can cross the joseph heart of darkness, street for a $740 bottle of values chardonnay at an industrial wine shop accented with modern art. It is a sign outside that locale, Gnarly Vines, that catches Dasani’s notice one spring afternoon: “Wine Tasting Tonight 5-8.”
Dasani is hardly conversant in joseph heart of darkness essay, the subject of libations, but this much she knows: A little drink will take off her mother’s edge. Without further ado, Chanel heads into the wine shop on Myrtle Avenue, trailed by four of values essay her eight children. They are lugging two greasy boxes of of darkness essay pizza and nursing values, a jumbo pack of diapers from Target. The cashier pauses. The sommelier smiles. “Wanna try a little rosé?” she asks brightly, pouring from joseph conrad heart essay a 2012 bottle of Mas de Gourgonnier. “I would describe it as definitely fruit forward at the beginning.”
Chanel polishes it. “Not refreshing,” Chanel says. Nursing Values! “I just think dry.” “No, it’s very dry,” says the sommelier, a peppy blonde in wire-rim glasses. “It’s high acid, a little citrusy.” Chanel sticks out her tongue. Reserve Bank Of India! She finds the essay, woman’s choice of words unappetizing. Essay! To the side of the wine display is a large, silver vase that recalls the family urn, prompting Chanel’s son Khaliq to ask if it contains the ashes of a dead person. “Oh my gosh, for cremation?” the sommelier asks, shaking her head. Nursing Core Essay! “We just use it for spitting in.” “For spitting?” Chanel says with horror.
“Yeah, it’s got rejected wine in it,” the sommelier says. Chanel scoffs. She might not like the charlotte's web', wine, but she sees no reason to spit it out. She moves on nursing essay, to a Tuscan sangiovese. Ignoring the writing history thesis, spectacle, Dasani scans the room, frowning at a sign on the wall: Liqueur. “They got liquor spelled wrong,” she yelps victoriously. Actually, the sommelier interjects, that is the French word for core values, the delicate, liquid spirits derived from fruits such as pomegranates and raspberries. “But you’re very right,” she offers sweetly. “That is not how you spell liquor.” “Not the hood liquor,” Chanel says. D asani’s neighborhood is one of the most unequal pockets of writing statement New York City, the most unequal metropolis in America. #9632; Fort Greene occupies less than one square mile. On the map, its boundaries form the shape of a pitcher tilting at nursing core essay the northwestern edge of Brooklyn. Just north of Fort Greene Park are the projects and, among them, the homeless shelter where Dasani lives. Just south of the park are some of Brooklyn’s finest townhouses and web', cultural gems, including the Brooklyn Academy of Music, where theatergoers were lining up to see “Julius Caesar” on the day that Dasani led her mother to the wine shop.
If one thing distinguishes Dasani’s New York from nursing values that of her antecedents, it is a striking proximity to the wealth that eludes her. She routinely walks past a boho-chic boutique on Lafayette Avenue where calfskin boots command $845. Of Darkness Essay! Heading north, she passes French bulldogs on leashes and infants riding like elevated genies in Uppababy strollers with shock-absorbing wheels. Nursing Core! Three blocks away is an ice cream parlor where $6 buys two salted-caramel scoops. Like most children, Dasani is oblivious to the precise cost of thesis sheet such extravagances. She only knows that they are beyond her reach. Nor can this 11-year-old girl be expected to grasp the subtle gradations of Fort Greene’s elite, whose creative class feels pushed out of core a neighborhood it once considered more gritty than tony. Dasani sees the chasms of Fort Greene more plainly, reasoning that wealth belongs to “the whites” because “they save their money and don’t spend it on drinking and smoking.” Such perceptions are fed by the contrasts of in cold blood this neighborhood, where the nursing, top 5 percent of residents earn 76 times as much as the bottom quintile. Dasani spots addicts gathering outside a food pantry a block from writing history statement $2 million brownstones. Nursing Values Essay! She notes that few people in heart essay, the projects use the Citi Bikes stationed nearby.
The celebrated bike sharing program, unveiled this year, requires a credit or debit card for core essay, a $101 security deposit. Dasani also knows that not everyone in the projects is poor. Her Uncle Waverly, who lives in the Walt Whitman Houses across from her shelter, the history, Auburn Family Residence, works as a supervisor for the parks department and has a Lexus S.U.V. When he drives past Dasani and nursing values essay, her siblings, he pretends not to know them. Dasani charts the patterns of blood ap essay Fort Greene Park by skin color.
The basketball courts are closest to the projects, drawing black children to that northwestern corner. On the nursing essay, rare occasion when Dasani ventures to the opposite quadrant, she sees white women sunbathing in bikinis or playing tennis near a water fountain outfitted for dogs. She never finds those women at the nearby Bravo Supermarket for Values, where thieves are photographed in Polaroids that fill the store’s “Wall of Shame.” Wearing naked expressions, they are forced to pose with their stolen items things like Goya beans and Kraft cheese. A woman named Mary holds a can of tuna in a photograph titled “Catch of the a cruel angel's thesis sheet music, Day.” Dasani is core essay, more likely to encounter shoppers of writing thesis statement another stratum at the local Target, where they can save on items that for her family represent a splurge. Fort Greene’s two economies are an experiment born of meteoric gentrification. Essay! In the last decade, the neighborhood has been remade, with the learning experiences, portion of white residents jumping by 80 percent as real estate prices more than doubled despite the recession.
Just the word “gentrification” is values essay, remarkably divisive. It derives from the Middle English word “gentrise,” which means “of noble descent.” The word has become shorthand for in cold, an urban neighborhood where muggings are down and espresso is roasted a place that has been “discovered,” as though no one had been living there. Dasani’s Fort Greene reaches deep into the last century. Her grandmother Joanie grew up in the Raymond V. Ingersoll Houses, next to core essay the Walt Whitman Houses. A Cruel Thesis Sheet! Both projects opened in 1944, an era of core values New Deal reforms that gave rise to white flight and urban decay. Fort Greene, like other black areas, was redlined, allowing banks to essays disinvest and property values to plummet.
The neighborhood’s prospects started to change in 1978, after the city declared part of Fort Greene a historic district. Core Values! By the time Dasani was born there in 2001, a billionaire was preparing to run for mayor. A year after taking office, Michael R. Bloomberg announced an ambitious redevelopment plan for Downtown Brooklyn. Fort Greene’s transformation came swiftly. Through aggressive rezoning and in cold ap essay, generous subsidies, the nursing core values, city drew developers who, in the span of three years, built 19 luxury buildings in the surrounding area that catered across racial lines to angel's thesis music the educated elite. Dasani and her siblings routinely pass the nursing values essay, Toren, a glistening, 38-story glass tower on ap essay, Myrtle Avenue offering a 24-hour concierge, gymnasium, pool and movie theater. In June, a condominium there sold for $1.4 million. Just blocks away stand the Ingersoll and nursing values essay, Whitman projects, which engulf Dasani’s shelter and, like Auburn, have fallen into disrepair. It is the juxtaposition of these neglected time capsules to a cruel angel's thesis music Fort Greene’s luxury towers that seems to mock the nursing values, neighborhood’s effort at ascension. For the arriviste investor, the projects present a rude visual interruption, an inconvenient thing to walk around, but never through. For Dasani, these faded buildings hold a legacy so intricate and rich it could fill volumes were it ever told.
The homeless shelter where she lives is the very building where Grandma Joanie had been born, back when it was Cumberland Hospital. Just across the statement, way is the fifth-story apartment where Joanie grew up, helping her own mother raise seven other children in nursing core values essay, the clasp of poverty. Three generations later, little has changed. Even as the fortunes of joseph heart of darkness essay this neighborhood rose, Dasani’s matrilineal line, from core values essay her great-grandmother to her mother, has followed a trajectory of learning teenage pregnancy, addiction and nursing core essay, violence. Fort Greene is now a marker. For one set of essays people, arriving signals triumph. Nursing Values Essay! For another, remaining means defeat. Dasani will do better, she tells herself. “People don’t go nowhere in Brooklyn,” she says.
Chanel promises they will move this spring, after the tax refunds arrive. Yet as Dasani walks through her grandmother’s streets, it is not with the sense of imminent departure so much as melancholic return. C hanel was 8 when she found her mother’s crack pipe in conrad heart essay, a jewelry box. She held it up to the light and nursing core values essay, showed it to her brother. #9632; We gonna toss it, he said. #9632; They opened the window and watched as the brown glass vial soared through the air, crashing onto the sidewalk. It was the mid-1980s, and crack had swept the streets of Brownsville, Brooklyn, where Chanel’s mother, Joanie, now lived. Chanel visited on weekends. The rest of the time, she stayed with her godmother, Sherry, who had been the common-law wife of Chanel’s father.
Chanel’s mother was his lover. Stranger things had happened in Brownsville, and charlotte's, now that Chanel’s father was dead, the two women made peace, despite their differences. Joanie relied on nursing core essay, welfare to support her habit. Sherry ran a day care center and shunned drugs. “It was like two different people trying to a cruel angel's thesis sheet raise one kid,” Chanel says.
At Sherry’s rowhouse in East New York, Brooklyn, Chanel minded her chores and nursing values essay, did her homework. At Joanie’s, the joseph conrad heart essay, child watched dance parties meld into a predawn haze. Worried that Joanie would unduly influence Chanel, Sherry sent the 10-year-old girl to live with a relative in Pittsburgh and attend Catholic school. But Chanel longed for essay, her birth mother and began to act out. Within a few years, she returned to New York and moved in with Joanie. They soon wound up in a shelter in Queens, where both were exposed to tuberculosis. Over the next few years, they drifted apart. Joanie turned her life around after President Bill Clinton signed legislation in 1996 to essays learning end “welfare as we know it,” placing time limits and work restrictions on recipients of government aid. She got clean and joined a welfare-to-work program, landing a $22,000-a-year job cleaning subway cars for the Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Core Values Essay! “This is the happiest day of essays learning my life,” she told Chanel. By then, Chanel had dropped out of essay high school and was addicted to crack. She had joined a sect of the violent Bloods gang, tattooing her street name, Lady Red, in curly letters across her right arm.
She was a regular in blood, the crack dens of Bedford-Stuyvesant. Chanel first noticed white people in “the Stuy” after a snowstorm swept Brooklyn in the late 1990s. Nursing Core Essay! Out of nowhere, two cross-country skiers appeared along Franklin Avenue like “a pair of aliens.” She watched as the skiers coasted by, carving a trail through virgin snow. She sensed that Brooklyn was on the cusp of change. But she could not have imagined that just five blocks from thesis that spot, people would one day line up to buy blood orange and nursing values, hibiscus doughnuts at essays learning an artisanal shop called Dough. The first commercial signs of Brooklyn’s transition were simpler. In 2001, Chanel spotted a new brand of nursing values essay bottled water Dasani on the shelves of her corner store.
She was pregnant again, but unlike the miscarriages of in cold ap essay her teens, this baby was surviving. Chanel needed a name. For a 23-year-old Brooklyn native who had spent summers cooling in the gush of hydrants, the name “Dasani” held a certain appeal. It sounded as special as Chanel’s name had sounded to her own mother, when she saw the perfume advertised in a magazine. It grasped at something better. Dasani was born on May 26 at Brooklyn Hospital Center in core values, Fort Greene. Of India! The doll-faced infant weighed only 5 pounds 6 ounces.
She was strikingly alert and had, the nurse noted, a “vigorous cry.” Three days later, Chanel left her with Joanie and took off. Even as a baby, Dasani was awake to nursing values essay the world. She leaned out of her stroller and stared at passers-by, who called her “Batman eyes.” She was tiny, but never frail, and bank papers, began walking at only 8 months. Chanel would surface from time to time, but Dasani latched on nursing values, to Joanie. A year later, Chanel had a second daughter by a cruel music, the same man, naming her Avianna, inspired by the more expensive brand of Evian water. Joanie had hit her limit, so Chanel turned to the city’s shelter system.
With both babies, she reported to nursing essay the Department of Homeless Services intake office in the Bronx. They were sent to 30 Hamilton Place, a family shelter in Harlem. Down the hall, a single father had moved in with his own two children. He called himself Supreme. He had sad, knowing eyes that made him look older than his 26 years. He never talked about the reserve bank of india research papers, past. S upreme was born to nursing heroin addicts in the Cypress Hills projects of East New York.
By age 7, he knew how to shop with his mother’s food stamps and cook grits for his four younger siblings. History Thesis! When the pantry was empty, he made sugar sandwiches. He was 9 when he came upon values essay the lifeless body of his baby sister. She had been left near the entrance of the projects, wrapped in a blanket. Web'! Supreme stroked her head and kept saying her name, Precious. “She didn’t wake up,” he says. Investigators for nursing, Child Protective Services thought the 2-year-old girl had swallowed sleeping pills, though the medical examiner concluded that she had died of writing history thesis sudden infant death syndrome. The father had left Precious alone when she died. Core Essay! When her mother found her, Supreme recalled, she panicked, leaving the charlotte's essay, girl’s body outside as she ran for help.
Later that day, the agency’s workers removed Supreme and nursing core, his siblings from the home. For the next three years, Supreme bounced from foster care to group homes. He soon dropped out of school and learning experiences, left for North Carolina to join the crack trade. By 17, Supreme had a felony drug conviction and was serving time at a maximum-security prison in Walpole, Mass. It was there that he discovered the Five Percent Nation, a growing movement whose followers believe they are the chosen “5 percent” of values humanity. The Five Percenters were shaping urban culture and music, while spreading the word that the essays learning experiences, black man is God. That message that God was within him filled Supreme with a sense of power over his destiny, one that until now had been steered by outsiders. Supreme left prison in 1997 with a high school equivalency diploma.
He married and moved to Washington, finding work as a barber. Values! Six years later, his wife pregnant with their third child had a heart attack and fell down a flight of stairs to her death. Chanel took pity on essays learning, this solemn widower, who came to the shelter a few months after his wife’s passing. Dasani and Avianna were the exact same ages as his children. Core Values Essay! He seemed different from the other men. He was always reading, and had a way with words.
“I fell in papers, love with his brains,” Chanel says. Two incomplete families soon became one. Chanel embraced the Five Percent, wrapping her head in a scarf and vowing to stay off drugs. They married at the city clerk’s office on Feb. 4, 2004. For Chanel, it was a moment of triumph.
Women in her family almost never married. “We were the core essay, product of split-up families,” she says. “We always wanted a big family. One family. One full family.” But Supreme and Chanel had a temperamental love. Their biggest fights led to brief separations, even as three more children were born. Chanel could not stay off drugs for long. When she gave birth to bank Papa in 2007, the hospital detected marijuana in his blood. In an instant, everything changed.
Chanel and nursing core values essay, Supreme were summoned to the Administration for Children’s Services office in Bedford-Stuyvesant the web' essay, same brick building where Supreme had been escorted as a child. Standing there, in the lobby, the core values, memory came rushing back. Supreme was 9 again, losing his sister, then his parents, then his other siblings, all in conrad heart essay, the course of a day. Soon his own children became accustomed to knocks at nursing core values essay the door as the agency’s caseworkers, responding to a handful of complaints about possible neglect, began to monitor the family. They inspected the children from head to web' essay toe, searching for signs of abuse. Dasani learned to spot a social worker on the street by the person’s bag (large enough to hold files).
She became expert at the complex psychic task of managing strangers of reading facial expressions and interpreting intonations, of knowing when to say the right thing or to core values avoid the wrong one. “They can use that in a court of law against the parent,” she says, back in the voice of “Criminal Minds.” “I love my parents. They’re tough, but I should not be taken away from them.” Dasani remained tethered to Grandma Joanie, who had proudly kept her job as a sanitation worker. She now lived in writing thesis statement, a cozy apartment in Bedford-Stuyvesant.
On weekends, Joanie would fix the children B.L.T. sandwiches and meticulously braid their hair before snuggling up to nursing values watch Beyoncé videos. Dasani was Joanie’s favorite. With this child, Joanie could finally be a mother. With Joanie, Dasani could be a child. A few months shy of Dasani’s eighth birthday, Joanie fell gravely ill with leukemia. On March 7, 2008, she died in the same hospital where Dasani had been born.
She was 55. “Why she had to go away so quickly?” Dasani asks. At the funeral, mourners gasped as the in cold blood ap essay, tiny girl flung herself on the open coffin. Nursing Core Values! Dasani kicked and charlotte's essay, wailed as Chanel tore her away. Joanie was cremated and her ashes placed in a black and silver urn that remained with Dasani’s family, accompanying them like a talisman. Her death brought a rebirth. Chanel inherited $49,000 of Joanie’s pension savings. At the time, the family had been renting a small apartment in East New York through a city program offering time-limited subsidies to nursing values the homeless. That month, the family’s subsidy expired.
Chanel’s inheritance saved them from heart of darkness essay homelessness. Months later, the city began a new rent subsidy program called Advantage. Nursing Essay! With its help, Chanel leased a duplex on writing history, Staten Island, and in summer 2008, boarded the Staten Island Ferry with Supreme and nursing core values essay, the children. It was their first time on a boat. They raced to the back and leaned into a cruel angel's thesis music, the salty mist. Staten Island was quiet and nursing, green. In their new apartment on North Burgher Avenue, the children rolled around on the wall-to-wall carpet. History! There they lay, pressed together, that first night. It was their first real home.
The children’s euphoria steadily rose with that of their parents. “When they’re happy, I’m happy,” Dasani says. “When they’re sad, I’m sad. It’s like I have a connection, like I’m stuck to them like glue.” Chanel and Supreme talked giddily of starting a youth center that would teach the Five Percent ethos known as the “Five P’s”: proper planning prevents poor performance. Supreme landed a job at Heavenly Cuts, a barbershop a few blocks away.
Chanel bought a used, cherry-red Dodge Durango and a rolling kitchen island at Home Depot. She decorated the girls’ room with pink Barbie curtains, sheets and matching TVs. Nursing Core Values Essay! The children ran barefoot in the backyard, racing across a Slip ’N Slide as Supreme grilled burgers. Charlotte's Web'! Joanie’s urn occupied a place of core values honor in the living room. This was, without question, the high point of their collective life.
It would take years for Chanel to understand why things so quickly fell apart. Conrad Of Darkness Essay! It was not obvious, in that blinding moment, that money could be useful only if they knew how to spend it. To think it would bring salvation was as quixotic as expecting a set of keys to drive a car. Money was not going to heal a father who had never been a child. When customers took a seat in Supreme’s chair at the barbershop, they saw a pair of hands expertly at work.
They did not see the boy who, at values essay age 7, had learned that very skill by cutting his brothers’ hair while his parents were strung out on heroin. What money brought was a quick escape from all that. Over the essays learning, next two years, Supreme and Chanel bobbed and wove through a fog of addiction. Supreme started doing heroin. Values Essay! Chanel became hooked on painkillers during an extended stay at Staten Island Hospital, where she was being treated for a recurrence of the tuberculosis she contracted in a shelter. Children’s Services hovered over the family, ensuring that Chanel and Supreme submit to writing thesis random drug tests. Nursing Values Essay! Eventually, Supreme and Chanel stopped working. By August 2010, bedbugs had infested the family’s house, just as their rent subsidy once again expired.
The city’s shelters were filling with former Advantage recipients families who had been homeless before taking the rent subsidy, only to become homeless again. On Aug. 20, Dasani’s family boarded the ferry to Manhattan, where they headed to the Department of Homeless Services’s intake office in the South Bronx. As Dasani’s family approached the entrance, Chanel spotted two abandoned baby turtles in a cruel angel's sheet music, a cardboard box. Nursing Core Essay! She stuffed them in her pockets. Six days later, the family arrived at Auburn, along with its two forbidden pet turtles and experiences, Joanie’s urn. C hildren are said to be adaptable.
On outward appearances, Dasani and her siblings became inured to the dehumanizing ways of Auburn the security checks at nursing values the entrance, the grimy bathrooms, the long waits for rancid food. Yet nothing prepared them for what happened on thesis sheet, Sept. 7, 2011, a year after they arrived. Chanel and the children had been “logged out” of Auburn, the official description of what happens when residents who have been absent for more than 48 hours are sent to the Bronx intake office to fill out forms and answer questions. The entire family must make this onerous trip, even on core values essay, school days.
That evening, tired and hungry, they returned to their room. It looked ransacked. Almost everything was gone: their clothes, shoes, books, television, toys, Social Security cards, birth certificates, photographs, love letters the traces of their existence. Joanie’s urn had also vanished. Chanel raced down to ap essay the security guards, Dasani chasing after her. “Where are my mother’s ashes?” she screamed. The story soon emerged: An Auburn employee had paid a resident $10 to core values essay clean out the room, as other residents looted the family’s valuables. Everything else was tossed in bank, the garbage. Chanel bolted to values the back of the shelter, where a large, metal incinerator holds Auburn’s rotting trash.
She waded in, the garbage reaching her waist. She searched frantically. This could not be Joanie’s final resting place, she kept telling herself. She cursed. A Cruel Thesis Music! She wept aloud. Finally, she stopped. The truth was setting in. Fifty-seven years after Joanie had been born, here in this very building, her remains were dumped in the garbage. Upstairs, the room felt cursed.
Joanie had always protected the children, in life and in death. Core Values Essay! Even after the inheritance disappeared, her ashes had remained a steady guardian. In Cold! But now Joanie was gone. In her absence, a devastating chain of events unfolded. Chanel paced the room that evening, desperate and broke. Supreme was gone after another fight. She expected no help from nursing values essay Auburn. Still, she had gone to the trouble of filing a complaint, writing in experiences, hurried print, “I don’t know what to do my kid start school tomorrow and I have nothing.” The next day, Chanel left the children alone in core values essay, the room, defying the essays experiences, shelter’s rules, and nursing values essay, hit the heart essay, streets in search of cash. A man approached her on Myrtle Avenue asking where he could buy drugs.
He did not look like an undercover officer, so she steered him to the projects. She was arrested and later pleaded guilty to drug possession charges, though Chanel maintains she was innocent. When Chanel did not return that night, Dasani felt something in the air. There was a knock at the door. Dasani shushed the kids.
They pretended to be asleep. Then the door opened as an Auburn supervisor and core values essay, Homeless Services police told the children to joseph conrad heart of darkness get dressed. The Administration for Children’s Services had known for months that Chanel was getting high on core values, opiates, but had been trying to keep the family together. After her arrest, a family judge ordered new drug tests for both parents, revealing that Supreme had also been smoking marijuana. With that, the agency went to court to joseph heart essay have the children removed. Nursing Core! In a hearing on Sept.
20, the web' essay, children’s lawyer objected, arguing that to values divide them among foster homes “who knows where in reserve of india research papers, the city” would “present a greater imminent risk to the children than remaining where they are.” The judge struck a compromise: Both parents needed to comply with a drug treatment program. Nursing Core Values! The children were to remain with Supreme, but Chanel temporarily lost custody. She had suffered all kinds of losses, but nothing compared with this. Who was she if not a mother?
She had always tried to be there, rarely missing a school play or a parent-teacher conference. On Sunday afternoons she would braid hair until her fingers turned numb. At bedtime each night, she flipped through the charlotte's essay, family dictionary to teach her children a new “word of the nursing core values essay, day.” Now, Chanel would be living with Sherry, only seeing the children on supervised visits. She broke the news to the children on a park bench. “Take care of your siblings,” she instructed Dasani. Dasani was silent. Supreme ruled by fear.
If the children laughed too loud, he only had to in cold blood yell “Shut up!” and they froze, a silent dread passing among them. Values Essay! He had an old-fashioned approach to child rearing: Break the rules and you get the belt. Reserve Bank Of India Research! Chanel’s presence had tempered him. When she left, Supreme wrote two words on values, the wall in joseph conrad essay, black marker: “King Me!” Under the agency’s supervision, both Chanel and Supreme made steady progress in a treatment program that required taking daily doses of methadone, a synthetic drug meant to control addiction. Nearly a year later, on Aug. Nursing! 2, 2012, the judge allowed Chanel to return to her family at Auburn under supervision from the Administration for Children’s Services. In Cold Ap Essay! She came with a promise: They would save enough money to leave.
C hanel spreads the cash across her bed, all $2,800. The children stare in awe. #9632; “I don’t know why I feel so happy,” Avianna says. Chanel quickly stashes it, announcing no intention of spending her long-awaited tax refund, which arrived Feb. 13. “Once you start to break them bills, that’s it, they’re gone,” Chanel says the essay, next morning. Reserve Bank Of India Research Papers! She is walking through the projects, the money bulging from her pocket. She does not know where to core essay put it, so she holds onto it and, more than anything, the feeling of having it. She pushes Baby Lele’s creaky stroller toward Downtown Brooklyn, whose street names mockingly suggest riches.
Gold. Tillary. Bond. She takes an inventory of all the joseph conrad of darkness, things she could but won’t buy: a new stroller, sneakers, a hair-braiding session for the girls. Chanel knows that unless she finds a way to save her money, and nursing values, persuades Supreme not to spend his own tax refund, they will never leave Auburn. And yet, planning has never been their way. “To plan something is to plan to fail,” she says. “My plan is to do some goddamn laundry.” Tax season brings a sudden reprieve for a family that, with food stamps, has about $75 a day to writing history thesis statement spend. This amounts to $7.50 per person in a city where three subway trips cost as much.
They survive because they live rent-free and have access to nursing core essay three meals a day. Chanel is reminded of reserve bank of india research this when she stops to essay look at listings in the window of a real estate office near her methadone clinic. A one-bedroom in Bay Ridge, Brooklyn, is going for $1,300 a month. She sees no option but to leave New York. In a show of in cold ap essay commitment, Chanel gives $800 of her tax refund to essay Grandma Sherry in exchange for a used Chevrolet minivan, which is sitting in the driveway with no permit. Now they must wait for Supreme’s tax refund.
If only life imitated Monopoly, Supreme’s favorite board game, which he plays with the children on a mattress in their crowded room. “I like building up property and collecting rent,” he says. But becoming a real renter, he finds, is far more challenging than claiming Park Place on a cardboard square. Auburn no longer has a housing specialist on bank, staff the last one died four years ago and was never replaced. Supreme has learned to navigate the web on his prepaid Android from Boost Mobile, but the phone is often disconnected. Chanel feels like a fumbling fool on nursing core values essay, the shelter’s computers. And then there is the problem of Baby Lele.
Investigators have repeatedly cited Auburn for providing no on-site child care, which hinders residents from searching for jobs or housing. Chanel is reluctant to leave Lele with other mothers at Auburn, many of whom have their own Children’s Services cases. If anything were to joseph of darkness happen, Chanel’s custody could be in core values, jeopardy. Instead, Chanel begins leaving Lele under the watch of a friendly counselor at her methadone program, where children are not allowed. A Cruel Thesis Sheet! The counselor stands outside with Lele as Chanel darts in to swallow her orange liquid dose. When a clinic supervisor discovers the arrangement, Chanel is exposed. Values! If she keeps leaving Lele with acquaintances on the street, Children’s Services might find out. So Chanel stops going, and the clinic alerts the essays experiences, agency that she has fallen out of treatment. In March, the agency steps up its scrutiny, placing the family with a “prevention worker” who requires twice-weekly meetings. By now, Supreme has learned that his tax refund was seized by the government for child support owed to two other children he had before meeting Chanel.
Dasani knows before her mother says a word. They will not be leaving. D asani has learned to let disappointments pass in nursing core essay, silence. Reserve Research! Objecting does nothing to change the facts. #9632; But she reveals herself through the core values essay, questions she asks. “Mommy, if these projects was your only choice, would you take it?” she asks Chanel one day in March as they are out walking. Chanel nods reluctantly. Dasani lets it go. She knows not to push. Spring has brought a new set of a cruel thesis sheet worries. For the wealthier children in core essay, Fort Greene, it is a season to show off new wardrobes.
For Dasani’s family, it is a time of scrambling. Appearances are more easily kept when the same coat is all that people see. The project kids begin to ridicule Dasani’s pink sweatsuit, calling it “pajamas.” On March 19, she agrees to a cruel angel's thesis fight a girl from school at nearby Commodore Barry Park. A crowd gathers as they establish the rules: No one can film it or tell a parent. They pull back their hair and Dasani punches her rival as they tumble to nursing the ground. A man walking his dog pulls them apart. That evening, Chanel inspects the cut on Dasani’s lip.
Chanel may fail in all kinds of ways, but she holds Dasani’s esteem in one powerful regard: The woman can fight. Dasani has grown up hearing her mother’s stories of street-battle glory, and watching her in writing history thesis, the throes of countless slug matches with anyone who crosses her, including the owner of a local laundromat. Chanel dismisses Dasani’s tussles at nursing school as “kitty-cat fighting.” Back in in cold blood, her day, girls cracked one another over the head with bottles. No one wasted time pulling back their hair. “You gotta keep your hood credit up,” she tells Dasani. “You take the biggest, baddest one down first and the rest of ’em will back up off of you. Nursing Core Essay! That’s just how it works.” The next day, Chanel and Dasani wander up their favorite block of charlotte's web' essay Myrtle Avenue, passing the Red Lantern, a bike repair shop that sells vegan cookies. They stop at a juice store that serves a hybrid clientele Fort Greene’s organic-forward newcomers and nursing core values essay, its health-conscious old-timers. There, Chanel spots an old flame.
He wears a long leather jacket and dark shades. She wonders if he is still dealing. Dasani eyes him closely. “That was her name from back when she was in the hood,” she says, forever cataloging the details of her mother’s past, even as Chanel tries to part with it. “I’m good now, see?” Chanel crows, waving a hand over herself, as if motioning a transformation: clean, married, mother of eight. She nods proudly at her children.
It is Dasani’s belief that she and her siblings are the cause of her mother’s ruin. It never occurs to her that, for Chanel, the children represent her only accomplishment. The next day, Chanel escorts Dasani to school. In the hallway, she spots the girl Dasani fought in the park. “You can fight my kid,” she says hotly, taking the girl by surprise. “I’m with that.” Minutes later, the principal, Paula Holmes, sits Dasani down. “I believe you can change, but you’re not showing me that,” she says. Dasani returns to class feeling jaunty. The wrong message Chanel’s permission, rather than Miss Holmes’s prohibition has sunk in. “I’ma fight you,” she tells another girl. Reserve Bank Of India Research Papers! “My mother said she’ll let me fight.” With that, Dasani is core values, suspended. Miss Holmes knows it is a risky move, but nothing else has worked.
The girl needs to be shocked out of her behavior. The alternative is to fail in school and beyond. “Get your things and leave,” Miss Holmes tells her. Dasani will be out of school for a cruel sheet music, a whole week. She cannot speak.
To be suspended is to be truly homeless. The Times used small video cameras as an additional reporting tool. Nursing Values! The reporter Andrea Elliott, Dasani and her family regularly recorded interviews and other candid moments. C hildren are not the face of New York’s homeless. They rarely figure among the joseph conrad of darkness, panhandlers and bag ladies, war vets and essay, untreated schizophrenics who have long been stock characters in this city of contrasts. #9632; Their homelessness is hidden. They spend their days in writing history statement, school, their nights in shelters. Core! They are seen only in angel's thesis music, glimpses pulling overstuffed suitcases in the shadow of a tired parent, passing for tourists rather than residents without a home. Their numbers have risen above anything in the city’s modern history, to a staggering 22,091 this month.
If all of the city’s homeless children were to core file into Madison Square Garden for a hockey game, more than 4,800 would not have a seat. Yet it is the adult population that drives debates on poverty and experiences, homelessness, with city officials and core values, others citing “personal responsibility” as the central culprit. Children are bystanders in this discourse, no more to blame for their homelessness than for their existence. Dasani works to reserve bank research papers keep her homelessness hidden. She has spent years of her childhood in the punishing confines of the Auburn shelter in Brooklyn, where to be homeless is to be powerless. She and her seven siblings are at the mercy of nursing values essay forces beyond their control: parents who cannot provide, agencies that fall short, a metropolis rived by inequality and reserve bank of india research papers, indifference. The experience has left Dasani internally adrift, for the losses of the homeless child only begin with the home itself.
She has had to part with privacy and space the kind of quiet that nurtures the mind. She has lost the dignity that comes with living free of vermin and chronic illness. She has fallen behind in school, despite her crackling intelligence. She has lost the simplest things that for other children are givens: the freedom of riding a bicycle, the safety of essay a bathroom not shared with strangers, the ease of being in school without stigma. And from all of these losses has come the departure of reserve bank research faith itself.
God “is somewhere around,” she says. “We just can’t find him.” To trust is to be caught off guard. Dasani is unmoored by her recent suspension from the Susan S. McKinney Secondary School of the nursing core values essay, Arts. For months, this new school was her only haven. Ap Essay! She had grown so attached to nursing values essay her principal, Paula Holmes, that she expected a measure of tolerance despite her outbursts, the kind of blood forgiveness she never gets at home. Her forced departure from school overlaps with spring break, plunging Dasani further into core values essay, the morass of her family’s troubles. Her parents’ resolve to leave Auburn has vanished now that their savings plan fell apart, yet the shelter is pressing the charlotte's web', family to leave while offering no assistance in finding a home.
Meanwhile, the nursing core values, Administration for Children’s Services has stepped up its scrutiny of Dasani’s parents, who are increasingly despondent. As pressure mounts from all sides, Dasani braces herself. She has seen this before the web', storm of familial problems that suddenly gathers force. “It’s a tsunami, just spinning around, nothing going right,” she says. Nursing Core! “And I’m like, ‘Put my life back together!’ and charlotte's essay, it doesn’t happen. Your life doesn’t go the way you want it to go.” O n April 3, Dasani climbs up the steps of core McKinney wearing her best cardigan. She lingers in the hallway, keeping an eye on Principal Holmes’s door. A Cruel! She is eager to try out the script her mother has drilled into her. #9632; How was your spring break, Miss Holmes?
(Pause, wait for Miss Holmes to ask the same question.) Oh, it was good. Nursing! I’m staying out of a cruel angel's sheet trouble! (Wait for values essay, Miss Holmes to laugh and then head for the door, showing new determination.) Gotta get to class! Instead, Dasani hangs back. Too many other students are ahead of her, vying for the principal’s attention. In class, she is quiet and focused. “It’s a new Dasani,” observes Officer Jamion Andrews, the charlotte's essay, security guard, his eyebrow dubiously cocked.
If she can avoid fights, Dasani tells herself, the rest will fall into place. It is the taunts that she cannot resist. Her body gets “hyped.” She loses control. And that is precisely the behavior that Roxanne, her counselor at school, is trying to disrupt. In those moments, Dasani must learn to breathe in for 10 seconds through her nose and then breathe out for 10 seconds through her mouth.
Roxanne demonstrates. Dasani practices on nursing values essay, her walk home from school. The two blocks of sidewalk between McKinney and the shelter can be a minefield. This week, one of Dasani’s classmates, Sunita, begins to stalk her along the way. Sunita is a foot taller than Dasani and easily twice her 70 pounds. Their rivalry dates back three years to fourth grade, when Sunita, who lives in the projects, began teasing Dasani about living at Auburn, prompting Dasani, then 9, to throw her first punch. For days, rumors have been flying that the two will fight again. As school lets out on April 9, Dasani steps onto the sidewalk and is surrounded by a sea of history thesis statement girls. “You gonna fight her?” one of them asks breathlessly. “No!” Dasani yells loud enough for Sunita to hear. Values! “Miss Holmes says if I get in in cold blood, another fight I get suspended.” Dasani’s restraint only emboldens Sunita, who walks up and slaps Dasani hard across her left cheek.
The crowd is hushed. Dasani tries to core values breathe. “You think that hurt? I eat those,” Dasani says, using one of her mother’s put-downs. The girl glares at Dasani. Breathe in 10 seconds. Suddenly, out of nowhere, Dasani’s 10-year-old sister Avianna jumps between them. “You better back up off my sister’s face before I hurt you,” Avianna yells. The girls might as well be twins. They share the same pillow, the same dresser, the blood ap essay, same absent, biological father.
It is nursing values essay, usually Dasani who comes to Avianna’s rescue, carrying her up four flights of stairs to their room when her asthma strikes. But today, Avianna rises to the occasion, mouthing off fiercely at Sunita as the crowd disperses. Dasani is soon surrounded by all of her siblings, a familial force field. Their bond presents itself physically. When they walk, ride the bus, switch trains, climb steps, jump puddles, cross highways and file into Auburn, they move as a single being. In all things, they are one.
The sheer size of the a cruel angel's thesis sheet music, family draws the notice of nursing values essay strangers, who shoot looks of recrimination at thesis sheet music the mother, Chanel. Yet she sees fortitude in this small army of siblings, something she and nursing core, her husband, Supreme, never had growing up. “That’s why the street became our family,” she says. “I didn’t want the street to writing history thesis statement become their family, too.” The children’s solidarity is striking enough that social workers frequently make note of nursing core essay it. A Cruel Thesis Sheet Music! “Family close knit,” reads one social worker’s report in March. They live in dread of the Administration for Children’s Services. They survived their mother’s absence for a year and take Supreme’s periodic disappearances almost in stride, but they cannot imagine losing one another. They know the foster care system can split up siblings across the city’s boroughs. Dasani is haunted by the thought of essay losing her baby sister, Lele, who just turned 1 and sometimes calls her Mommy. All the charlotte's web', children dote on Lele, but Dasani speaks her language, discerning hunger or a wet diaper in the baby’s cries. The 11-year-old girl responds with the instinct of nursing essay a mother but not the learning experiences, training. She pours artificially sweetened grape juice into nursing core values, Lele’s bottle as if it were liquid gold.
What would happen to Lele in the hands of strangers? “Some people don’t know how to ap essay take care of babies,” she says. The children have heard their father’s story how Supreme was torn from his siblings and years passed before he was reunited with them in the Marcy projects, in Bedford-Stuyvesant, Brooklyn. Supreme soon left home to join the nursing values essay, crack trade. By then, another child of the Marcy projects had also escaped.
She chose an alternate path. “I was different, and I don’t regret it,” Faith Hester says, standing before her class in early May. #9632; She is not one to dwell on the past. But today, a student prompts Miss Hester to talk about her education. Thesis Statement! She was only nursing core essay 16 and history thesis, living in nursing values, the Marcy projects when she won a scholarship to SUNY Cortland. She packed a large orange suitcase. Her mother refused to take her to a cruel thesis sheet music the train station. Values Essay! Girls married their way out reserve of india research, of the projects. Going to nursing core college, the neighbors sneered, was trying to experiences “be white.” So Miss Hester left alone that day, dragging her suitcase along Park Avenue. Values! In college, she cleaned houses to reserve help pay her way. Nursing Core Essay! Her mother did not speak to her for essays learning experiences, six months. “Sometimes you have to be alone,” she says, looking around the room.
“I don’t regret it for one second,” she says, slamming her hand down on a desk. Nursing Values Essay! “That was the path!” The class is motionless. “Do you understand what I’m saying?” Miss Hester continues, her voice trembling. “There are going to be some places in your life where you feel bizarre. You feel outstanding. And remain that way. Stay just as you are.” Dasani stares at her teacher, mesmerized. “It takes a lot of a cruel angel's thesis sheet courage to nursing essay be different,” Miss Hester says. When Dasani looks into history, the future, she sees who she won’t be.
She won’t be a dropout. She won’t do drugs or smoke or drink. She won’t get married, unless she finds “a gentle man, not a harsh man.” She won’t have children unless she can support them. She won’t end up on the street. “Spare some change?” she says, mocking a panhandler. Core! “Nuh-uh.
Not me.” It is harder for Dasani to imagine who she might become. She has been told she must reach for college if she wants a life of choices, but who will pay? Her mother is quick to essays ask that question whenever Grandma Sherry tries to encourage Dasani with the shining example of a niece who graduated from Bates College in essay, Maine on scholarship. Other children talk of becoming rap stars or athletes, escaping their world with one good break. Dasani subscribes to the logic of those fantasies. Her life is defined by extremes. Conrad Essay! In order to transcend extreme poverty, it follows that she must become extremely rich or extremely something. What exactly she cannot see.
To dream is, after all, an nursing act of faith. She believes in what she can see, and charlotte's web' essay, Miss Hester is real. Her lecture that day leaves Dasani feeling uplifted. As she walks home with a classmate later that afternoon, they talk about a coming history project on core, ancient Egypt. Dasani does not see Sunita coming. “I’m gonna fight you!” Sunita calls out conrad heart of darkness essay, from the nursing values essay, underpass, shedding her sweatshirt. Dasani pivots and starts walking against the traffic along Tillary Street. This time there are no siblings to come to her rescue. Get back on school property, she tells herself. She crosses over toward McKinney as Sunita charges up behind her. “Move before I punch you!” Dasani says.
But Sunita grabs Dasani’s shirt and pulls as Dasani takes a roundhouse swing. They fall to reserve bank of india the ground, biting and scratching. Suddenly, another big girl piles on, kicking Dasani in the face and core, laughing while Sunita holds her down. Somehow Dasani manages to throw Sunita off balance, scrambling on top and pummeling her face before they pull apart, bleeding and in cold blood ap essay, crying. “I’m saying it right in front of your face,” Dasani yells, her chest heaving. “You wanna fight me some more ” “I will jump you in nursing, your face!” “I want you to!
I want you to!” Sunita’s brother orders her to retreat. “Take your ass in the house!” he yells. She turns obediently toward the Whitman projects as Dasani runs into Auburn. Minutes later, Dasani emerges with Chanel, who heads to the projects ready to go. She will wait for Sunita’s mother all night if needed, and charlotte's essay, they can settle this themselves. But as Chanel presses for details, she learns that Dasani is values, hardly innocent: She had thrown Sunita’s book bag on the floor earlier that day and commented unfavorably on her “$2.99 sweater.” Chanel cools down and decides to handle the matter at school. The next morning, the two mothers and their daughters meet with Karen Best, an reserve of india research assistant principal who cuts to the chase.
“Had Dasani been seriously injured, we wouldn’t be sitting here having this conversation,” Miss Best says. “And that’s what you need to nursing values understand: Children as young as you go to jail. O.K.? Real simple.” The mothers nod. The girls stare at the floor. “She could have had a concussion,” Miss Best says. “You want to do something? Prove how smart you are.” “There you go,” Chanel says approvingly. “Everyone knows the negativity,” Miss Best says, looking at both girls. “You got that down pat.
Show the brains.” B ack at Auburn, nothing is going well. The city’s shelters are packed with families, whose average length of stay 13.5 months is longer than ever. A Cruel Thesis Music! #9632; Dasani’s family is among the outliers. It will soon be three years since they landed at nursing Auburn. While the Department of Homeless Services cannot limit a family’s time in the shelter system, the agency can resort to punitive measures when residents are found to ap essay be uncooperative. On May 14, Supreme and Chanel are called to a meeting at Auburn with two agency officials and the family’s shelter caseworker.
“I’m asking you: What have you been doing to move out?” one of the nursing core essay, officials asks Chanel and Supreme in a recording they made of the meeting. The official points at the family’s independent living plan with the agency. “You both signed it, O.K.?” the official says. “It says, ‘This shelter is temporary housing.’ You must look for permanent housing for yourselves.” Violating the essay, plan enough times means a family can be given an “involuntary discharge,” barring them from returning to the city’s shelters for core values, 30 days. During the meeting, Chanel and Supreme admit they have not searched for apartments. They say there is writing thesis, no point, since they cannot afford city rents without the kind of nursing values essay subsidy that the department once offered. In Cold Blood Ap Essay! They complain that their room is miserable and ask if they can be transferred to a better shelter. “It’s really hard,” one of the officials says. “Listen, you are not the only family in shelter.” “Tens of thousands,” the official says. “Right, well, I have a different question,” Supreme says. “Do y’all fall under the nursing core values essay, guidelines of the New York City Housing standards?” “Excuse me?” one of the officials says.
A few weeks earlier, the family had been walking the elegant streets south of Fort Greene Park, searching “white folks’ trash” for research papers, discarded books and nursing, clothes. A thin, black volume caught Supreme’s eye: “McKinney’s Consolidated Laws of a cruel thesis sheet New York Book 52 A.” He began leafing through hundreds of pages of laws, noting the violations that his living arrangement presents: the lack of hygienic conditions, dividers for privacy and sufficient living space. “I think it’s inhumane,” Supreme mumbles. “I think one of you all need to try it. Your husband, eight children, all in one room. Core Essay! No bathroom. I want to see how you all manage that for charlotte's web', three years.” He might as well be talking to himself. “With the core essay, documentation we can move forward, O.K.?” one of the officials says.
Supreme seems not to hear her either. “You never got no peace of mind. You and blood ap essay, your husband can never have a moment because your children are always in your face. You’d go crazy!” The meeting is wrapping up. “Even now, they got the core values, bathrooms closed, so where you gotta go? All the way to the next floor,” Supreme continues. “I got a child who is legally blind.
I gotta monitor her every time she go to the bathroom. It’s, like, bananas. It’s really bananas.” T he children’s birthdays come in a mad springtime rush: Lele’s in March, Avianna’s in April, the remaining six in the span of three and blood, a half weeks. #9632; Expectations are calibrated based on core values, where a birthday falls in the monthly cash flow. Web' Essay! Those at the start of the month bring hope, while those at the end of the month are luckless. So it goes for core, Avianna. Supreme hands her $11, one for each year of her life, but the next day, he asks for music, $5 back. She waits for a cake. Days pass.
Finally, the children give up and nursing core values, light two small candles. Joseph Conrad Of Darkness! Like carolers, they hold them beneath Avianna’s face and sing. Avianna savors everything. While her siblings inhale their food, she will linger over each French fry. She spends her $6 slowly.
A week later, she takes her last dollar bill and folds it delicately, like a Japanese fan. She then places it inside a homemade card that Chanel opens on essay, Mother’s Day. They pass that afternoon at the laundromat. There is only $190 left on Chanel’s debit card, the balance of a tax refund that was supposed to rescue them from the shelter. In times like these, Chanel sees fit to steal groceries.
She tells the children to wait for her at joseph conrad heart a store’s entrance. She hides the habit from them. They hide their knowingness from her. Except for Papa, a gaptoothed 5-year-old buzzing with energy. “You stealin’!” he squeals one day as Chanel makes off with two prepackaged burgers from Target. “You crazy!” “Shut up, man!” Chanel says, before composing herself. “Look,” she tries more softly. “It’s not right to steal. Core! But God knows when it’s for a good reason.”
This year, birthday season has the misfortune of colliding with four of the essay, children’s grade-school graduations. They need new outfits, and money for class photos and parties. Nursing Core! Chanel is accustomed to writing history thesis saying no when she has to, but she also recognizes the nursing core essay, small luxuries that will separate her children from blood their peers. By the time Dasani’s birthday arrives at the end of May, she knows better than to nursing expect $1 for each of her 12 years. She has already pressed her mother too many times to pay for a school trip to Washington. Dasani has never been farther than Pennsylvania. She will hold out for that and let the birthday pass quietly. Chanel has no such intention. Dasani is her jewel. Over the weekend, the family retreats to the rowhouse in East New York belonging to Grandma Sherry. Conrad Of Darkness Essay! The mood is essay, light.
The children skip about research papers, as Supreme stands over the stove, tending to his honey-barbecue wings. The time has come to sing. Chanel gently lifts a vanilla sheet cake out of its plastic casing as Dasani stares in nursing core, wonder. The top of the cake is still blank, awaiting inscription. Her mother covers it with candles and dims the lights. Dasani closes her eyes. If I could grant you three wishes, what would they be? her school counselor once asked her. A house of our own, a lot of money and three more wishes, was Dasani’s answer.
She blows out the candles as the children clap. Chanel fetches a long, serrated knife. “Let me show you how to blood ap essay cut a cake,” she says, gingerly placing her hand over Dasani’s. Together, they move the knife through the values essay, buttercream frosting. Thesis Sheet Music! “Doesn’t have to nursing core values be perfect,” Chanel says. Dasani bestows a sugar-flowered slice on history thesis, each of her siblings, taking a plain piece for herself. They race to the basement, where their two uncles are blasting the Black Eyed Peas. Screaming in nursing values, delight, Dasani and her sisters leap onto a rickety, wooden platform and dance beneath a disco ball to “I Gotta Feeling” as Papa bounces around them. They barely register the hard-faced young men shuffling through the essays learning experiences, basement, exchanging elaborate handshakes, their heads hung low. Some play video games. Others mill about with girls in their teens wearing too much makeup and too little clothing. One of these girls, a baby-faced Dominican who works at the supermarket across the street, hangs on Uncle Josh, flashing braces when she smiles. To curry favor, she hands Dasani a $20 bill as a birthday present.
Like other things in her life, Dasani could not have predicted such luck. She is still giddy, long after the nursing values essay, girl has left in a huff, offended by joseph conrad heart essay, Josh’s waning interest. It is now late and the other children have collapsed on a sagging beige couch. Dasani is dancing to Alicia Keys. She’s living in nursing core, a world and it’s on fire. Filled with catastrophe. But she knows she can fly away.
Dasani reaches up, her arms bathed in writing thesis, blinking lights, as if saluting an essay imaginary audience. Oh, she got her head in the clouds. And she’s not backing down. This girl is on fire. Dasani has never had a better birthday.
It feels like perfection. It hardly matters that the cake was stolen from Pathmark. T hree days later, it is raining as the children spill down Sherry’s steps. They are hungry and short on charlotte's web', sleep. #9632; In theory, they are heading to the thing they most need psychotherapy. Chanel signed them up after learning that she can reap $10 per values essay child in carfare through Medicaid, at a clinic in a cruel angel's sheet music, the Kensington section of Brooklyn. Chanel needs the cash. Nursing! She is reserve bank of india papers, still hoping to find a way to send Dasani on her school trip to nursing values Washington, and the $75 deposit is due tomorrow. So despite the pelting rain, Chanel instructs the children to meet her at a subway station.
Only Hada is a cruel thesis, wearing a raincoat. Papa’s hoodie slips off as he tips back to catch raindrops on his tongue. The children cross Lincoln Avenue holding hands. Dasani is in core values, a foul mood. There is no telling how her anger will reveal itself today.
Sometimes it comes as a quiet kind of rage. Blood Ap Essay! She will stare at core an indefinite point, her eyes blinking, her mouth set. A Cruel Angel's Thesis Sheet! Other times, it bursts like thunder. Nijai trails behind, her glasses fogging over. She has always been the odd orchid in this bunch of nursing core essay daisies, the most delicate and in cold blood ap essay, sensitive child, made more frail by her advancing blindness. She can make out only vague shapes and colors. Soon she will have to use a cane, but for nursing values essay, now she often rests a hand on writing thesis, Lele’s stroller to guide her. Today, Lele and nursing core essay, the stroller have been left at Sherry’s. “I said move it!” Dasani yells at Nijai. She starts shoving Nijai, harder and harder, knocking her sister into a metal fence. Then she punches her in the arm. “You stupid!” Dasani screams. “You think you smart, but you stupid!
Now keep walking!” Nijai begins to sob as Khaliq yells, “Double up!” In pairs, they sprint across a six-lane highway and angel's music, enter the Grant Avenue subway station, ducking under the nursing core essay, turnstile to meet their mother. After they board the A train, she hands them a bag of lukewarm Popeyes chicken, furnished by a stranger. By the time they get off at Jay Street, their stomachs are full and the mood is lifted. Dasani spots an umbrella on the ground. It still works, opening to reveal an intricate pattern of white and black flecks.
She twirls it around and, when the papers, 103 bus pulls up, carefully closes it. Dasani and Nijai race to the back of the bus, where the motor keeps the seats warm. Nursing Core Values! They sit pressed together, newly reconciled. A Cruel Thesis Sheet! Dasani is soon asleep. The little ones watch, thumbs in nursing, mouth, as their mother closes her eyes. Angel's Thesis Sheet! Every time the bus slows, she snaps awake. At Church Avenue, the nursing core, children and reserve bank papers, their mother pile off. The street looks familiar, but Chanel is unsure.
“We got off at nursing values the wrong stop,” Dasani announces. Chanel fixes her gaze on Dasani. “Shut the of india papers, fuck up,” she says. “You know, that’s one thing I don’t like about you your negativity. You always talkin’ about the essay, problem. Writing History Thesis Statement! You got a solution?” Dasani carries a singular burden among her siblings. Chanel has vested enormous authority in nursing, Dasani. Her competence, agility and strength the attributes that could rescue Dasani from a cruel angel's sheet music her life’s miseries also threaten to keep her mired in the problems that her mother cannot meet alone. At times, Chanel seems taunted by her dependence on her daughter, which reminds her of nursing her own failings. They walk single file toward Coney Island Avenue. Dasani tries to statement recover.
“It’s this way, Mommy,” she says, gesturing hopefully toward a florist shop. They take a few steps before Chanel turns on her heel, remembering the values, way. “If you want to go somewhere, don’t listen to Dasani,” she says. Dasani freezes under her new umbrella. “I’m sick of your attitude,” she seethes. “There’s only like 15 kids going on angel's thesis music, this trip because people can’t pay. And me, who got nothing, is trying to send you and you gonna give me attitude?”
Dasani keeps walking. Chanel’s fury mounts. She reaches for the same words every time, the kind that echo for nursing, days in Dasani’s head. Dasani always gotta have the answer. She think she special.
She think she some-fucking-body. Dasani’s face remains frozen as the tears begin to fall, like rain on a statue. “I don’t give a shit if she’s crying,” Chanel says loudly as they approach a small green house, marked by a gold-embossed sign that reads “Advanced Psychotherapy Behavioral Health Services.” “It’s only one goddamn chief,” Chanel says. “I’m the only chief.” Inside, the children file into their fourth “group therapy” session with a woman who asks vague questions like, “What are your hobbies?” She sounds more like a distant aunt than a counselor. Khaliq knows the joseph of darkness essay, difference. Earlier in the year, a Children’s Services caseworker had sent him to a therapist after he acted erratically in school. That therapist had asked questions like, “Do you want to kill yourself?” Those sessions felt like they never ended; these lasted only 20 minutes roughly two and a half minutes per child. At the door, Chanel collects her $80 in carfare and the children head back into the rain. Core! The cash instantly settles the family, leaving the children calm and Chanel introspective. By the time they reach the music, bus stop, Chanel’s gray T-shirt is soaked through.
She is thinking about core, Supreme, whom she could not rouse from bed this morning. “What gets me down is the statement, responsibility,” she says. “They got shoes on but no socks. I come all this way, on the bus, in the rain, to get the money so she can go on her trip.” She is nursing, shivering now. “Those are the things you are supposed to provide,” she scolds her absent husband. “You are the man. You made this family, but you don’t provide.” Dasani watches her mother silently.
She wants to ap essay fix it. She can only feel empty. The day’s weight has passed from her sister to herself and now to their mother, who is weeping in the rain. The Times used small video cameras as an additional reporting tool. The reporter Andrea Elliott, Dasani and her family regularly recorded interviews and other candid moments. Miss Hester Speaks to Dasani’s Class.
A mob of spectators presses in, trying to see the tiny girl. Rap stars circle. Core Values! The cameras roll. Charlotte's Web' Essay! The crowd chants her name. #9632; “Da-Sa-Neee!” #9632; Her heart is racing. Nursing Core! She looks up at the sky and extends her fingers, but cannot reach high enough to grasp the metal bar. A powerful man hoists her up by the waist. In an in cold blood instant, she is midair, pulling and twisting acrobatically as the audience gasps at the might of this 12-year-old girl. “She’s a giantess,” the man had announced to the audience. “She’s tomorrow’s success, I’m telling you right now.” Dasani blinks, looking out at the smiling faces. She cannot make sense of the serendipity that has brought her here to Harlem, on this sparkling July day, to make her debut as a member of an urban fitness group teamed up with Nike.
But there is values essay, her beaming mother, Chanel; her father, Supreme; and all seven siblings. They are cheering and clapping as well. “I thought it was a dream make believe like this wasn’t happening,” she says. “You know, like in angel's sheet, movies, people pinch themselves like this ain’t real.” It was only values two months earlier that Dasani stood at the bus stop as her mother wept in the rain. Summer was fast approaching, a season that, in this family, always brings change.
The markers of Dasani’s life her first months in the care of Grandma Joanie, the day her family moved into their first real home, the loss of that home two years later, when they landed in the Auburn shelter these all came in in cold blood, summertime. There was no telling what this summer might bring. Dasani could no sooner predict landing a spot on the Harlem team than she could foretell the abrupt changes that still lay ahead. Already, the court-mandated supervision of the family by child protection workers had run its course. Chanel’s nine-month trial period was suddenly over, leaving her custody secure, just as new problems came along. School was winding down when the children learned that their only other refuge Grandma Sherry’s rowhouse in East New York, Brooklyn had gone into foreclosure. Sherry could end up homeless as well, at a time when New York’s shelter population had surpassed a historic 50,000. As the days grew hotter, Dasani and her family remained stuck in the same miserable room at Auburn. And yet summer, no matter how stifling, also carried a certain promise, the core, kind that comes of chance encounters on sheet, the street. I t is a muggy night in Harlem, but the children do not care.
They savor any chance to visit. #9632; This is the place where, a decade earlier, Chanel and nursing core essay, Supreme fell in love. They have returned over the years, pulled by the Five Percent Nation, the movement spawned 50 years ago by a contemporary of Malcolm X who broke from the Nation of Islam. Tonight, people swarm into the Harriet Tubman Learning Center on West 127th Street for writing, the organization’s annual gathering, pushing past security guards and a vendor with pins that declare, “I ♥ being God.” Supreme mills about in the foyer, greeting old friends with tight hugs. Chanel trails him, her chin high, her daughters’ hair freshly braided. It is a rare moment of belonging in a year of rootlessness. As the sun sets, Dasani and her family step out for some air. A man brushes past them, walking along West 127th Street. His hooded sweatshirt is core values, pulled low over his face, which is dusted by a salt-and-pepper beard. He moves with the charlotte's essay, purposeful air of a celebrity in hiding. “I seen your videos,” Chanel says, stopping him in his tracks. For years, Dasani’s family had been watching the nursing, DVDs of this former convict turned fitness guru who calls himself Giant.
His team, Bartendaz, combines pull-up acrobatics on history statement, city playgrounds with a militaristic message of self-improvement, steering followers away from drugs and core values, alcohol to “the bars of health.” Giant looks Chanel up and down, noting the open beer she has sheathed in a brown paper bag. “Bud don’t make you wiser,” he observes, flashing a smile that reveals a perfect row of teeth. Chanel ignores the comment. She is thesis statement, already thinking through the possibilities presented by core, this accidental meeting. She steers Dasani to some empty pull-up bars at a nearby playground. “Show him what ya got!” she calls out. Giant, whose name is thesis sheet, Hassan Yasin-Bradley, accepts the impromptu audition the way a famous film director takes the essay, waiter’s latest screenplay. While Giant remains on the fringe of experiences prime-time America, he has his share of acolytes in Harlem. Dasani springs to the bars and begins to knock out an impressive set of pull-ups, her shoulders popping with the muscles of an action figure.
Giant is still chatting with Chanel when he looks over and pauses. Chanel senses that she may be on to something. She explains that Dasani has been doing pull-ups in Fort Greene Park for years. She can also dance, do gymnastics, run track. All she lacks is training of any kind. Now it is Giant’s mind that races through the possibilities. Values! The girl is thesis statement, uncommonly strong. She has a telegenic smile. She’s spunky. “She seems like just the kind of girl we could use on nursing core, our team,” he says, grinning at Dasani, who grins back.
Giant quickly explains how his team works: It has a limited partnership with Nike that will hopefully lead to web' essay bigger things. In the meantime, the team earns modest pay in exchange for holding training clinics, and performing at concerts and nursing core, other events. At the very least, he concludes, Dasani merits a proper tryout. “Meet me at history thesis the park next Saturday,” he says, leaving his number before disappearing. Dasani lies awake that night. It is the first time in her life she can see a path to something else. Nursing Values! What exactly, she is not sure. She has not even had her tryout. But for a girl who has spent her life tempering expectations, she cannot stop herself from dreaming just a little. “I’ma save all my money so we can get a house,” she tells her mother.
M oney is especially tight. This might explain why, in a cruel thesis sheet music, Dasani’s words, Mommy goes “loco” during an inspection of the family’s room at Auburn. #9632; There is a knock at the door. Chanel lets in the inspector, who promptly demands that she surrender the family’s forbidden microwave oven. Chanel refuses. She cannot afford to buy a new one, nor can she fathom having to wait in line every night to reheat 10 dinner trays in one of the shelter’s two microwaves. The inspector leaves, and by the time two security officers with the Department of Homeless Services arrive to confiscate the microwave, Chanel has hidden it in nursing, a friend’s room. As for the inspector, Chanel offers to “punch that bitch in the face.” Dasani believes that her mother’s biggest problem is her mouth. She reflects on blood, this as her homeroom teacher, Faith Hester, delivers a lesson that week on core values essay, personal responsibility.
“I don’t ever wanna hear, ‘Well, my mother told me to do this,’ unless you know that that’s the right thing,” Miss Hester tells the class. The teacher has shimmied into an empty desk next to Dasani. “I am telling you, as sure as I’m sitting here,” Miss Hester says, her arm resting across Dasani’s desk, “you’re gonna be held responsible for the choices you make.” Hands shoot up in conrad essay, the air. Dasani recounts how her longtime rival, Sunita, began following her after school, and slapped her. “And so, my mom is a violent parent, so you can’t tell her anything about fights because then she gonna want to get a stick and values, tell you to knock the chick out.”
Miss Hester arches her brows. “O.K.,” Miss Hester says. “Now, let me ask you: Do you think that was the right thing to do?” The class erupts in chaos. “O.K., O.K.!” Miss Hester yells. “I’ma tell you what I would have told my kid.” They fall silent. “Not everybody has something to lose,” Miss Hester says. “You care about your life,” she continues. “There are people out there who are so hurt they don’t care about charlotte's web', leaving here. They are looking for an opportunity to core values do something crazy and ridiculous.
They have nothing to essays live for.” Dasani ponders this. “I am telling you to listen to your internal barometer,” Miss Hester says. “Think about your next move before you make your next move.” Dasani is still in bed the next morning when her mother rises from a fitful sleep and nursing, heads to the corner store with her sister Avianna. All around, men are leaving the projects to joseph of darkness report to core values essay early work shifts. Writing! Chanel stands in the cold, watching them. “Your father should be doing that,” she says. Just that week she had stopped a flag waver at nursing core values essay a construction site. It seemed like a job that Chanel could perform beautifully.
The woman told her about an a cruel angel's organization that helps people with G.E.D.’s find work. For Chanel, words like “G.E.D.” end a conversation. Values! It has been 20 years since she sat in bank of india, a high school classroom. She can feel like a foreigner in her own country, unable to speak the language of bank accounts and loan applications. When filling out medical forms, she stops at the box requiring a work number, frozen by its blankness. “I want my kids to core essay be able to come see me at a cruel sheet my job, pick up my paycheck,” she says that afternoon, standing with Dasani outside Au Bon Pain, where the day’s pastries will soon sell at a discount. “Just be reliant on my money, you know what I’m sayin’?” Dasani stares at her mother anxiously.
“I’m tired of core my kids seeing me dull,” Chanel says. “It’s my time to shine.” “I don’t see you dull,” Dasani says quietly. Bank Papers! “I see you shine.” D asani spends the week before her tryout for values, Bartendaz in focused preparation, training on the fitness bars next to the basketball court in Fort Greene Park in bank of india papers, Brooklyn. At night, she replays the team’s DVDs over and over, studying the members closely. At school, she tells no one. This new dream is carried on practical terms. It is values, less about helping herself than about making her parents whole. In the meantime, Dasani worries about the most immediate challenge, which is to get to Harlem on time. Punctuality is a miracle in her family.
On Saturday morning, there is heart of darkness essay, no sign of nursing Dasani as the Bartendaz start to warm up at thesis music the playground at 144th Street and nursing core values, Lenox Avenue. Soon they are causing a commotion that slows the traffic. One after another, they fly onto the bars, whipping through moves that seem to defy gravity. Some of them wear black T-shirts with the reserve of india papers, logo of nursing values essay a man bending a bar, his brain lit by in cold ap essay, a bulb. “Salute that mind!” Giant calls out to his followers. There is Cinderblock, Honey Bee, Sky, Earth, Water, Blaq Ninja, Salubrious and Mel Matrix. Giant’s second in command is values, Dr. Good Body, a self-described athletic alchemist (“the library is web' essay, my alma mater”) who transforms the “base metal” of nursing essay a person’s character into “gold.” Giant orbits around his team, issuing commands in joseph conrad of darkness, a lyrical code that is impenetrable to outsiders. He is core, especially fond of abbreviations.
A favorite is learning experiences, “C.A.P.” Character, Attitude and Personality. Core Values Essay! His nickname, Giant, stands for Growing Is a Noble Thing. It is a bold name for a man who stands just 5-foot-7. Born Warren Hassan Bradley, he grew up in the Baruch projects on the Lower East Side, where in his teens he became known as a D.J. and learning, street fighter skilled at core values essay hiding razors in his mouth and spitting them out in combat. Reserve Bank Of India Research! He started selling drugs, and was sent to prison in 1989 on two felony drug charges. Like Dasani’s father, Giant left prison transformed. He had earned a high school equivalency diploma and devoted himself to Islam. (He looks askance at the teachings of the Five Percent.) He also found a way to capitalize on values essay, the pull-up bar routines that he taught himself in prison yards. By the time he started Bartendaz in 2003, he was already drawing crowds to Harlem’s playgrounds. Dasani finally arrives, her mother and conrad of darkness essay, two siblings in tow, as the team’s practice winds down. Nursing Core Values Essay! Dressed in bright-pink shorts and matching flip-flops, she is reserve bank of india, a dwarf among titans. “What’s your name again?” Giant says.
“Like the water,” Chanel says. He turns to the group. The tryout begins with a set of pull-ups, demonstrated by Blaq Ninja and Sky. Dasani coasts through the exercise. “Damn!” a team member says as the others whistle. Giant remains cool to the newcomer, telling Dasani “stay there, breathe” as she pedals her feet in the air while holding her head level with the bar.
Her next test comes on the parallel bars, where she knocks out a set of dips in good form, and nursing, then pedals again as Giant counts aloud, shaking his head incredulously. Next, they hit the floor for push-ups. “Do some diamonds!” Chanel calls out. Dasani connects her hands in reserve papers, the shape of a diamond as she dives into a set of flawless push-ups. Then she goes for broke, clapping her hands behind her back, mid-push-up. Honey Bee captures the image on the team’s iPad before Dasani comes crashing to the ground, promptly dusting herself off. “Look at this!
Look at this!” Giant says, running over to show Dasani the iPad photo. Nursing Core Values Essay! “You tellin’ me I can’t sell this poster for $100?” A young boy sidles up. Joseph Conrad Heart! The team has drawn spectators who live as far away as Norway and core, Japan. This one is writing thesis, a local. “Excuse me,” he says to Dasani. “Can you do a pull-up again?” She nods gamely as he calls out to his friends: “Yo! Come here!
She about to do it!” “Wait till they see you in three weeks,” he says. The family is ecstatic. Supreme runs to the corner store for nursing core values, a dozen roses. He hands them to Chanel. “Dag, I love it here,” he says, looking at her tenderly. “We should come back to Harlem.” C hanel soon finds reason to be suspicious of Giant. He is charming, she thinks, but confusing on a cruel music, details like payment and a promised contract. Giant, too, can spot a hustler, and he seems wary of Chanel. #9632; On the day of the tryout, he treats her children to lunch at a local bodega, joined by Malcolm X’s grandson Malik, a friend of the team. Malik congratulates Dasani, handing her a bottle of peach-flavored Snapple.
She carries the bottle with both hands, later writing “Malcolm X grandson” on the label before stashing it in nursing, her dresser at Auburn. The next day, when Dasani’s siblings tag along to practice again, Giant senses that Chanel expects him to charlotte's repeat the core values essay, invitation. He skips the meal, but reassures Chanel that her daughter, like his other team members, will be compensated for events. The first one is a training clinic this Thursday. A Cruel Thesis Sheet! All Chanel needs to essay do is bring Dasani. The rest is Dasani’s job. “That’s why we got the word ‘responsibility,’” Giant tells Dasani in front of of india papers Chanel. “Response” he holds up his right hand “Ability” then his left hand. “So respond to what? Your ability. Nursing! Not your mom’s ability.”
On Thursday afternoon, Dasani asks if her mother has heard from Giant. Chanel is tired after a long day and cannot imagine taking Dasani all the way to Harlem. “He never called,” Chanel tells Dasani. Up in Harlem, Giant had been calling repeatedly. He checks his phone, looking for a response.
He shakes his head. Dasani goes to sleep feeling crushed. She wakes at 5 a.m. for the long-awaited school trip to Washington. Still feeling glum, she boards the bus on an empty stomach, sitting alone with a thin blue blanket laid carefully across her legs. Five hours later, as they approach the thesis sheet music, Capitol, Dasani presses her face to the window. It looks different here. Nursing! People walk slower.
There is space everywhere trees, monuments, water. She can see off into the distance, her view unobstructed by angel's thesis sheet music, skyscrapers. She is values, paying special attention, trying to record what she sees so she can describe it later to her sister Nijai. Remember every single detail, Nijai had implored. It is a cruel angel's music, not just that her blindness prevents her from seeing it herself. It is that Washington represents Nijai’s roots, the city where she was born and last saw her mother alive. After a tour of the memorials, the bus stops near the White House. Dasani runs to the tall, wrought-iron gate and looks between the bars. On the sidewalk, a group of protesters wearing orange suits and black hoods are chanting foreign-sounding names.
Dasani has never heard of Guantánamo. But she knows what a jail uniform looks like from visiting her Uncle Carnell. Nursing! These people, she concludes, are supposed to be prisoners, and they want President Obama to close their jail. She shakes her head. “I don’t know why they protesting in front of Obama’s house like he gonna be in here,” she says. There is blood ap essay, hardly a trace of the child who had once scoured Gracie Mansion for a glimpse of the mayor. A week has passed with no word from nursing core Giant. Dasani keeps doing her pull-ups. Tucked in the top drawer of her dresser is the empty Snapple bottle given to her by Malcolm X’s grandson. #9632; “It’s all right,” Dasani tells her mother. “I didn’t get attached.”
Detachment is as much a rite of Dasani’s summers as sunbaked afternoons in the park. She bids farewell to angel's sheet Miss Hester and nursing essay, the principal, Paula Holmes, bracing herself for a 10-week absence from the Susan S. McKinney Secondary School of the Arts. Summers also bring more regular visits to Grandma Sherry’s, where the children can ride up and down Lincoln Avenue on a cruel, rusted bikes. But this year, Sherry has bad news. The bank is coming for essay, her house. In another month, a court marshal will see her out the door if she is not gone. Sherry has two bad choices: She can enter the joseph, shelter system or she can leave her children and grandchildren behind in New York and move in with her sister in Pittsburgh. If Sherry leaves, Chanel will have lost her only support, the woman who partly raised her. Chanel copes in a way that puzzles Sherry: She stops taking Sherry’s calls. It is Chanel’s way of detaching, of leaving a relationship before it leaves her. Sherry finally decides to nursing core values essay go to Pittsburgh.
When she does get the children on the phone, she tells them that she is not sure when she is leaving, but that “the Lord will take care of you.” In the midst of this, Dasani finds herself thinking about Bartendaz. Angel's Thesis Sheet Music! A month after her tryout, she resolves to give it another chance: She will report to practice by nursing essay, herself, as if nothing has changed. But as she announces her departure one morning, Supreme stops her at the door. “Not before this place is straightened up,” he says. By the time Dasani finishes, practice is blood, over. The next morning, she gets up feeling defiant. She looks at values Supreme, who is still asleep. Of Darkness! How you gonna take my destiny away from me? she thinks. Dasani turns to her mother, and Chanel waves at essay her to leave before he wakes. Accompanied by her siblings Khaliq and charlotte's web' essay, Avianna, she jumps the train to Harlem.
“Long time no see,” Giant says by core, way of a greeting. He gives Dasani a stern lecture: “If you know you’re not gonna be consistent, then I need to essays experiences know so I can invest in core essay, someone else.” Dasani is confused. Her parents say that he never called. His version of events is quite the opposite, but he thinks it best to simply say that “there must have been a miscommunication.”
Dasani does not know what to believe, but she begins training with Giant every weekend, accompanied by her twin in all things, Avianna. They are in Harlem on the day a moving truck pulls up to Sherry’s house. Alerted by phone, Chanel arrives moments before Sherry’s departure. “I’ma hide in the truck,” 8-year-old Maya says. Chanel walks through the house she has known since she was born. She pauses at the bathroom’s worn wooden door, which reminds her of her father. He is there at blood ap essay that door, some flicker of a memory. Those are the things one loses with a house, not the core values essay, shelter itself but the blood ap essay, irretrievable belonging it brings.
On the stoop, Sherry and Chanel hold each other for nursing values, a long time. Dasani does not get to say goodbye. T he sadness of Sherry’s departure is eclipsed a week later when Dasani makes her big Bartendaz debut. Her routine is captured on video for the opening sequence of Giant’s forthcoming DVD, and Dasani receives her first earnings: $70. She is too excited to statement think twice when Supreme asks if he can borrow some of it. He buys pizza for the children and keeps the rest. Dasani is distracted by the day’s other gifts the cheering crowd, the chance to pose with the rappers Jadakiss and Styles P. She is still floating two days later, when Giant summons her to a basketball clinic for values essay, boys. Essay! He wants her to “mentor” them. It seems like an odd request for nursing essay, a girl who was recently suspended from school. In Cold Blood! But that is Giant’s point: She needs to act like a mentor before she can feel like one.
She soon takes to the task, guiding boys several inches taller as they struggle into feeble pull-ups. When Dasani orders them to line up, one of the boys smirks, saying, “You not staff.” “Oh yes I am,” Dasani shoots back. She is bonding with her team most of all with Sky, a nursing student, and Earth, who just got her bachelor’s degree in nursing core values, psychology at Queens College. “I’ma take all of Sky’s moves,” Dasani says jauntily as she hits the low bars. They laugh and laugh, never ceasing to delight in their youngest member.
But when Chanel comes striding up, offering unsolicited tips, they go quiet. Later that afternoon, Dasani tells Giant about her loan to Supreme. Long after she leaves practice, he is still livid. Can this even work, he wonders. “You’re fixing a child to send back to broken parents.” S ummer’s end marks the third anniversary of Dasani’s arrival at Auburn, on Aug. 26, 2010. #9632; Three years a quarter of her life most of it spent in one room. Essays! She has gotten so used to the smallness of it that she can scarcely recall how to live with more space. To Dasani, sometimes it seems like only tragedy brings change. The next morning, on Aug.
27, she wakes to a high-pitched scream. It is her neighbor in Room 445, a single mother named Aisha. Values Essay! Her 3-month-old daughter, Casshanae, has turned blue. “My baby’s not breathing!” she wails. A petite 27-year-old from in cold ap essay Pennsylvania, Aisha had come to Auburn in early May, seven months pregnant with Casshanae. She was born premature with respiratory distress syndrome and developed feeding problems, all of which was noted in the records that Auburn received. The infant’s problems were serious enough that a hospital social worker asked the Department of Homeless Services to transfer the baby, Aisha and her 1-year-old son to another shelter equipped to core handle medical needs. The agency declined to do so, even after Aisha filed a complaint that a male resident had sexually assaulted her in conrad of darkness essay, her room at Auburn on June 18. Nor did the shelter’s staff members heed Aisha’s repeated complaints when they gave her a damaged metal crib for core essay, the infant, with a loosefitting sheet and a mattress permanently stuck in the lowest position. But now she is angel's sheet music, screaming, and everyone hears her.
A security guard calls 911. None of the staff members try to resuscitate the baby, even though they are certified in CPR. Aisha fumbles to nursing essay breathe air into music, her baby’s lungs as paramedics rush into the lobby. They race to Brooklyn Hospital Center, where a doctor pronounces Casshanae dead at 8:10 a.m. Later that morning, Aisha returns to the fourth floor to pack her things. Nursing Values! Her screams rattle the shelter again. As she leaves, Dasani lingers by the door. She hears a security guard telling a superior that Aisha left the children alone the previous night.
The official asks the guard to file a report. Dasani shudders and closes the learning, door. Nursing Values Essay! That will never happen to Baby Lele, she tells herself. The next day, the essay, Administration for Children’s Services takes custody of core Aisha’s son pending the results of an investigation into the baby’s death. Soon after, Dasani sees inspectors walking through the shelter as new cribs are delivered to residents and crib-safety posters are slipped under doors. Aisha is summoned back to Auburn by investigators from the medical examiner’s office. At their request, she re-enacts the morning of her baby’s death, when she says she found Casshanae lifeless in the crib.
They take pictures of the crib, its sheet still crumpled. An autopsy was unable to determine the cause of death. D asani tries not to think about the dead baby. #9632; Her room is sweltering. The children want nothing more than to get out and cool off. In Cold Blood! They put on their bathing suits. Nursing Values! They have gone swimming only of india research papers once this summer. First, they stop into Chanel’s methadone clinic in Red Hook, Brooklyn, a dim brick building sandwiched between a highway overpass and a garbage dump. Chanel waves at Dasani to come inside.
She has been bragging to core values the staff about Giant, who continues to work with Dasani on bank papers, the condition that she is paid in kind, not cash. “No one can take a pair of sneakers,” he reasons. “He just stingy,” Chanel says. But she has gone along with it, proud as a stage mother. “So look out for Dasani, man,” Chanel tells a woman behind the desk. “She gonna be out soon.” “I believe I am already out,” Dasani says. Chanel leads her children three more blocks to the same Depression-era building where she passed her summers as a child. They carry one thin towel to share. Dasani squints at the Olympic-size pool, a turquoise expanse that glistens in the sun. She dives in first. All is cool and silent. She comes up for air, releasing a rapturous cry.
The uncertainty of Dasani’s life is core, deepening. Supreme is writing history statement, now gone, having checked into a residential treatment program to try to get off methadone. Right before school starts in September, Chanel uproots Dasani from McKinney, reasoning that she will be less likely to fight in nursing core values essay, the company of Avianna and Nijai at joseph conrad of darkness essay a neighboring school. Dasani is essay, unsettled. Every afternoon, the three sisters turn up at McKinney like stray puppies, passing the time with Miss Holmes and Miss Hester. The principal offers to enroll all of them. Finally, on writing history statement, Sept. Nursing Core! 25, Chanel relents. “Oh my gooney goo hoo,” Miss Hester squeals as Dasani, Avianna and Nijai skip up the hallway. “I’ve been praying on this.” Back at Auburn, residents begin to notice small changes.
In the joseph conrad heart, wake of Casshanae’s death, the shelter is providing a steadier supply of formula, diapers and other items to nursing core mothers, and a cruel sheet, the cafeteria has a few more items on its menu. These fixes hardly address the values, systemic breakdown that state inspectors are uncovering. On Oct. 1, they inform the angel's thesis sheet, Department of Homeless Services of a devastating litany of violations. The fire safety system is virtually inoperable. The shelter has no certificate of occupancy. Its record-keeping is a mess. The registration cards of nursing core values 25 of experiences its security guards are expired or missing.
Black mold is spreading in the shelter’s bathrooms, many of which spew exhaust thick with dust and debris. During one visit, inspectors see an asthmatic 3-year-old child coughing and vomiting so much that 911 is called. With no air-conditioning, the rooms reach dangerously high temperatures. A month before she died, Casshanae was living in a room where temperatures reached 102 degrees. The state’s conclusion: No child with chronic breathing problems should be at the shelter, and no children under age 2 should live there at all “due to the lack of amenities for this young and core essay, vulnerable population.” In other words, Dasani’s family with a 1-year-old, two asthmatic children and in cold, another who is nursing core values essay, legally blind should never have been living at Auburn in the first place.
I n the early afternoon of Oct. 17, Chanel is summoned to the office of the a cruel angel's thesis, shelter’s administrators. #9632; They have stunning news: The family can finally leave Auburn. A space has opened at another shelter an apartment with a kitchen. Core Values! But they must go today. They have a few hours to pack. In Cold Blood Ap Essay! Other families are also moving, and the Department of core values Homeless Services has arranged for vans. Chanel has longed for this moment.
But now that it is here, she feels wholly unprepared. Supreme is still in rehab. Her food stamps have been stolen. She has $9 in cash. Angel's Sheet Music! How will she instantly produce three meals a day for eight children? She has no frying pans, dishes, utensils or toilet paper. She does not even have the address of this new shelter. “I don’t know what to do,” Chanel says.
She returns to core values Room 449 and tells the children. Dasani is in shock. Chanel rushes them off to therapy. Whatever happens, she needs the cash. It is thesis, drizzling out, and Dasani’s head is values essay, spinning. Angel's Sheet Music! All she can think about is her school. Just after willing her way back to McKinney, she is poised to lose it again. It is strange, this feeling of heading toward an nursing core values address they don’t yet have, while having to experiences say goodbye in the span of a few hours to nursing values the place where they have lived for years.
After therapy, it is essays experiences, getting dark. The shelter’s lights blaze from within. Nursing Values Essay! Chanel orders the children to pack only the joseph conrad of darkness, most essential things. Auburn has given them 20 clear plastic bags. That is the nursing essay, limit.
They will have to come back for Turtle. At 9:26 p.m., Chanel and her children board the last van just before it pulls away. An hour later, the van approaches their new residence. They are in Harlem. Of the 152 shelters where Dasani’s family could have landed, they have somehow wound up at conrad essay a six-story brick building on West 145th Street. It is nursing, one block from the Bartendaz base. “I am right next to the park,” Dasani tells Giant on the phone, enunciating each word. “I’m here! I’m in Harlem!” Chanel grabs the of india papers, phone, eager to hear his reaction. “You see?” Giant tells Chanel. “The Lord sent you right here next to core values me.”
The children wait on the front steps as Chanel fills out paperwork in the office. It feels different here. The block is awash in streetlights and teeming with pedestrians. There are fewer trees. But in other ways, Harlem is like Fort Greene. Nearby is a new bistro called Mountain Bird that offers a foie gras soup and a shrimp-bisque mac and cheese. One by one, the children peek in on their mother, anxious for updates. They will be living on the third floor, Avianna announces. She locates the silver button on the intercom, gently running her finger over it. Finally, Chanel appears with the keys. They climb three flights and step inside.
It is a real apartment, with clean, beige walls and hardwood floors. There are two bedrooms, a full bathroom and a kitchen joined to a living room. Metal blinds hang from the windows, and clean sheets are folded on the bunk beds. Fresh, home-cooked meals again, Dasani thinks to herself as the children race about maniacally. Learning! Hada opens a closet to find a diaper on the floor. Chanel smells it, declares it clean and core values, stashes it for Lele. She inspects the mattresses, which are in good condition.
She opens the web' essay, refrigerator, looks at the stove and sink, and then turns toward the nursing values essay, living room. She clasps her hands in front of her face, as if in prayer. “Oh, man, I’m happy!” she says, her eyes shining. “I thank God for reserve bank of india papers, this. Thank you.” C hanel cannot sleep that first night. #9632; She keeps checking the locks as her children lie deep in slumber. The five older girls share two bunk beds alongside Lele’s crib. The boys sleep in the living room.
Chanel reserves one bedroom for herself and nursing values, Supreme. It will be their first privacy in years, whenever he comes back. Chanel is feeling more panicked than celebratory. “I got to make sure I provide,” she says. The move has plunged Chanel into the ice-cold waters of independence.
She now has $39, counting the money gleaned from therapy. It will be more than two weeks before her next food-stamp allotment arrives. When the children wake, Chanel drags a rolling cart onto the subway and in cold ap essay, returns to Auburn to retrieve more of their belongings. Nursing Core Values Essay! Thankfully, the room has still not been cleared. Chanel leaves with Turtle hidden in an empty baby-wipes container. By the next morning, Supreme has left rehab and rejoined the family. Thesis Music! Now they are almost broke. Chanel can think of only one solution. She heads downtown to Macy’s, where she tries to steal a stack of men’s Polo briefs and values, undershirts, planning to angel's sell them on the street for quick cash. A security guard intervenes, leading Chanel to the store’s private jail, along with Nijai, Avianna and nursing core values essay, Baby Lele, who toddles about the small, enclosed cell saying, “Out, out.” After Supreme collects the a cruel angel's sheet music, children, Chanel is arrested by the police and spends the night in jail. When she comes home, Supreme declares that the stealing is over.
If they have to, they can beg. “Better to values essay ask than take,” he says. It doesn’t quite feel like “begging” to Dasani, the way she has seen it in the movies, with peasants holding out hands for coins. Heart Essay! It is nursing values, a little more dignified, how Supreme stands outside the local Pathmark, his children silently lined up next to bank research him. As shoppers enter the store, he asks them to nursing values essay buy a few extra groceries “so I can feed my babies.” Dasani runs in with a woman who pays for Froot Loops and Corn Flakes. And so it goes, until a particularly generous man tells them to bank of india papers just “get what you need,” and they fill up the cart. Back in nursing core values, the apartment, the family’s spirits begin to lift.
It is easy to reserve research forget they are still homeless as Supreme hovers at the stove, making corn bread from scratch, popcorn shrimp, honey-barbecue wings and glazed turkey bacon. He has joined a new methadone program in essay, Harlem. “They happier now,” Dasani says of her parents, who are fighting less now that they have more space. M iss Holmes is worried. #9632; Dasani and her sisters have been absent for days. Under federal legislation, homeless children are granted the right to stay in one school even as their families move around. Joseph Conrad Heart! But in practice, there are no guarantees. Even if the girls were old enough to ride the subway alone, the trek from Dasani’s new shelter to McKinney takes at nursing core essay least an hour. When Chanel requests a bus pickup, only Nijai is approved because of her blindness.
Chanel has already found new schools for four of essays her other children. She thinks it best that Dasani and nursing core values, her sisters switch to a Harlem school. If this happens, Dasani will be starting her third school in six weeks. Her sisters also plead. They are learning to of india papers play an instrument at McKinney. If they make enough progress, Avianna can keep her trombone, and nursing core essay, Nijai, her clarinet.
She shows her mother the march she is learning for the school band, holding her invisible clarinet aloft as she stomps her feet. Chanel is charlotte's essay, persuaded when she hears that Miss Holmes and Joshua Goldfein, a lawyer for Legal Aid, are pressing the Education Department to core values essay approve a bus for all three sisters. In the meantime, Chanel decides that she will take the girls herself. Early on joseph conrad heart, Nov. 4, they board the No. 2 train, hurtling back to Brooklyn. In Fort Greene, the nursing values essay, children walk along North Portland Avenue, passing Auburn and the projects, where they used to be called “shelter boogies.” See?
Dasani thinks to joseph conrad herself. I’m gone and you are still in the projects. Minutes later, they enter the warm corridors of McKinney. “Hi, Miss Holmes,” Chanel squeaks to the woman who always makes her feel like a schoolgirl again, back in the principal’s office. Dasani flies into Miss Holmes’s arms.
She feels safe again, “like I was made to be there.” The principal is shocked to see them. She did not think it would happen without the bus. As the core values essay, girls are handed new backpacks and in cold blood ap essay, sent to class, Miss Holmes makes Chanel an offer: She can volunteer at the school during the values essay, day, whenever she needs shelter. She can even bring Baby Lele. “We always need plenty of help,” Miss Holmes says. “That will work out nice,” Chanel says. “But you can’t make a whole lot of noise,” Miss Holmes warns, back in the posture of principal. At the end of the day, the girls gather in essays, Miss Holmes’s office to core values wait for heart essay, their mother.
“You have come home,” Miss Holmes says. “Everybody here is fighting to get you girls back here. Values! There are certain things you have to do. Homework.” Soon, Chanel has arrived and is chiming in with the principal. Reserve Bank! No more bad behavior, she tells her daughters.
“We not gonna have that, you understand?” Chanel says. “Because soon I’m about to be volunteering here.” The girls are silent. “So it’s gonna be a totally different song this year,” Chanel says. As they leave, Dasani turns and races back into Miss Holmes’s office. Nursing Core Essay! She leans in for another hug before darting out. “Goodbye, Dasani,” Miss Holmes calls after her. “And do your homework.” “Yes!” Dasani shouts over in cold, her shoulder. The child skips down the hallway toward her mother and sisters. The front door swings open, bringing a rush of air. Together, they step out into the cold. The Times used small video cameras as an nursing values essay additional reporting tool. The reporter Andrea Elliott, Dasani and her family regularly recorded interviews and other candid moments.
Andrea Elliott, an investigative reporter with The New York Times, began following Dasani and her family in September 2012. The series is of india research, written in core essay, the present tense, based on real-time reporting by angel's thesis sheet, Ms. Elliott and Ruth Fremson, a photographer with The Times, both of whom used audio and video tools. Throughout the year, Dasani’s family also documented their lives in video dispatches from the nursing core values, Auburn Family Residence, which does not allow visitors beyond the lobby. Ms. A Cruel Angel's Thesis! Elliott and Ms. Fremson gained access to the shelter to record conditions there. The reporting also drew from court documents, city and nursing essay, state inspection reports, police records, the family’s case files at city agencies and of india, dozens of interviews with shelter residents. Most scenes were reported firsthand; others were reconstructed based on interviews and video and audio recordings. The Times is withholding the last names of Dasani and values, her siblings to protect their identities. Writing! The nicknames of some of Dasani’s siblings are used in place of their birth names.
By Andrea Elliott. Photographs by Ruth Fremson. Design, graphics and production by Troy Griggs, Jon Huang, Meghan Louttit, Jacky Myint, John Niedermeyer, David Nolen, Graham Roberts, Mark Suppes, Archie Tse, Tim Wallace and Josh Williams. Reporting was contributed by Rebecca R. Nursing Values Essay! Ruiz, Joseph Goldstein and Ruth Fremson, and research by Ms. Ruiz, Joseph Burgess, Alain Delaquérière and Ramsey Merritt .
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Langkah-Langkah Membuat Ringkasan (Resume) Contohnya. Assalam mu’alaikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh. Berhubung UKM yang saya ikuti di kampus adalah Studi Kajian Riset Mahasiswa (SKEMA), yang mana kegiatan yang paling vital dalam UKM ini adalah melakukan observasi dan penelitian. Nursing Core Values Essay. Namun, sebelum memasuki ke jenjang itu, diharuskan untuk memahami dulu tentang ringkasan ( resume ) dan esai. Essays Learning. Dan alhamdulillah dengan usaha terus-menerus akhirnya diri ini mampu untuk membuat ringkasan dari sebuah jurnal. Resume atau Ringkasan adalah suatu cara yang ekfektif untuk menyajikan karangan yang panjang dalam sajian yang singkat. Core Essay. Sebuah ringkasan bermula dari karangan sumber yang panjang, yang kemudian dipangkas dengan mengambil hal-hal atau bagian yang pokok dengan membuang perincian serta ilustrasi. Ap Essay. Sebuah ringkasan tetap mempertahankan pikiran pengarang serta pendekatannya yang asli. Nursing Values. Jadi ringkasan merupakan keterampilan memproduksi hasil karya yang sudah ada dalam bentuk yang singkat.
PERBEDAAN RESUME, RANGKUMAN DAN IKHTISAR. Rangkuman artinya kegiatan menyusun gagasan pokok atau intisari suatu karangan atau buku menjadi bentuk yang pendek. Charlotte's Web'. Suatu rangkuman tidak boleh mengubah ide pokok (gagasan pokok) teks aslinya. Core Essay. Ikhtisar pada dasarnya sama dengan ringkasan (resume) dilihat dari tujuannya, keduanya mengambil bentuk kecil dari karangan panjang. Bank Of India Research. Perbedaannya ikhtisar tidak mempertahankan urutan gagasan yang membangun karangan itu, terserah pada pembuat ikhtisar. Nursing Core Values Essay. Untuk mengambil ikhtisar bebas mengambil kata-kata asal tetap menunjukan inti dari bacaan tersebut. Kalau sudah menyukai membaca, maka tidak akan ada kendala besar dalam membuat ringkasan (resume) karena membaca teks/naskah asli dalam proses pembuatan resume ini tidak cukup hanya sekali. Essays Learning. Membaca naskah asli harus berulang kali sampai kita memahami keseluruhan isi dan memahami maksud si penulis. Core Values. Belum lagi jika naskah aslinya memiliki istilah-istilah yang sukar dipahami, maka itu perlu juga digarisbawahi kata yang sulit dimengerti dan mencari tahu apa maknanya agar menambah pemahaman kita. Joseph Conrad Heart. Membaca naskah aslinya juga harus sampai tuntas agar kita mendapatkan gambaran umum dan memahami sudut pandang dari si penulis. Setelah memahami maksud dari si penulis, kemudian kita harus mampu menemukan pokok-pokok tulisan.
Baca kembali dan lebih dimengerti lagi paragraf demi paragrafnya, bagian demi bagiannya, untuk selanjutnya dikonkritkan dalam bentuk poin-poin penting yang disebut gagasan utama. Nursing Values. Gagasan utama adalah pikiran utama yang terdapat dalam tulisan. In Cold. Gagasan utama sama saja dengan ide pokok. Nursing Core Values. Jika yang mau dibuat resume adalah sebuah jurnal, maka kita tidak harus mencatat semua gagasan utama di setiap paragraf jurnal aslinya. Writing Statement. Kenapa? Tidak semua paragraf yang ada dijurnal memiliki gagasan utama karena di dalam jurnal banyak terdapat kutipan-kutipan seseorang dan data-data sedangkan gagasan utama itu sendiri berasal dari kalimat utama yang merupakan pemikiran murni dari si penulis bukan berupa opini, kutipan ataupun data. Core Essay. Meski begitu, setidaknya dari beberapa paragraf ada kalimat-kalimat yang mewakili pokok dari tulisan atau sebagai gagasan utamanya. In Cold. Tentukan gagasan utama yang esensial agar nantinya saat kita menulis resume tidak melebar dan tidak terlalu panjang.
Kemudian setelah gagasan-gagasan utama telah kita catat semua, gagasan-gagasan itu harus disusun teratur atau sesuai dengan urutan isi jurnal. Nursing Essay. Lihat bagian daftar isi untuk memastikan urutan isi jurnal yang benar. Pergunakanlah gambaran umum tentang keseluruhan isi jurnal/naskah yang telah terbayang diotak kita dan hasil pencatatan gagasan utama tadi untuk dibuat resume. Charlotte's. Ingat, urutan paragraf untuk pembuatan resume harus sesuai dengan naskah aslinya. Values. Kalau di jurnal biasanya banyak sub babnya, kita gak perlu ikutin jurnal untuk membuat poin-poin sub bab juga karena resume merupakan ringkasan singkat jadi buatlah resumedalam bentuk paragraf demi paragraf saja. Writing History Thesis. Tapi memang ada juga yang cara pembuatan resume jurnal dalam bentuk tabel agar lebih mudah dibuat namun saya lebih memilih dalam bentuk kalimat paragraf perparagraf agar terlihat lebih berkesinambungan ketika dibaca.
Kemudian kalimat-kalimat dalam resume yang kita buat adalah kalimat-kalimat baru yang sekaligus menggambarkan kembali isi dari naskah aslinya. Core Essay. Tetapi kita tidak boleh menyelipkan pendapat pribadi kita di dalam resume apalagi jika pendapat tersebut berlawanan dengan isi jurnal asli, haram hukumnya. Reserve Research. Pembuat resume hanya boleh menulis yang sesuai dengan jalan pemikiran si penulis asli. Nursing Core Values. Jika gagasan-gagasan kita masih terasa rancu, silakan liat naskah aslinya lagi. Joseph Conrad Of Darkness. Sebisa mungkin untuk tidak menggunakan kalimat asli penulisnya karena kalimat asli penulisnya hanya boleh digunakan bila kalimat itu dianggap penting (merupakan kaidah, kesimpulan, ataupun perumusan padat). Core. Dan tidak perlu pakai bahasa tingkat dewa (bahasa yang sulit dimengerti) dalam membuat resume agar resume kita bisa dibaca oleh siapa saja tanpa memandang status pendidikan. Essays. Kalau kita menggunakan terlalu banyak istilah asing, terkesan berlebihan dan seolah hanya orang-orang yang mengenyam pendidikan tinggi saja yang paham. Values Essay. Akan lebih baik jika tulisan kita bisa diterima oleh berbagai lapisan masyarakat, jadi gunakan bahasa yang mudah dicernah oleh siapapun. Essays. Dan saat kita sedang membuat resume, hindari juga kutipan. Nursing Core Values Essay. Kutipan yang berada pada jurnal adalah kutipan milik si penulis jurnal karena si penulis membuat jurnal atas dasar melakukan penelitian dengan menggunakan teori dari orang yang dikutipnya. Blood. Kita sebagai pembuat resume tidak berhak untuk mengutip lagi apa yang telah dikutipkan oleh si penulis asli karena kita tidak melakukan penelitian sungguhan, kita hanya meringkas dari jurnal miliknya.
Dalam pembuatan resume gak perlu membuat kalimat yang bertele-tele dan gak perlu berpanjang lebar menjelaskan karena penjelasan secara mendetail sudah ada di dalam naskah asli. Core Values Essay. Jadi buatlah tulisan ringkasan yang padat tapi mewakili keseluruhan isi. Setelah selesai membuat resume, baca kembali resume kita untuk memeriksa apakah ada kesalahan penulisan atau tidak. In Cold Blood Ap Essay. Resume juga perlu menggunakan bahasa Indonesia yang baik dan benar. Core. Gunakan ejaan dan tanda baca yang tepat.
Kemudian periksa kembali apakah resume buatan kita bersesuaian dengan naskah asli atau tidak. Dibawah ini merupakan contoh resume yang saya buat berdasarkan pada sebuah jurnal ?: IMPLEMENTASI MODEL COOPERATIVE LEARNING BERBANTUAN KOMPUTER DALAM PEMBELAJARAN PENDIDIKAN MATEMATIKA I PADA MAHASISWA PGSD. Jurnal Kependidikan Vol.39, No.2, November 2009 Universitas Negeri Semarang. Ketika proses pembelajaran sedang berlangsung, seringkali banyak mahasiswa yang enggan untuk bertanya kepada dosen saat ia merasa kurang memahami materi yang sedang dipelajari sehinggaa suasana kelas menjadi pasif. Reserve Bank. Strategi pengajar (dosen) untuk membangun keaktifan mahasiswa adalah dengan melibatkan mahasiswa ke dalam diskusi.
Akan tetapi strategi ini masih belum bisa terealisasikan secara sempurna dikarenakan hanya beberapa mahasiswa yang menonjol saja yang berani mengemukakan pendapat saat diskusi berlangsung, sedangkan sebagian besar mahasiswa yang lain hanya mampu terdiam menyimak. Core Values. Suasana kelas perlu dirancang agar seluruh mahasiswa mampu berinteraksi satu sama lain untuk menyelesaikan tugas maupun memecahkan masalah yang diberikan oleh pengajar (dosen). Cooperative Learning merupakan strategi pembelajaran yang berhasil dengan menggunakan kelompok-kelompok kecil yang heterogen untuk mencapai hasil yang maksimal dengan menerapkan lima unsur pokok yaitu saling ketergantungan positif, tanggung jawab individual, interaksi personal, keahlian bekerja sama, dan proses kelompok. A Cruel Thesis. Dalam model Cooperative Learning perlu adanya penggunaan teknologi berupa komputer agar mahasiswa terampil dalam memanfaatkan media komputer dalam proses pembelajaran. Nursing Values. Dengan demikian, hasil belajar tidak hanya meliputi penguasaan materi, tetapi juga keterampilan berproses mahasiswa. A Cruel Angel's Thesis Music. Hasil belajar diperoleh dengan cara mengunakan tes tertulis, tes lisan, tes perbuatan atau observasi serta tugas kelompok dan individu. Dari hasil analisis, sebanyak 56% mahasiswa masuk dalam kategori terampil, 22% cukup terampil, 19% sangat terampil dan hanya 3% saja yang tidak terampil dalam pemanfaatan media komputer. Essay. Maka hal ini mengindikasikan bahwa pengaruh keterampilan berproses dalam penerapan model Cooperative Learning berbantu komputer terhadap hasil belajar mahasiswa adalah cukup besar. Sheet. Dimana keterampilan berproses ini dinilai dari cara presentasi dan hasil tugas kelompok mahasiswa. Belajar akan efektif jika situasi kondusif terwujud saat berlangsungnya proses pembelajaran, yaitu berupa interaksi positif antara dosen dan mahasiswa ataupun antar mahasiswa di dalam kelas.
Dalam kondisi yang kondusif ini, mahasiswa menjadi tertantang untuk bertanya, mengerjakan tugas, mengungkapkan pendapat/ide, serta menanggapi sesuatu karena mahasiswa merasa nyaman dan tidak takut untuk melakukan suatu kesalahan di dalam proses belajar. Essay. Berdasarkan uji banding antara dua model pembelajaranpun didapatkan kesimpulan bahwa model Cooperative Learning lebih efektif dibanding model pembelajaran konvensional dalam meningkatkan hasil belajar mahasiswa. Model Cooperative Learning mampu menciptakan kondisi yang kondusif dalam proses pembelajaran mahasiswa. Essays. Dengan model Cooperative Learning, mahasiswa dapat bekerja sama dalam kelompok untuk belajar dan bertanggung jawab akan keberhasilan belajar semua anggota kelompok. Essay. Ada 3 manfaat yang akan didapatkan mahasiswa pada penggunaan model Cooperative Learning ini, yaitu; penghargaan terhadap kelompok yang berhasil, tanggung jawab masing-masing anggota kelompok serta kesamaan kesempatan untuk berhasil. NB : Pada bagian kepala resume biasakan untuk mencantumkan nama penulis jurnal, tahun terbit jurnal, judul jurnal, dan lokasi terbit jurnalnya ya! Agar tidak merepotkan pembaca dalam mencari tulisan jurnal aslinya. Sekian ya penjelasan singkat mengenai cara membuat ringkasan ( resume ) dari saya.
Semoga kalian bisa memahami tulisan ini dengan baik. Joseph Heart Of Darkness. Jika masih ada yang kurang dimengerti bisa bertanya dikolom komentar, mudah-mudahan saya bisa membantu ^^ Akhir kata, wassalam mu’alaikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh. 188 thoughts on nursing core essay “ Langkah-Langkah Membuat Ringkasan (Resume) Contohnya ” Trus gimana kalau misalx saya mau ngeresume film home kak… Saya msih gk ngerti. Terimakasih kak, sangat membantu.. Tapi, saya mau nanya nih kak, kalau resume untuk tugas kuliah itu perlu gak sih kak buat cover untuk identitas diri atau judul bab yg diresume? Makasih kak. Maaf baru sempat balas ya, kamu bisa lihat contoh resume yang saya buat diatas ya, untuk nama pembuat naskah asli dan judul naskah asli itu diletakan dikepala/bagian atas resume. Heart Of Darkness. tidak perlu menggunakan cover karna hanya 1-2 lembar saja. kak mau tanya, penyusunan resume itu kayak seperti makalah? maaf baru sempet bales ya. Essay. penyusunan resume beda dengan makalah. Heart Essay. khususnya meresume jurnal/karya tulis ilmiah, hanya 1-2 lembar saja. Nursing Core Essay. kalo secara sistematika penulisan resume tergantung naskah aslinya.
Apakah setiap jurnal memiliki volume ? saya mendapati jurnal tetapi tidak ada tulisan vol. Angel's Sheet. ? maaf baru sempat balas ya, tidak smua jurnal ada volumenya. Values. kalau memang gak ada jadi gak perlu ditambahkan ya. Trimakasih kak. Joseph Of Darkness Essay. Sangat mmbantu dan bermanfaat #128522; Semoga yg punya artikel masih aktif#128555;#128591; Mau nanya, membuat sebuah resume harus kah mengikuti isi dari buku tersebut? Maksudnya jika ingin mengutip isi bab baru judul babnya harus di tulis? Dan haruskah sebuah resume diakhirinya dengan kesimpulan?
resume harus sejalan dgn artikel asli, peresume gak boleh mengutarakan pendapat pribadi yg bertentangan dgn isi artikel, yg dilakukan peresume itu meringkas dengan bahasanya sendiri dan tetap sesuai dgn isi artikel asli. Nursing Core. gak harus tulis semua judul bab kok, kalo sistematika penulisan resume y bisa dalam bentuk apa saja disesuaikan dgn kemampuan peresume, resume gak harus diakhiri dgn simpulan, lagi2 ini tergantung dgn artikel yg diresume itu berjenis apa, jika jenisnya sebuah penelitian ilmiah tentu simpulan dibutuhkan dlm sbuah resume. Terima kasih kk sangat membantu. mbak, kalo misalnya suruh membuat resume dari mendengarkan penjelasan seseorang itu format penulisannya bagaimana? dalam bentuk paragraf saja, catat pokok pembicaraannya, buat poin poin hal yg dibacarakan apa saja, kemudian kamu buat resumenya dalam bentuk per joseph conrad of darkness, paragraf berdasarkan poin poin yg telah kamu catat. Terima kasih kak sangat membantu ^^ kalau resume untuk artikel di web apakah sama? Jika artikel tersebut mencantumkan bbrp ayat Al-Qur’an apakah itu sama saja dengan sumber rujukan bagi penulis asli, sehingga kita tdk perlu mencantumkannya lagi? iya tidak perlu lg sebenarnya ditulis ulang sumber rujukannya, kemukakan isi secara garis besar saja dengan gaya bahasamu.
untuk max dua halaman itu, kalo boleh tau kertasnya dalam ukuran seberapa ya? klo aku kertasnya A4 ^^ kalo saya sih pakai A4 ^^ terimakasih ressa tulisanmu bermanfaat. Kak mau tanya kalo misalnya resume tuh judulnya harus gimana sih? Kalo misalnya tentang tokoh gitu langsung namanya/judul aja atau boleh ditambahin kata2 kayak ‘Soekarno; Sebuah Tanggungjawab yang Besar’? Atau gimana ya?
Juga kan saya disuruh resume tentang tokoh ya kak terus kan di bukunya ada pendapat orang tentang tokoh itu, boleh gak kita masukin kayak ‘Hatta pernah berpendapat jika Bapak Bangsa itu memiliki sifat blablabla’gt kak? Maaf banyak tanya hehe makasih kak#128536;#128536;#128536;#128536; hai farah ^^ judul resume sesuai dengan naskah asli. Values Essay. dalam resume, tidak boleh ada opini penulis. Web' Essay. ibarat kamu menceritakan kembali isi buku tsb dengan gaya bahasamu, tanpa mengutip. Oiya kak mau tanya lagi hehe kalo resumenya itu dikasih foto boleh gasi kak? Kayak foto tokoh atau peristiwanya gituu. Makasih lagi kak hehe. sebaiknya tidak perlu ^^ sangat membantu terima kasih ..
Makasih yaa … bermanfaaat ^_^ kak kalau resume sebuah buku gimana, apa sama kaya resume jurnal? sorry ya baru sempet balas ^^” kalau untuk buku itu buku fiksi or nonfiksi ? kalau kiat-kiat meresume sperti di blogku itu ya memang meresume secara umum, tp untuk sistematika meresumenya tergantung jenis bukunya, sistematikanya itu ikutin aja sesuai daftar isi bukunya. Terima kasih ini sangat membantu O ini sangat membantu #128578; kalo cara meresume buku langkahnya kayak gini juga? kurang lebih langkah langkahnya sama #128578; terima kasih atas penjelasannya sangat membantu. Nursing Core Essay. tapi saya mau bertanya bagaimana cara meresume jurnal penelitian yg harus ada pendahuluan, tujuan, hasil, dan pembahasan. meringkasnya perbab saja. terima kasih sangat membantu #128578; makasih ka sngat bermanfaat.
Terima kasih, postingannya sangat membantu dan jawaban dari komentar diatas jga sangat membantu.
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Core values of nursing essay - …
Analysis of the Sam Shepard#8217;s Play Buried Child Essay. Core Essay? In my paper I am going to analyze one of the Sam Shepards play. In Cold Ap Essay? Its name sounds depressive but it completely fulfils the main idea of the play – Buried Child. From the nursing information I read about the author I deduced that he wrote it on the basis of his own personal experience in his childhood. Sam Shepard grew up on the farm in California and was a member of a broken family because his father was an alcoholic.
The play was firstly produced in the year 1978. From this and from the bank research papers story itself implies my presumption that the whole story is set in the 1970’s when the USA was in a hard economic situation caused by the war in Vietnam. To be more concrete it is set in Illinois on the farm where nothing grow anymore. I think that only through the description of the characters you would be able to see the main points of why I titled my work American Nightmare. Dodge is nursing supposed to be the head of the learning family but he is nursing core values broken by a cruel thesis sheet, things that happened in the past. He is an old dying man and essay, he is paranoiac but he has a reason to be. He is considered poor man whom doesn’t like even his family. He failed in a cruel thesis sheet, building his American Dream because his family is no more working and the farm he built up many years ago is left without any interest. He left everything after the biggest secret of the family happened. He killed his wife’s son but not without reason, as his son Tilden in the play says, “He said he had his reasons . . . Nursing Core Values? He’s the only one who knows where it’s buried.” (Shepard 104) The reasons I found out in the text were that she, Halie, had the baby with another man.
There are some hints which led me to think that the man might have been Tilden, her own son. Then it would have been much worse because the act of incest is totally against the modern society. We don’t know the background, how everything happened, if Halie was raped by her son or he was seduced by his mother. Nevertheless killing the in cold ap essay baby was no solution because the core essay family fell apart anyway. Halie, the only women in the family, is the one who tries to have a normal life but it is full of hypocrisy and fear of blood that other will find out the family secret. Interesting is that even though Dodge killed her son she lives and communicates with him like nothing happened. Even though it is obvious that she is having an nursing values, affair with a Protestant minister Father Dewis. This is also an irony because he should be a symbol of temperate life. Instead of that he drinks alcohol and seduces women. In the play I feel that the fear of research papers not being relieved have everyone in the family.
They made a deal that they won’t talk about the past and they are hoping that they will simply forget. Halie’s only light in the life was her son Ansel who was murdered in a motel room after marrying a Catolic Italian girl. Halie hated that girl from the beginning and she argued that she was a “Devil incarnate” (Shepard 74). Ansel had no time to go bad so he looks like an ideal son in Halies eyes. She is so obsessed with him that she wants to unveil his statue. She remembers him as a son who played basketball and was a soldier, a hero, an All-American. In her monologues then we can find the importance of doing some sport in youth and being a Protestant. The character of Tilden is very interesting and nursing values, mysterious for me. He is the oldest son and he was supposed to reserve take care of the family, the parents, which is matter of fact in the American Dream (children should take care of their parents). Nevertheless he got into trouble somewhere in New Mexico, maybe he was kept in prison, because he returned back to nursing his parents’ house after 20 years completely broken, especially mentally.
His liberty had to be taken away from thesis music him because in values, one of his monologues about driving he described how it was like to charlotte's web' have a car, which is nursing core essay also one of the symbols of writing history thesis statement American independence: I drove all day long sometimes. Across the desert . . . I drove past towns. Anywhere. Past palm trees. Lightning. Core Values Essay? Anything I would drive through it. I would drive through it and essays, I would stop and I would look around and I would drive on . . . There was nothing I loved more.
Nothing I dreamed of was better than driving. (Shepard 102) Freedom is defined in values essay, American Ways as “the desire and the right of essays learning all individuals to values essay control their own destiny without outside interference from the government” (Datesman, Crandall, Kearny 33) and exactly this was in Tilden’s life broken. Research? He was in prison and he is core values under the control of his parents now. Also his brother Bradley is not independent due to the accident where he lost his leg. With the character of learning Bradley I connected one question: Why he could live and the other baby not? Because from the story it is obvious that Bradley also isn’t Dodges son. The only solution I have is that the nursing core values essay murdered baby really had to be a birth from incest. The only light in the story, at least at joseph of darkness, the beginning, is nursing values essay Shelly. She came to learning visit his boyfriends grandparents house and core essay, she had the typical American, that means ideal, image of how it would be like: “I thought it was going to be turkey dinners and apple pie and all that kinda stuff.” (Shepard 91) Obviously she was confused from all these people in the house and she was the one who forced them to talk about things. Nevertheless it was to much for her and blood, she left the house and her boyfriend Vince.
To be honest there were some symbols in the play I didn’t understand. Nursing Essay? For example the act of symbolic Dodges burying on the end of the two acts. The only thing that came up my mind was that his sons blame him from everything and they think that killing the baby was the main reason why the family fall apart. In my opinion that’s not true because each member of that family has his own guilt. Joseph Conrad Heart Essay? Another mystery for me is the nursing core values essay character of Vince, Tilden’s son.
I didn’t get the message of his character especially at the end of the play where, after Dodge is dead, he puts on Dodges cap and learning, lay down on the couch, totally out of his mind. Maybe he was so shocked and ashamed of the family secret that he just adopted to the fact and started to live the same life as his grandfather lived. The play perfectly describes the opposite of the American Dream which is the life goal of most Americans and it also shows what a big difference is “between idealism and reality.” (Datesman, Crandall, Kearny 34) University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.
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fireftp resume The File Transfer Protocol has held up remarkably well over the years. The protocol was first standardized in the early 1970's decades before most networks were protected by nursing core values strict firewalls that drop incoming packets first, ask questions later. The FTP was designed for blood ap essay an environment where clients and servers interact with each other with a minimum of restriction. Additionally, the nursing core, FTP was designed to operate over communications channels where packets travel directly to charlotte's web' essay, their destination, and not in todays environment where there may be a transparent intermediary that is responsible for nursing core values essay sending the packets to and from writing a host on a private network. The primary problems that the nursing essay, FTP poses to web' essay, firewalls, NAT devices, and load-balancing devices (all of which will simply be referred to as routing devices and not routers since gateway machines generally aren't problematic) are: Additional TCP/IP connections are used for data transfers;
Data connections may be sent to random port numbers; Data connections may originate from the server to the client, as well as originating from the client to the server; Data connections destination addresses are negotiated on the fly between the client and server over nursing core values the channel used for the control connection; The control connection is idle while the data transfer takes place on the data connection. The ramifications for problem (1) are that routing devices must maintain state information for the control connection where the FTP conversation between client and server takes place, and subsequent data connections. For load balancing devices especially, this means that it is imperative to send the essays experiences, data connections to nursing core, the same internal server that the control connection associated with it is joseph being sent. For problem (2), this means that it is impossible to for FTP to nursing core, work with a configuration where only a handful of well-known ports are allowed in and all other ports are denied.
Instead, both the FTP control port (21) and a large range of high-numbered ports must be allowed in. But, as a consequence of problem (1), the range of ports can be locked down for a cruel angel's thesis sheet music everything except use by FTP with a little work by the routing device. For problem (3), this may mean that a restrictive routing device on the client side may cause problems for FTP. For problem (4), this requires routing devices to understand the FTP and dynamically modify the contents of the control connection so that internal server addresses are rewritten to acceptable external addresses. Essay. This also requires that the routing device maintain state information so that packets arriving at the acceptable external address are transparently re-routed to the internal server address.
For problem (5), routing devices that time out TCP/IP connections must be aware that FTP control connections can be completely inactive for hours while the data transfer takes place on a separate data connection. The classic example of a problem with this case is the common occurrence where a lengthy download finishes and the client wishes to start another download, but the routing device has timed-out the control connection since no activity took place for 15 minutes. The client program then locks up waiting for the server to reply to a message it never received because the conrad of darkness, routing device did not route it to the server. The FTP specifies a mechanism for a default data connection, where the server can connect back to the client from port 20 to the same IP address and port number that the client is nursing core values originating from on the control connection. Essays Learning Experiences. However, it really isn't feasible because the preferred transfer mode is stream mode and nursing values essay would require that the default data connection be reopened with each data transfer (and TCP won't let you do that until TIME_WAIT expires on writing thesis statement, the previous default data connection that has the same connection endpoints).
Therefore, all modern FTP clients negotiate with the core values essay, server on where the data is sent and who initiates the connection. The client program can specify active mode by history sending the PORT command to instruct that the server should connect back to nursing core values essay, a specified IP address and port number and ap essay then send the data. Or, a client program can choose passive mode by using the PASV command to ask that the server tell the essay, client an IP address and experiences port number that the client can connect to core values essay, and receive the data. In a nutshell, PORT is used to have the server connect to the client, and history statement PASV is used to have the core essay, client connect to the server. Since the blood ap essay, client connects to the server to establish the control connection, it would seem logical that the nursing core essay, client should connect to history thesis, the server to establish the data connection, which would imply that PASV would be preferred (and at values essay, the same time eliminate the single biggest problem with FTP and firewalls).
Mysteriously, the implementers chose to specify in the FTP specification that PORT should be preferred and PASV need not be implemented at all by of india research papers FTP client programs. At this point it might be helpful to nursing core values, see how the angel's sheet, client and server are communicating for each type of data transfer. Nursing Core Essay. The first example is an Active session that logs in experiences anonymously and does a single active data transfer, a directory listing. Note that a directory listings are treated as data transfers just like uploading and nursing core essay downloading of files! The biggest problem caused by joseph FTP client programs choosing to use PORT to negotiate FTP data connections is the fact that the server must be the connecting out values back to the client's IP address. For restrictive firewalls, it is desirable to forbid all incoming connections, so using PORT would cause the connection incoming from the server to fail. Another big problem is in cold ap essay that when a client program is using network address translation to hide behind a routing device on nursing values essay, an internal network, when using PORT the client tells a server on charlotte's essay, the external network to connect to an address on essay, the client's internal network. I.e., from the example above:
Client: PORT 192,168,1,2,7,138. That almost always results in the routing device denying the connection, or the connection to fail completely if the IP address is a RFC 1918 compliant reserved address (i.e. 192.168.x.x, 172.16.x.x, 10.x.x.x). In either case, the client user will typically experience a discarded connection that is very frustrating since the learning experiences, client program will just lock up until the connection is considered permanently timed-out. Solution 1 : The client user should configure their FTP client program to use PASV rather than PORT. Using passive mode may not solve the problem if there is a similar restrictive firewall on the server side.
Solution 2 : A better solution is for nursing values the network administrator of the client network to use high-quality network address translation software. Devices can keep track of joseph conrad of darkness essay FTP data connections, and when a client on a private network uses PORT with an internal network address, the device should dynamically rewrite the nursing, packet containing the PORT and IP address and change the address so that it refers to the external IP address of the routing device. The device would then have to route the connection incoming from the remote FTP server back to conrad of darkness essay, the internal network address of the client. I.e., from the example above we had: Client: PORT 192,168,1,2,7,138. When the packet containing this PORT reaches the nursing core essay, routing device, it should be rewritten like this, assuming the reserve bank, external address is 22.214.171.124: Client: PORT 17,254,0,26,7,138. The remote server would then attempt to core essay, connect to 126.96.36.199:1930. The routing device in this example would then forward all traffic for this connection to and from the client address at 192.168.1.2:1930. When an FTP server is behind a firewall, there can be problems when FTP clients try to use passive mode to connect to an ephemeral port number (temporary random port number) on the FTP server machine.
The most common problem is when the firewall the FTP server is behind is strict, i.e. the firewall allows only a few well-known port numbers in and denies access to all other ports. Solution 1 : The network administrator of the server network can configure the ap essay, firewall to allow in the entire ephemeral port range. The range of ephemeral ports that need to be opened up is nursing core essay dependent on the configuration of the writing history, server machine that is running the FTP server software -- not the core essay, ephemeral ports on web', the firewall! So, find out how the FTP server machine has configured the ephemeral port range (whose default range varies with the operating system) and core values essay then open those ports on the firewall. Ideally, the firewall should be configured so that only that range of ports is accessible to the FTP server machine. Also double check to essay, be sure that there aren't any other TCP services with port numbers in the ephemeral port range listening on the FTP server machine. Solution 2 : The network administrator of the server network can consult the firewall vendor's documentation to see if FTP connections can be dynamically monitored and ports dynamically opened when a passive FTP connection is detected. Essay. This is charlotte's web' similar to values essay, what intelligent network address translation software can do on web' essay, the client side for PORT -- the FTP control connections are monitored, and when a packet containing PASV from an nursing essay, FTP session is detected, the a cruel thesis, firewall can automatically open the port. Using our PASV example above, when the FTP server replies to the PASV request: Server: 227 Entering Passive Mode (172,16,3,4,204,173)
The firewall would then parse the request and find that the client will be instructed to connect to port 52397 on the address 172.16.3.4. The firewall would then add a temporary rule that would allow exactly one connection to port 52397 only from the same IP address that the FTP control connection is connected from. The other server-side problem that can occur is when a client is trying to access an FTP server on an internal network protected by a routing device. Because a server response from PASV includes an IP address and port number, if this IP address corresponds to a private network then the client will not be able to connect to that private address. From our PASV example above, we have: Server: 227 Entering Passive Mode (172,16,3,4,204,173) If left unaltered, the client would try to connect to core values, port 52397 on the IP address 172.16.3.4.
If the client is not on web', the private internal network, the client would time-out trying to connect to that address, when in reality it should be connecting to the external IP address of the routing device. Solution 1 : The network administrator of the values, server network can consult the routing device vendor's documentation to see if FTP connections can be dynamically monitored and dynamically replace the IP address specification for packets containing the PASV response. Using our PASV example above, when the FTP server replies to the PASV request: Server: 227 Entering Passive Mode (172,16,3,4,204,173) The routing device should rewrite the packet like this, assuming the external address is 188.8.131.52: Server: 227 Entering Passive Mode (17,254,0,91,204,173) The remote client would then attempt to connect to joseph, the routing device at 184.108.40.206:52397. The routing device in this example would then forward all traffic for this connection between the remote client and the internal FTP server at nursing values, IP address 172.16.3.4.
Load-Balancing Routers can allow an administrator to expose a single IP address and charlotte's essay delegate connections among multiple identical slave servers. This is similar to Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks (RAID), only instead of disks the array is essay of TCP/IP servers. Load Balancing provides two challenges for FTP. The first is that there are multiple connections associated with each FTP session, one control connection and one or more data connections. For PASV data connections to work, the a cruel angel's thesis sheet, load balancer must be able to send the values, connection from the client to the same slave server that is handling the control connection. The second problem, which is related to the first, is that when a slave server replies with the PASV response, the PASV response's IP address must be accessible to the remote client. Solution 1 : The network administrator of the blood, server network can give each slave server a valid externally accessible IP address.
The external IP address of the load balancer could be used as the preferred address, but having each slave server have its own external IP address would allow PASV data connections to nursing values, connect directly to the slave server without requiring traffic from in cold blood ap essay slaves to essay, pass through the in cold blood, load balancer. It also means that the load balancer does not need to do any special automatic handling of FTP. Solution 2 : The network administrator of the server network can consult the load balancing router vendor's documentation to see if FTP connections can be handled automatically so that the values, PASV reply is dynamically rewritten to contain the external IP address of the load balancer. Solution 3 : If the routing device isn't intelligent enough to take special care of FTP sessions, but has the ability to always forward traffic from the same remote client IP address to the same internal server IP address, then the network administrator of the server network may be able to configure the FTP server software to spoof the history thesis statement, address it uses for PASV replies. For example, NcFTPd Server has an option to let you specify an IP address to use for nursing core essay PASV replies rather than the real IP address of the machine. You could use this option to have NcFTPd use the external IP address of the routing device and hope that packets sent to that address would be forwarded to the internal IP address of the FTP server machine.
The good news is that load-balancing routers are relatively new, and most vendors are aware that FTP and other protocols need special handling. So, it is highly likely that FTP traffic can be farmed out from the load balancer with configuration of the load balancer. Cases do arise where there is a restrictive firewall on both the client side and server side. Again, a restrictive firewall is one whose policy is to deny everything except for in cold blood ap essay traffic between a few well-known ports. When this happens, a client user cannot use PORT because the FTP server cannot connect back to core values essay, the client program listening ephemeral port number, and a client user cannot use PASV because the client program cannot connect to the FTP server software listening on an ephemeral port number.
Obviously, something has to give, but if possible the server-side firewall should be the one that is web' reconfigured. By definition, a server is values providing a service , and it should make a decent effort to a cruel thesis, make itself accessible to clients. It also makes sense to fix the server side once rather than have to fix each individual client-side firewall. Someday, all devices doing network address translation will have built-in special handling of nursing core essay FTP sessions so PORT can be used, and someday all firewalls will have built-in special handling of FTP sessions so PASV can be used too. A growing number of routing devices have automatic special handling of FTP sessions, but if you run an FTP server on essays, a port other than 21 then your device is likely to not know to perform that special handling. Therefore if you must use a non-standard port number then it is imperative that you configure your routing device so that your port number is treated as an FTP service with special handling. Even if the server-side network's routing device is configured for that special handling, problems could still arise on the client side! Some firewalls require that FTP data connections from the server originate from nursing essay port 20, which is the charlotte's, standard port number for FTP data connections. If your FTP server is core values essay running on non-standard port N , it is required by the FTP specification that its data connections originate from port N - 1. Client-side firewalls may deny these connections, so beware.
Routing devices have long been inappropriately deleting TCP/IP connections that they manage, mostly because they place greater restrictions on connections than does the TCP/IP protocol itself. For example, a TCP/IP connection with no outstanding acknowledgments pending is allowed to web', be idle indefinitely, unless one or both ends of the connection agree to use TCP/IP Keep Alive probes. If Keep Alive probes are not enabled, a TCP/IP connection is permanently open and available for sending and receiving until it is closed, or reset (for example, when one end's host machine is rebooted). Since a routing device is often responsible for managing many internal host machines' TCP/IP connections, it needs to place reasonable limits on the number of connections it is managing. Therefore, it will try to reclaim connections when it can, and a common way to do this is to put an activity timer on nursing core, the connection and delete connections when the timer shows that the connection has been idle for a long period of time. Unfortunately, when a connection is timed-out, the routing device typically drops incoming packets for it if the connection tries to resume activity.
When that happens, the sending host's client program will then lock up until it times-out. If the bank papers, routing device were kind enough to send back a reply to the sending host with an error message, rather than dropping the packets and core essay ignoring the sending host, the client program could immediately err-out rather than time-out after a considerable delay. Since the FTP protocol uses two connections, a control connection for communicating with the client, and conrad heart of darkness another connection to transfer data, there is core values essay twice the probability of getting timed-out by an impatient firewall. The most common instance of this problem occurs comes into play during a long file transfer. When a transfer is initiated (on the control connection), the control connection is idle until the thesis, transfer (on the data connection) finishes. If the routing device does not special case for the FTP protocol and core the data connection takes longer than the routing device's idle timeout, then the control connection will be timed out. This is thesis statement a significant problem since the client program may wish to continue using the values essay, FTP session, such as downloading additional files.
Even if the history, client program is planning on ending the nursing core values, session, the angel's thesis, FTP requires that the client program send a message (QUIT) to the server indicating that the connection should be closed, and the server is then required to nursing values, reply with another message indicating that the session is officially closed. The ramifications are that the client program could then lock up waiting for a reply to a QUIT message that the server will not receive since the firewall timed-out the session, unbeknownst to both client and a cruel sheet music server. The solution for this specific case, which some, but not all, FTP client programs do, is to either place a very short time-out on nursing values, the reply to angel's thesis sheet, the QUIT message, or to simply close its end of the FTP session (which violates the FTP protocol, but is de facto behavior and is generally accepted). The general solution for this problem is that the nursing, routing device needs to essays learning, special-case the FTP protocol, and when there is activity on a FTP session's data connection, it must mark the FTP session's control connection as active, in addition to marking the data connection as active. Core Values Essay. Unfortunately, as of this writing, this solution is not widely implemented. Another solution is to enable the TCP/IP Keep Alive feature on the control connection. When this is of darkness essay enabled by an application program such as an FTP client or server program, if the connection has been idle for a preset time, the TCP/IP stack will automatically send a heartbeat message to the other end's TCP/IP stack, and if no reply is received, the connection will be properly timed-out at the TCP stack on the host machine, rather than at core, the firewall. The problem with this is that due to legacy behavior of the TCP/IP protocol (which is a cruel thesis sheet music decades old, remember!) the default time before sending the Keep Alive probes is often set to several hours! So, under default conditions, the nursing core essay, connection would have to be idle for essays several hours before the TCP stack would send out its heartbeat message, which is not realistic considering the default idle timeout for routing devices is often under 15 minutes. For the Keep Alive feature to work under realistic conditions then, it must be configured to start sending the probes before the routing device's idle time out nursing core kicks in.
For example, if a firewall is configured to heart essay, discard idle connections after 15 minutes, you would want your Keep Alive probes to be sent after 10 minutes of inactivity. If the connection is really timed out, it won't receive a reply to values, the heartbeat message and will then be properly closed by the TCP stack, and writing if a heartbeat reply is received, the core, firewall will (should!) mark the in cold blood, connection as no longer idle. As long as one side of the FTP session enables Keep Alive and has the heartbeat timer configured to a sensible value, this problem should be solved. Nursing. But surprisingly, it is usually not trivial to configure the heartbeat timer, if it is learning configurable at all. Typically, it is required to tune the operating system's kernel or TCP stack. Application programs can only enable Keep Alive mode, but not specify when it should be triggered. Therefore, unless the operating system provides a mechanism to configure the nursing, timer and the system administrator of the machine running the application program has bothered to configure the timer, a program enabling Keep Alive mode is unlikely to solve the essay, problem. We've shown that the File Transfer Protocol can be a difficult beast to tame in the presence of advanced networking hardware.
We will leave you with a brief list of core essay guidelines, but realize that for FTP to work smoothly you will most likely need to learning experiences, expend considerable effort on configuration or considerable cash on nursing core values, hardware that is FTP aware. Use passive (PASV) mode from within your FTP client whenever possible. If you can login to an FTP server, but your directory listings and data transfers time-out you most likely have a firewall in the way. For best results with firewalls or connections involving private network addresses, use intelligent routing devices that know to automatically take special care of reserve bank FTP sessions. FTP servers require large numbers of ephemeral ports that must be externally accessible by nursing values essay clients. Since many FTP clients (and Web browsers) still do not default to passive mode, FTP data connections will fail unless ephemeral ports on the client machine are remotely accessible.
All Rights Reserved. This is revision 1.1.1 (April 18, 2005) of charlotte's essay this document.