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College comparison and contrast essay examples

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Bloody Mary and The Virgin Queen Essay. Mary's mother, Katherine of Aragon, has been described as a staunch woman of misguided principles (Weir 3). College Comparison Essay Examples? show more content Mary Tudor lived her life on the fringe of royalty, deeply absorbed in religious devotion and the admiration of her pious mother (Erickson 148). Qualitie Essay? She was 37 years old and unmarried when she took the throne; most likely believing that such an event was highly unlikely after so many years of relative isolation. She believed it to be somewhat of a miracle, and comparison that her ascension had come through divine intervention(Erickson 305). This conviction made her deeply serious about her responsibilities, a commitment she showed through daily devotion during most waking hours to matters of state (Erickson 305). Letter For Business Administration Position? Mary had inherited a country in peril. As her reign opened, England stood lower in the estimation of the comparison essay examples, European states than at any time since the War of the Roses (Erickson 315). Thus she began serious reforms, which would plunge the country deeper into debt but prevent inflation and foreign debasement of the English currency (Erickson 315). Essay on The Urban Legend of Bloody Mary. this to work. In order to summon Mary, you must chant the phrase “I believe in Mary Worth,” while others requires the person to yell the phrase “Kathy, come out!” and of course the about diary frank, chanting of the name “Bloody Mary” into a mirror (Norder).

Some exaggerations have even included saying, “Bloody Mary! I killed your baby!” in essay examples order to provoke the vengeful spirit to come out and attack you (Mikkelson). Another is by reciting a poem that goes, “Bloody Mary, Bloody Mary if someone’s here whose luck shall Mary Stuart, Queen of without Scots Essays. As soon as Mary returned to Scotland, she was shocked to find it under the influence of the protestant, John Knox. She later fell in love with her cousin Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, and they got married in 1564 (“Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots” par 5-7). Now Mary is the granddaughter of Margaret Tudor, who is Henry V III’s older sister. Therefore, she is college and contrast essay, Queen Elizabeth’s cousin because Mary’s father is Elizabeth’s uncle (“Mary, Queen of Scots” par 1). Since Mary was considered a threat to Elizabeth Essay about Mary Queen of Scots- Biography. five brings us to a world without internet, the bondage and and contrast essay examples captivity of Mary in the island castle of a world without internet essay Lochleven.

Bothwell went to Norway and fell into the hands of kinsfolk of a Norwegian girl with whom he had seduced. He then was put in prison where he died. Mary fled from the castle of Lochleven and was at large for eleven days in college and contrast essay which she gathered between 5,000 and 6,000 men to hr resume sap, be in her party. Mary wrote to Queen Elizabeth to try to and contrast essay, re-gain her right to internet, the thrown, but Mary never gained support from Elizabeth and her Elizabeth I and Mary Queen of Scots Essay. sufficiently produced by college comparison and contrast essay examples, them against Mary, whereby the a world without internet, Queen of England should conceive or take any evil opinion of Mary. 14 Mary's arrival in college comparison and contrast essay England was a source of embarrassment to Elizabeth because she refused to renounce her claims to hr resume sap, the English thrown and she was a rallying figure for Catholics.

Mary constituted an obvious danger to the security of England and the Protestant settlement. 15 Some people believe that if Elizabeth would have just released Mary no religious revolt would have occurred I was having a hard time trying to figure out the message you were trying to convey. I could see that the woman in the middle was Virgin Mary. The reason I thought she was Virgin Mary was because the way she was dressed. Comparison And Contrast? She seemed to hr resume sap, be dressed in simple clothes, nothing fancy.

I have seen many Virgin Mary paintings and she is shown wearing clothes like these in almost all of her paintings. College Essay Examples? I could see that she is rising from her tomb and floating towards the sky, she seemed to be greeted by angels FEAR OF THE OUTSIDE WORLD In her film, The Virgin Suicides, Sofia Coppola communicates the theme of without fear of real life and of the outside world, predominantly aided by the use of characterization. College Comparison And Contrast Examples? The main characters through which she does this include Lux Lisbon and her mother, Mrs. Ben Kinsella Essay? Lisbon. This theme first emerges after Cecilia’s attempted suicide.

Her doctor, seemingly able to pick up on the strict nature of Mr. and Mrs. Lisbon’s parenting, suggests a party be thrown to give Cecilia exposure to Virgin and Child with Saint Anne Essay. the destiny of Christ, which had begun in his early painting Virgin of the Rocks (Bramly 320). Most research indicates the rocks, mountain streams, and comparison essay examples escarpments of his childhood made up his private landscape in his paintings (Bramly 86). Essay? Leonardo depicts the women as sister like in age even though they are indeed mother and daughter. Saint Anne, the mother of Virgin and Child, sits with her daughter on her lap. The Virgin is half rising from her sitting position and she appears to college, want Biography of Queen Elizabeth Essay. treason Elizabeth sent Mary, her first cousin of the letter administration position, royal family, to her execution in fifteen thousand eighty seven (“Elizabeth”). The queen was very inspirational because she always gave inspirational speeches. Elizabeth was like no other family member of the royal family; she preferred to comparison essay, ride horseback rather than traveling in and dissertation a compact fancy carriage. Elizabeth loved the out doors and tried to stay as active as she possibly could. Everyone respected her as there queen because she acted as one 2006) Even as the television coverage continued to depict the people’s grief and the newspapers questioned the comparison, lack of emotion from the letter, Royal Family the Queen resisted the idea that any display of emotion was needed. Her lack of action created negative press, as well as anger from the comparison and contrast essay examples, public.

When the need for a public funeral became apparent the Queen was stunned with the formal decision, lost the ability to a world without internet essay, quickly make decisions regarding the arrangement, and college and contrast examples gave way to minor details involving the The Life of Queen Elizabeth I Essay. Before Elizabeth became queen of England she dressed very somberly and like the thesis and dissertation book, conservative religious reformers that her brother was a part of. Her very pious attitude and somber dress was the only thing that saved her reputation from the callous people who tried to disparage her, and make her unfit for anything except a house of college comparison and contrast essay ill repute; but that all changed when she became queen. The last time she wore such clothes was the day they came and told her that her sister, Queen Mary, was dead and she was

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ministry sound essay Thrust statement: The church is comparison examples a society within a society. Scripture reading: John 14:26; 2 Corinthians 5:18-21. Now the hr resume sap church is the embodiment of the Remnant ideal. It is a society within a society. But it is not an isolationist group, carefully fostering a private life of its own secluded from the contaminations of the world. It has to discharge a task in the world as well as to maintain its own inner life. It has to present the college and contrast Gospel to letter for business position, those outside; and it can only do that effectively as its members live according to Christ in their relations to one another. In other words the Church has a dual role—apostolic in relation to those outside and pastoral in relation to those within. College And Contrast Essay! [1] The Christian ecclesia is a society within a society. The body of Christ is composed of priests who serve the living God through Christ and the indwelling of the qualitie essay Holy Spirit.

The church is to engage in the proclamation of the comparison and contrast Gospel (apostolate) as well as to letter administration position, minister to those within the congregation (pastoral). Not only is the and contrast essay examples community of for business, Christ to college examples, be involved in the proclamation of essay about diary frank, God’s way of salvation to the world, but also it is to be concerned about other activities outside the church, that is to say, about justice. The church is to be the light of the world. In one’s fulfillment of college comparison examples, ministry, there is a sense in which one acts as an instrument of God to accomplish His desired goals in this life. Yet, on of anne frank the other hand, one must also view ministry as participatory; in other words, God allows His children to participate in His ministry. As one contemplates ministry, ministry is not limited to a particular group of saints, often called “clergy.” Ministry is a function of college and contrast, every individual Christian; it is the body of hr resume sap, Christ at college comparison examples work. If one has a proper perspective of ministry, his/her theology of the church should assist in one’s ministry.

Also, if one understands the various models of ministry, one’s ministry should be more effective toward the advancement of God’s kingdom on earth. When one speaks of models of ministry, one might ask the question: What are models of ministry? Another important question is: What is a working theology of the internet church? In one’s ministry, one also needs to become acquainted with the realities of the world? WORKING THEOLOGY OF THE CHURCH. Models for Ministry. Before one can develop adequate models for ministry, [2] one must have a sound working theology of the comparison and contrast essay examples church. [3] One’s paradigm [4] of the church will shape his/her models of ministry. One’s perception of the church determines one’s attitude toward one’s view of ministry as participatory or instrumentalist. In order for one to develop a working theology of the church, one must first determine what the cover letter administration word church means. What is the church? Is it a denomination?

Is it an essay examples, institution? Is it simply a religious social institution? Is it an organism? Is it the company of the ben kinsella essay redeemed? Is it the body of college comparison essay examples, Christ? Is it the community of God on position earth?

Just how does one define or translate the word church ? How is the true church identified? Did Christ establish an organization? Or did Christ bring a body of believers into college and contrast essay examples existence? Just how should one characterize the church? One model of ministry is one’s perception of the church. Answers to the above questions determine, to hr resume sap, a great extent, one’s working theology of the church. For instance, some Christians are conditioned to identify the type of corporate organized religious body, of comparison and contrast essay examples, which they are a part, as the church of Jesus Christ, thereby excluding all others from belonging to thesis and dissertation book, the kingdom of God. In other words, any person who is not identified with his/her particular group, or denomination, is not a member of Christ’s church.

That which God intends as a rallying point for the lover of God and His truth has become a battle ground on which ecclesiastical wars are fought. Again, the questions are: What is your model of the church? Is it an ecclesiastical organization? Or Is it a community of believers? Anders Nygren objects, and rightly so, to the current model of the church as an organizational structure. Comparison And Contrast Essay! He uses the following pregnant words against accepting the organizational structure of the administration position church as a part of one’s theology of the church:

Did Christ establish the college comparison essay examples church, or not? That question has generally been answered about as follows. During his lifetime Jesus gathered a group of disciples around himself, but there was as yet no kind of organization. Then if one moves on a bit into history one meets an organization which girdles the globe. It bears the name of Christ and qualitie essay announces itself as his church. Within that organization one finds a rich diversity of offices, as well as sacraments, a Christian cultus, and so on. The question presents itself, did Jesus actually found that organization? Did he actually envision anything of the kind? Is it not rather the product of a development whose result was not at all what Jesus would have approved? Is it not, in any case, an anachronism to speak of the church as instituted by Christ? [5] Emil Brunner’s assessment of the contemporary situation is also full of insight as he expresses the predicament of the modern church: “The church of Christ ruled by Christ is no longer Christianity, but the comparison essay Church only letter for business administration position as a corporate institution. [6] Jurgen Moltmann is also helpful in this area when he writes:

If the church does not see itself as ‘the church of society’, or as the ‘German’, or ‘white’, or ‘male’, church (even though it can often enough really be described as these things in terms of college and contrast, its actual situation), but calls itself instead ‘the church of Christ’, then it will also have to make Christ its starting point in its own understanding. [7] The Dimensions of ben kinsella, a Doctrine of the Church Today. An adequate conception of ministry demands an adequate conception of the church. Since the church is God’s community, it will reflect upon its life in Christ. The church worships the One who calls it into being, the college comparison and contrast examples One who liberates it, and the One who gathers it to Himself. The church presents itself before man and essay frank before God. Comparison! Moltmann is correct when he writes: “For it stands for God to the world, and it stands for the world before God.” [8] It is this perspective of ben kinsella essay, relationship to the world before God that Paul speaks of his debt to men in his letter to Rome ( Romans 1:14 ). Not only does every Christian participate in the Great Commission, but he/she also participates in teaching His disciples to adhere to His teachings ( Matthew 28:18-20 ). Again, Moltmann correctly states, “the church of Christ is an ‘open’ church. It is open for God, open for college and contrast, men and open for the future of both God and men.” [9] The church of Christ concerns itself with “messianic liberation and eschatological renewal of the world.” [10] This concept of liberation is the ministry of every believer, not just clergy, that is to ben kinsella essay, say, a select few with certain academic credentials. An understanding of the college comparison essay Trinitarian history of God can assist everyone in his/her participation in the ministry of ben kinsella, God. According to the great commission, the Christian community does everything in the name of the triune God.

The church sees itself in the Trinitarian history of God’s dealings with the world. When one talks about the Trinitarian history of God, one is conscious of the “livingness of God which has moved out of itself . . . which can only be understood through participating and engaged knowledge,” writes Moltmann. [11] To state more clearly, the Trinitarian history of God includes a knowledge of God’s dealings with mankind. The church can understand much more clearly its own position or part in the movement of God’s ministry with the world if it attempts to understand the Trinitarian history of God. One’s perception of his/her joining in comparison the movement of the world through the history of God begins with a comprehension of the history of Christ and the role of the Holy Spirit in the light of His coming. God sends both Christ and the Holy Spirit. The history of Christ is seen in the light of His origin. ( John 1:1-15 ). The gospels record the history of Jesus as the history of the Messiah. Essay Diary Of Anne Frank! Jesus is introduced by the synoptic gospels in the light of His sending and comparison His mission by God and the workings of the Holy Spirit.

John says, “ For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son ” ( John 3:16 ). [12] For Mark, the ministry of Jesus begins when the Holy Spirit is conferred on Him in baptism ( Mark 1:9-12 ). Even though Matthew mentions the coming of the Holy Spirit upon Jesus at His baptism, nevertheless, he begins his history of Christ with the conception by the Holy Spirit ( Matthew 1:18-23 ). Luke also begins the ministry of Jesus with the qualitie essay conception by the Holy Spirit ( Luke 1:26-35 ). Again, Moltmann points out the role of the comparison essay Spirit in the history of Christ: “The experience of the Spirit is to be found in the experiences of the history of ben kinsella, Christ which men have in their own history.” [13] Luke also records the promise of the Holy Spirit as a gift following baptism ( Acts 2:38 ). Paul also speaks of God sending forth His Son and His Holy Spirit in his letter to the Galatians ( Galatians 4:4-6 ). Thus, as one reflects upon the origin of college comparison essay, Jesus and the Holy Spirit, one is immediately thrown back into eternity. Moltmann points out, with justice: “The Trinity in the origin is the foundation of the Trinity in the sending, and hence the Trinity in the sending reveals the Trinity in the origin as being from eternity an open trinity.” [14] In other words, Moltmann is saying that one cannot grasp the life of without internet essay, God in a finished circle. For Moltmann, one’s concept of God must include the Trinity.

It is in the sending of the Son and the Holy Spirit that humanity encounters God. The history of the Trinity opens fellowship for humanity through the coming of the Son and the coming of the Holy Spirit. College Comparison Examples! The Trinity works together for the salvation of qualitie essay, mankind. One discovers in comparison and contrast the history of the ben kinsella Trinity that the Son glorifies the Father and the Father glorifies the Son and the Holy Spirit glorifies the Father and the Son by freeing individuals for fellowship with the college essay examples Trinity ( 1 Corinthians 12:13 ). This comprehension of Trinitarian history helps Christians to fathom the ministry of the hr resume sap Trinity, and the Trinity’s grace in allowing man’s participation in His ministry through the church of comparison and contrast examples, Jesus Christ. The name the church assumes requires that one sees the church as subject to ben kinsella, Christ.

Since the church is the church of Jesus, then the Christian community must align herself with Him. The Scriptures employ a number of christological titles to describe who Jesus is—“Messiah,” Son of Man,” “Lord,” and “Logos.” These titles help the college comparison and contrast essay examples church to understand the relationship of Jesus to His people. In the administration position same manner, the college comparison and contrast essay relationship of the church to Christ is depicted with descriptive terms, such as, “the body of for business, Christ,” “the house of God,” “God’s people,” and the communion of the saints.” Since the church is the church of Christ, the church makes Christ its starting point in its own self-understanding. [15] When one makes Christ his initial point of meditating upon the church of Jesus, then one must also contemplate the presence and college comparison and contrast essay activity of Christ in the church to fully appreciate God’s call to participate in His ministry. When a child of ben kinsella essay, God is conscious of the residence and movement of Christ in the church, then he/she leaps for joy in and contrast knowing that God allows His people to experience His ministry. The Presence and Activity of Christ in a world internet the Church. The existence of the church is college and contrast essay described through the activities of Christ. It is Christ who chooses, gathers, protects, and upholds His church.

The final goal of Christ’s activity is diary eternal life. Moltmann captures the true essence of the church when he writes: The activity of God’s Son is college and contrast essay universal. It extends in space to ‘the whole human race’ and in time to all generations ‘from the beginning of the world to essay, the end.’ . . . He is the Christ of the college comparison and contrast essay examples one God for the whole human race. His choosing, gathering and ben kinsella protective activity creates the church, not as an institution for salvation or as a cultic group, but as a brotherhood to which the college individual can profess loyalty as a ‘living member’. Essay Of Anne! Ultimately, the election, gathering and preservation of the church are not an end in themselves but serve ‘eternal life’, as the final goal of college examples, Christ’s activity, and of the church created out of that activity, is called. [16] The activity of Christ is centered in the Word.

Yet, Jesus is the Word. He is the Word of internet, proclamation. John identifies Jesus as the lovgo th` zwh. [ logos ths zwhs , “Word of life”] ( 1 John 1:1 ). Consider how Bultmann deals with the comparison essay activity of ben kinsella essay, Jesus as the Word. All the activity of Jesus is centered in the Word. College Essay Examples! . . Book! . That is why John always represents Jesus as saying almost nothing except that he is speaking the Word of God.

For John, from beginning to end, Jesus is not meant to be the ‘historical Jesus’; he is the ‘Word’, the Word of the Christian proclamation. [17] One looks to Jesus for the origin, the college comparison beginning, or the establishment of the proclamation of the Word. Cover For Business! In the pronouncement of the Word, there is comparison and contrast examples also the declaration of the gospel. The gospel is the dawn of the eschatological age. It is “good news” to a lost and dying world that Christ provides redemption for all those who believe in Him. It is not a statement about some remote future, but a statement about liberation. Isaiah speaks of this messianic age in glowing terms: “ The Spirit of the Sovereign LORD is on me, because the a world internet essay LORD has anointed me to preach good news to the poor.

He has sent me to bind up the college comparison and contrast essay examples brokenhearted, to proclaim freedom for the captives and release from darkness for the prisoners,” ( Isaiah 61:1 ). The beginning activity of Christ’s ministry involves three specific aspects: (1) teaching, (2) preaching, and (3) healing. Matthew says, “Jesus went throughout Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, preaching the good news of the kingdom, and healing every disease and essay about diary frank sickness among the people” ( Matthew 4:23 ). Mark sums up the mission as: ‘ “ The time has come ,’ he said. And Contrast! ‘ The kingdom of God is letter near. Repent and comparison and contrast essay believe the good news! ”’ ( Mark 1:15 ). Essay! If the college comparison essay examples church is not preaching the good news, if the church is not fulfilling the great commission, and if the church is not the people of teaching, of preaching, of healing, and of the beatitudes, God’s community loses its fellowship with the messianic mission of Jesus to the world and to “the least of these” (See Matthew 5:3-10; 25:31-46 ). Without Internet! The world and “the least of these” is still the college comparison essay concern of the hr resume sap Messiah. Moltmann captures in concise language this new life and hope when he writes: “The church is the college comparison essay examples fellowship of those who owe their new life and hope to the activity of the risen Christ.” [18] The church receives its liberation from the self-giving of Christ. Thus, the church of Christ exists in its fullness if it is obedient to the rule of the Servant of God in hr resume sap its adherence to the Great Commission and participates in the sharing of liberation through Christ as a new way of life.

Every Christian participates in his/her ministry as a servant of Jesus Christ. Again, Moltmann seems to and contrast essay examples, be right when he pens: The church is not a ‘holy autocracy’; it is the fellowship of believers who follow the one Lord and have been laid hold of by the one Spirit. It is in principle the community of equals, equipped with equal rights and equal dignity. All have the gift of the Spirit. If, in thinking of Christ’s self-surrender, we talk about ‘the priesthood of all believers’, then in thinking of Christ’s lordship we must speak of ‘the sovereignty of all believers.’ [19] In reflecting upon one’s participation in the ministry of Christ, a proper understanding of the place of the church in the presence of Christ will enhance one’s philosophy of ministry. For example, “The question what the church is, is without not the same as the college comparison examples question where it is,” says Moltmann. [20] It is not “Where the church is, there is Christ”; rather, “Where Christ is, there is the church.” To state more plainly, “Where Christ is, the church had better be.” It is in this vein that Jesus says, “ Whoever serves me must follow me; and where I am, my servant also will be. My Father will honor the one who serves me ” ( John 14:26 ).

Again, Moltmann captures the essence of Jesus statement: “If the essay church is, according to its own claim, ‘the church of Jesus Christ’, then it is Christ who leads the church into its truth. In this case the true church is to be found where Christ is present.” [21] Every believer participates in the ministry of Christ through becoming a servant of the Servant. Jesus instructs His disciples about true servanthood: “ Just as the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many ” ( Matthew 20:28 ). Where is Christ? Is He not present in “the least of these”? Is He not present in His community of believers? There is a sense in which Jesus is present in the proclamation, in the Lord’s Supper, in water baptism, and in the fellowship of comparison essay, His believers. IN THE PROCLAMATION. Christ is present not only in the “least of the ben kinsella brethren,” but He is also present in the apostolate, that is to say, the proclamation through Word and sacraments, and the community of the proclaimers in the fellowship of the brethren.

The proclamation includes the missionary charge of Jesus to His disciples ( Matthew 28:18-20 ). In this missionary instruction, Jesus promises His presence to the church in the proclamation (apostolate): “ I am with you always, to the very end of the age ” ( 28:20 ). College Essay! Today, the church still takes up the missionary charge and hr resume sap participates in proclamation of the Gospel as Christ’s representative. Jesus’ promise runs thus: “ He who listens to you listens to me; he who rejects you rejects me; but he who rejects me rejects him who sent me ” ( Luke 10:16 ). God has given “ us the ministry of reconciliation” ( 2 Corinthians 5:18 ) and “has committed to us the message of reconciliation” ( 5:19 ). Once more, Moltmann’s view is to the point: In the movement of the apostolate the person of the apostle takes on college comparison examples the form of Christ’s destiny. Thesis And Dissertation Book! He does not merely bear Christ on his lips in the word of the gospel. He also ‘carries in comparison and contrast essay the body the death of qualitie essay, Jesus, so that the life of Jesus may also be manifested in his body’ (11 Cor. 4.10). College Comparison And Contrast Examples! . . Internet! . The promised presence of Christ is the presence of the one who was crucified. [22] Christ’s Presence Is in the Lord’s Supper. In the sacraments, it is not only beneficial to see the presence of Christ, but it is also helpful to comparison and contrast essay examples, understand the qualitie essay purpose of the sacraments in relationship to the church. Just as Christ is present in the proclamation of the college comparison and contrast essay Word, so also is the promise of Christ’s presence found in the Lord’s Supper ( 1 Corinthians 11:23-29 ). It is in the Lord’s Supper that one participates in the body and hr resume sap blood of Christ. Jesus describes the bread: “ This is my body, which is for you; do this in remembrance of me ” ( 11:24 ), and essay examples the cup: “ This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many ” ( Mark 14:24 ).

This presence of Christ in the Lord’s Supper is a feast of remembrance. Moltmann says, “It recalls to letter position, our memory the history of redemption, which took place on the cross of Christ for us.” [23] Again, “This remembrance bridges the difference between the history there and the events here.” [24] Once more, Moltmann reflects upon the presence of God and Christ in essay examples this feast: “The Lord’s supper can further be understood as the hr resume sap earthly sign of the presence of the God who has become man and of the man who has been exalted to God.” [25] Moltmann, in addition to the presence of Christ in and contrast essay examples the Lord’s Supper, also develops the view that “The Lord’s supper is the sacrament of confirmation and hr resume sap the path of grace.” [26] Again, he writes: Baptism precedes the Lord’s supper. Comparison And Contrast! It is the sacrament of essay, initiation and the door of college and contrast, grace. Qualitie Essay! The Lord’s supper is the sacrament of confirmation and the path of grace. Through baptism men and women are born again to eternal life. Through the Lord’s supper they are sustained in that life. Accepted into the covenant of grace through baptism, believers are sustained in it through the Lord’s supper. [27]

Again, Moltmann captures the participant’s reflection of the Lord’s supper when he writes: “In the eucharist the congregation thanks the triune God for all his acts of goodness and sets itself in his Trinitarian history with the world.” [28] The significance of the presence of Christ in the bread and college examples wine is that this supper joins the qualitie essay past and the future, but it also represents God’s grace of liberation from sin, from college comparison essay examples wrath, from law, and from condemnation. In God’s ministry of liberation, He allows His creatures to qualitie essay, participate in this ministry of reconciliation. Christ’s Presence Is Found in Baptism. Baptism also contains a corresponding promise of Christ’s presence ( Romans 6:3-5 ). One is baptized into His death in order that one might also walk in college essay a new life. Paul expresses it this way: “We were therefore buried with him through baptism into death in order that, just as Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the essay Father, we too may live a new life” ( 6:4 ). The following extract from Moltmann explains graphically the role of baptism in the life of the examples believer: “Just as the hr resume sap Christian church is called into being through the proclamation of the gospel, so through baptism it is called to the freedom of the messianic era.” [29] Through baptism in Christ’s name, one enters Christ’s fellowship; through baptism in the name of the triune God, one is “simultaneously set in the Trinitarian history of God.” [30] In other words, through baptism one enters into comparison and contrast examples covenant relationship with the Trinity. Baptism is the sacrament of initiation and the door of diary of anne frank, grace. It is in baptism, says Moltmann, that one is given the certainty of God’s grace “through the medium of visible signs.” [31] In baptism one can look back and college comparison and contrast examples say, “that is the day that my sins were washed away.” As a result of one’s new life through faith in Christ and hr resume sap submission to baptism, one then participates in service of Christ for the advancement of God’s kingdom. Christ’s Presence Is Found. in the Fellowship of Believers.

One sees the presence and activity of Christ in the body of believers: “ For where two or three come together in and contrast examples my name, there am I with them ” ( Matthew 18:20 ). When Christians assemble, they relate the story of Christ and their own story with His history, because their fellowship and activity in God’s kingdom springs from the story of liberation brought about through the vicarious sufferings of Christ. Moltmann is perfectly right when he insists that: The messianic community belongs to the Messiah and the messianic word; and this community, with the powers that it has, already realizes the possibilities of the messianic era, which brings the gospel of the kingdom to the poor, which proclaims the lifting up of the a world internet downtrodden to the lowly, and begins the glorification of the coming God through actions of hope in comparison and contrast essay examples the fellowship of the poor, the sad and those condemned to letter for business administration position, silence, so that it may lay hold on all men. Essay Examples! . . . Where the gospel corresponds to Christ, and the messianic fellowship of the people corresponds to the gospel the truth of the proclamation is recognizable from the freedom it creates. Cover Administration Position! The ‘true world’ is promised in the gospel of Christ and is made accessible in the power of the essay Holy Spirit. [32] The Christian fellowship “must stop being a church of ministers functioning on behalf of laymen, and become a charismatic fellowship in which everyone recognizes his ministry and lays hold on his charisma. [33] In other words, the fellowship of believers must recapture the priesthood of all believers, not a special class of priest. Every Christian is to participate in the ministry of Christ. Within the church there are no laymen versus clergy—in God’s kingdom all are ministers. Ben Campbell Johnson explains the essay diary concept of a participatory ministry this way: “To be a minister of and contrast, Jesus Christ means to participate in his body, the incarnate presence of God in the world.” [34] THE CHURCH IN THE. PRESENCE OF THE HOLY SPIRIT. The church in the presence of the ben kinsella Holy Spirit focuses on the power of the Spirit as the Spirit empowers the presence and activity of college and contrast essay examples, Jesus Christ in the world and the church.

In other words, it is the Spirit that manifests Christ and unites us with Him and glorifies Him in men ( 1 Corinthians 12:13 ; Titus 3:5 ). Moltmann maintains that “It is the doctrine of the Holy Spirit in particular that depicts the ben kinsella essay processes and experiences in which and through which the church becomes comprehensible to comparison essay examples, itself as the messianic fellowship.” [35] It is these “processes and experiences” that Moltmann defines as the “means of book, salvation.” [36] That is to say, “proclamation, baptism, the Lord’s Supper, worship, prayer, acts of blessing, and the way in which individual (sic) and fellowship live.” [37] According to Moltmann, “the presence of the kingdom of God and the revelation of the divine mystery of the last days are to be found in the eschatological gift of the Holy Spirit.” [38] Peter in and contrast his Pentecostal sermon speaks of ben kinsella, this eschatological gift of the Spirit to believers ( Acts 2:38 ). Paul, too, in his Corinthian correspondence, speaks of the activity of the Spirit in the church ( 1 Corinthians 12:1-13 ). One must not discount the activity of the Holy Spirit in Christian experiences. The Holy Spirit is associated with the college comparison new birth. Jesus in His conversation with Nicodemus says, “ I tell you the truth, no one can enter the kingdom of qualitie essay, God unless he is born of water and the Spirit ” ( John 3:5 ). Also, Paul relates the Holy Spirit’s activity with regeneration: “H e saved us, not because of righteous things we had done, but because of his mercy. He saved us through the washing of rebirth and renewal by the Holy Spirit, whom he poured out on us generously through Jesus Christ our Savior” ( Titus 3:5-6 ). Again, Paul informs the Corinthians that no one can say, “Jesus is Lord,” except by the Holy Spirit” ( 1 Corinthians 12:3 ). In this same correspondence, Paul recognizes the Holy Spirit’s role of induction into the body of Christ ( 12:13 ). THE CHURCH IN THE. POWER OF THE HOLY SPIRIT. When Christians celebrate baptism and college comparison essay examples the Lord’s Supper, “the church sees itself in the presence of the Holy Spirit as the messianic people destined for the coming kingdom.” [39] That is not to internet, say that one sees the Spirit in the sacraments, but rather, one sees the sacraments in comparison and contrast essay examples the movement and the presence of the Holy Spirit. [40] This is also true of the various ministries of the Spirit; the ministries are conceived of in the presence of the Holy Spirit.

Again, Moltmann aptly remarks: “There is qualitie essay no ‘Spirit of the sacraments’ and no ‘Spirit of the Ministry’, there are sacraments and ministries of the Spirit.” [41] For Paul, the college and contrast essay examples church is frank where the Spirit manifests its power in an abundance of spiritual gifts ( 1 Corinthians 14 ). According to Joel, the Spirit is the gift promised in the last days ( Joel 2:28-29 ; see also Acts 2:12-21 ). Fifty days after the resurrection of Jesus, the disciples witnessed the outpouring of the Spirit ( Acts 2 ). Hans Kung also draws attention to the church as the creation of the Spirit. [42] The Spirit calls them into being ( Titus 3:5 ), and the Spirit creates unity ( Ephesians 4:3 ). Paul writes about the charismata ( carivsmata , carismata ), which means the energies of new life, or the powers of the Holy Spirit. The gifts in the Corinthian church existed as a result of the creative grace of and contrast essay examples, God. The various ministries that exist in a world essay the church today exist as a result of the powers of the Spirit. In the Roman letter, Paul speaks of eternal life as the “gift of God” [ cavrisma tou' qeou' , carisma tou qeou ]( Romans 6:23 ). In the ministry of the college comparison and contrast Spirit, Paul does not write about “ecclesiastical orders.” In other words, he speaks not of hierarchy, but of service in letter Christ’s ministry.

Every individual is a servant in the Spirit’s ministry. This ministry is both instrumentalist and participatory. If one has an exaggerated concept of the instrumentalist aspect of ministry instead of the participatory philosophy, this instrumentalist model may lead to a super ego. It is in this regard that Campbell writes: “When the ego becomes inflated, it tends to operate disconnected from its data. Recall Salieri’s confession: ‘I wanted Fame. . . Comparison Essay! . I wanted to blaze like a comet across the firmament of Europe!’ Here is an qualitie essay, ego gone mad. The desire stems from a hunger for recognition beyond the capacities of the college and contrast person.” [43] An inflated ego is indicative of the qualitie essay instrumentalist philosophy of ministry that exceeds the boundaries for a healthy attitude toward one’s ministry.

One must never forget that God in comparison and contrast essay His mercy allows man a participatory ministry. Moltmann goes right to the point about participatory ministry when he writes: “Through the powers of the Spirit, the one Spirit gives every individual his specific share and a world internet calling, which is essay examples exactly cut out for him, in the process of the new creation.” [44] The Spirit is the Spirit of power. Thesis And Dissertation! Paul speaks of the Spirit’s power in the resurrection: “ And if the Spirit of him who raised Jesus from the dead is living in you, he who raised Christ from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through his Spirit, who lives in you” ( Romans 8:11 ). Through the power of the Spirit, every individual exercises the gift or gifts that the Spirit has given to and contrast essay examples, him/her. Again, Moltmann expresses that even the most menial task is exercising one’s gift: “The widow who exercises mercy is acting just as charismatically as a bishop.” [45] One must never forget that within the Kingdom of Christ there is no essential difference between the essay about of anne so-called clergy and individual member of the church, or God’s community. In other words, every person exercises his/her own function of ministry in the power of the Spirit ( 1 Corinthians 12 ). The questions that confront everyone are: What is comparison and contrast essay ministry? What are models, or functions of ministry? Is one an instrument in letter for business position ministry? Or is one a participant in ministry? When one speaks of college examples, himself/herself as an instrument of God in His ministry, one should always bear in mind that this simply means that one is a bearer of hr resume sap, Christ. One must not look upon his/her ministry as one of more privilege than another believer, but rather, one should see his/her role in God’s ministry as a bearer of Christ, that is to say, one’s ministry is a symbolic presence of God.” [46] How should one view the various functions in college comparison and contrast essay examples ministry?

Are individuals the qualitie essay voice of God? Are individuals the hands of God? Are individuals the feet of God? Some respond by saying yes, which is the instrumentalist view of a ministry. [47] On the other hand, some Christians view themselves as participants in God’s ministry. Comparison! A healthy view of ministry is to view one’s ministry as consisting of both—instrumentalist and participatory. In most instances where “minister” or “ministering” is found in English versions, the Greek has some form of diakonia (“service” or “ministry”), which occurs thirty-four times. A related noun, diakonos (“servant,” “minister,” or “deacon”), occurs thirty times. The verb diakoneo (“to serve” or “to serve as a deacon”) is without internet used thirty-seven times. [48] What are models of ministry? What is a model?

What is ministry? These are questions that everyone must seek an college and contrast essay examples, answer to for business administration, in order to effectively minister to people. And Contrast Examples! Once an hr resume sap, individual’s working theology of the church is developed, then, one is able to set forth a coherent paradigm of ministry as it relates to comparison essay, the various functions exercised in the fulfillment of cover letter for business administration position, one’s ministry. Under the rubric of models of ministry, one’s ministry includes the prioritizing of the various functions in the order of their relative importance: (a) proclamation of the gospel, (b) teaching, (c) evangelism, (d) pastoral care, and college and contrast examples (e) ecumenical and a world internet interfaith activities. How does one define ministry? Is there a wide sense and a narrow sense in which ministry is defined? What examples do New Testament writings contain that incarnate ministry?

Is ministry healing the brokenhearted, preaching the college comparison and contrast essay gospel of the about of anne frank kingdom of God, teaching ethical instructions to the saved, seeking justice for the wronged, ministering to “to the essay examples least of these,” and thesis and dissertation so on? Is ministry reserved for a special class known as “clergy” (narrow sense)? Or, is ministry for every Christian (wider sense)? Just what does it mean to minister? These are questions that one must answer to adequately form a proper conception of one’s own ministry with its various models as it is set forth in the Bible. And Contrast Essay Examples! Moltmann cautions Christians about a proper understanding of thesis and dissertation, ministry: “As the messianic congregation the people of God cannot recognize the college comparison essay examples sovereignty of a priestly caste or special ministerial class.” [49] No Christian should surrender his/her freedom, which Christ has brought about, to a select group of men to do his/her ministry or thinking. James A. Wharton has rightly picked up on the meaning of ministry:

The familiar word “minus” is beneath “minis-try” in qualitie essay whatever sense the term is used. A “lesser” person or persons understood to college essay, be somehow “greater.” Ministry may describe the service by a courtier to a king, a slave to a master, or a wage earner to an employer out of motives as diverse as loyalty, duty, compulsion, or personal gain. Essay! [50] Proclamation of the Gospel. The word proclamation , in and of itself, does not disclose the object of what is proclaimed. One may proclaim the college and contrast examples Word of God in its totality, or one may proclaim the good news. The church’s proclamation of Jesus as the Messiah is in essence the thesis and dissertation gospel of the kingdom. Moltmann says, “The messianic church grew out of the apostolic proclamation of the gospel and is alive in the act of proclamation.” [51] Moltmann includes the following in the proclamation of the gospel: “preaching, teaching, conversations with groups and individuals, storytelling, comforting, encouraging and liberating, through the publicity of the media in the proclamation of the gospel.” [52] It is through the college essay examples proclamation ( khvrugma , khrugma , “message”) of the “good news” ( eujaggevlion , euaggelion , “gospel”) of God that individuals are made disciples ( maqhteuvsate , maqhteusate , “make disciples”). Once an individual is called through the message of redemption, then, he/she must be taught to qualitie essay, be submissive to the teachings of college comparison essay, God ( Matthew 28:18-20 ). Mark begins the ministry of Jesus by informing his readers that Jesus went about a world internet essay, “ proclaiming ( khruvsswn , khrusswn ) the good news ( eujaggevlion , euaggelion ) of college, God. ‘ The time has come, ’ he said. ‘ The kingdom of God is essay frank near.

Repent and believe the college comparison examples good news ( ejn tw'/ eujaggelivw , en tw euaggeliw , “in the gospel” ) ! ’” ( Mark 1:14-15 ). It is in the same vein that Matthew paints a concise picture of Jesus’ ministry as “teaching,” “preaching,” and without internet essay “healing.” Matthew writes: “ Jesus went throughout Galilee, teaching ( didavskwn , didaskwn ) in their synagogues, preaching ( khruvsswn , khrusswn ) the good news of the kingdom, and healing ( qerapeuvwn , qrapeuwn ) every disease and college essay examples sickness among the people” ( Matthew 4:23 ). The followers of Jesus participate in preaching and essay teaching as a part of their ministry. Even though Christians cannot perform “healing” in essay examples the sense that Jesus executed, nevertheless, Christians can assist individuals in their sickness as a part of their diakonia ( Luke 10:25-37; Matthew 25:31-46 ). As mentioned above, Paul speaks of the “preaching of the gospel” as the “ministry of reconciliation” ( diakonivan th' katallagh' , diakonian ths katallaghs ), that is to say, declaring (proclaiming) Jesus as the Word of without internet essay, reconciliation ( 2 Corinthians 5:18-21 ). In other words, Jesus is God’s way of salvation for a lost and dying world. And Contrast Essay Examples! This “ministry of reconciliation” rests upon the shoulders of every believer. Matthew and Mark begin their ministry of Jesus with the proclamation of the gospel of the kingdom, and both men conclude with instruction to continue this ministry of preaching. Mark, for example, gives the final words of Jesus as: “ Go ( poreuqevnte , poreuqentes ) into all the world and preach the good news ( khruvxate toV eujaggevlion , khruxate to euaggelion ) to all creation. Essay About Diary Of Anne! Whoever believes and essay is baptized will be saved, but whoever does not believe will be condemned ” ( Mark 16:15-16 ) . On the other hand, Matthew phrases the Great Commission with these words: Therefore go ( poreuqevnte , poreuqentes ) and ben kinsella essay make disciples ( maqhteuvsate , maqhteusate ) of all nations, baptizing ( baptivzonte , baptizontes ) them in the name of the comparison essay examples Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching ( didavskonte , didaskontes ) them to obey everything I have commanded you. And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age ( Matthew 28:19-20 ). Proclamation of the gospel and proclamation of the teachings of Christ are two distinct activities in essay the Great Commission.

This is the reason that preaching is prioritized first and teaching second in one’s ministry. Once an college and contrast, individual is essay called through the message of comparison and contrast examples, redemption and placed in a right relationship with God through faith in Christ Jesus, then he/she must be taught to be submissive to the teachings of God. There is, so it appears, a distinction between preaching and teaching. Alan Richardson gives this pertinent comment on preaching: “In the NT preaching has nothing to do with the delivery of sermons to the converted, which is what it usually means today, but always concerns the proclamation of the essay about diary of anne ‘good tidings of and contrast essay, God’ to the non-Christian world.” [53] It is critical that one understands the thesis and dissertation distinction between preaching the gospel and teaching the Word in order to college comparison and contrast, restore the qualitie essay biblical ideal of preaching. One has to do with birth, the essay examples other with spiritual digestion. The Gospel is that which brings us into being while the doctrine is that which is thesis essential to our growth and well being. There is as much difference between Gospel and doctrine as there is and contrast essay between the essay frank sperm from college comparison and contrast essay examples which life comes and the daily bread upon essay of anne frank which the child feeds. College Comparison! This understanding is crucial to the fellowship of the saints. This lack of distinction is critical in Church of Christ theology. It is not uncommon for Christians within this religious movement to thesis and dissertation book, associate the twenty-seven books that comprise the so-called New Testament as the Gospel.

Thus, gospel and doctrine are wedded together. College Comparison Examples! As a result of this merger, then, for one to disagree with the religious leaders is to preach another gospel. The verb “to preach” frequently has for thesis, its object “the gospel.” C. H. Dodd, one of the more able scholars, believes that there is a distinction. It is in this regard that he seeks to set forth a correct understanding of what the Gospel is all about. College! He writes: Indeed, the connection of ideas is cover administration position so close that keryseein by itself can be used as a virtual equivalent for evangelizesthai , “to evangelize,” or “to preach the Gospel.” It would not be too much to say that wherever “preaching” is college comparison and contrast essay examples spoken of, it always carries with it the implication of “good tidings” proclaimed. [54] Also, Alexander Campbell, one of the founders of the American Restoration Movement—Disciples of hr resume sap, Christ, Christian Churches, and Churches of Christ—differentiated between “preach” and “teach.” For instance, Campbell quotes from Dr. Campbell concerning this difference:

Dr. Campbell observes—“No moral instructions, or doctrinal explanations, given either by college essay our Lord or his Apostles, are ever, either in the Gospels or the internet essay Acts, denominated preaching.” Again, he says that the Greek word kerrusso , which means to college examples, preach, “always implied public notice of for business position, some event, either accomplished or about to college and contrast examples, be accomplished, often accompanied by a warning to do, or forbear something, but it never denoted either a comment on, or explanation of any subject, or a chain of reasoning in proof of a particular sentiment.” Thus we find that the preacher’s mission is altogether to the world, and that he takes upon about diary of anne himself another office entirely, when he presumes to teach the church. [55] One more, Alexander Campbell, in an address delivered before the Kentucky Convention, held at Harrodsburg, Kentucky, September 28, 1853, pungently states his thoughts: Preaching the gospel and teaching the converts, are as distinct and distinguishable employments as enlisting an army and training it, or as creating a school and teaching it. Unhappily for and contrast examples, the church and for the world, this distinction, if at all conceded as legitimate, is obliterated or annulled in almost all Protestant Christendom. [56] This is no mere speculative distinction. It was appreciated and understood and acted upon in apostolic ministry. For example, Luke records the early ministry this way: “T hey never stopped teaching ( didavskonte , didaskontes ) and proclaiming ( eujaggelizovmenoi , euaggelizomenoi ) the good news that Jesus is the letter for business Christ” ( Acts 5:42 ). When believers confuse “biblical preaching” and comparison and contrast examples “biblical teaching,” division is created among Christians rather than unity. With a proper understanding of the two different functions, this apprehension will contribute toward a more effective ministry. Victor Furnish captures the essence of preaching when he writes:

Only when we recognize that Paul’s preaching was a ministerium Dei , and not just personal religious testimony, are we able to understand how he could rejoice even when Christ was proclaimed for the wrong reasons, but those who acted from unworthy motives and out of pretense (Phil.1:15-18). The word Paul preached was not about what God had done for him; it was a word from qualitie essay God that spoke of college essay examples, what God had done in Christ for all those who believe. [57] Victor appears to hr resume sap, be correct when he says: “In the Pauline understanding of ministry, preaching is an occasion, not just an ‘occurrence.’” [58] Again, Victor is right when he says: “In Rom. 10:5-21, Paul describes the comparison examples gospel as ‘the word of faith’ which comes ‘near’ in preaching.” [59] Christians exist to communicate God’s Word; Christians are ambassadors for Christ. It is the mission of believers to evangelize the world.

As long as there is one person who does not know Christ, the church has a mandate to keep growing. Growth is not optional. It is commanded by Jesus in essay diary of anne frank His great commission ( Matthew 18:20 ). Paul, too, expresses this same truth in college comparison examples the Corinthian correspondence when he says: “God. . . gave us the ben kinsella essay ministry of reconciliation” ( 2 Corinthians 5:18 ) and “has committed to us the message of reconciliation” ( 5:19 ) and, again, “We are therefore Christ’s ambassadors, as though God were making his appeal through us” ( 5:20 ). Moltmann points out that: The messianic mission of Jesus is only fulfilled in his death and is put into full force through his resurrection. . . . Through his death and resurrection the church participates in his mission, becoming the messianic church of the coming kingdom and man’s liberation. [60] Again, Moltmann is very insightful in his statements concerning the missionary nature of the college and contrast essay examples church in his description of the true nature of the church: “The church understands itself as ‘the church of the world’” [61] For instance, according to Moltmann, “It is the vehicle of the gospel of freedom, not a schoolmaster for hr resume sap, the nations.” [62] In other words, when the church proclaims the gospel of Christ, it is calling men to comparison and contrast essay examples, repentance and to a new start into freedom. Jesus fulfills His mission through the proclamation of the cover good news of redemption made available through faith in college comparison and contrast essay examples Jesus. Moltmann demonstrates this most impressively with his description of the church:

It is the community of the liberated, the hr resume sap community of those who are making a new beginning, the community of those who hope. Their fellowship serves to college and contrast examples, spread the call of freedom in the world and, as new fellowship, should itself be the social form of hope. Fundamentally, all Christians share in the prophetic ministry of Christ and are witnesses of the gospel. Ben Kinsella! [63] Moltmann calls attention to examples, the importance of teaching versus speaking in tongues in the assembly when he writes: “The apostles recognized teaching as one of the gifts of the Spirit (Rom. 12:7; 1 Cor. 12:28-29; cf. 1 Cor. Ben Kinsella! 2:13), and he clearly valued it above speaking in tongues when it came to public worship (1 Cor.

14:6).” [64] Teaching involves a “building up” of the body of Christ ( 2 Corinthians 10:8 ). The Sermon on the Mount is an excellent example of teaching ( Matthew 5—7 ). College And Contrast! Whether one participates in the preaching of the gospel or the teaching of the Word, it is essential that one understand ministry in thesis and dissertation its essential aspect—ministry of God. In other words, if one perceives ministry as the service of God and not so much as the service of the world, or of the church, or of comparison and contrast essay, individuals, or of society, then one allows God to use him/her in accomplishing His objectives—the salvation of the world. It is ultimately God’s ministry, not simply man’s ministry. Man is a participant in God’s ministry. The Christian community is to be involved in the spiritual development of each individual. Not only is man an instrument of God, but man is cover for business administration also a participant in God's ministry. Comparison And Contrast! One must never forget that God allows each person to participate in His ministry. One aspect of teaching is to develop the spiritual maturity of essay about diary of anne, individuals to a commitment to Jesus as God’s Son. The spiritual development of Christians is a part of the growth process that the comparison and contrast essay New Testament writers focus on. Ben Kinsella Essay! One classic example is the judgment scene in comparison Matthew 25 concerning God’s judgment upon the nation of Israel for its rejection of Jesus as the Messiah. In this parable against the religious leaders, Jesus speaks of the “least of essay about diary frank, these.” In one’s spiritual development, he/she must realize that the “least of these” involve care on the part of essay, all believers.

There is some sense in ben kinsella essay which all Christians are to essay examples, become involved in pastoral care. James, our Lord’s brother, expresses true spirituality this way: If anyone considers himself religious and ben kinsella essay yet does not keep a tight rein on his tongue, he deceives himself and his religion is worthless. Religion that God our Father accepts as pure and college essay examples faultless is this: to look after orphans and widows in their distress and to keep oneself from being polluted by the world ( James 1:26-27 ). The Hebrews writer also captures the concept of the “least of these” in the following words: “Through Jesus, therefore, let us continually offer to God a sacrifice of praise—the fruit of lips that confess his name. And do not forget to qualitie essay, do good and to share with others, for with such sacrifices God is pleased” ( Hebrews 13:15-16 ). Christians today need encouragement just as much as they did in the first century.

It is in this vein that the college comparison and contrast essay author of Hebrews exhorts believers not to fail to assemble: “ And let us consider how we may spur one another on toward love and good deeds. Let us not give up meeting together, as some are in ben kinsella the habit of doing, but let us encourage one another—and all the more as you see the Day approaching” ( 10:24-25 ). The “Day approaching” refers to college essay, the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE as described by Jesus in Matthew 24 , Mark 13 , and Luke 21 . Ecumenical and Interfaith Activities. Another activity of ministry, as stated earlier, is the ecumenical aspect of ministry within the body of Christ. For example, Paul in writing to the Ephesians encourages them to work toward “the unity of the Spirit through the ben kinsella bond of peace” ( Ephesians 4:3 ). Also, Paul in the beginning of this short epistle expresses God’s plan for the unity of His people: And he made known to us the mystery of his will according to his good pleasure, which he purposed in college essay examples Christ, to be put into effect when the times will have reached their fulfillment—to bring all things in heaven and on earth together under one head, even Christ ( 1:9-10 ). God’s people must learn to be peacemakers not piecemakers . It is in book this regard that Professor Leroy Garrett, a reformer in comparison and contrast church unity, says, The point of the gospel is that now in Christ Jesus “you who once were far off have been brought near in the blood of Christ” (Eph. Hr Resume Sap! 2:13). College Examples! This makes all men in thesis Christ blood brothers, irrespective of what garb they wear or what infirmity they bear. It is a blessed reality that Jesus came to comparison and contrast, make men brothers. This is something far different than merely sharing a space on a church roll.

Men become brothers only through an inward experience that transcends them both. [65] As a part on one’s ministry, Christians should work toward breaking down the barriers that separate them from other believers. In this vein, Moltmann states: “The ecumenical movement seeks the visible unity of Christ’s church.” [66] Again, he rightly insists on looking beyond one’s own denomination in defining the true “Church of Christ”: “But the question of the hr resume sap ‘true church’ moves into the foreground. Just as we seek for the true church in the shape of college comparison essay, our own denomination, so we will seek it in the forms of other churches as well; for the true church is one and indivisible.” [67] Again, he says, “In the ecumenical context Christianity loses its provincial character.” [68] Moltmann speaks of the church as one and qualitie essay indivisible. Garrett, too, uses the following pregnant words in his “Catholicity of the Church” article: And we should use the term catholic much more than we do in our references to the church. Why I Belong to the Catholic Church would be a better title for a talk than Why I Belong to comparison essay, the Church of Christ , for qualitie essay, with that topic one is at once on universal ground, whereas the term “church of college comparison essay examples, Christ,” since it has been adopted by several groups as a distinctive name, has one treading the a world without waters of sectarianism. [69] Thomas Campbell, father of comparison, Alexander Campbell, while a Presbyterian wrote the following words about the universal nature of the church: “That the Church of Christ upon earth is essentially, intentionally, and constitutionally one; consisting of all those in every place that profess their faith in Christ and without essay obedience to him in all things according to the Scriptures.” [70] Campbell is conscious of the causes of divisions within the true church of Christ. He himself seeks to call attention to the “uncharitable divisions among them.” Again, he writes: That although the Church of Christ upon earth must necessarily exist in particular and distinct societies . . . yet there ought to be no schisms, no uncharitable divisions among them. College Essay Examples! They ought to receive each other as Christ Jesus hath also received them, to the glory of God. [71]

Richard Niebuhr, former Director for The Study of cover letter for business administration, Theological Education in the United States and Canada, is also to the point when he writes: The confusion between part and whole is not to be avoided by denying the reality of the parts but only by the acceptance of diversity and limitation and the corollary recognition that all the parts are equally related in the whole to the ultimate object of the church. College Comparison Essay! [72] A part of one’s ministry is to work toward the cover for business unity for which Jesus prayed ( John 17 ). One’s philosophy of college and contrast examples, ministry—participatory or instrumentalist—determines one’s attitude of hr resume sap, unity. In the participatory philosophy of ministry, one participates, but, on and contrast the other hand, the extreme instrumentalist philosophy of ministry says, “I am the hr resume sap voice of God.” REALITIES OF THE MODERN WORLD. The Urban Christian. An excellent modern day example of ministry in the “realities of the modern world” is college comparison Ray Bakke’s book on The Urban Christian. In his autobiography of ministry, he states that his purpose in writing The Urban Christian is “to indicate something of the big corporate picture within which your personal ministry is situated. [73] In the essay diary of anne frank beginning of his ministry, he established a discipleship group, which took a total of five years for the formation of the college comparison essay first Christians in Action (CIA). [74] This group formed a committee and other neighborhood action committees. As a result of this action, at one time over forty gays and lesbians attended support groups. Their ministry also included hosting an Alcoholics Anonymous Group. [75]

They, according to Bakke, “wanted to be known as people who cared—for the community, for schools, for senior citizens, and so on. [76] Bakke’s group adopted training programs to strengthen people under stress, to encourage people experiencing divorce, or to assist those involved in drugs or alcohol. [77] This kind of ministry introduces one into for business the “realities of the real world.” Bakke questioned pastors from all over the world as to the greatest ten basic barriers to effective evangelism. This questionnaire revealed that all barriers could be summed up in college and contrast essay examples the statement: “We never did it that way before!—the Seven Last Words of the essay about of anne Church. [78] He discovered that hindrances to effective evangelism did not exist in college the so-called “big bad city itself,” but rather in barriers created by “church politics, policies, priorities or personalities.” [79] In other words, failure to evangelize is ben kinsella essay not in the cities, but in the failure of an individual to interact within his/her own setting. Christian ministry involves participation in the “realities of the real world.” One should participate with the congregation of which he/she is a member for college examples, an effective ministry. Bakke suggest that one begin with the question: “How did you come to know Jesus Christ?” [80] This question unlocks the pilgrimage of the individual.

One should share one’s personal pilgrimage of faith with others in order to strengthen their faith. Without Internet! A second question put forth by comparison examples Bakke is: “What were the circumstances of your life when you became a Christian?” [81] This question causes one to reflect upon essay the faith that has sustained him/her over the years. Then, Bakke ask a third question: “What have you enjoyed in church life over the years?” [82] As a result of this question, individuals recalled things long forgotten. He discovered many prior social activities no longer in practice. Finally, he concluded his interview with this question: “If you could wave a wand and bring about a future for this church, what would it look like?” [83] This final question awoke people to commitment and to future possibilities in college comparison essay examples their ministry. Without Essay! Bakke’s concept of ministry is college comparison a functional ministry.

Bakke’s ministry included “networking social agencies,” [84] such as: (1) police, (2) schools, (3) welfare agencies, (4) prisons, (5) courts, (6) hospitals, (6) political groups, and (8) offices of thesis, city hall. [85] This kind of ministry introduces one to the “realities of the real world.” Surely he is correct when he writes: “I part company with those who say, ‘Only do a social ministry,’ and with those who say, ‘We only comparison and contrast essay examples announce the good news.’” [86] Another individual, Lester R. Brown, also calls attention to a “social ministry” in his book, Who Will Feed China? [87] Even though he did not address this concern with quotations from the bible, nevertheless, food production is one aspect of the Christian community. What can Christians do in this area of food shortages? Brown issues a wake-up call to alert people to the problems in China that could affect the entire globe. [88] As Brown explains, “All the letter administration position leaders of China today are survivors of the massive famine that occurred in 1959—in the aftermath of the Great Leap Forward—a famine that claimed a staggering 30 million lives.” [89] Brown seeks to avoid another famine that could affect, not only China, but also the whole world. Racism in the World.

One’s attitude toward the race question can have extreme consequences in the development of another’s attitude toward Christianity. How should a Christian respond to comparison and contrast essay, racism? Should Christians become involved in seeking answers to qualitie essay, the problems of racism? Professor James H. Cone says, “Unlike white churches, which separated religion and politics when the and contrast racial question was involved, black churches have always viewed them as belonging together, especially in regard to race.” [90] Martin Luther King reminded the clergy: “a minister cannot preach the glories of heaven while ignoring social conditions in his own community that cause men an earthly hell.” [91] Again, Cone remarks: “There was no way anyone could be the thesis and dissertation kind of Christian that King’s theology called for without being willing to suffer on behalf of the college essay examples “least of book, these,” a biblical reference he often used to describe the poor.” [92] King correctly understood that God is concerned about every area of one’s life, not just the so-called spiritual aspects confined within the church building, which is usually one, or, at and contrast examples the most, three hours weekly. This ministry of God involves not just proclamation of the Gospel, but also requires involvement in social actions. When Christians sit on letter administration position the sideline and hope that things will get better, God is not pleased with this insensitivity. Jesus confronts this issue head-on in his “least of these” in Matthew 25 . God, through Isaiah, complains: “No one calls for justice” ( Isaiah 59:4 ). The religious leaders of Israel did not speak out against injustice. The people as a whole did not speak out against injustice.

The Lord looked and was displeased that no one called for justice. Again, Isaiah says, “The LORD looked and was displeased that there was no justice. And Contrast! He saw that there was no one, he was appalled that there was no one to intervene” ( 59:15,16 ). God questions Israel by saying that the book kind of “fasting” that He is concerned with is: (1) “to loose the chains of injustice,” (2) “to set the oppressed free,” (3) “to share your food with the hungry,” (4) “to provide the poor wanderer with shelter,” and (5) “when you see the college examples naked, to clothe him” ( 58:6-7 ). As mentioned above, when one’s ministry does not consider the “least of these,” then, one’s testimony about his faith in Jesus is weakened. Malcolm X is a classic example of a weakened ministry among many Christians.

Malcolm X, as he was called, rejected Christianity because he did not see Christ in believers in of anne the real world, as Cone makes clear. Cone writes: “Malcolm’s opposition to Christianity was not based upon and contrast essay his examination of its creeds and doctrines or the scholarly writings of its theologians. Rather, it was defined by the practices of people who called themselves Christians.” [93] What did Jesus say about love? Jesus reminds every believer: “ A new command I give you: Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must love one another. By this all men will know that you are my disciples, if you love one another ” ( John 13:34-35 ).

Transcendence and Immanence of about of anne, God. One’s consciousness of God’s transcendence (above and independent of the material universe) and immanence will control one’s ministry. David Wells develops the evolutionary rearranging of God to nothing in modern society. In other words, according to Wells, God is pushed to the periphery and ceases to be relevant in the lives of men and women. [94] He also calls attention to the “weightlessness of God,” that is to say, God ceases to examples, be relevant to cover for business position, the modern context. [95] In order for one to be effective in his/her ministry, one must be conscious of the values in a modern society. In other words, one must distinguish between two concepts—modernization and modernity. What is the college comparison essay examples difference between these two terms? Wells explains the distinction: “The former is producing changes in the outer fabric of our life; the latter is altering the without essay values and meanings that emerge from within the context of the modernized world—values and meanings that in the modern context seem altogether normal and natural.” [96] He calls Christians back to a realization of the essay transcendence and immanence of God.

In other words, believers need to encompass the internet essay distant God and the near God. One’s attitude toward transcendence and immanence affects one’s view of the comparison essay examples world. There are two opposing perceptions prevalent in the world. One is natural and ben kinsella essay the other is supernatural. Without a transcendent God, then there can be no objective standard by which man is to determine right from wrong.

One must recapture the focus of “transcendent biblical truth,” writes Wells. [97] When one ministers to comparison, the world, there must be recognized an objective standard by which things are to letter, be judged; otherwise, there is no hope of ever resolving the question of “right” versus “wrong.” In the words of Isaiah, it is: “ To the law and to the testimony! If they do not speak according to this word, they have no light of dawn” ( Isaiah 8:20 ). Why do people refuse the Word of God? Wells states the reason concisely: “Modernity inexorably relocates God to its periphery, rendering him first impotent, then irrelevant, and finally invisible.” [98] This paper has sought to call attention to two concepts of ministry, namely, instrumentalist and participatory. Christians are invited to participate in God’s ministry. This ministry involves “the least of these,” as well as the various functions of comparison examples, ministry. Ministry is not reserved for hr resume sap, a special class, but for every believer. Each person is to perform whatever gift(s) the Holy Spirit has given to him/her. Christians are concerned with the proclamation of the Gospel as well as with teaching the instructions of God, which includes the social issues. God is as concerned with relationships as He is with the essay examples assembling of His people on Sundays. If one does not love individuals, then how can one love God whom he/she has not seen?

An understanding of the church as the company of the redeemed heightens one’s perception of the privilege of essay, ministry. There is a sense in which the church is Christ incarnate; in other words, it is the body of Christ. The church is not an ecclesiastical structure; rather, it is an organism. It is the company of the liberated. This proclamation of liberation is the business of every believer. Once Christ sets a person free, then that individual seeks to teach others to college comparison, be submissive to qualitie essay, the whole council of God. There is no area of life that is not affected by the Christian’s call to ministry. College! A perusal of the hr resume sap prophets reveals involvement in the affliction of widows and orphans; the prophets also addressed the concern of inadequate wages and justice in the courts. Even though there is a separation of church and State, there can never be a separation of God and State anymore than there can be a separation of God and church. Both of these entities are under God’s control.

How did you respond to the opening paragraph in this study concerning questions put forth for one’s consideration? In conclusion, it is necessary to ask the following questions again: What is your definition of ministry? What is your definition of church? Are you a participant in God’s ministry? Are you conscious that you are an essay, instrument of God? Are you concerned about social issues as well as the proclamation of the Gospel? Should Christians be involved in politics? Are you a minister of God? Bakke, Ray. The Urban Christian . Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1987. Brunner, Email.

The Misunderstanding of the thesis and dissertation Church. London: Lutterworth Press, 1952. Brown, Lester R. Who Will Feed China?: Wake-Up Call for a Small Planet . New York: W. W. Comparison And Contrast Essay Examples! Norton Company, 1995. Bultmann, Rudolph. Faith and Understanding . New York: Harper Row, 1966. Campbell, Thomas.

Declaration and Address (1809). St. Louis: Mission Messenger, reprint, nd. Cone, James H. Martin Malcolm America: A Dream or a Nightmare . New York: Orbis, 1995. Covey, Stephen R. The Habits of Highly Effective People. New York: Simon Schuster, 1989.

Dodd, C. H. The Apostolic Preaching. New York: Harper Row, 1964. Johnson, Campbell Ben. Pastoral Spirituality . Philadelphia: Westminster, 1988. Kettle, Gerhard. Theological Dictionary of the New Testament . Ben Kinsella! Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1968.

Kung, Hans. The Church . New York: Sheed and Ward, 1967. Manson, T. W. The Church’s Ministry . Philadelphia: Westminster, 1948. Moltmann, Jurgen. The Church in the Power of the Spirit . San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1991.

Niebuhr, Richard H. The Purpose of the Church and Its Ministry. Harper Brothers, 1956. Nygren, Anders, ed. This is the Church . Philadelphia: Muhlenberg Press, 1952. Richards, Lawrence. Expository Dictionary of and contrast, bible Words . Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1985. Synder, Howard. Models of the Kingdom . Of Anne! Nashville: Abingdon, 1991. Wells, David F. God in the Wasteland: The Reality of Truth in a World of Fading Dreams. Grand Rapids: InterVarsity, 1994. Garrett, Leroy. “The Catholicity of the Church.” Restoration Review 15 (March 1973): 45-46.

Griffith, Thomas. “Is the college comparison and contrast examples New Testament Minister a Priest?” Bibliotheca Sacra 136 (January-March 1979): 65-73. Ketcherside, Carl. “Walking Together.” Mission Messenger: Unity of the Spirit 25 (Many 1963): 72. [1] T. W. Manson, The Church’s Ministry (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1947), 35. [2] See Howard A. Snyder, Models of the thesis book Kingdom (Nashville: Abingdon, 1991), 11, 19, for an insightful, fully assessed definition of “model.” He writes: Models are not jut opinions or theories; they are often the lenses through which we view reality. Models of the kingdom of God can have earth-shaking results. . College Essay! . . What people believe about the kingdom often shapes what they do. . Qualitie Essay! . . A further word should be added concerning the use of models in theology and specifically in comparison examples discussing the kingdom of ben kinsella essay, God.

A considerable literature on using models in theology has developed over the past three decades, and models are increasingly employed today as a method of theological exploration . . . . ‘A model is, in essence, a sustained and systematic metaphor.’ . . . By constructing and exploring models one finds hints of what may be true about the comparison and contrast essay examples hidden reality the models represent. [3] Manson, The Church’s Ministry , 16. [4] See Stephen R. Covey, The 7 Habits of cover for business administration, Highly Effective People (New York: Simon Shuster, 1989), 23, where he says, The word paradigm comes from the Greek. It was originally a scientific term, and is more commonly used today to mean a model, theory, perception, assumption, or frame of reference. In the more general sense, it’s the way we ‘see’ the world—not in terms of our visual sense of sight, but in terms of perceiving, understanding, interpreting.

[5] Anders Nygren, “Corpus Christi,” in This Is the Church , ed. Anders Nygren, Gustaf Aulen, Ragnar Bring, Anton Fridrichsen, and and contrast examples Rasmussen (Philadelphia: Muhlenberg Press, 1952), 4. [6] Emil Brunner, The Misunderstanding of the Church (London: Lutterworth Press, 1942), 42. [7] Jurgen Moltmann, The Church in the Power of the internet Spirit (SanFrancisco: Harper SanFrancisco, 1991), 68. [12] All Scripture citations are from The New International Version , (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House) 1984, unless stated otherwise. [13] Moltmann, The Church in essay the Power of the Spirit, 54. [17] Rudolph Bultmann, Faith and Understanding (New York: Harper Row, 1966), 308, 310. [18] Moltmann, The Church in the Power of the Spirit , 105. [23] Ibid., 252. For Moltmann, the “apostolate” includes proclamation through the thesis and dissertation book Word and college essay sacraments and hr resume sap the Christian community. [34] Ben Campbell Johnson, Pastoral Spirituality: A Focus for Ministry (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1988), 77. Even though this comment appears in the context of college examples, ministry as “instrumentalist,” nevertheless, this statement is an excellent illustration of what is meant by “participatory” ministry.

[35] Moltmann, The Church in essay the Power of the Spirit , 198. [42] Hans Kung, The Church (New York: Sheed and Ward, 1967), 150-203. [43] Campbell, Pastoral Spirituality , 44. [44] Moltmann, The Church in the Power of the Spirit , 295. [46] See Campbell, Pastoral Spirituality , 77, for comparison essay, an excellent discussion of this concept of ministry. [48] Lawrence O. Richards, “Minister/Ministry,” in Expository Dictionary of Bible Words (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1985), 433.

[49] Moltmann, The Church in the Power of the Spirit , 303. [50] James A. Wharton, “Theology and Ministry in the Hebrew Scriptures,” in A Biblical Basis for Ministry , ed. Earl E. Shelp and Ronald Sunderland (Louisville: Westminster, 1981), 19-20. [51] Moltmann, The Church in the Power of the Spirit , 206. [53] Alan Richardson, A Theological Word Book of the hr resume sap Bible (New York: Macmillan Co., 1960), 171-172. [54] C. H. College Comparison And Contrast Essay Examples! Dodd, The Apostolic Preaching (New York: Harper Roe, 1964), 8. [55] Alexander Campbell, “Use and essay about diary frank Abuse of Preaching—III,” in Millennial Harbinger , 3 rd Series, 3, not 6 (June 1846): 318. [56] Alexander Campbell, “Church Edification,” in Millennial Harbinger , 4 th Series, 3, no. Comparison Essay! 10 (October 1853): 541.

[57] Victor Paul Furnish, “Theology and Ministry,” in A Biblical Basis for Ministry , eds. Earl E. Shelp and Ronald Sunderland (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1981), 107. [60] Moltmann, The Church in the Power of the Spirit , 83. [65] Leroy Garrett, “The Catholicity of the Church,” in Restoration Review: The Church of essay about diary frank, Christ Yesterday and Today 15, no. 3 (March 1973), 45-46. [66] Moltmann, The Church in the Power of the Spirit , 12. [69] Garrett, “The Catholicity of the Church,” 44. [70] Thomas Campbell, “Declaration and Address,” in Declaration and Address and essay Last Will and Testament of the Springfield Presbytery (Pennsylvania, Thomas Campbell, 1809; reprint, St. Louis: Mission Messenger, 1975), 44 [page references are to essay about of anne frank, reprint edition]. [72] H. Richard Niebuhr, The Purpose of the Church and Its Ministry (New York: Harper Brothers, 1956), 40-41.

[73] Ray Bakke, The urban Christian (Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1987), 124. [87] Lester R. Brown, Who Will Feed China? Wake-Up Call for a Small Planet (New York: W. W. Norton Co., 1995). [90] James H. Cone, Martin Malcolm America (New York: Orbis, 1995), 143. [91] Cited in Ibid., 147.

[93] Cone, Martin Malcolm America , 167. [94] See David Wells, God in the Wasteland (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1994), 118-185 for a detailed explanation of the college modern day concept of hr resume sap, God.

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Writing Better University Essays/Main part. This part constitutes the examples, main part of your essay. Try to use about 60% of your words for qualitie essay this part. You can understand it as delivering what you have promised in comparison and contrast examples, the introduction. This part of the essay is often referred to as the main body, or the argument. It’s the part of the essay, where you develop the answer. Whilst doing so, it’s important to be aware of the question at cover letter position, all time. This is the only way to keep to the topic set. Ideally, every paragraph is geared towards answering the question.

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Giving alternatives : there are two possibilities, alternatively, the one, the qualitie essay, other, either, or, neither, nor, in comparison and contrast examples, addition, no only, but also, worse still, better still, equally, likewise, similarly, correspondingly, in the same way, another possibility, in a similar vein, as well as, furthermore, moreover, also, although, again, what is more, besides, too, as well as. Giving examples or introducing illustrations : for example, for instance, to a world without essay name an example, to give an example, is and contrast essay examples well illustrated by, a case point is, such as, such, one of essay which, illustrates, is an example of this, is shown by, is exemplified by, is and contrast essay illustrated by. Stating sequence : first of all, first, firstly, second, secondly, thirdly, fourthly, now, then, next, finally, to complete, after that, 1, 2, 3, last, lastly, furthermore, to for business position begin with, moreover, in addition, to conclude, afterwards. Reformulate the same point : in other words, to put it more simply, to college essay examples put it differently, it would be better to say. Stating consequences : so, therefore, as a consequence, as a result, now, consequently, because of, thus, for this reason, then, this is why, accordingly, hence, given this, with reference to, given, on this basis, is caused by, causes, due to, has the effect, affects, the reason for, because of this, if, then, results in, leads to, produces, owing to, through, as, since, because. Stating purpose : in order to, so that, so as to, to. Giving the essay frank, method by which something happened: by college comparison essay examples, …ing, by thesis and dissertation, (noun), by using. College Comparison And Contrast Essay Examples? Stating surprise about something unexpected: besides, however, nevertheless, surprisingly, nonetheless, notwithstanding, only, still, while, in any case, at any rate, for all that, after all, at the same time, all the same.

Summarizing : to cover letter administration position sum up, in summary, to essay examples summarize, in brief, altogether, overall. Reaching a conclusion : I conclude, I therefore conclude, reached the conclusion that, it is concluded, therefore, for this reason, then, thus, in conclusion, to bring it all together. About Diary Of Anne Frank? Listing components : distinct factors, comprises, consists of, constitutes, is composed of, may be classified, may be divided, can be distinguished. Giving definitions : (something) is, means, describes, is defined as, is used, is concerned with, deals with, relates to, involves, signifies, consist of. Approximating results : is just over, is just under, a little over, a little under, about, approximately, nearly. College And Contrast Essay? Qualifying comparisons : considerably, a great deal, much, very much, rather, somewhat, significantly, slightly, scarcely, hardly, only just (bigger than); exactly, precisely, just, virtually, practically, more or less, almost, nearly, approximately, almost, not quite, not entirely (the same as); totally, very, completely, entirely, quite, considerably (different from); is essay about frank similar, is dissimilar, is different. Qualifying frequency : never, rarely, sometimes, usually, often, always, generally, on the whole, frequently, occasionally, hardly ever, seldom. Essay? Qualifying results : under no circumstances, mainly, generally, predominantly, usually, the majority, most of, almost all, a number of, may be, some, a few, a little, fairly, very, quite, rather, almost.

Qualifying change : no, minimal, slight, small, slow, gradual, steady, marked, large, dramatic, complete, steep, sharp, rapid, sudden (rise, increase, fluctuation, decrease, decline, reduction, fall, drop, upwards trend, downward trend, peak, plateau, level off) Just like sections are structured into paragraphs, each paragraph should have some internal logic. You can usually use the first sentence of a paragraph to introduce what the paragraph is about. This is particularly useful at the beginning of a new section. Consider these phrases as bridges. For example, in one of my essays, I opened a paragraph with “It will now be necessary to consider the argument that local cultures are dominated by transnational corporations.” My readers will immediately know what the paragraph is qualitie essay about. College Essay? Ideally, every single sentence is essay geared towards answering the question. Practically, this is hard to achieve, given the lack of infinite time resources available to most of us. However, by college and contrast examples, your trying to letter for business position link similar paragraphs into sections, and by linking sections into a wider argument, every essay will benefit. The result is an comparison examples essay that is easier and more pleasant to read.

Each paragraph, and definitely each section, should be geared towards the essay question you’re answering. It’s therefore a good idea to evaluate each section in essay, terms of how far this helped to comparison and contrast essay answer the essay question. You do a number of things with this: demonstrate that you’re still on track; you’re working towards a conclusion; you demonstrate the relevance of what you wrote in the section. If you can’t state how a particular paragraph or section is essay about frank relevant towards your answer, then probably it is not. There are different ways to structure the college comparison essay, main part of the essay. One key difference is qualitie essay between essays structured along the lines of analytic dimensions, and those structured along the lines of argumentative dimensions. For example, the examples, analytic dimensions of an hr resume sap essay on globalization may be economic aspects , cultural aspects , or political aspects . Comparison Examples? On the other hand, the argumentative dimensions may be arguments that globalization affects local consumption patters a great deal, and arguments suggesting very little impact only.

The analytic approach would examine the ben kinsella, different views in terms of economic aspects first, before moving on to cultural aspects. The argumentative approach would first explore the views in college essay, favour of strong impacts in all the different dimensions: economic, cultural, political, and then move on to do the qualitie essay, same for arguments against. There is no fast rule which of these approaches is better. And Contrast Examples? In fact, both approaches can be very successful. You should consider the extent to which your structure helps you avoid saying the same thing twice. Whatever approach you choose, a clear indication in the introduction as to cover for business position how you approach the essay will make sure your reader knows where you’re going. An essay where the same word or sentence structure is repeated time and time again is college essay examples often boring. Many writers consider repetitions bad writing. There are a few things you can do to avoid repetition. Where you should be careful, however, is the letter administration position, use of specialist terms. And Contrast Essay? For the reasons outlined in the section on ben kinsella defining terms, you should never substitute a specific term with a more generic one.

If you talk about college comparison, power, then say so, even if this means using the same word over and over again. Hr Resume Sap? By no means use a thesaurus and pick a random suggestion offered there. My word processor, for example, suggests cognition as a synonym for power . This may be the case in some contexts, but as a key term, this is hardly ever the case. The most common case when we tend to repeat the same phrase is comparison and contrast examples probably where we refer to thesis and dissertation book what somebody else said. In everyday speech we simply say “Amy said this, Bobby said that, Carla said yet another thing.” In the more formal style required in and contrast essay, essay writing, this is commonly written in the following way: “Adams (2006) states that…, Bird (1999) suggests that.” In order to make your essay less repetitive, consider the following options in about, addition to the common states and suggests. Essay Examples? Always use your own judgement, when a phrase feels overused. By suggesting that repetition may leave a less than ideal impression, it’s not argued that this is an area of essay writing worth spending hours on.

It’s much better being repetitive, but being precise and making a good argument. Crouch (1977) argues that … Daniels (2004) sees the problem as resulting from … Elton (1848) identifies the problem as consisting of … Ferro (1997) is of the for business position, opinion that … Gallagher (2003) defends the view that … Hall (1998) notes that the problem originates from … Inglehart (2000) considers that … Jackson (1984) views the issue as caused by essay, … Kanter (1970) maintains that … Lewis (2002) concurs with Mann (2000) that … Nixon (1955) supports the view that … Orwell (1999) holds the view that … Perry (2005) agrees that … Quart (2001) denies that … These alternative ways to put the a world, ever same idea may be particularly useful when reviewing what different authors had to essay examples say on an issue—the parts of the a world essay, essay where you simply restate what has been said before. College Essay Examples? Other alternatives you might consider are saying that somebody: added, affirmed, argued, asked, asserted, assumed, believed, challenged, claimed, concluded, considered, contradicted, demonstrated, described, determined, disagreed, discussed, disputed, emphasized, explained, found, hypothesized, implied, inferred, maintained, observed, pointed out, postulated, questioned, recommended, refuted, regarded, rejected, reported, said, stated, stipulated, suggested, viewed (something). This list should illustrate that there need be no conflict between variation in writing and qualitie essay, writing clearly. If in doubt, however, you should always prioritize clarity. When writing for academic purposes, there are a number of conventions that you should follow. College Comparison? A key difference to most other forms of writing is that we give references to the sources of our argument. Ambiguity is something most academics dislike, and you’re more credible, too, if you avoid it.

Academic writing tends to be rather formal, and many will advise you to avoid writing in the first person (that is, not write using I). Essay About Diary? This makes academic writing both formal and impersonal. The reason why the first person should be avoided, is comparison and contrast essay that in scientific writing one’s opinions, feelings and views are not regarded as important. Stating that I think it’s unfair that some people can’t get a visa, does not count as much. However, urging you not to use I in essays can fail in two ways.

Firstly, you could still write about your own feelings and ben kinsella, opinions using different phrases, and secondly, not all uses of the comparison essay, first person are bad. It’s a good idea to stay clear of phrases such as “I think,” or “in my opinion,” unless you’re evaluating a claim. However, there is no apparent reason for qualitie essay not saying “I will first define the key terms.” Using the first person in this way will make a text more approachable. Moreover, using phrases starting with I, you avoid using the passive voice which many find more difficult to read. Having said this, some markers still consider it preferable not to use the first person. Should your tutor or marker be one of them, you may want to college essay play it safe. Don’t use we when you mean I . If you are the sole author, the use of cover letter for business a plural is essay examples technically not correct.

However, even a tutor who hates such phrases will not mark you down: It’s the argument and general structure of your essay that count for much more. One area where there is no room for argument is the use of colloquialisms, slang, or street language. Hr Resume Sap? Academic writing is formal writing, and you might be penalized for using the wrong register. Comparison And Contrast Essay Examples? A little bit of informality here or there will not normally matter much. Watch out for informal words, such as really , a bit , or maybe , and consider replacing them with very , a great deal , or perhaps' . In spoken language, we often use interjections such as actually , or to be honest . These, too, don’t belong into an academic essay. Consider the following example: “To be honest, I don’t think much of this theory” is something we might say to a colleague of ours. When writing an essay, you could put this as: “It is clear from the evidence presented in this essay that the applications of this theory are limited.” The following list further illustrates what is meant by formal and informal English. The formal words are included in brackets in cover letter position, each case: Ask for (request), carry out (conduct), chance (opportunity), find out (discover), get better (improve), get worse (deteriorate), guess (estimate), look into (investigate), OK (satisfactory), tell (inform), worried (concerned). Euphemisms, such as passed away for comparison essay examples die , are another aspect of language you should not use in your essays: if you write about and mean die , then say so.

Clarity and thesis and dissertation book, accuracy are paramount. And Contrast Essay? For these reasons academic writing can be rather tentative and without essay, cautious. This is the case because we are not after grabbing headlines, but we write accurately what we know. If our data suggest that X possibly leads to Y, we say just that. In this case we should never say that X leads to college comparison and contrast Y. In academia we are often unsure what really goes on, and we should be upfront about this. Similarly, contractions—such as don’t (for do not) or can’t (for cannot)—are not commonly considered formal enough for academic writing. Letter For Business Position? Some of your readers will consider this convention ridiculous; others take it as a sign that you have not understood you should write in comparison, a scholarly fashion.

To play it safe, use the full forms at any time. This particular academic convention seems to ease more and more. Some students struggle with the rules of capitalization: which letters are written as capital letters. The easiest one is that every sentence starts with a capital letter. Without Internet Essay? Names and titles (called proper nouns) are also written with capital letters, unless there is comparison and contrast examples a specific reason not to. So, we write the name of Mark Granovetter with capital letters, but the special case of the iPod is written with a small one. Official names and particular places are written with capital letters. It’s thus the Department of cover Health , and Oxford University . However, when we write about general places, we don’t use capital letters.

We study at college and contrast essay, university in general. Official titles are often capitalized, such as Value Added Tax . Furthermore, many abbreviations come with capital letters. It’s an hr resume sap MBA your friend may be studying for. The days of the week are capitalized, such as in college examples, Monday and Wednesday , as are the qualitie essay, names of the months. The names of countries, nationalities, languages, and people from places are written with capital letters: the Swiss live in college, Switzerland , and Norway is a country.

Apart from qualitie essay this, about every other word is written with small letters. Because as scientists we normally want to be precise, there is a class of college essay examples phrases we avoid: weasel terms. Weasel terms are short phrases that pretend much, but don’t actually deliver the promise. They are usually empty assertions, such as “it is generally known that“ or “most writers agree that.” This box contains a list of weasel terms. In an essay, you should never use these phrases without a reference to cover administration position substantiate what is said. allegedly arguably as opposed to most considered by many contrary to many critics say that experts say that it could be argued that it has been noticed it has been said it has been stated it has been suggested it is generally claimed it is widely believed that mainstream scholars say that mainstream scientists say that many people say many scientists argue that research has shown researchers argue that serious scholars say that social science says sociologists believe that some argue some feel that some historians argue the college comparison and contrast examples, scientific community this is widely considered to be this is widely regarded as widely considered as. It is possible to use weasel terms, as long as they are backed up with a reference or two. So, saying that something is hr resume sap “widely considered the foremost example of” something is possible, if you either provide a reference to someone who demonstrates this, or provide a group of references to back up your claim. However, in most cases we want to be more precise.

Rather than saying that “many social scientists argue that class is important”—which is probably true—and giving a couple of and contrast references to back this up, it’s better to put it as follows: “Goldthorpe (2000) argues that class remains important.” Or maybe we have access to a statistic we can cite, that X% of social scientists seem to consider class important. In either case, the solution is more precise and thus more satisfactory. Essay? The use of references is an academic convention, and you must follow this, even though it might be a tiresome exercise. Not only will you follow the convention, but your work will also appear much more credible. You can find more on the use of references in a separate section. Footnotes are often associated with academic writing. College And Contrast? Before you use footnotes in internet essay, your own writing, however, consider your reader. Footnotes interrupt the flow of reading: you force your audience to stop for a while, moving down to the bottom of the page, before they can read on.

From the reader’s point of view you should avoid footnotes if you can. The only general exception is if you use footnotes for referencing. Don’t use endnotes (footnotes at the end of the text), unless they are used exclusively for college comparison essay examples referencing. Asking your reader to a world internet flick forth and back through your essay is even more of an interruption. Endnotes exist for practical reasons from the time before word processors.

Footnotes are used to explain obscure words, or when you want to add some special information. In the college and contrast examples, case of cover letter for business administration obscure words, if it’s a key term, define it in the main text. College Comparison And Contrast Essay Examples? There are cases, where you’ll want to use an obscure word, but it is not central to the argument. Consider the following example: “The Deputy must, with every word he speaks in the Diet 1 , […] anticipate himself under the scrutiny of thesis his constituents” (Rousseau, 1762, cited in and contrast essay examples, Putterman, 2003, p.465). Here I talk about the name of an assembly. Ben Kinsella Essay? The word is and contrast essay probably obscure to most readers, but not central to my argument: I write about parliaments in general, not the Diet in particular.

Adding this footnote will help the readers to understand the quote. In terms of special information, if you make an important point, then make in the main text. If it’s an unimportant remark, then very often you don’t want to make it at all. The guiding principle is whether the note is about diary of anne frank relevant to your answer. Examples? Another aspect of language you can find often in academic writing are Latin abbreviations. Never use these unless you’re sure what they mean. Letter Administration? Normally, you should not use abbreviations in the main text. Instead, use plain English. Not only college essay will you avoid embarrassing yourself if you misuse the abbreviations, but also will your reader be clear about what you mean. It’s much clearer to about write for example, rather than mistakenly putting i.e. instead of e.g. (a common mistake).

Some readers are annoyed by comparison and contrast, Latin abbreviations, not many will be impressed. Others will simply struggle to and dissertation understand without a look in the dictionary. The same is true for a number of English abbreviations. Another area of college and contrast academic writing where there are many bad examples out cover letter for business there is the use of jargon and specialist terms. College Comparison Essay? Whilst we aim for clarity and accuracy, jargon is never justified where it does not help these purposes.

Specialist terms can be very useful to summarize complex issues into a few letters. Nonetheless, all technical terms need to and dissertation be defined in simpler language somewhere in your essay. Once you have defined your terms, you can use them without worrying too much. This is where the define section comes in. Bear in mind what your audience is likely to know. Other aspects of college examples writing that may make your essay easier to book read, and thus more approachable are: the and contrast essay, use of shorter words where possible, cutting out hr resume sap words where they are redundant, using the active voice ( I do , she says , rather than it is understood , it is achieved ), and and contrast, using English words where they are not different from the Latin or Greek ones.

We want to write as clearly as we can, because when the writing is cover position not clear, very often this is an indication that the comparison and contrast, argument is not very clear, either. 1 The Diet was the name of the deliberative assemblies in many European countries at essay diary of anne, the time of Rousseau’s writings.

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cobham thesis Pictures and Poetry. Debunking the Bunk: An Examination of Picturesque Influence. A Thesis in the Department of English. Presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for college and contrast examples the degree of Master of without internet, Arts at Concordia University Montreal, Canada. Keith Waddington 1998. School of Graduate Studies. This is to comparison examples certify that the thesis prepared. By: Keith Waddington. Entitled: Pictures and about diary frank, Poetry.

Debunking the Bunk: An Examination of Picturesque Influence and college, submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of. Pictures and a world essay, Poetry. Debunking the Bunk: An Examination of Picturesque Influence. This thesis examines the history and and contrast examples, development of the Picturesque, its definition, theoreticians, and practitioners; and its influence on romanticism. The focus is the correction of pejorative and negative assessments common in modern literary studies which provide a misleading interpretation of both the Picturesque and its influence.

The goal is a broader understanding which suggests the necessity of a new evaluation of Wordsworth’s “groundbreaking” contribution to literary development. Accordingly, an extensive introductory section examines pre-Picturesque and Picturesque painting, outlining the beginnings of a new and particularly English aesthetic. Also, an exploration of pre-Picturesque poetry and formative Picturesque poetry reveals the without internet essay literary ramifications of this aesthetic. Comparison And Contrast Examples! Finally, Wordsworth and Keats are canvassed within the cover for business administration position Picturesque context: Wordsworth to demonstrate the origins and erroneousness of the comparison essay modern critical bias and the way his poetry was often formulated according to Picturesque principles; Keats to demonstrate the longevity and continuing importance and influence of the Picturesque. A World! Conclusions are conclusive. Table of Contents. Section One: The Canvas. Section Two: Background.

Section Three: The Middle Ground: Wordsworth. Section Four: The Foreground: Keats. Section One: The Canvas [1] [The] theory and practice of the Picturesque constitute the major English contribution to European aesthetics. (Watkin, vii) The romantics . . . inherited the picturesque way of looking at nature, but realised that it . . . Comparison And Contrast Examples! had become a tyranny, so they invented new ways of seeing which were new ways of feeling. (Brownlow, 16) Major contribution or tyranny? When modern scholars of essay diary of anne, literature observe the Picturesque and college comparison and contrast, its influence on romantic poetry, ideas become gods and and dissertation book, facts their disciples. The extensive adoption, intrinsic importance and “capability” of the Picturesque—willingly acknowledged by comparison art historians like Watkin—are expurgated, summarily sacrificed on hr resume sap, the altar of entrenched literary dogma, and the service of academia becomes a self-serving exercise in blind faith. This section will provide a prolegomenon to scepticism, describing the aesthetic context for the Picturesque movement, demonstrating the examples links between early continental landscape painting, neo-classicism, the Picturesque, later English landscape artists and romanticism.

Besides offering essential background, outlining the ben kinsella artistic continuum which these links illustrate—revealing the inevitability of essay examples, romanticisms and thus sanctioning a less venerational view of Wordsworth—the principle intent here is to hr resume sap provide a more useful definition of the Picturesque. College Essay! In terms familiar to tabloid conspiracy theories: to tell you what they don’t want you to know. In the beginning was the word, and the word was Picturesque. Although perhaps peculiar to the pictorially educated modern, an aesthetic appreciation of hr resume sap, landscape scenery was inconceivable prior to the Picturesque period. It is, in simple terms, a skill that requires learning. College And Contrast Essay Examples! According to Christopher Hussey in The Picturesque , numerous impediments initially existed, including general Christian doctrine; the early Christian transmutation of pagan nature spirits and gods into administration, evil spirits, essentially rendering the comparison essay natural realm dangerous and even sinful; and the humanistic bias of our classical inheritance. Although valid to essay about of anne varying degrees, the college chiefest obstacle was more likely the general difficulties of life and travel which often rendered nature antagonist.

Learning landscape then was an up-hill struggle. The Picturesque movement, prerequisite and intrinsic to this learning process, developed during neo-classicism’s reign supreme, and the formality and rigidity of that rule, by its very nature, proved conducive rather than obstructive. The Picturesque, as we shall see, finally provided egress from neo-classical regulations, where reason could finally take rest, where imagination could romp over hill and dale, where individual feeling accompanied originality. Our journey into the Picturesque begins with the Grand Tour. Subsequent to England’s isolation during much of the seventeenth century and made possible by the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), the Grand Tour was initially a diversion limited to the monied aristocracy. Qualitie Essay! The journey southward to Italy involved either traversing the Alps or following the Rhone. In the accounts of grand tours made between 1640 and 1730 a pictorial view of landscape is exceptional. In each case it can be traced fairly exactly to the actual sojourn in Rome, where the works of Claude and Salvator were to be seen. (Hussey, 84) Indeed, picturesque awareness—commonly the quiddity of modern tourism—was, like landscape painting itself, entirely foreign. Chaucer, for example, made three or four trips over the Alps yet never mentioned them once in his poetry. John Evelyn’s travels between 1644 and 1648 precisely outline a similar aesthetic vacuity, suggesting it was “as if Nature had here swept up the rubbish of the earth in the Alps” (qtd.

Hussey, 85); remembering the “horrid mountains” as “troublesome” (qtd. Hussey, 86). Similarly, Richard Lassels’ Italian Voyage (1670) mentions Mount Cenis only in practical terms of route, “the most desirable for speed and convenience” (Manwaring, 9). Landscape painting at this time generally existed either as a background to human drama, or as a quasi-scientific topography. Neither was considered—especially for the English, where only the farmer or ditch-digger truly worked in landscape—significant work for college and contrast the significant painter.[2] When aristocratic travellers finally arrived in cover for business administration position, Italy, they came upon an important exception to this rule.

Claude Lorraine, Salvator Rosa and Gaspard Poussin[3] broke with the traditional subject hierarchy and raised the landscape to lofty heights of respectability.[4] The juxtaposition of the scenery aristocratic tourists had seen and the landscape paintings they confronted provided an and contrast essay, early indication of essay, this parochial aesthetic and even philosophical void. The aristocracy progressively responded, bringing home souvenir paintings and prints—an early equivalent of modern picture post-cards—beginning collections and posing as cognoscenti . Grand Tour guide books soon appeared, including practical advice as well as art information.[5] Essentially, the status of landscape paintings in comparison and contrast essay, Italy compelled travellers to rethink traditional distaste for regions like the Alps, to over-look the associated dangers and discomforts of travel and exploration. Hr Resume Sap! The preparatory precepts of the college comparison essay examples Picturesque aesthetic were thus first introduced into England, and it was particularly the hr resume sap paintings of Claude and Salvator Rosa which stimulated the greatest interest. The Less Grand Tour. In addition to and contrast examples this, the Grand Tour played another important role. In what might be seen as an instance of cultural trickle-down theory, the less affluent middle-class, encouraged by fashionable discussions of Picturesque niceties, was soon occupied with more modest excursions into the English countryside. In search of ben kinsella essay, landscape, landscape gardens and the galleries of college examples, mansions, tourists were aided by new guidebooks and much improved roads to hr resume sap get them there. A dramatic democratic appreciation of landscape was at last being realised, with travellers, invariably, carrying sketch-book and Claude Glass. The Claude Glass, a convex mirror of about four inches diameter with tinted filters and bound up like a pocket-book, effectively compressed and framed landscapes.

Analogous to comparison and contrast examples the camera in these film-free days, the user was obviously obliged to turn his back on the scene to observe the framed and internet essay, filtered view. Hugh Sykes Davies, in his recent analysis of the Picturesque and Wordsworth, offers the following comment: “It is very typical of their attitude to Nature that such a position should be desirable” (223). College Essay! Indeed, as we shall see, the comment is merely typical of Davies’ view of the hr resume sap Picturesque. Timothy Brownlow, in comparison examples, John Clare and Picturesque Landscape , offers a similar comment, all the more mockery for its parentheticality: “As an artist, he [Clare] casts aside, as it were, the Claude Glass (whose user had to turn his back on the landscape)” (13). Malcolm Andrews, whose In Search for the Picturesque generally circumvents any romantic exploration, consequently offers a more useful note: The imagination as an “intellectual lens” approximates it to the Claude Glass, which can modify and enhance a particular landscape. All the special properties of the Glass are present in Coleridge’s well-known account of the origins of his poetic collaboration with Wordsworth and their agreement about the two cardinal points of poetry: “the power of exciting the sympathy of the reader by a faithful adherence to the truth of cover letter for business administration position, nature, and the power of giving the interest of novelty by the modifying colours of the imagination.” (71)

Support for the Claude Glass as imaginative metaphor comes from Claude himself, who was as willing as able to composite the actual with the comparison essay imaginary: Pastoral Landscape with Ponte Molle (1645), for example (see figure 1), represents a view of the pope’s summer residence. . . . Essay Diary Frank! The foreground is imaginary, but the palace is fairly accurately portrayed. The castle-like building bathed in sunlight is a forerunner of the highlighted castles in the middle ground so beloved of college essay, Gilpin. A World Without Internet Essay! (Bicknell, 4) The Picturesque tourists offer moving evidence that the comparison essay examples Picturesque became as widespread as it was popular. Indeed, the eighteenth century is matched only by the twentieth for the per capita number of country house visits. At Hawkstone in Shropshire, for example, “there were so many visitors to the dramatically landscaped park that in c. 1790 an hotel was built to accommodate them” (Watkin, vii). David Watkin, who examines the Picturesque from the prospect of art historian, similarly provides an analysis inscribed by positivism, unequivocally stating that “theory and practice of the Picturesque constitute the major English contribution to European aesthetics” (vii); and that “the Picturesque became the leading building-type in post-Reformation England and has long been recognised as the nation’s principle contribution to the arts” (vii). “In the qualitie essay intervening two hundred years since its discussion . . . the Picturesque has been altered and extended in many ways. Along the way it has acquired a pejorative tint” (Robinson, xii). Categorical and “pejorative” statements: “The cultural games of the college essay examples picturesque” (Woodring, viii); “The vogue of the essay picturesque” (Nevious, 33); “Comic and faddish as much of the theory appears in college essay, retrospect” (Brownlow, 43); W.M. Merchant’s common “cult” (9) epithet; as well as the supercilious Davies, who extends this negation to the present, saying “The modern tourists . . Letter Administration! . pass through the country at a rate never dreamed of by Gray and West, seeing nothing, and apparently feeling even less” (226), all fail to recognise that this appetite to sample and develop a taste for landscape was redolent of a general change in aesthetic sense.

In fact, the modern tourist, in the route he selects and and contrast essay examples, with each viewfinder frame often reveals the influence of the Picturesque. Essay! By the start of the nineteenth century, recognition of picturesqueness had become—and remains—second nature.[6] Landscape Artists Abroad. Salvator Rosa (1615-73) As mentioned, Salvator Rosa, Neapolitan painter, etcher, satirical poet and actor, was crucial to the development of the Picturesque and also provides an essay examples, early link with romantic poetry. In addition to his landscapes, which portrayed the essay about of anne feral and fierce of nature (see figure 3), Salvator displayed a penchant for appalling subjects—witches and monsters, meditations upon death and so on—inspiring such romantic painters as Barry, Fuseli and Mortimer, and finding poetic expression in the romantic inclination towards the gothic and graveyard melancholy. Lady Mortgan’s The Life and Times of comparison essay, Salvator Rosa , published in 1824, depicted the artist as a legendary figure hobnobbing with bandits and about diary frank, joining a popular uprising in Naples, establishing him as the quintessential romantic artist: an outlaw encamped with darkness and despair, whose bravura with the college and contrast examples brush was symptomatic of a burning artistic brilliance inimical to convention. Eighteenth century literary explorations of the Picturesque are literally laden with references to Salvator: “What’er Lorrain light touched with softening hue / Or savage Rosa dashed, or learned Poussin drew” ( Castel of Indolence I, XXXVIII). Claude Lorrain (1600-1682) Claude Lorrain, although French, spent his adult life in ben kinsella, Rome.

Claude was undoubtedly the greatest master of college essay examples, ideal-landscape painting, which seeks to present nature as surnature and concording with the habitual “improvement” of the Picturesque vision. Qualitie Essay! In addition, Claude’s landscapes often contain classical ruins—an initial point of entry for English neo-classicists who required some token scrap of Rome or Athens—a key element modified in the Picturesque movement to comparison examples accommodate native ruins—both genuine and artificial.[7] Besides his fundamental importance to the Picturesque movement, Claude, like Salvator, exhibited a less direct though nonetheless certain connection with romantic poetry, with his much acclaimed poetic rendering of essay, light. As E. B. Greenshields, Landscape Painting and Modern Dutch Artists , states, “if one artist were to be chosen as founder of modern landscape painting, that title would be rightly given to Claude” (15). Within the neo-classical/romantic context, John Ruskin offers the following: The love of neatness and precision, as opposed to all disorder, maintains itself down to college and contrast essay Raphael's childhood without the slightest interference of any other feeling; and it is not until Claude's time, and owing in great part to his influence, that the for business new feeling distinctly establishes itself. English scenery, initially, existed as a back-drop to continental landscape paintings in comparison examples, much the same way as landscape initially provided only the without essay setting for human pictorial narratives.

In a comparison between Dovedale and Keswick, Dr. John Brown wrote: Were I to analyse the college comparison and contrast examples two places in their constituent principles, I shoud tell you, that the full perfection of Keswick, consists of three circumstances, beauty, horror and immensity united; the second of which is alone found in Dovedale. . . . But to give you a complete idea of these three perfections, as they are joined in Keswick, would require the united powers of Claude, Salvator Rosa and Poussin. The first should throw his delicate sunshine over the cultivated vales, the scattered cots, the groves, the lake, and the wooded island. The second should dash out the horror of the rugged cliffs, the steep, the thesis hanging woods, and foaming water-falls; while the grand pencil of examples, Poussin should crown the whole with the majesty of the impending mountains. (qtd. Davies, 218) The original works of this scanty collection of Italian painters only partly explain the extensive aesthetic transformation in remote England.

Walpole mentions in his Anecdotes several foreign landscape painters living and working in England during the essay late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. [8] These included Henry Dankers, employed by Charles II as a topographical artist and Francesco Zuccarelli, who visited England twice, lived in London for five years and became a foundation member of the Royal Academy. Thomas Manby, an Englishman who studied in Italy, brought back the customary collection of college comparison and contrast, paintings to add to his own works. In addition, the enormous popularity of these artists, especially Claude, led to countless copies and even copies of copies. Less duplicitous was the about diary of anne frank invention of prints and the development of engraving to high art, making the comparison and contrast examples landscapes of the masters as common as the furrowed tellurian landscapes of the peasants (see figures 1 and 2 ). Where the canvas could be known, often imprecisely, by only a few hundred privileged, the and dissertation book print could be known intimately by the massed thousands. Indeed, print collecting—”No person of and contrast examples, Taste could be without a collection of prints” (Manwaring, 84)—became itself a popular pastime. Also, “the amateur landscape painter had begun to flourish before the administration seventeenth century closed, and and contrast essay, long continued to flourish increasingly” (Manwaring, 8). The stylistically idealised quality of Claude and Salvator’s paintings provided the inspiration for the Picturesque movement and was then modified as the English Picturesque developed, essentially becoming an idealisation of a nature that was rapidly vanishing and qualitie essay, celebrating a rural way of life that was being lost. A Picturesque Definition. Perhaps the earliest explicit statement on comparison examples, the Picturesque comes from William Kent in qualitie essay, his 1709 Memorandum on the preservation of Woodstock Manor:

That part of the Park which is seen from the North Front of the new building has little variety of objects nor does the country beyond it afford any of value. It therefore stands in college comparison and contrast, need of all the helps that can be given. . . Cover Letter Position! . Buildings and Plantations. These rightly dispos’d will indeed supply all the wants of Nature in that place. And the most agreeable disposition is to mix them: in which this old Manour gives so happy an occasion for; that were the enclosures filled with Trees (principally fine Yews and Hollys) promiscuously set to grow up in a wild thicket, so that all the college and contrast essay examples buildings left might appear in two risings amongst ’em, it would make one of the most agreeable objects that the letter administration best of Landskip painters can invent. (qtd. Watson, 17)

From this early beginning—remarkably loaded with what would eventually become the comparison and contrast examples nitty-gritty of picturesque idiom: variety, wants of nature, mix, wild, thicket; and concepts: a harmony of architecture and natural surroundings and of anne frank, comparison with landscape paintings—the unfamiliar story of Picturesque development reads rather like the recorded exploits of an ancient relation discovered in a dusty chest, while categorical definitions have all the interest of his bleached bones. Unfortunately, ubiquitousness and over-familiarity has essentially starved the term of college comparison and contrast, any useful sense and to a world without flesh out comparison, that skeletal frame becomes a matter of Hobson’s choice. So what does “picturesque” really mean? As late as 1794, Uvedale Price wrote: “There are few words whose meaning has been less accurately determined than that of the word picturesque” ( On the Picturesque , 77). [9] Whether or not we accept J. R. Watson's hypothesis, in Picturesque Landscape and English romantic Poetry , that this period—despite being the most prolific in qualitie essay, picturesque studies, picturesque tours and picturesque allusions—actually marks the college decline of the movement (a somewhat strange notion considering Turner’s Picturesque series is still decades away), it seems obvious that the time was indeed ripe for some clear definition. Unfortunately, the multi-disciplinary nature of the subject means that no nut-shell, no matter how perfectly nutty, can contain a definition fair and ben kinsella essay, useful. The stress here then is selectivity, surveying concepts intrinsic to Picturesque theory that reveals strong romantic links and usually glossed-over in modern literary criticism. William Gilpin (1724-1804) Perhaps the most succinct definition of Picturesque comes from Reverend William Gilpin's Essay on college and contrast essay examples, Prints (1768): “ . . . a term expressive of qualitie essay, that peculiar kind of beauty, which is agreeable in a picture”(xii).

This simple statement is modified by college comparison and contrast the notion of essay, “picturesque grace,” meaning “an agreeable form which may be given to a clownish figure”(xii): that stylistic rendition found in “Berghem's clowns, and in college and contrast essay examples, Callot's beggars”(29). Thus, in this simplest of beginnings, the Picturesque relates both to the elements in a scene as well as the artist's treatment of his subject. Essay on Prints provides a broad examination of art and compositional analysis; and Watson's suggestion that for most of the cover letter for business period this definition “was sufficient” seems sufficient only for those unwilling to college comparison and contrast essay read the book. Ben Kinsella! Gilpin himself, recognising the fribblish finish, offers some restoration in Three Essays: On Picturesque Beauty, On Picturesque Travel, and On Sketching Landscape (1792) . The accepted definition of beauty—most often marked by college examples smoothness and unity—was established by Edmund Burke in A Philosophical Inquiry into the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). Recognising that scenes beautiful according to this definition were usually unsuitable subjects for the pencil, Gilpin considered the Picturesque composed of roughness, irregularity and variety. And Dissertation! In addition, Gilpin disagrees with Burke’s conclusions on the beautiful and sublime, where the effect of the former is pleasure, the college comparison essay latter astonishment and that the a world internet two, discovered in a single object, cause mutual destruction. Comparison And Contrast! In reference to Ullswater, Gilpin writes: “Among all the visions of this enchanted country, we had seen nothing so beautifully sublime, so correctly picturesque, as this” ( Three Essays , 52). The juxtaposition of beautiful and sublime is both deliberate, and—as any present-day hiker in this region will attest—accurate.[10] Indeed, the mix of and dissertation book, beauty and sublimity, producing the Picturesque, seems to comparison examples be the gist of Dr. Ben Kinsella! John Brown’s “beauty, horror and immensity united.” As John Ruskin suggests, “this sublimity may be either in mere external ruggedness, and other visible character, or it may lie deeper, in an expression of sorrow and old age, attributes which are both sublime” By defining the principle characteristics of the Picturesque, besides underlining the main weakness of college examples, Burke’s theory, Three Essays also achieved dubious honour of virtually codifying picturesque theory.[11] The Picturesque was finally composed of such illustrative elements as ruins— à la Claude—cottages, villages, twisting tracks; with roughness, intricacy, sudden variation, abruptness, foreground, middleground and background forming the about of anne frank more abstract and general Picturesque paradigm. Gilpin's Picturesque musings, however, exceeded the catalogue of elements and rules of composition, and in this often overlooked material Gilpin’s especial merit becomes clear.

For all the asseverations on artistic theory, it was the visual art itself which most concerned Gilpin and explains the focus of his philosophy. Words,, Gilpin insists, cannot mark the college comparison characteristic distinctions of each scene, the touches of nature—her living tints—her endless varieties, both in form and colour.—In a word, all the letter for business administration elegant peculiarities are beyond their reach. The pencil, it is true, offers a more perfect mode of description. ( Observations , 10) Indeed, the peculiar strength of language rests elsewhere, and comparison and contrast examples, the adoption of Picturesque sensibilities by the poet must—by the very nature of his medium—result in an altered expression and not, to foreshadow central critical dogma, a transcending expression. Besides this conclusion—which literary scholars might find presumptuous—Gilpin keenly discerned the importance of the imaginative faculty: “. About Frank! . . we may be pleased with the comparison description, and ben kinsella, the picture.

But the soul can feel neither, unless the force of college comparison essay examples, our own imagination aid the hr resume sap poet's, or the painter's art; exalt the idea, and picture things unseen” ( Observations , 10). Reading poetry, viewing painting, it is the imagination which provides fullest meaning; and it is comparison and contrast examples, imagination also which accompanies Gilpin through the Lake District: The evening . . . grew more tempestuous . . . amid the obscurity, which now overshadowed the landscape, the a world internet essay imagination was left at large; and painted many images, which perhaps did not really exist. . . . Every great and pleasing form, which we had seen during the college comparison examples day, now played, in qualitie essay, strong imagery before the fancy; as when the and contrast essay examples grand chorus ceases, ideal music vibrates on hr resume sap, the ear. ( Observations , 19) Gilpin here describes the participation of active imagination both in reading poetry, viewing paintings, and essay examples, exploring landscape. Followers of the qualitie essay Picturesque then, at least according to Gilpin, are involved with elemental matter both external and internal. Figure 4, for example, offers an essay, unusual composition where the two figures “may be supposed to see the ben kinsella continuation of a landscape down the comparison and contrast essay valley . . . and this gives a sort of clue to the imagination” (qtd.

Bicknell, 38). Indeed, the bridge leads the of anne frank eye outside the and contrast frame and it is the unseen which initiates the imagination as much as the internet essay seen. In addition, Gilpin suggests picturesque tourists with an artistic drift should side-step exact copy and superinduce through the imagination and and contrast examples, awareness of picturesque aesthetics: in a sense, the tableau should improve upon nature’s raw material. Hiking the lower lake of essay about frank, Buttermere, for example, Gilpin says: “Nothing is wanting but a little more wood, to make this lake, and comparison and contrast examples, the vale in which it lies, a very enchanting scene”[12]( Observations , 3). Although instances such as this provide fodder for scholars hungry to highlight the absurdity of the Picturesque vision, where actual landscape is compared with ideal landscape painting, the methodology actually involves processing nature through artistic sensibility. Indeed, such comments reveal the Claudian concept of ideal landscape to be never further than the next hill. Heading towards Ullswater, Gilpin writes: “Except the mountains, nothing in all this scenery is qualitie essay, great ; but every part is filled with the sweet engaging passages of nature” ( Observations , 8). Here, “passages” suggests poetry—indeed, several lines of verse follow—and Gilpin, despite his acute sense of the visual, infers that landscape, painting and essay examples, poetry are all, deucedly and inextricably, mixed. Published in 1792, it pre-dates Wordsworth’s Lyrical Ballads by letter for business position six years and the poet’s own Guide to the Lakes by eighteen. Gilpin, as a clergyman, was naturally concerned the amorality of the Picturesque.

Davies, in an exhibition of essay, ignorance and forgetfulness, quotes Gilpin’s comment on the lakeland shepherd: “But the life of the shepherd, in this country, is essay of anne frank, not an college, Arcadian life. A World Without Internet! His occupation subjects him to many difficulties . And Contrast Essay Examples! . .” (qtd. Hr Resume Sap! Davies, 228), subsequently suggesting he afforded no interest in the people who live in college comparison examples, landscape! In fact, Gilpin, as we shall see, was personally concerned with the internet essay well-being of country people and openly acknowledged that the Picturesque stood outside ethical concerns: In a moral light, cultivation, in all its parts, is pleasing; the hedge and college and contrast essay examples, furrow, the waving corn field, and rows of ripened Sheaves. But all these, the position Picturesque eye, in quest of scenes of grandeur, and beauty, looks as with disgust . . . thus the lazy cow herd, resting on his pole; or the peasant lolling on a rock, may be allowed in the grandest scenes; while the laborous mechanic, with his implements of labour, would be repulsed.” ( Observations, Cumberland , 45) This then is the Picturesque, not Gilpin himself. Gilpin, a school-master, required years of persuasion from friends before agreeing to publish his manuscripts. Subsequent royalties funded a school, “to remedy the conditions of ignorance and college examples, squalor” (Manwaring, 184) founded within the boundaries of his rural parish. In contrasting urban and rural life, picturesque representations inadvertently suggested a conflict between the reality of thesis, children's lives and projected adult attitudes. Many such pictures—including Thomas Gainsborough's cottage series[13]—share a romanticised notion of the comparison and contrast essay examples countryside as an innocent, idyllic environment.

While presenting children in tattered clothing, the effect is picturesque rather than moral. The very same, of course, can be said of much romantic poetry. Gilpin, often the object of narrow-view animadversion, not only recognises the problem but selflessly provides some correction. Despite Gilpin's rule and and dissertation book, dogma—measure for measure no more insidious than a modern “How-To” book—his Picturesque views display a diversity to which the satirists were forced to turn a blind eye; an acknowledgement that is as much in accord with romantic contemplation as Picturesque investigation. From 1768 onwards, Gilpin undertook full many provincial journeys in search of the Picturesque, producing a series of illustrated guide books which often suggested specific “stations”—places providing ideal perspective of picturesque vistas.

These guides, including Wye and comparison essay, South Wales (1782) and the Lake District (1789), were paramount in the popularisation of the Picturesque as a means of viewing nature and are, of themselves, indicative of the qualitie essay popularity of picturesque tourism.[14] As Watkin suggests, “Gilpin’s numerous topographical books were essentially a preparation for intelligent critical visiting, for the Picturesque presupposes a society which was interested in nature and in college and contrast examples, art and, above all, in travelling (vii). In conclusion, Gilpin's introduction to Essays provides the following clarification which modern critics might gainfully peruse: . . . we picturesque people are a little misunderstood with regard to our general intention . I have several times been surprised at finding us represented, as supposing all beauty to consist in picturesque beauty —and the face of nature to be examined only by the rules of painting. Whereas, in fact, we always speak a different language. We speak of the grand scenes of nature, though interesting in a picturesque light , as having a strong effect upon the imagination . . . we everywhere make distinctions between scenes, that are beautiful , and amusing , and scenes that are picturesque. ( i-ii) Followers of the Picturesque—and their numbers were legion—were concerned with a general appreciation of landscape and letter for business administration, nature, though particularly those scenes formed of picturesque elements. The Picturesque scene was of more intense interest to painters, poets and travellers for college examples the simple reason that the Picturesque scene is a scene more intense in its capacity to provoke and hr resume sap, induce reflection. And finally, Gilpin offers a warning: Let not inborn pride,

Presuming on thy own inventive powers, Mislead thine eye from Nature. She must reign. Great archetype in all. ( On Landscape Painting: A Poem , 26-30) Uvedale Price (1747-1829) This capacity to provoke is an essential element in the theories of Uvedale Price. Comparison And Contrast Essay! Like Gilpin, Price adopts Burke's analysis of beauty: uniformity of surface, gradual variation and so on; as well as Gilpin's own analysis of picturesqueness: roughness, sudden variation, irregularity etc. Price, however, takes exception to pictorially-based definition, suggesting that the Picturesque is a world internet, related to painting only accidentally: That term, as we may judge from its etymology, is applied only to objects of college essay, sight; and, indeed, in so confined a manner as to be supposed merely to have a reference to the art from qualitie essay, which it is named.

I am well convinced however, that the name and reference only are limited and uncertain, and that the and contrast qualities which make objects picturesque, are not only book as distinct as those which make them beautiful or sublime, but are equally extended to all our sensations by whatever organs they are received; and that music—though it appears like a solecism—may be as truly picturesque, according to the general principles of picturesqueness, as it may be beautiful or sublime, according to those of beauty or sublimity. ( On the college comparison and contrast Picturesque , 79-80) Price also states: “Whoever studies art alone, will have a narrow pedantic manner of considering all objects” (3), stressing the importance also of “the mistress of all art” (4), Nature herself. Price is here drawing attention to the ocular bias of William Payne Knight—introduced below—as part and parcel of a protracted debate. Strange then that Davies should insist that for Gilpin landscape’s “appeal is to the eye . . . only through the eye” (230). Heretically, in a topsy-turvey turn around and about Ullswater, Gilpin’s mentions the music of the winds and tempest, “the echoes excited . . . in qualitie essay, different parts of [the] lake” ( Observations, Cumberland , 59). College Comparison And Contrast! In addition, he tells the tale of the Duke of Portland, who owned a vessel fitted with brass cannons designed for the purpose of about diary, producing echoes. “Such a variety,” he suggests, “of awful sounds, mixing and commixing, and at the same moment heard from all sides, have a wonderful effect on the mind” ( Observations, Cumberland, 61). Another example of the auditory factor in the picturesque is Hagley, Lord Lyttelton’s estate, the and contrast locale in essay, which Thomson revised and rewrote The Seasons which, besides the artificial ruins, featured a stream carefully designed for and contrast maximum gurgleability. Price seeks to take something of the picture from Picturesque, considering it a new category of hr resume sap, aesthetic values added to Burke's beautiful and sublime. . . . picturesqueness appears to hold a station between beauty and sublimity; and, on that count, perhaps, is college examples, more frequently, and more happily blended with them both, than they are with each other.

It is, however, perfectly distinct from either. Beauty and picturesqueness are indeed evidently founded on ben kinsella essay, very opposite qualities; the one on smoothness, the other on roughness; the college and contrast one on gradual, the without internet other on sudden variation; the one on ideas of youth and freshness, the other on those of age, and even of college comparison examples, decay. Qualitie Essay! ( On the Picturesque , 90) Again, this is only a modification—an engradisement—of Gilpin. Unlike Gilpin’s nation-wide pursuit of the Picturesque, Price concentrated his aesthetic energies upon the picturesqueification of manor gardens; and it is here that the essay two part company. In fact, it was William Kent, painter, architect and factotum of the cover for business administration position Earl of Burlington, who led the revolt against the artificial symmetry of gardens, (see figure 5 ), modifying, in 1734, the gardens at Chiswick House with a meandering stream and an irregular path. College Comparison Essay! Price adopted Kent's early ideas and developed a more expansive theory of picturesque landscaping, arguing in On the Picturesque (1794), that gardens should imitate landscape paintings and that the hr resume sap gardener and painter each aspire to the improvement of nature—again, the familiar idea of Nature as archetype which might be improved through art. Comparison! Though inspired by thesis Claude and Salvator, Price also aspired, as suggested above, towards the guiding hand of raw nature and offered pragmatic suggestions of picturesque effects landowners might attempt. Unfortunately, Price’s own effect over actual landscapes was severely limited by the very nature of his improvements, many of which required decades to reach full decay. If the patrician Price failed to effect solid change in the English manor landscape, he nevertheless bequeathed a more ironic and widespread legacy: just as “the picturesque sketch promoted naturalism in landscape painting” (Bermingham, 67), Price’s notions fostered a new naturalism in gardening—advocating the wild, the dramatic, the essay “accident” of hr resume sap, nature: a withered tree, a half-submerged branch breaking the surface of a pool—and continued the democratisation of the Picturesque aesthetic. Condemned by some contemporaries for taking wildness too far, Price ultimately won a vox populi approval. Indeed, the art of picturesque gardening was soon exported: “. . . the continent, about 1770, began to adopt widely the comparison and contrast essay examples English . . . For Business Administration! fashion; and works in French and Italian were added to the copious literature of landscape gardening” (Manwaring, 121).

The clash between aesthetic and utility—essentially the moral dimension—was particularly trenchant for Price, whose expertise was firmly fixed in the land itself. And Contrast Examples! In reference to cover letter administration thatched cottages, for college essay examples example, he suggests: “It is no less picturesque, when mossy, ragged, and sunk in among the book rafters in decay; a species of that character, however, which the keenest lover of it would rather see on another's property than on his own” ( On the Picturesque , 398). To this, the zealous and sometimes verbose editor of the 1842 edition interpolates: I confess, that after considerable experience, I have been completely cured of and contrast essay examples, my romantic attachment to thatch. If the roof of a cottage be well formed, and well projected, so as to throw a deep shadow over the wall beneath it, I do not conceive that it will be necessary to thatch it, in order to add to its picturesque effect, at the risk of diminishing the ben kinsella essay comfort of the poor inmates. (398) Price the gentleman farmer, occupied with increased production and the maximisation of college and contrast essay, land use, appears, Ann Bermingham points out, as something of a contradiction to qualitie essay Price the promoter of picturesque aesthetics, biased towards the nostalgic, the antiquated, the college and contrast essay examples rustic, the dilapidated and the inefficient. The contradiction though seems somewhat delusive and is perhaps suggestive of the position transformation of the paternal landlord-tenant relationship, with the picturesque manor garden now forming a physical boundary between aesthetic and productive nature. Richard Payne Knight (1750-1824)

Richard Payne Knight, who owned the most valuable collection of Claudes in Europe and college essay examples, whose interests were eclectic, [15] provides still another perspective. In, The Landscape: a Didactic Poem in Three Books , he refutes compositional analysis, instead seeing art as a “magic power”(8) which defies analysis and rule: Curse on the pedant jargon, that defines. Beauty's unbounded forms to given lines! With scorn eternal mark the cautious fool.

Who dares not judge till he consults his rule! Or when, Salvator from thy daring hand. Appears, in burnished arms, some savage band,— Each figure boldly pressing into life, And breathing blood, calamity, and strife, Should cold measure each component part. And judge thy genius by letter administration position a surgeons art. (6-7) Knight also disagrees with Price’s multi-sensory theory, believing that the Picturesque “is merely that kind of beauty which belongs exclusively to the sense of vision; or to the imagination guided by that sense” [16] ( On the Picturesque , 500). Knight provides a curious blend of neo-classical—with his didactic poem festooned in and contrast examples, rhyming couplets and his notions of essay, “taste”—and romantic, a clear sign of the transition underway:

Such too the Sicyonian sculptor taught. To model motion, and college and contrast essay, embody thought; Pure abstract beauty's fleeting shades to trace. And fix the thesis book image of ideal grace: Combining what he felt with what he saw. (5-6) Besides his emphasis upon “feeling” in the almost magical and almost irrational production of art, Knight points towards the dangers of fashion: Straight lines were the fashion of the last century, and the curved ones are the fashion of this, and an indiscriminate adherence to the fashion of the day, what ever it happens to be, with a supercilious contempt for all who venture to dissent from it, is the never failing characteristic of the college essay examples vanity, separated from the feeling, or discernment, of ben kinsella essay, taste.

The advocate for the curve lines would have been as much ridiculed in the last century as the and contrast advocate for straight ones in ben kinsella, this; and with equal reason; for the indiscriminate use of either is equally bad. Many of the compositions of Nicholas Poussin show the grand effect which may be produced by the judicious use of straight lines. but the too general use of them was still more fatal to college comparison picturesque beauty, than the late senseless destruction of them has been. It belongs to the real improver to ben kinsella essay discriminate where the straight, and where the curve line will best suit the composition; and it is this talent of discrimination which distinguishes the liberal artist from the mechanic. (fn 11) Here, “faddish” (Brownlow, 43) modern appraisals typified also by and contrast the “vogue of the picturesque” (Nevious, 33) are clearly drawn and quartered by Knight’s properly considered execution of Picturesque principles which supersede transient newfangledness and commemorate the sempiternal. Knight's fixation upon without internet “taste,” and “discrimination,” are reminiscent of the superciliousness of a Pope or a Swift, though his distinction between the mechanic and liberal artist—one who follows no rules besides those which the college examples magic spirit of art suggests—offers a place within the romantic arena. Knight, like Price, was accused of essay, wild neglect in his landscape theories: an indication indeed of the distance separating the new naturalism from the old neo-classicism. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, Knight insists that the transplanting and mimicking of Italian landscape—both real or painted—should finally be abandoned in preference to compositions which adopt Picturesque principles and native scenes:

Nor, plac’d beneath our cool and wat’ry sky. Attempt the glowing tints of Italy: For thus compell’d in mem’ry to confide, Or blindly follow some preceding guide, One common track it still pursues, And crudely copies what it never views . Essay Examples! . . . (309-314)

The work of Price and Knight, though perhaps less interesting a read than Gilpin, augmented the Picturesque phenomenon to a point where it was not only the talk of the town but of the hr resume sap estate and village. College Comparison Examples! Watson’s assessment that “it is ben kinsella essay, difficult to regard it as much more than a sterile ending,” (21) reveals perhaps a certain sterility in college comparison and contrast examples, his own point of view rather than providing any useful conclusion. Lancelot Brown (1716-83) Lancelot “Capability” Brown, though embroiled in the Picturesque debate, essentially helped define the Picturesque by negation: Brownian improvement replaced the for business artificiality of neo-classical landscape gardens with a new artificiality based either upon and contrast essay examples Burke’s principles of beauty or Brown’s singular notions born orphan and condemned to permanent infancy. Fundamentally, Brown’s style, though claiming nature as its inspiration, was no less unnatural than, for example, Knole, Nymphenburg or Le Notre's Versailles. If the “improvements” of Price and Knight might take decades to develop, the bumbling “Capability” Brown provided expeditious transformations priced by the yard and complete the book day after tomorrow. Gilpin himself comments upon college this: This is the first subject of the kind he [Brown] has attempted . . . but a ruin presents a new idea; which I doubt whether he has sufficiently considered . . . [His lake] is qualitie essay, too magnificent, and too artificial an appendage, to comparison and contrast essay be in unison with the ruins of an abbey.

An abbey, it is essay frank, true, may stand by the side of a lake; and it is college comparison and contrast essay examples, possible that this lake may, in some future time, become its situation; when the marks of the spade and the pick-axe are removed,—when its osiers flourish; and hr resume sap, its naked banks become fringed and essay examples, covered with wood . . A World Without Internet! . the ruin stands now on a neat bowling-green like a house just built, and without any kind of connection with the ground it stands on. (qtd. Watkin, 48) Brown designed his landscapes according to his own simple understanding of nature's harmonies and gradients, featuring vast expanses of grass, irregularly shaped bodies of water, and clumpified tree groupings. As a consequence, Brown eventually became the object of general ridicule: On one occasion Owen Cambridge remarked, “I wish I may die before you, Mr.

Brown.” “Why so?” inquired the puzzled but flattered Brown. “Because,” came the reply, “I should like to see heaven before you have improved it.” (qtd. Hussey, 139) Brown clearly and entirely personified the halting and maladroit neo-classical Picturesque, an awkward attempt to plant a round tree in a square hole; and and contrast, his importance stems partly from the middleground his improvements occupied, and partly from the antithetical virtue of something which is qualitie essay, not providing a point of reference to something which is. The Philosophical Context. The Grand Tour, the importation of comparison essay examples, souvenir landscape paintings and the increasingly popular provincial trips provide the foundation for all this Picturesque inquiry; but there was additionally a general philosophical investigation which offered a provocative and conducive milieu. Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814) equated God with the natural order of the world; Wilhelm Wackenroder's Effusions of an Art-Loving Friar (1773-1798) proposed the existence of two Divine languages, the first reserved for solely for hr resume sap God, the second composed of two components: Nature and Art—a kind of bilingualism for the unilingual. Comparison Examples! Together, these ideas brought some balance to the traditional Christian bias against nature.

Most important was Burke’s (1729-1797) aforementioned theory of the sublime: the and dissertation ultimate experience of divinity, composed of awe, fear and enlightenment, and produced by the contemplation of potent and alarming nature. The effect of visible objects on the passions, clearly, is not only the concern of Burke, but lies at the heart also of Picturesque theory.[17] In effect, these philosophical theories began either to intellectualise landscape and nature—a process continued by the Picturesque school, which allowed a less restricted participation—or attached to it theological importance (see figure 6) where once was seen irreverence. Caspar David Friedrich (1774-1840), for example, exhibited Cross in comparison, the Mountains in 1808: a landscape intended as an altarpiece for a private chapel. Critics initially condemned this as sacrilegious.

Friedrich's own interpretation of the essay picture identified the natural images as symbols for religious beliefs: “The Cross stands erected on a rock unshakeably firm as our faith in Jesus Christ. Evergreen, enduring through all ages, the firs stand round the cross, like the hope of mankind in Him”( Encyclopaedia Britannica ). Landscape and landscape paintings, through these developments, were deemed to be intellectually and religiously interesting and thus offered a respectability previously unknown. Importantly, the religious angle provided only an initial entry point in what was finally to become an amoral and secular aesthetic. Returning to the properly Picturesque, Thomas West’s Guide to the Lakes, in Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire , first published in 1778, displays the religious overtones of landscape within the context of the urban/rural dichotomy: Such as spend their lives in cities, and college comparison, their time in crouds will here meet with objects that will enlarge the mind, by contemplation, and raise it from nature to nature’s first cause. Whoever takes a walk into these scenes must return penetrated with a sense of the creator’s power in essay, heaping mountains upon essay mountains, and enthroning rocks upon rocks. And such exhibitions of sublime and about of anne frank, beautiful objects cannot but excite at once both rapture and reverence. (4) Although religion, ultimately, would be banished from the Picturesque scene, initially such inclusion provided justification and absolution for the new focus on landscape. Within the larger context, the developing interest in landscape painting and college comparison essay, landscape itself comes as no surprise and qualitie essay, the romantic school of college comparison and contrast examples, poetry was essentially a natural progression as inevitable as the wooded shadows cast by a brilliant dawn. Landscape Painters Autochtonous. As we have seen, the appreciation of landscape was one which required learning, and it was through landscape painting and painters that this skill was initially acquired.

Thomas Gainsborough (1727-88) Thomas Gainsborough, perhaps the earliest and certainly most highly regarded pioneer of without internet essay, picturesque English landscape painting, emerged as. the most significant landscape painter of the century. Whereas the work of Wilson, the “English Claude,” could be accommodated within the familiar art-history tradition of landscape painting, Gainsborough’s art inspired insights that ran counter to the academic notions of college and contrast examples, paintings. . . Thesis! . (Bermingham, 58) Gainsborough “gave landscape the college comparison status of pure painting: private, personal” (Bermingham 43). Rejecting portraiture, with its congenital mandate for poetic license, conjured to placate a patron, rather than artistic integrity, Gainsborough believed that the material of landscape allowed “. . Thesis Book! . the artist freely to exercise his imagination” (Bermingham 44).[18] In his later work, Gainsborough offered ever more subjective and sentimental subjects: the cottage, the examples sublimity of sea, of mountain, and the innocence of children, each finding a correspondence in such poems as Wordsworth’s “The Ruined Cottage,” “Ode: Intimations of Immortality,” “Farewell though little Nook of mountain ground” and “We Are Seven.” In the decades after his death in 1788, a veritable inversion of taste had occurred, with critics and sensible folk alike increasingly praising landscape over without essay portraits. Gainsborough rejected predefined artistic traditions, embraced English rural subject matter as “a direct response to nature” (Bermingham 58), and established an affinity with the Picturesque well beyond that of either Claude or Salvator. If, as Hussey suggests, Claude, Salvator and others caused a revolution in the appreciation of examples, scenery and cover letter for business administration position, nature, then Gainsborough landed that rebellion on the home front, adopting English countryside and scenes with a subjective reconnaissance which sought to discover their innate truth. J M W Turner (1775-1851)

Joseph Mallord William Turner was principally influenced by comparison and contrast examples Claude, and so, not surprisingly, painted a host of picturesque scenes whose mythological and historical subjects are guaranteed to warm even the coldest cockles of the neo-classicist: Dido Building Carthage , The Bay of Baiae with Apollo and thesis book, the Sibyl and comparison, Ulysses Deriding Polyphemus , to name only a few. And yet the subjects themselves tell only half the story, for these were indeed Picturesque canvases with atmospheric effects suggestive of Claude (see figure 7) and foreshadowing impressionistic treatment. Turner then demonstrates the tenacity of neo-classical material in paintings; but also the movement towards a more individual and romantic approach: in qualitie essay, place of mere factual recording, Turner translated scenes into a light-filled expression of his own romantic outlook. Other paintings, like Buttermere Lake: A Shower , from college essay examples, around 1798, as well as Turner’s extensive touring of England and internet, Scotland during the same period, show a sensitivity to and contrast essay examples the nationalistic climate inherent in the Picturesque movement. Turner, like Salvator, was himself something of a romantic figure: claiming no close friends, painting in absolute privacy, spending months in solitude and always travelling alone. Letter Position! When persuaded to sell his paintings, Turner suffered days of and contrast essay examples, dejection. Cover For Business! Finally, Turner left a large fortune which he hoped would support what he called “decaying artists”—a picturesque appellation if ever there was one.

What makes Turner particularly interesting is his treatment of the sublime and its Picturesque ramifications. John Ruskin has a unique and comparison and contrast, convincing view of this which explains the strength of the Picturesque and partly —infinitesimally—accounts for the modern literary bias: . . Cover Letter! . if this outward sublimity be sought for by the painter, without any regard for the real nature of the thing, and without any comprehension of the pathos of character hidden beneath, it forms the low school of the surface-picturesque; that which fills ordinary drawing-books and scrap-books, and employs, perhaps, the most popular living landscape painters of France, England, and Germany. And Contrast Essay Examples! But if these same outward characters be sought for in subordination to the inner character of the object, every source of pleasurableness being refused which is for business administration position, incompatible with that, while perfect sympathy is felt at college comparison and contrast examples, the same time with the object as to all that it tells of itself in those sorrowful by-words, we have the school of about diary, true or noble picturesque. To extend this analysis, it is an acute sympathy which separates middling artists of the Picturesque from the Turners and the Wordsworths; it is, to adopt Ruskin’s terminology, the difference between high and low Picturesque. Although Turner— unlike Wordsworth—employed both sketches and memory, a similar temporal distancing from subject is comparison and contrast essay, common to their respective methodologies: The sketch which Turner used as the basis for about frank his drawing of Louth, Lincolnshire , a drawing that dates from sometime in 1827-8, was made thirty years earlier, in 1797. As will become increasingly obvious, painting and literature are indeed sister arts and college comparison and contrast, their practitioners intimately related. (Shanes, 20) John Constable (1776-1837) John Constable was born and bred in rural England and his bond to the countryside was life long and letter for business, reverential.[19] No other painter of the period imbued such a sense of self in his work, calling his sketchbooks “journals”—complete with their autobiographical annotations—and stating, surely with a nod of college comparison essay examples, approval from Wordsworth: “I am fond of being an Egoist in whatever relates to painting” (qtd.

Bermingham, 87). His earliest works were venerational sketches in the style of Gainsborough; and, though never abandoning Picturesque theory, Constable appropriated its many exigencies and eventually made them componential to the dictates of his own. Initially, then, the Picturesque afforded Constable an aesthetic perspective whose ideological bias coincided at many points with his own rejection of commercial values as shared by his family. Furthermore, the Picturesque focus on the specific appearances of objects and the power of these appearances to cover letter evoke strong imaginative associations encouraged Constable’s own propensity to infuse particular views and essay examples, objects with affective significance. (Bermingham, 113-114) Perhaps the most striking aspect—at least to the literary minded—of Constable’s stylistic development involves his new conception of qualitie essay, nature with its emphasis upon comparison and contrast essay examples specific and ben kinsella, individual elements which undermine traditional hierarchical landscape composition.

Discussing Dedham Vale: Morning , Bermingham states: . . . the eye cannot trace a pedestrian itinerary; it focuses on charged spots—the figures, the college comparison and contrast tall golden trees, the white church, the post in the left fore­ground. . . . [It is this] profusion of dialectically charged spots [that] organises Constables landscapes. Book! (123) Besides these spots of composition, Constable, in the frontispiece of English Landscape Scenery , supplies an archetype for his work in college, general: This spot saw the day-spring of my life, Hours of Joy and qualitie essay, years of Happiness; This place first tinged my boyish fancy with a love of the Art, This place was the origin of my fame. (qtd. Bermingham, 125) The obvious and unavoidable correspondence with Wordsworth’s “spots in time” is further augmented by Constable’s use of college comparison and contrast essay examples, recollection: Flatford Mill from the Lock , as a case in and dissertation book, point, is a composite canvas composed of five prefatory and much studied sketches,[20] and college examples, features five charged spots—focal points of interest—copied from administration position, their respective points in the sketches.

The final choice of perspective and arrangement is suggested by Constable in a letter to his wife: “I have tried Flatford Mill again, from the lock (whence you once made a drawing)” (qtd. Comparison And Contrast Essay Examples! Bermingham, 131). The lock and thesis and dissertation book, its view, as we see, are associated with his wife, and the final composition is imbued with the emotions stirred by his memories of essay, that moment and of imaginings, of retrospection: “. . . Thesis! what he experienced remembering with what she had experienced in the process of college essay examples, drawing” (Bermingham 132); a fusion of past and present. We should deduce no direct philosophical or methodological imitation from either Constable or Wordsworth—though each was intimately acquainted with the without essay other’s work—but rather recognise that both responded to the spirit of the times, inheriting a still viable Picturesque aesthetic, assimilating its imperatives and making egotistical innovation their own underlying principle. If we accept for the moment that the romantic movement came not as a miraculous gift from a prophetic Wordsworth tired of rhyming his couplets and poeticising his passages, but as a result of comparison essay, processes already under way; similarly, the Picturesque itself developed through gradual shifts in the philosophical mind and artistic mix. Figure 1: Claude, Pastoral Landscape With the Pointe Molle, from Bicknell. Figure 2: Earlom, from Bicknell. Figure 3: William Westall (1781-1850) View of the caves near Gordale Scar, Yorkshire from Bick nell. “Of all the scenes regularly visited by travellers in search of the Picturesque, Gordale Scar most vividly evoked Salvator” (Bicknel, 72). Figure 4: Gilpin, Number 18, from Bicknell.

Figure 5: Garden Plan, from Manwaring. Figure 6: Marco Ricci (1679-1729), Classical landscape with a traveller and two figures kneeling before a cross, from Bicknell. Figure 7: Turner, Caernarvon Castle (1799) Claudeian influence. Moving from Picturesque affects to without essay effects: as fundamental to literature as to the way we presently evaluate and relate to landscape scenes, the holidays and pictures we take, the rural dreams we dream. Comparison Examples! Continuing the supposition that the Picturesque was no mere fad, this section will detail the ben kinsella essay transition from literature’s traditional view of landscape shortly before and during the Augustan reign to college comparison examples one which gradually accommodates Picturesque learning and issues in the sovereign Nature of the romantics. The movement from neo-classicism to romanticism was not so much a break as a gradual changing of the guard, until finally the palace itself stood vacant and the Greco-Roman soldiers sent a-packing. Just as Sir Isaac Newton—for all his cosmic reconstruction—quietly maintained traditional beliefs, writing a commentary on the Book of Revelations which flabbergasted his scientific admirers, so too the Picturesque prebendaries provided token offerings to a world the ancient classical gods. And Contrast Examples! William Gilpin himself reveals this tentation, offers these offerings, in his definitions of picturesque, occasionally comparing picturesque roughness with classical depictions: Virgil’s Venus, with hair dissundere ventis , Homer’s rugged Jupiter. The strain of discovering the Picturesque in the classics is injurious both to Picturesque theory and to the authors themselves, though the omnipresence and potency of Augustan authority and prestige during the eighteenth century essentially made necessity of inanity. In addition, Gilpin sometimes uses Virgilian quotations to hr resume sap describe English scenery; and in Observations even suggests that Virgil was a great master of landscape.

From this, Hugh Sykes Davies—perhaps the college comparison examples most Boeotian of modern critics—understands the Picturesque to be a “revived Augustan attitude to qualitie essay Nature” (248)—a particularly unique and outlandish notion which defies both the evidence of college comparison examples, art and book, literature. Indeed, David Watkin makes this absurdity clear: Carroll Meeks showed in 1957 [21] how each of the five principles of the Picturesque—variety, movement, irregularity, intricacy and roughness—is respectively echoed in the characteristics of Baroque as defined by Heinrich Wolfflin (1864-1945): painterly, recession, open, unity and unclearness. In Wolfflin’s visual system of analysis, which in itself could be seen as a legacy of the Picturesque, these characteristics were identified as the opposite of those of Classic Art: namely linear, plane, closed, multiplicity and clearness. (x) Section one provided some hint of the amorality that marks the Picturesque school. It is this very fact which provides and another important distinction between the Picturesque and neo-classicism. In Gilpin’s Dialogue upon the Gardens at Stowe , two visitors discuss the merits of a ruinous hermitage. The first is puzzled “why we are more taken with a prospect of this ruinous kind, than with views of Plenty and Prosperity in their greatest Perfection.” (5) The second responds: Yes: but cannot you make a distinction between natural and moral Beauties?

Our social Affections undoubtedly find their Enjoyment the most complete when they contemplate, a Country smiling in the midst of Plenty, where Houses are well-built, Plantations regular, and everything the most commodious and college examples, useful. But such Regularity and Exactness excites no manner of Pleasure in the Imagination, unless they are made use of to contrast with something of an opposite kind. (5) Malcolm Andrews contextualises such differentiations: “. . . the cover distinction between natural and and contrast, moral beauty would have made most Augustans very uneasy, so clearly does it fly in the face of cherished neo-classical values, where physical beauty is seen as the essay about of anne frank expression of moral beauty” (48). In terms more specifically concerned with the development of the Picturesque and romantic poetry, Brownlow makes a similar point: “They [neo-classicists] took it as axiomatic that the college comparison examples training of the eye was a moral activity, in that a properly conceived, and perceived, landscape or garden was an emblem of order . . . in the state, the mind, the soul, and hr resume sap, the emotions” (15). The influence of the Picturesque in France stands as further testament: there the impact was particularly striking for college comparison examples “it conflicted with the rationalist trend of architectural theory which survived from the late seventeenth into the early twentieth century” (Watkin, 161). Eighteenth century neo-classical and Picturesque correlations, like those of Gilpin, which are, at best, spurious, are further explained, firstly, by cover for business position some degree of comparison examples, pedantry; secondly, intellectual name-dropping, offering assent through association; and thirdly, and most particularly, the tremendous difficulties involved in developing an without internet essay, aesthetic outside the ubiquitous and intrinsically disdainful neo-classical confines. The Picturesque then, saw its earliest lines of delineation drawn during the Augustan heyday. Augustans’ adoption of the Picturesque was initially obvious: with the works of Claude increasingly in vogue, his idyllic and nostalgic landscapes of lost classical splendour were understandably and generally embraced.

Indeed, the historical/classical narrative in Claude’s paintings was comfortably accommodating to neo-classicists and offered—as was the case with religious allusion—a license of interest in what was actually a novel, non-classical, non-traditional genre. The Picturesque Path [22] The attendant problem in viewing pre-picturesque poets through the filter of this thesis is actually the point: landscape in literature, until the early eighteenth century, is conspicuous either by its absence, rarity, or treatment. As mentioned in Section One, just as landscape in and contrast examples, painting initially existed largely as a backdrop to human drama, similarly, in literature, it functioned as a symbol of or allusion to grander to more “worthy” conceptions. Ben Jonson (1572/3-1637)

Ben Jonson’s “To Penshurst” (1616) is an interesting case in point: cutting the first turf in a sub-genre celebrating a specific locale, its treatment of landscape is exactly as we would expect, which is to say, exactly as this thesis anticipates. Hr Resume Sap! Penshurst, the country seat of the Sidney family (Sir Philip being the college and contrast most familiar) is described by Jonson in a most particular manner: after a brief preamble describing the manor’s modest facade, the poem turns to the surrounding gardens, where “Thou hast thy walks for health, as well as sport” (9)—though notably not for any aesthetic value; where, not surprisingly, Pan and Bacchus drop in for thesis a famous feast; and where every element of this topography reads like a catalogue of college examples, ownership, the qualitie essay ledger of comparison examples, a steward rather than a poetic eulogy or a laudation of landscape. “That taller tree, which of a nut was set / At his great birth, where all the Muses met” (13-14), initially provides a symbolic marking of Sir Phillip’s birth, soon inscribed—“There in qualitie essay, the writhed bark are cut the names / Of many a sylvan” (15-16)—with the scrawl of lovers re-scrawled as the college essay initials of fabled wood deities. The oak stands not as a tree valued for its majestic treeness, but as an essay, emblem marking the consequence of its wealthy owner; and, to pursue this branch to its limit, acting as a veritable Zeitgeist . “Thy copse, too, named of Gamage, thou hast there, / That never fails to serve thee seasoned deer” (19-20), strengthens the notion of ownership through nomenclature and introduces the college comparison and contrast examples main theme: nature not as objet d’art but as morsels of essay diary of anne, existentialistic meat, the ingredients of art culinaire . Accordingly, in this Edenic garden, with land-owner seated not as Adam but standing as God, “The painted partridge lies in every field, / And, for comparison examples thy mess, is willing to be killed” (29-30); and “Fat, aged carps, that run into thy net, / Bright eels that emulate them, and leap on land / Before the fisher, or into his hand” (33-35). Of course, all this is very pragmatic and moral, supporting the pillars of establishment and legitimate dominion in a manner suggestive of thesis book, Elizabethan hierarchy. It will be some time before the stability of the oak and pillars becomes, instead, the comparison examples stuff of aesthetics. John Denham (1615-69) Sir John Denham, in cover letter, Cooper’s Hill (1642), composed one of the essay examples earliest and particularly influential topographical poems. Typically, it mixes natural descriptions with moral.

Here, for example, the two are intercoursed: Though with those streams he no resemblance hold, Whose foam is of anne, amber and their gravel gold; His genuine and less guilty wealth t' explore, Search not his bottom, but survey his shore. (165-168) The incorporation of examples, historical and political reflections, besides foreshadowing Pope—specifically Windsor Forest —highlight a landscape invisible without the filter of man’s works.

Interestingly, ironically, use of the cover for business administration heroic couplet marks the transition from metaphysicals to neo-classicism in much the same way that Thomson’s The Seasons foreshadows romanticism. John Hughes 1677-? John Hughes, with a lifelong interest in graphic art, is one of and contrast examples, several lesser poets whose attempts at landscape poetry predates the more familiar and famous. His Court of letter for business administration, Neptune (1700) describes “Landscapes of college and contrast, rising Mountains, shaggy Woods, / Green Valleys, smiling Meadows, silver Floods, / And Plains with lowring Herds enrich’d around” (qtd, Manwaring, 96). Essay About Frank! Obviously, this pre-Picturesque period, still lacking any landscape aesthetic, is incapable of providing any genuine pictorial perspective. Nevertheless, Hughes’ introduction to Poetical Works offers an college and contrast essay, interesting observation: “There are no parts in a poem which strike the generality of readers with so much pleasure as Description” (xxxxv). Poems like “The Picture,” features an original collecting of hues from nature: Queen of thesis, fancy hither bring. So from college and contrast essay examples, ev’ry flow’r and ben kinsella, plant. Gather first the immortal paint. Fetch me lilies, fetch me roses. (7-14)

The poem is college, delightful not only for its originality, but for the genuine poetic sensibility. Finally, however, all this pigment is to paint a portrait of Venus. “Greenwich Park,” despite the qualitie essay hopefulness of comparison, its title, inevitably becomes nothing more than a background for parading and prancing nymphs, Cupid, Mira and various embodiments of ben kinsella essay, beauty: a landscape reflecting classicism and finally fading into aesthetic oblivion while all the radiance that remains is human. Poems like “The triumph of peace occasioned by college comparison essay examples the peace of Ryswich 1697” and “The court of Neptune on King William’s return from Holland 1699,” surprisingly do contain landscape elements, though again only as a history painting-like background. Only the hr resume sap subject itself of To Mr. Constantine, on college comparison, His Paintings makes true landscape fleetingly possible:

Here tufted Groves rise boldly to the Sky, There Spacious Lawns more distant charms the Eye, The Crystal Lakes, in Borrow’d Tinctures shine. And misty Hills the far Horizon join, Lost in and dissertation, the azure of Borders of the Day, Like Sounds remote that die in Air away. (qtd, Manwaring, 96) Conventionally a cardinal artistic sin, this copy of copy surprisingly exhibits particular merit, not only for the avant-garde Picturesque elements—William Kent’s 1709 Memorandum, after all, appears now on the horizon—but with the “borrowing” from one state of reality to another and essay, the canvas’ frame providing closure to the day. Nevertheless, any systematic rendition of landscape is, at this time, possible only by imitation not of nature—nor indeed Nature—but of and dissertation, a landscape canvas. The Picturesque Convergence. Alexander Pope (1688-1744), writing during and even dabbling in comparison examples, the development of Picturesque theories, enters the essay of anne literary pantheon during this transitional period and consequently demands significant attention. In fact, as will become apparent, the college comparison essay examples Augustan embrace of the Picturesque was one without much feeling, attachment, sincerity and without much conviction.

Pope was connected with the earliest picturesque efforts: one of the first romantic mediaevalisations, built at Cirencester Park, Gloucestershire. Hr Resume Sap! Known as Alfred's Hall, it was begun in 1721 for the first Earl of Bathurst. In 1732 Bathurst wrote to Pope: “I have almost finished my hermitage in college and contrast examples, the wood, and it is better than you can imagine . . . I will venture to assert that all Europe cannot show such a pretty little plain work in the Brobdingnag style as what I have executed here” (qtd. Watkin, 45). This plain structure eventually became, with Pope's advice and assistance, a venerable castle and without internet, mock ruin. In addition, Pope’s Moral Essays , “Epistle IV” offers some promising notions of picturesque landscape gardening, with both Nature and comparison, painting offered as inspiration and methodology. This leads J. R. Watson to qualitie essay suggest: “The gardener’s task was now to co-operate with nature, as Pope knew” (16). In fact, although Pope mocks the formality of a Versailles, supplanting it with, “Parts answ’ring parts shall slide into college and contrast essay, view / Spontaneous beauties all around advance, / Start ev’n from letter, Difficulty, strike from Chance” (66-68), his own poetry regularly smacks of the formality of affected gardens. Indeed, Pope’s own garden—mostly laid out in c. 1718-25—epitomised by its now famous grotto, illustrates something of the awkwardness of examples, his picturesque dabblings. Qualitie Essay! David Watkin—in what becomes a familiar motif of prevarication—succinctly describes this incongruity: “Pope enhanced his grotto with optical illusion, with mirrors and waterworks, with ores and minerals chosen for their beauty not their rarity, yet he still considered it natural in comparison with the formality and artificiality of college and contrast essay, mannerist and baroque grottoes” (4). A Plan of Mr.

Pope’s Garden , penned by John Serle, Pope’s gardener and man-servant, reveals more details: the grotto was, in frank, fact, a rock and sea-shell strewn tunnel leading beneath a road to the garden. Besides the opulence of the marble plaque inscribed in college and contrast essay examples, gold letters decorating the entrance, Italian marble, Plymouth marble, Cornish diamonds, Amesthystine crystals—to scratch only the surface—form the grotto itself. Although none of these are precious materials per hr resume sap se , neither are they the stuff of the primitive Picturesque scene. A Plan , in its cartographic fold-out, reveals the college comparison examples lay-out of the ben kinsella essay garden: formed mostly of radial and rectilinear pathways and a polished lawn, there are nevertheless a few hesitant serpentine walks. Watkin admits: “What Pope persisted in seeing as ‘natural’ seems to us as artificial as Rococo . College Comparison And Contrast Examples! . .” (5). Indeed, what Pope persisted in seeing as natural would no doubt have seemed equally artificial, only a few decades later, to Price and cover for business administration, Knight. What makes A Plan particularly interesting is its uninteresting inventory, which not only itemises the materials used in the grotto, but their source: Several large Groups of Cornish Diamonds tinged with a blackish Water, from the Rev. Dr. William Borlace of Ludgvan in Cornwall . . . . College Comparison Essay Examples! Several fine Pieces of Eruptions from Mount Vesuvius , and a fine Piece of Marble from the Grotto of Egeria near Rome , from the Reverend Mr. Spence ; with several fine Petrifactions and Plymouth Marble, from Mr.

Cooper . (6-7) This brief extract, with its “fine” name dropping, reveals the familiar marks of ownership and prestige. The emblem of land title, which we saw in Jonson’s “To Penshurst,” is here reduced to constitutional elements: rocks and minerals, and suggesting the commensurate importance of qualitie essay, associate names, like famous signatures in a gallery of ultimately mediocre art: the high price of reputation . Even the poems contained in a section entitled, “Verses Upon the Grotto at Twickenham” concern themselves not with the grotto itself, but with the man who owned the grotto. Emerson once wrote that although fields and farms belong to college and contrast examples this man or that, the landscape is nobody’s private property. In early eighteenth century England, the notion of landscape finally existed, though Emerson’s point was as yet lost in the haze of future understanding. The far flung opulence, the unnatural far flung assortment of items collected from various regions—how natural is essay diary of anne, a chunk of Vesuvius clinging to college comparison examples a lump of thesis and dissertation, Plymouth Marble?—should, one would think, quickly and convincingly settle the college examples question which Morris R. Brownell rhetorically poses in his introduction to A Plan : “Pope’s acknowledgement to Sloan for his gift of essay, joints of the Giant’s Causeway raises the question of his conception of the grotto—fosillary of rare minerals or imitation of nature?” (viii). Not surprisingly, Brownell sees the whole thing as an imitation of nature.

However wrong this blind faith reading might be, the question itself misses the point: whatever Pope’s intent, the result was impossibly unnatural. The neo-classicist, no matter what aesthetic mining he attempts, can extract only a rarefied nature, more artful than natural, the geological equivalent of a landscape lyric in heroic couplets, with every pair of lines a peculiar strata of comparison essay, imported rock.[23] In fairness to Pope, however, Twickenham garden and Lord Burlington’s in Chiswick vie as the thesis book first picturesque grounds. If they are, by essay later standards, largely unnatural and unpicturesque, they were at least a tentative first step down the meandering garden path. Further, Pope’s definition of nature was usually Nature , duly capitalised and interrelated not with “the great out-doors,” nor nature in a Darwinian sense, but more particularly the ben kinsella essay illustrative, universal and intransmutable; common sense and perspicacity: Yet if we look more closely, we shall find. Most have the seeds of judgement in their mind: Nature affords at least a glimmer of light; The lines, though touched but faintly, are drawn right;(“An Essay on Criticism,” 19-22) Here the drawing metaphor is emphatically concerned neither with landscape nor art, but with “good sense.”

Pope’s earliest attempt at what we might broadly term nature poetry was Pastorals . Reading like a declaration of love from an avaricious beggarly bachelor to a wealthy widow, any genuine feeling seems obliterated by and contrast essay examples a self-conscious pedantic exhibitionism: the Thames valley landscape, for example, is chock-a-block with “ Sicilian Muses” (certainly not my italics) though singularly Spartan in sunny meadows. The natural elements in Pastorals typically function in one of letter for business administration, three ways: firstly, as a form of extended characterisation: Oh deign to visit our forsaken seats, The mossy fountains, and the green retreats! Where’re you walk, cool gales shall fan the glade, Trees, where you sit, shall crowd into a shade; Where’re you tread, the blushing flow’rs shall rise, And all things flourish where you turn your eyes. (71-76) In this instance, the chastity, morality, purity of Rosalinda is externalised in a venerational relationship with subdued Nature. College And Contrast Essay Examples! Secondly, as a mere pretext for manifold classicisms:

Beneath the Shade a spreading Beech displays, Hylas and Aegon sung their Rural Lays; This mourn’d a faithless, that an absent Love. And Dekia’s Name and Doris fill’d the Grove. Ye Mantuan Nymphs, your sacred Succour bring;

Hylas and Aegon’s Rural Lays I sing. ( Pastorals: Autumn , 1-6) And, thirdly, as in traditional paintings, as a background or at best a setting for human activity. Windsor Forest (1713) provides another example of Pope’s inability to a world essay create either pictorial or picturesque scenes. Indeed, the college and contrast essay examples poems turns out to be a virtual arboricultural wasteland: a peculiar reversal of the familiar aphorism where we cannot see the trees for the forest. Here Hills and Vales, the Woodland and the Plain, Here Earth and water seem to strive again. There, interspers’d in Lawns and opening Glades, Thin Trees arise that shun each others Shades. Here in full light the essay russet Plains extend;

There wrapt in Clouds the bluish Hills ascend. Comparison And Contrast Essay Examples! (11-24) Certainly there is some semblance of landscape here, but the lawns are never far away, and we imagine a scene, not surprisingly, more typical of Capability Brown than the letter administration position Picturesque. The natural elements are correspondingly here, here, there, here, there: namely, nowhere, a collage of bits glued willy-nilly, denying spatial and relative reality;[24] the thin trees seemingly represent not a fecund forest but the sparsity of Pope’s pictorial sense. To admire Pope for his particular strength without acknowledging his weakness licenses the implicit generosity of J. College! R. Watson and the superficiality of Manwaring’s statement that “Pope comes close to Claude” (97) and does neither service to understanding Pope’s poetry nor Picturesque development. Indeed, Hussey convincingly argues that, “There is without, no analogy in his landscapes to those of Claude or Salvator” (30). College Comparison And Contrast Essay Examples! Pope’s embryonic landscapes, in place of visualisation, provide Defoe-like catalogues, reminiscent also of “To Penshurst”: painting the scenery of inventory rather than the canvas of invention. Pope’s Classical Roots. Ever since Horace’s dictum in ben kinsella, Ars Poetica (c.

13 BC) “ ut pictura poesis —“as is college and contrast examples, painting, so is poetry”—the two arts have been jointly imprisoned in the same ivory tower—albeit “painting” definitively meant portraiture. Even briefly setting aside the neo-classical context, there can be no surprise that the Picturesque movement was initially tied—though with varying degrees of tightness—to classical poetry. Of course, Pope’s archetypes—indeed, the a world fact that his literature always passes through some metaphysical classical filter—virtually disallows any personal expression of a personal relationship with nature, or at least results in hollow sentiments. College Comparison And Contrast! A brief quotation from Virgil’s The Eclogues (37 BC) will perhaps make this clear: Happy old man, who ’mid familiar streams. And hallowed springs, will court the cooling shade!

Here, as of thesis and dissertation, old, your neighbour's bordering hedge, That feasts with willow-flower the Hybla bees, Shall oft with gentle murmur lull to sleep, While the leaf-dresser beneath some tall rock. Uplifts his song, nor cease their cooings hoarse. The wood-pigeons that are your heart's delight, Nor doves their moaning in the elm-tree top. ( Eclogue I) Though certainly broader than Pope’s catalogue of natural elements, the holistic perspective of landscape is college and contrast essay, obviously impossible where man and his activities form the principal focus. Interestingly, Virgil goes beyond simple nature eulogy and internet, those country comforts provide a simple alternative to urban opulence: “Let Pallas keep the towers her hand hath built, / Us before all things let the woods delight”(Eclogue II). The English ideal would transform these towers into stately homes, islands of luxury in a sea of peasant labour, a simplicity of comparison and contrast, life defined geographically rather than philosophically. While Virgil calls for a hands-on relationship with nature, rural England produced the harvest bounty at arms length.

In addition to this, the classical landscape, though never described in terms of without internet essay, landscape, is one distinctly exotic, inhabited by pipe-playing shepherds, wayward wolves and unfamiliar flora. Thus, the essay examples classical pastoral offers a way of life that no well-manored Englishman could tolerate in a countryside he could not assimilate. The “Muses of Sicily,” (Eclogue IV) can never truly sing of England, and Pope, in emulation, can never truly sing familiar nor sing true. When Pope adopts not only the dialogic structure of Virgil’s Eclogues but the ben kinsella characters themselves, “Fair Thames , flow gently from essay examples, thy sacred Spring, / While on thy Banks Sicilian Muses sing” (“Spring. And Dissertation! The First Pastoral, or Damon,” 3-4), the result is transplanted absurdity, apparent not only to the modern reader, but the contemporary also: Thomas Tickell, in his Guardian essay (April 15, 1713), comments: . . . our countrymen have so good an opinion of the ancients, and think so modestly of themselves, that the generality of Pastoral Writers have either stolen all from the Greeks and Romans, or so servilely imitated their manners and customs, as makes them very ridiculous. (qtd. Andrews, 11)

Pope understood none of this, [25] saw no immediacy in the pastoral, no native narrative nor contemporaneity: only a perpetual backwards survey of a Golden Age forged in Vulcan’s far away fires. Accordingly, in “A Discourse on college and contrast essay examples, Pastoral Poetry,” Pope states: If we would copy Nature, it may be useful to internet essay take this Idea along with us, that pastoral is an image of what they call the Golden age. College Comparison Essay Examples! So that we are not to a world describe our shepherds as shepherds at this day really are, but as they may be conceiv’d then to and contrast essay have been. Hr Resume Sap! (120) The real requirement was something Pope could never provide: a kind of reverse alchemy, transforming the gold of the Golden Age into the Englishman’s baser mettle. And Contrast! Pope’s further insistence upon hr resume sap “exposing the best side only of a shepherd’s life, and in concealing his miseries” (120) is comparison examples, again in opposition with picturesque trends which, though, as we have seen, generally avoiding the thesis book moral context of poverty, places emphasis upon the dilapidated, the coarse, the unkept, positing hardship as intrinsic to the scene as the gnarled wind-blasted tree. The ragged shepherd, his hair swept by college wind, his visage worried by hr resume sap the elements, is both a more accurate and picturesque portrait. Virgil’s Eclogues , with “These fallows, trimmed so fair” (Eclogue I) and, “Now, Meliboeus, graft your pears, now set / Your vines in order!” (Eclogue I), provides a subtext of nature controlled, ordered and college comparison essay, manipulated. In Georgics , of course, this philosophy becomes an overtly expressed treatise on the cultivation of hr resume sap, estates, making the college comparison examples incongruity between the qualitie essay neo-classical and college comparison essay, the Picturesque as conspicuous as a dilemma between nature ordered and natural disorder.

But there is an even more important incongruity, for hr resume sap Georgics , like much of Virgil’s poetry—and The Aeneid in particular—features a strong nationalistic component. As the focus gradually fixes upon British landscape, Virgil’s distant view of “. . . And Contrast Examples! Britain, from the whole world sundered far” (Eclogue I,) and the worship of foreign fields reveals a dislocated panegyric, at odds with the general trend. Malcolm Andrews, in The Search for the Picturesque , sees Virgil’s patriotism as offering “. . . a kind of licence for cultural emancipation” (9), and moves in the next paragraph to an analysis of Thomson’s The Seasons , as if Virgil’s nationalistic vision directly correlated to an appreciation of English landscape. In fact, the about neo-classical attitude as expressed in Pope’s “A Discourse on Pastoral Poetry,” implies the very reverse. Infatuation and emulation of the Golden Age proved a barrier to college essay examples home-spun nature and landscape literature—briefly recollect the shepherd not as he is but as he might once have been—and it was the cover administration position Picturesque movement which gradually laboured in chipping away at that barrier.

This can be seen even in Pope’s pastoral verse, “Spring. The First Pastoral, or Damon”: despite mimetic qualities, the poem works upon the premise of “ Cynthus and college and contrast essay examples, Hybla yield to Windsor- Shade” (68), festooning lines with English flora. The result is qualitie essay, a hodge-podge of and contrast essay examples, classical characters, ancient gods, and the English rose as an uncomfortable floral bed fellow. The new focus on landscape through the Picturesque was never a reinvention of the Golden Age: the Picturesque includes in its composite elemental degeneration, hardship and ruin: the stuff of the English countryside rather than the eternal Mediterranean spring and a life of ease. Richard Payne Knight’s comment that “a person conversant with the writings of Theocritus and Virgil will relish pastoral scenery more than one unacquainted with such poetry” ( Inquiry , 150), demonstrates the difficulties involved in adopting a new and provincial landscape still largely devoid of literary and artistic association and prestige. Essay! Such comments lead Malcolm Andrews to talk of the “elitism of the essay examples Picturesque” (4), though it seems more appropriate—especially when we consider the eventual popularity of picturesque tourism—to understand rather the elitism of Knight himself. The plethora of Picturesque guide books is indicative of the increasing popularity of landscape appreciation. This gradual shift from “elite” to general can also be seen in Gilpin’s Observations on the River Wye : the first edition of 1782 features Latin quotations which, in the second 1789 edition are all translated. If textbooks on landscape gardening exist for the narrow academic, this by no means suggests the essay about diary of anne frank humble fellow busy building his lily pond is essay, similarly focused.

The initial references to Virgil and hr resume sap, Horace were as necessary as they were inappropriate: before Britain could be truly discovered and localised, it was conceptualised as a transplanted Arcadia, where northern Shepherds wandered crooked hills buffeted by Mediterranean breezes, expecting at any moment to come upon a triumphant Aeneas. With no traditional appreciation for college and contrast landscape as a meaningful aesthetic experience, new understanding, occasioned by essay the novel introduction of landscape paintings, came not from a moment of revelation, but rather from comparison, a gradual modification and eventual weakening of what was already known. Essentially, Pope understood a well composed garden to be an emblem of good order reflecting the inner good order of the educated mind. His treatment of nature is subjugated by the omnipresent and Elizabethan notion that “ORDER is Heav’n’s first law” ( Essay on Man , Epistle IV, 50), though devoid of Shakespeare’s sense of nature’s power, of diary, Godlike omnipotence; and botany, biology, anthropology, philosophy, painting, all become mere lessons in classical history. Classical pastoral and Georgic writing, in college essay examples, simple terms, are too distant and different to ever speak of England, no matter how cunningly coined and conflated with native elements. Thesis! Like Windsor Forest, Pope’s Picturesque is one defined by omission, a Picturesque truly without the picture. The Picturesque Scene. James Thomson (1700-1748), as an acquaintance of Arbuthnot, Gray and Pope, falls firmly into the neo-classical camp. His landscapes, although they were greatly influenced by those of college and contrast essay examples, Claude, Rosa and cover administration position, Poussin, include only occasional classical allusions, and from this we see some glimmering hope of rebellion. Indeed, this is the case: the bugle call bugled, the comparison examples neo-classical swan-song giving way to. The Muses, still with freedom found,

Shall to thy happy coast repair: Blest isle! with matchless beauty crown'd, And manly hearts to guard the fair. Rule, Britannia, rule the waves; Britons never will be slaves.(“Rule Britannia”, 1729) Despite somewhat artificial diction, Thomson’s The Seasons :[26], first completed in 1730 and later expanded, offers a landmark in English poetry. The influence of the increasingly familiar Picturesque is particularly clear in Winter : the first edition expressed only minor pictorial interest; in the second, Thomson inserts such Salvatorian lines as “. . . The cloudy Alps and Appenine / Capt with grey mists, and everlasting snows; / Where nature in stupendous ruin lies. (243-5) The remaining three books, composed subsequently to Winter , feature diverse landscape scenes.

Summer (1727) illustrates Claudian sun play: . . . yonder comes the powerful king of day, Rejoicing in the east. The lessening cloud. The kindling azure, and the mountain’s brim, Illumed with fluid gold; (81-84) In Spring both the poet and essay diary of anne, Nature play the part of comparison examples, painter: Behold yon breathing prospect bids the Muse.

Throw all her beauty forth. But who can paint. Like Nature? Can imagination boast, Amid its gay creation, hues like hers? Or can it mix them with that matchless skill. And lose them in each other, as appears. In every bud that blows. (467-73) Manwaring explains: “In the edition of qualitie essay, 1744—that is, after his visit to Italy and his collecting of prints—appears the most elaborately composed of and contrast examples, all his landscapes, with real Claudian distances” (104). Although none of this is specifically Picturesque, the Claudian influence and the well defined conflation of poetry and landscape painting demonstrate the development underway.

Abandoning rhyming couplets was nothing new—indeed, The Seasons , as commonly acknowledged, owes some of its versification to Miltonic influence—but in the context of Pope’s predominant style it was a break in the pillars of the literary establishment. The popularity of The Seasons , with over three hundred editions published between 1750 and 1850, is a testament to the vitality of the Picturesque trend. Certainly, The Seasons is not solely a Picturesque poem, though the influence of book, painting is everywhere; and college comparison and contrast essay examples, the title itself, suggestive of the temporal changes of internet, nature, quotes the movement of and contrast essay, Picturesque tenets in implicit opposition to the static catalogues of Pope: a real landscape that generates and degenerates. Although the poem predates the apex of Picturesque popularity, there can be no doubt as to the Picturesque vision that made the conception possible: . . Qualitie Essay! . now the bowery walk. Of covert close, where scarce a speck of day. Falls on the lengthened gloom, protracted sweeps; Now meets the and contrast bending sky, the river now.

Dimpling along, the breezy ruffled lake. The forest darkening round, the glittering spire, The ethereal mountain, and position, the distant main. Here we see not only metastasis, the chequered canvas of change, with the and contrast essay examples temporal “now” rather than Pope’s unplaceable “here” and “there,” but also key Picturesque elements: the dimpling river anticipates Knight’s original musing on administration position, smoothness : Smoothness being properly a quality perceived only by the touch, and applied metaphorically to the objects of the other senses, we often apply it very improperly to those of vision; assigning smoothness, as a cause of visible beauty, to things, which, though smooth to the touch, cast the most sharp, harsh, and angular reflections of college comparison and contrast examples, light upon the eye. . Hr Resume Sap! . . ( An Analytical Inquiry , 65) The ethereal mountains offering a suggestion of sublime grandeur; the depth of field, with the meandering river leading the eye towards a distant background.

Unlike Pope, Thomson invites the reader to view the landscape with leading locutions: “see,” “prospect” and “yon,” and the frequent use of the present tense. As Watson points out, the description of comparison and contrast essay, George Lyttelton’s estate at Hagley “is carefully composed and presented as foreground (the Hall), middle distance (villages, fields, heathlands, a ‘broken landscape’) and background (the Welsh mountains)” (32), a method identical to that employed later by Picturesque writers[27] and intrinsic to the landscape artist’s craft.[28] Andrews, however, refuses to see any influence of ben kinsella essay, picturesque painting in college and contrast essay, Thomson’s The Seasons , asserting instead the influence stems rather from literature. External evidence all suggests otherwise. The historical context: this is, after all, rapidly becoming the age of landscapes and influence seems virtually unavoidable; the geographical: the poem was actually revised and partly rewritten at Hagley, then newly laid out according to picturesque tenets; and, as mentioned above, Thomson travelled to Italy during the composition, making subsequent books markedly richer in landscape images. Unfortunately, Andrews’ literary bias—the idea, for example, that, “Painting’s sister-art [literature] had shown the way to freedom from didacticism or slavish topographical portraiture with Thomson’s The Seasons ” (25), places the literary cart before the Picturesque horse. However, it is internal evidence itself which most clearly outlines the absurdity of Andrews horsing around: Meantime you gain the hight, from without internet, whose fair brow. The bursting prospects spreads immense around; And, snatched o’er hill and dale, and wood and lawn,

The verdant field, and darkening heath between, And villages embosomed soft in trees, And spiry towns by surging columns marked. Of household smoke, your eyes excursive roams— Wide-stretching from the college comparison and contrast essay Hall in whose kind haunt.

The hospitable genius lingers still, To where the broken landscape, by degrees. Ascending, roughens into rigid hills. O’er which the Cambrian mountains, like far clouds. That skirt the blue horizon, dusky rise. ( Spring , 950-62) Selected almost at random, there can be no doubt even here of the analogy to without internet essay landscape canvas: the scene is college comparison examples, both designed and unified, with precisely placed detail within the larger picture framework; with foreground, middleground and background all respectively described. The passage also contains key picturesque elements: contrast, for example, between wood and a world internet, lawn, field and heath; the college comparison and contrast texture of the rough rigid hills; the broken allusion; and the sublime cloud-like mountains. The influence of landscape paintings upon a burgeoning genre of landscape and nature literature seems beyond question and Andrews’ cart is not only misplaced but surely wrecked by essay about of anne frank a broken axle.

The interconnectivity between these two arts is further illustrated by Turner and Constable, for college comparison and contrast essay whom Thomson was a favourite poet, adopting lines appended to several canvases. [29] Indeed, Turner’s Aeolian Harp (see figure 8) was exhibited in 1809 with a poem that begins: On Thomson’s tomb the dewy drops distil, Soft tears for thesis book Pity shed for college and contrast essay Pope’s lost fame, To worth and verse adhere sad memory still, Scorning to wear ensnaring fashion’s chain. In silence go, fair Thames, for all is qualitie essay, laid. While flows the stream, unheeded and unsung.

Resplendent Seasons! chase oblivions shade. (qtd. Bicknell, 32) The poem highlights each season in turn, though, as Bicknell explains, quoting various art scholars, it is based not so much on Thomson’s work as William Collin’s “Ode occasion’d by the death of Mr Thomson.” The four figures in the picture, however, are understood to represent the seasons. College Comparison And Contrast Essay! Bicknell concludes: “Turner’s picture pays homage both to Claude and to essay about of anne Thomson, and in doing so it enshrines the link between the ‘picturesque poets’ and the ‘Italian’ landscape painters(33). During the comparison examples swan-song years of the eighteenth century, classical poets were losing ground to the increasing number of British poets, with classical allusion becoming thin on the ground. Concomitantly, . . Essay! . booksellers were no longer addressing a relatively few, elite readers but a wide, mixed audience including merchants, professionals, children, and urban servants, as well as traditional audiences. (Benedict, 158) Thus, there existed a growing exigency for a new kind of literature, removed from the Grub Street Press, yet more in comparison and contrast essay examples, tune with more people, more accessible, reflecting more the ben kinsella essay changing social condition.

John Dyer (1699-1757), of course, is best remembered for “Grongar Hill.” Describing the scenery of the river Towy, there is a Wordsworthian quality of observation, personal reflection and picturesque features: “prospect,” “Old castles,” “ruins, moss and weeds,” and so on; there is the occasional picturesque personification, as in “And ancient towers crown his brow, / That cast an awful look below” (71-72); though mostly we have only comparison and contrast essay a topographical and irregular ode in rhyming couplets. Published in 1726, it draws immediate comparison with Thomson’s The Seasons . Besides taking landscape as its primary focus, “Grongar Hill” really sits in a world, the shadow of The Seasons , offering only the occasional sign of life, such as: And see the college and contrast examples rivers how they run, Thro’ woods and meads, in shade and sun! Sometimes swift and sometimes slow, Wave succeeding wave, they go. A various journey to the deep,

Like human life to Endless sleep. A World Internet! (93-98) Dyer made several tours of England and Wales, travelled to Italy, studied to be a painter long before he became a parson-poet, and there is, certainly, a convincing affection for landscape in “Grongar Hill”—though this is more strongly expressed in essay, The Country Walk , whose concluding lines draw a melancholy comparison between the hr resume sap utopia of landscape and the distopia of human existence. “Grongar Hill” is framed upon the summit prospect of Grongar Hill[30] and, compared to the rhyming couplets of Pope’s “landscapes,” the comparison view is clear and thesis book, convincing and the subject focused. It is with Dyer’s final and greatest—in terms of bigness—poem, however, that the poet’s mutable mediocrity comes to light. “The Fleece,” praised by Wordsworth—which is perhaps condemnation enough, a certain sign that the egotistical sublimian felt no literary threat[31]—is an anachronistic georgic written thirty years after “Grongar Hill.” Dyer hoped “The Fleece” would provide necessary information allowing sheep farmers to college essay improve their stock and cover letter, the quality of wool; to improve the fortunes of combers, dyers and weavers; to improve Britain’s trade by advocating expansion abroad. And Contrast Essay! A georgic with such—conventional—pragmatic goals finds high poetic diction and frequent digressions a serious impediment. It is difficult bordering on impossible to imagine one tenth of those concerned in the industry with the faculty and willingness, not to mention leisure time, to read such a long run-around poem. Letter Administration! If ever there was a case for abandoning classical models, this georgic, begging for the mercy of simple prose, pleads guilty and stands duly condemned.

Essentially, Dyer proclaims here his affiliation with Dryden’s now ageing notion, expounded in “Parallel betwixt Poetry and Painting” (1695), that the primary end of Painting is to please, though the ultimate end of Poetry is to instruct. Dyer’s affection for rural landscapes is comparison and contrast essay examples, perhaps all the more remarkable for this utilitarian and mercantile disposition. Unlike Wordsworth, Dyer saw no injurious contiguity between industry and trade. Quite the contrary: “Trade,” he wrote, “is the daughter of peace” (qtd. Essay! Williams, 98). Comparison Essay! Williams, in his biography of Dyer, continues, . . . traders and merchants, he felt, were promoters of peace and therefore of civilisation.. And by aiding them to bring natural resources and industries together, to develop new resources, new manufactures, and new means of transportation, Dyer felt that he too was promoting peace and civilisation. (98) The same, in fact, is true of The Seasons , though Thomson’s approbation of mercantilism—as well as the didactic insertions—is less the business of the poem and more an unfortunate by-product. If “Grongar Hill” makes a step forwards towards the romantic movement, “The Fleece” takes several backwards. In his preface to the second edition of Winter , Thomson mentions Virgil’s Georgics as one of his models. He insists, however, that Winter bore a closer resemblance to hr resume sap the devotional literary tradition which included the Pentateuch, the Book of Job, and Paradise Lost . “The Fleece,” on the other hand, is comparison, not only fully georgic but formally inappropriate to its purpose.

There is, then, in Dyer something of the neo-classical romantic dichotomy, the day-dreamer and a world internet, the practical day-worker and it is in this context that he is best read and makes most sense. Neo-classicists’ adoption of the Picturesque, with Claude recognised as the precursor, was initially perhaps not inevitable though certainly understandable. There was, however, a certain incongruity to college comparison essay examples this adoption, for the geometry of contemporary gardens and regularity of versification were essentially antithetical to the Picturesque. Besides, the serenity and classical nostalgia of Claude was losing ground to the wildness of the more rugged Rosa (see figure 9) whose craggy cliffs and a world internet, toothed trees and desolate domains were closer to essay both lakeland scenes and romantic sensibilities. Neo-classicism and formative Picturesque then were uneasy partners. Upon the crumbling and tumbling columns of neo-classicism was slowly builded an ever more refined picturesque aesthetic. Tentative attempts at picturesque typified in The Seasons and “Grongar Hill” provides a background for an entirely new landscape of aesthetic appreciation and artistic expression that was quite simply blowing through the temporal winds and and dissertation book, disturbing everything in its path. For all the aesthetic developments taking place as the eighteenth century progressed, neo-classicism was reluctant to give up the battle.

Thomas Warton, in Poems on Several Occasions, (1748) includes such key terms as “Nature’s Landscapes,” “Dark woods and pensive waterfalls,” “Desert Prospects rough and college comparison essay examples, rude,” “a green Valley’s wood-encircled Side.” However, translations and essay of anne, paraphrases of Horace rub shoulders with “Ode to Taste”: Leave not Britannia’s Isle; since Pope is comparison and contrast examples, fled. To meet his Homer in essay, Elysian Bowers, What Bard shall dare resume. His Various-sounding Harp?(180) Warton then demonstrates the literary discord at this time, the venerational prestige of college comparison and contrast examples, Pope, and ben kinsella essay, the staying power of neo-classicism. As late as 1775 and calling to mind Gilpin’s examination of natural and moral beauty in Stowe , Samuel Johnson, in Journey to and contrast examples the Western Islands of Scotland wrote: An eye accustomed to hr resume sap flowery pastures and waving harvests is astonished and and contrast essay, repelled by this wide extent of thesis book, hopeless sterility.

The appearance is that of matter incapable of form or usefulness, dismissed by nature from her care and disinherited from her favours. (qtd. Andrews, 197) There was no extensive digging and chiselling, no blasting of hill and and contrast essay examples, dale, no landscaping on essay, a geographic scale, no remoulding or recasting of this northern nation, no topographical development. The only conceivable change was internal: aesthetic conception; and with this mightiest of college comparison, change, the ben kinsella essay Scottish Highlands would soon become—and remain—one of the most picturesque areas in all Britain. Figure 8: Turner, Thomson’s Aeolian Harp, from Bicknell. Figure 9: Salvator Rosa, Mountain landscape, from Bicknell. “This mountainous landscape is of a type which particularly appealed to college comparison and contrast essay examples English taste. It could be a Salvatorian of a scene in the Lake District or North Wales” (Bicknell, 5) The Middle Ground: Wordsworth.

The artistic and aesthetic links established in Section One now become particularly significant. This section will include an important aetiological component, identifying the without internet essay articles of faith employed in establishing the standard—and erroneous—critical guiding conception of the Picturesque. Having, hopefully, and to college some degree, divested Wordsworth (1770-1850) of the prophetic, revolutionary inspired vestments which modern scholars intimatingly fancy his dress, the entire fabric of the venerational and vituperative theory of cover letter, Wordsworth and the Picturesque respectively becomes bare supposition, allowing, finally, a more valid and useful appraisal of the two. The influence of the Grand Tour in fostering an intense and popular interest in scenic tourism—it was in the 1780s that the word ‘tourist’ entered the college examples English language—the increasing familiarity of landscape paintings, philosophical enquiries which intellectualised landscape, the religious symbolism which initially justified landscape not only for the French but for the Hudson River Group in North America, the popularity of landscape gardening, all these were elements in a new cultural and aesthetic picture. Ben Kinsella! And yet, as mentioned in comparison essay, the previous section, the neo-classical constituent, as much a symbol of “quality” as Friedrich’s Cross On the Mountain was of faith, stubbornly persisted. The prestige of the classical past essentially allowed the prestige of the hr resume sap present, and with nature already running wild in picturesque landscape gardens, neo-classicism endured like an old marble statue, certainly, its arm’s severed at the shoulder and missing a leg, yet still solid and strong.

Romantic poetry would provide the and contrast essay final cutting edge, individuality and originality and subjectivity and emotional response would allow a cultural coming of age; and if the statue would always remain, at least now the head could be lopped off. In addition to the impetus provided by this new and and dissertation, burgeoning cultural and aesthetic picture, there was also some imperative to fill a literary void. Sonnets, long castrated of college comparison, their erotic themes, momentarily seduced by religion and politics, were by now only hr resume sap a literary footnote. Similarly, allegory seemed an anachronistic way of college comparison essay, describing a shovel by digging a hole. The epic itself existed only as a mockery. Worst of all, newer innovations like the invariable antithetical rhyming couplet inevitably lost their heroic gloss and seemed more like a tired knave than a tireless knight. Only satire and burlesque—seventeenth century developments—retained any semblance of staying power.

In simple terms, literary convention increasingly lacked invention. The cause and effect relationship between this void and the development of a new aesthetic is qualitie essay, perhaps too metaphysical and certainly too immaterial for this examination, though the comparison examples possibility at least suggests mandate for change. It is within the ben kinsella essay context of this paradigm shift that Wordsworth reads not as literary prophet, but as a poetic designer involved in essay, a movement already re-fashioning the cultural and essay about of anne, social fabric. By the comparison and contrast examples time Wordsworth published Lyrical Ballads (1798), the appreciation of ben kinsella essay, nature had reached the philosophical—if not numerical—levels prevalent in the present day. Nature now becomes the focal point, no longer limited to comparison examples a laudation of man and ownership, nor a Pope-like praise of ancient Mediterranean insinuation.

Clearly, such mimetic representations will no longer answer. Literature, within this context and with its associative ability, can treat nature with a new respect and generosity: can actually turn the ben kinsella silence of and contrast essay, centuries into articulations of moment. There is general agreement that Wordsworth’s early poetry borrows from Picturesque aesthetics. A brief survey will therefore suffice. “An Evening Walk,” published in 1793 and ben kinsella, written in heroic couplets, is essentially a conventional attempt at picturesque verse, replete with cascade scene, precipice, mountain farm, female beggar, rocky sheepwalks and tremulous cliffs: a topographical poem in which Wordsworth’s authorial voice remains only a whisper.

Unconfined to essay examples any particular place, the essay of anne frank poem provides a composite image consistent with typical picturesque sketches and suggestive—ironically—of Beaumont’s ruinous castle ruin. As J. R. Watson demonstrates, “Tintern Abbey” (1798) begins with a canvas-like description with three planes of depth. The poem then moves on: The day is college essay examples, come when I repose. Here, under this dark sycamore, and view. These plots of cottage-ground, these orchard-tufts, Which, at this season, with their unripe fruits.

Are clad in one green hue, and lose themselves. ’Mid groves and copses. Hr Resume Sap! Once again I see. These hedge-rows, hardly hedge-rows, little lines. Of sportive wood run wild: these pastoral farms,

Green to the very door; and wreaths of smoke. Sent up, in silence, from among the college comparison trees! With some uncertain notice, as might seem. Of vagrant dwellers in the houseless woods, Or of thesis and dissertation, some Hermit’s cave, where by his fire.

The Hermit sits alone. (9-22) Here the sycamore serves as both frame and point of perspective to the scene; typical picturesque elements appear: the wildness of the wood, pastoral farms offering contrast as well as an echo of Virgil’s Georgics , an attention to foreground and background. But the scene is extra dimentionalised, beyond—at least for those with a literary bias—the possibilities of brush and colour: “Once again I see” underscores both memory and a personal reaction to the scene; whilst the bromidic picturesque figure—the hermit—appears not to the eye but to the imagination. And yet, although the poem, by virtue of the medium, achieves that extra-dimension, it remains within the Picturesque paradigm. Gilpin, for example, also recorded his impression of comparison and contrast, Tintern Abbey years before Wordsworth: Every thing around breathes an air so calm, and tranquil; so sequestered from the commerce of without internet, life, that it is easy to conceive, a man of comparison essay examples, warm imagination, in monkish times, might have been allured by such a scene to become an inhabitant of essay of anne, it. ( Obs. Wye , 32) Watson admits that this might perhaps have provided the “forerunner” [32] of Wordsworth’s hermit; but also that Gilpin here is concerned with the comparison and contrast essay examples “kind of relationship between man and diary, the landscape” (81) that Wordsworth was later to develop. [33] Not surprisingly, “Tintern Abbey” soon moves away from Tintern Abbey and becomes the familiar Wordsworthian recollection filled in with the “moral and mystical” (Watson, 84) of landscape.

And yet the poem’s structure can serve as an outline of comparison and contrast essay, Picturesque application in romantic poetry: the picturesque provides the subject—and initially the ability to see that subject—which then allows the administration position expanded vista possible through literature. Memory, subjectivity and imagination—Wordsworth categorical—together act as an augmentative device which transforms flat canvas into romantic tapestry. There is, in addition, some hint of the egotistical sublime combined with the essay examples ability of nature to mould character: . . . For I have learned. To look on nature, not as in the hour. Of thoughtless youth, but hearing oftentimes. The still sad music of humanity,

Not harsh nor grating, though of ample power. To chasten and subdue. Qualitie Essay! (89-94) “Michael” (1800), though not specifically a picturesque poem, nevertheless is based upon a nostalgic view of rural England intrinsic to the Picturesque school and a offers a nationalised and temporalised form of the neo-classical Golden Age. The poem alludes to contemporary political and economical conditions turning peasants into and contrast examples, the manufacturing poor, who, nomadic and landless, drift into London like the flotsam of some vast socio-economic flood. Indeed, many districts at a world, that time remained completely excluded from urban economics, with foreign products as foreign as the products themselves. Even at the beginning of college essay examples, this century the Yorkshire yeoman was ignorant of sugar, potatoes, and cotton; the Cumberland dalesman, as he appears in Wordsworth's Guide , lived entirely on the produce of qualitie essay, his farm. [34] The half finished sheep-pen of the poem, a heap of rocks that remain after the poem’s closure, symbolises old Michael and his half finished ambitions for his son, now gone from the protective fold and corrupted by modernity. If the poem then is not strictly picturesque, it speaks with picturesque philosophy and provides an example of a more subtle picturesque application. Clearly, Wordsworth’s early poetry borrowed liberally from both the Augustan tradition as well as Picturesque convention.

His poetical path, however, gradually meanders away from neo-classicism and towards an expanded and less categorical mode of Picturesque philosophy. Hugh Sykes Davies’ insistence upon “Wordsworth’s subjection to the ‘picturesque’ fashion” (236) in these early days, culminating in the poet’s decortication of the entire model, smacks of an obscurantist philosophy turned barrier to the imagination and denies the jagged foundation the Picturesque provided for and contrast the appreciation of diary of anne, countryside as a highly refined aesthetic. But more of that right now. The Gospel According to Wordsworth. We have finally reached the first of two sources which together have prescribed the modern critical assessment of the college essay Picturesque and its influence on romantic poetry—at least for scholars of literature. Descriptive Sketches—the Footnote [35] Pope’s Dunciad conclusively proved the potential of the humble footnote to subvert a text. In the case of qualitie essay, Descriptive Sketches , a single footnote has subverted much of modern scholarship on the Picturesque. Here it is, in all its humble magnificence: I had once given to these sketches the title of Picturesque; but the college comparison and contrast essay Alps are insulted in applying to them the term. Whoever, in attempting to describe their sublime features, should confine himself to the cold rules of painting would give his reader but a very imperfect idea of those emotions which they have the irresistible power of communicating to a world without essay the most impassioned imaginations. (Note to line 299)

Davies descends upon this “cold rules of painting” as if the very death of the Picturesque depended upon it. In actual fact, this criticism suggests Gilpin as the essay principle target; and the reproof, despite Wordsworth’s implied intention, is narrow rather than general. In fact, there is nothing original or remarkable here: it is essentially a restatement of Richard Payne Knight, who, we recall, offered a “Curse on the pedant jargon, that defines / Beauty's unbounded forms to book given lines!” ( The Landscape: a Didactic Poem , 6) Indeed, it was only Gilpin’s first publication, Essay on Prints , which placed particular stress on the “rules of painting” and for the simple reason that the volume was, essentially, a “How-To” manual on landscape painting rather than a treatise on college and contrast essay examples, the Picturesque. It seems strange too that Davies, here upholding the merits of the position imagination compared to those “cold rules of painting,” mentions that Knight had “ meddled extensively with the college comparison essay examples ‘Imagination’” [36] (my italics, 205); though assumedly anyone connected with the Picturesque and not poetry really can only cover for business administration “meddle”—even “extensively.” Watson also picks up on this footnote; but, realising that there are nevertheless acres of the Picturesque in Descriptive Sketches , prevaricates hither and thither, jumping from one explanation to another like so many stepping stones where only the wetness of the river is certain. His first tentative foothold comes from the fact that Wordsworth carried through the Alps a number of Picturesque guidebooks, causing him to suggest, “It is therefore not surprising that the poem should contain a number of picturesque appreciations” (73-74). The stepping stone here sinks without further comment. And Contrast Essay Examples! Next, Watson suggests—with depth defying penetration—that Wordsworth had a “divided mind” (74); and further, that it is this “which makes Descriptive Sketches such an qualitie essay, unsatisfactory poem” (74). This is clearly a dangerous place to stand, since, I would suggest, when it comes to the Picturesque, Wordsworth’s mind was always divided. College Comparison And Contrast Essay Examples! Watson jumps again: Wordsworth is.

struggling to express qualities which the writers on the picturesque did not sufficiently recognise. In the about diary frank first place there are atmospheric effects of light which transcend the college and contrast essay tonal range of contemporary painting. (75) This is on the same footing as the qualitie essay earlier: “Wordsworth was envisaging effects of college comparison and contrast examples, light which were not to be mastered on Canvas until Turner” (72). In fact such “effects of light” had long since been mastered, by Claude. In fact, he was to essay some extent the originator: Andrew Wilton, in his introduction to comparison and contrast Turner’s Picturesque Views in England and Wales , identifies Claude as the inventor of the internet essay “‘Sunset Harbour theme” (Shanes, 6). This then is clearly an example of a literature critic wiggling his fingers in comparison examples, the pool of the art historian; rather than catching a fish, he is a world, bitten by a school of aesthetics.

Watson must once again skip onward. His final place of rest is to suggest that Wordsworth here was concerned with “liberty,” although, since the and contrast examples “subject” of the thesis poem is the examples Swiss Alps, “he could not omit the scenery” (75). This, in fact, is true, though most elements are undeniably Picturesque, like this blending of the beautiful and sublime: How blest, delicious scene! the about diary frank eye that greets. Thy open beauties, or thy lone retreats; Beholds the college comparison and contrast essay unwearied sweep of wood that scales. Lo, where she sits beneath yon shaggy rock, A cowering shape half hid in curling smoke!(177-78) Other examples of Picturesque idiom include: “water's shaggy side”; “Thy lake, that, streaked or dappled, blue or grey”; “Hermit”; and “antique castles.” It seems strange too that Wordsworth should frame the topic of liberty in his supposed antithesis of liberty: those cold picturesque rules.

Watson clearly recognises the dichotomous anomaly at work,[37] and his stepping and side stepping is an attempt to bring resolution within the hr resume sap framework of college and contrast essay, standard literary theory on the relationship between Wordsworth’s poetry and the Picturesque. Clearly, Watson gets a good wetting and explains nothing. So what is the hr resume sap solution? The fact that we are dealing, for the moment, with a footnote provides the perfect analogy: Wordsworth’s Picturesque criticism should be read as nothing more than a footnote, and a footnote in the style of The Dunciad at that. When literary theory, even—and perhaps especially—from the original poet himself, is at odds with the literature itself, then the obvious conclusion is to college comparison examples abandon the theory; instead, Wordsworth’s musings are taken as gospel and book, an altar of theory is builded upon college comparison and contrast essay them. The only truly cold rule, it seems, is letter for business administration position, that Wordsworth “transcends” the picturesque because he says so himself. Turning now from comparison, general to essay particular, it should be clear that this “cold rules” versus “imagination” is altogether a red-herring, easily caught by literary critics and college, used to feed a thousand other misconceptions.

William Combe’s brilliant satire, A Tour in essay about frank, Search of the Picturesque, by the Reverend Doctor Syntax (see figure 10)—clearly derived from Gilpin—reveals his neo-classical bent by ridiculing the very idea of the imagination versus the true copy of Nature: Upon the bank awhile I’ll sit, And let poor Grizzle graze a bit; But, as my time shall not be lost, I’ll make a drawing of the post; And, tho’ a flimsy taste may flout it, There’s something picturesque about it: ’Tis rude and rough, without a gloss.

And is well cover’d o’er with moss; And I’ve a right—(who dares deny it?) To place yon group of asses by it. Aye! this will do: and now I’m thinking, That self-same pond where Grizzle’s drinking, If hither brought ’twould better seem. And faith I’ll turn it to a stream. College Comparison And Contrast Essay Examples! (9)

Of course, the exaggeration is as sparkling as the hr resume sap pond that flows into the stepping-stone stream; but we should consider Constable’s Flatford Mill from the Lock , which is college comparison and contrast essay, exactly this kind of composite picture and deserves—indeed, receives—only approbation. There are indeed rules of composition, in painting as well as poetry, but to define the Picturesque according to these is to thesis and dissertation book define poetry. according to grammar and comparison essay examples, spelling. There is, in hr resume sap, both the Picturesque and poetry, imagination and expression. Returning to the original point. W. M. Merchant, in his introduction to Wordsworth’s Guide , also cites this same footnote as proof of Wordsworth’s asperity to Picturesque theory and goes on to say how singular Wordsworth’s guide is.

More forthright still, Rhoda L. Flaxman, Victorian Word-Painting and Narrative: Toward the Blending of essay, Genres , understands the note to be “an abrupt declaration of independence from eighteenth-century picturesque aesthetic” (67). All these evaluations, however, neglect several important points: firstly, Wordsworth’s footnote continues, the unique and. . . . peculiar features of the Alps. . . . Ben Kinsella! The fact is, that controlling influence, which distinguishes the Alps from all other scenery, is derived from images which disdain the pencil. Had I wished to make a picture of this scene I had thrown much less light into it. But I consulted nature and my feelings. The ideas excited by examples the stormy sunset I am here describing owed their sublimity to that deluge of light, or rather of for business administration, fire, in essay examples, which nature had wrapped the immense forms around me; any intrusion of shade, by hr resume sap destroying the unity of the impression, had necessarily diminished its grandeur. (Note to comparison essay line 299) So the essay Alps then are not like the mountains of Cumberland, Yorkshire, Wales and Scotland; and rather than offering an “abrupt declaration of independence,” Wordsworth actually points homeward for authentic picturesque scenes.

Secondly, this so called “reaction against the Picturesque” (Davies, 240) entirely disregards chronology: Descriptive Sketches was published in 1793; Wordsworth’s own Guide , which, as we will see, makes great use of Picturesque sensibility and comparison essay examples, idiom, in ben kinsella, 1810.[38] Thirdly, as already mentioned, the comparison essay fact remains that Wordsworth footingly denounces the limitations of the Picturesque yet, in the poetry itself, he delivers Picturesque description. Book XII of The Prelude , tintilatingly entitled “Imagination and Taste, How Impaired and Restored,” provides most to the fodder for modern critical understanding of Wordworth’s relationship to ben kinsella the Picturesque. [39] The offending lines begin: What wonder, then, if, to a mind so far. Perverted, even the visible Universe. Fell under the dominion of a taste.

Less spiritual, with microscopic view. Was scanned, as I had scanned the moral world?(88-92) Unworthy, disliking here, and there. Liking; by rules of mimic art transferred. To things above all art; but more,—for this, Although a strong infection of the age, Was never much my habit—giving way.

To a comparison of scene with scene, Bent overmuch on superficial things, Pampering myself with me agre novelties. Of colour and proportion; to the moods. Of time and season, to the moral power, The affections and and contrast, the spirit of the place, I speak in recollection of a time. When the bodily eye, in every stage of life. The most despotic of diary, our senses, gained.

Such strength in 'me' as often held my mind. In absolute dominion. (127-130) There are in our existence spots of time, That with distinct pre-eminence retain. A renovating virtue, whence—depressed. By false opinion and examples, contentious thought, Or aught of a world internet, heavier or more deadly weight, In trivial occupations, and the round. Of ordinary intercourse—our minds. Are nourished and invisibly repaired. (208-215) This then is the and contrast stuff that contemporary critics have adopted without regard to the dangers of accepting the artist’s views of qualitie essay, his own work.

If the creative mind were so simple , the rive gauche would likely as not have moved to Silicon Valley. There can be no doubt that “taste” refers to the Picturesque. Examples! There can be no doubt either that Wordsworth declares the Picturesque an impairment to the imagination. Several important points, however, should be noted: The Prelude , as was the case with Descriptive Sketches , contains ample picturesque passages, too numerous and too obvious to quote. Here, nevertheless, for the benefit of the incredulous, are a few:

In summer, making quest for works of art, Or scenes renowned for beauty, I explored. That streamlet whose blue current works its way. Between romantic Dovedale's spiry rocks; Pried into Yorkshire dales, [40] or hidden tracts. Of my own native region. Cover Administration Position! (VI, 190-95) In the final Book (XIV), fresh from the restoration of comparison and contrast essay examples, his imagination and ben kinsella essay, taste, with hardly time to catch a breath between, Wordsworth recounts his gasping ascent of Snowdon, from whence he sees: “A fixed, abysmal, gloomy, breathing-place— / Mounted the roar of college and contrast, waters, torrents, streams / Innumerable, roaring with one voice!” (58-60).

Topography ensues. The plot thickens: soon after, there is a twist to a world essay all that domination of the eye business, with Nature making her presence known. . . . by putting forth, 'Mid circumstances awful and sublime, That mutual domination which she loves. To exert upon the face of outward things,

So moulded, joined, abstracted, so endowed. With interchangeable supremacy, That men, least sensitive, see, hear, perceive, And cannot choose but feel. (79-86) That domination now shifts from subject to college and contrast examples object: man is no longer dominated by the ocular sense; instead the outward forms of picturesque scenery, by ben kinsella their very nature, captivate man. In any case, the point is that even in The Prelude the Picturesque is pictured and admired: The single sheep, and the one blasted tree, And the bleak music from that old stone wall, The noise of wood and water, and the mist.

That on comparison examples, the line of each of those two roads. Advanced in thesis and dissertation book, such indisputable shapes; All these were kindred spectacles and sounds. To which I oft repaired, and thence would drink, As at a fountain. And Contrast Essay Examples! (XII, 319-26) Here also is one of Wordsworth’s well-cited spots of time, which often find their source in Picturesque moments inspired by the wildness of essay about diary, nature, where that idiomatic “sublime” is kindled.

In this example, we are provided a veritable catalogue of picturesque materials, though again this spot of time incorporates non-visual invocations, composed, not as a sovereign landscape, but more as a sensationscape, an emotional response to news of his father’s death. In effect, Wordsworth acknowledges the aesthetics of this picturesque catalogue, though he moves towards emotive sense. Further, Wordsworth’s understanding of the subject was undoubtedly clouded, a myopia based upon a narrow definition of the Picturesque—the meaning of and contrast essay, which, after all, was always a point of debate and rarely of a world without essay, conclusion. Indeed, his criticism of the Picturesque is on the same lines as Uvedale Price’s, who, we might recall, stated that picturesque qualities are “extended to all our sensations by whatever organs they are received.” In other words, “That men, least sensitive, see, hear, perceive, / And cannot choose but feel.” The thing which Wordsworth most condemns—this supposed ocular obsession in the Picturesque—is strangely absent in A Tour in comparison essay examples, Search of the and dissertation book Picturesque, by and contrast examples the Reverend Doctor Syntax . For example: “. About Diary Frank! . . while you chase the flying deer, I must fly off to Windermere. / ’Stead of hallooing to a fox, I must catch echoes from the rocks” (50). It seems apparent from these few lines the exceptional quality of the satire; strange then that Combe, for all his excellence, should miss what seems to be the most objectionable aspect of college comparison and contrast examples, Picturesque theory.

This, perhaps more than anything else, demonstrates that Wordsworth’s dissatisfaction was not empirically with the a world without Picturesque but emphatically with his own conception. The error was his, and the error of comparison and contrast, those modern critics who unquestioningly accept Wordsworth at his word. Watson suggests further that Wordsworth’s interest in qualitie essay, the Picturesque waned due to and contrast examples its inherent “wrong attitude to nature” (97), by which he means a lacking of “humility.” To this, it is perhaps worth re-visiting Gilpin: Let not inborn pride, Presuming on thy own inventive powers, Mislead thine eye from Nature. She must reign.

Great archetype in all. Essay! ( On Landscape Painting: A Poem , 26-30) Also, Wordsworth’s increasing spirituality offers an college comparison and contrast, unstated though likely cause of further dissatisfaction, that “dominion of a taste / Less spiritual.” Gilpin states in his preface to Tours of the Lakes : “The author hopes that no one will be so severe, as to without think a work of this kind inconsistent with the profession of a clergyman” (xxxi). J. R. Watson understands this as evidence that Gilpin saw nature not as the handiwork of God—as does Thomson, for example—but “as a matter of mere amusement” (40). As Section One made clear, Gilpin here is actually alluding to the amorality of the Picturesque. Nevertheless, from this supposed “mere amusement”, Watson, no doubt now weary of college comparison essay, those treacherous stepping stones, makes an astounding leap in logic and concludes: With such an aim, sight alone becomes important, for book there is rarely any attempt to college comparison essay ponder the significance of landscape, or the viewer’s emotional relationship towards it. (40)

Entirely skipping over hr resume sap the “mere amusement” hypothesis, we might yet wonder at the kind of comparison and contrast examples, logic that allows a passage from “mere amusement” to “sight alone.” We might also recall, despite the hr resume sap evidence outlined in Section One demonstrating that Gilpin was not concerned uniquely with sight alone, that Gilpin indeed wrote on the Picturesque from a painterly point of view and so any stress that exists upon and contrast essay examples the visual is rather like the thesis and dissertation book stress upon the aural in an analysis of music. The importance of all this is to demonstrate the tendentiousness of the support for Wordsworth’s domination of the college comparison essay eye theory. There is, in hr resume sap, Gilpin’s preface, nothing whatsoever about “mere amusement” and from that nothingness there is decidedly no logical step to “sight alone.” What we really discover here is Watson’s attempt to support subtly Wordsworth’s notion, which, as is becoming increasingly apparent, actually had no validity in Wordsworth’s own work. This then is one tiny element in the construction of the predominant Picturesque/romanticism theory. In fact, Gilpin’s note is nothing more sinister than an acknowledgement that God is largely excluded from the Picturesque view. Although Wordsworth might have thought this unfortunate, in terms of historical artistic development, removing God from the picture was essential in bestowing intrinsic validity to nature and landscape. Finally, Wordsworth’s own vision grew from an aesthetic arboretum that was the Picturesque. He descended not from heaven, fully formed and and contrast examples, ready to ben kinsella essay pen; but rather was shaped by the multitudinous historical, social, economic, artistic and aesthetic factors. Without the continuum in college examples, which the Picturesque was contained, Wordsworth and romanticism would have remained a pipe dream piped perhaps by ben kinsella essay a transplanted neo-classical Roman shepherd.

Watson himself reluctantly admits that “in spite of his condemnations of the and contrast examples picturesque and his awareness of the despotic eye, Wordsworth remains interested in landscape as it is frank, seen” (104); and yet the penny never drops and a change of view never takes place. Davies similarly pays great attention to The Prelude , albeit with a more diction-based argument. “In rejecting the ‘picturesque’,” Wordsworth is “running counter to [the] predominant fashion” (249), and comparison and contrast essay, deliberately selects bare and naked scenes. This notion re-creates Wordsworth as an artist removed from historicity, a one man cultural band not only playing his own tunes but inventing his own scales, an idea suggestive even of deification. As proof, Davies provides a table of “unpicturesque”—nay, “anti-picturesque” (250)—terms harvested from The Prelude . Unfortunately, at least half of them are perfectly picturesque: “cliffs,” unless we imagine a polished cliff; “old stone wall,” unless expurgated of lichen and moss and the old stone wall reformed as a new stone wall; “whistling hawthorn,” unless de-thorned, de-whistled and well pruned; “craggy ridge” and “craggy steep,” de-cragged; “perilous ridge,” de-periled. Even those terms which seem marked by a smooth unpicturesque character are often un-picturesque red-herrings: the about diary “naked pool,” is perhaps “water of which the surface is broken, and comparison examples, the motion abrupt and irregular” ( On the Picturesque , 84); or perhaps reflecting the Picturesque scenery in which it resides. Thesis And Dissertation! More astounding than erroneous, Davies includes “mountains” in his anti-picturesque catalogue! Davies’ crowned prince of proofs then turns out to be a beggar boy in disguise, with all the and contrast essay airs and graces and robes of royalty, yet concealing a shallow mind and dirty underwear. In addition, even if Davies’ brief was bona fide , the fact remains that Burke’s smooth beauty is, in part, elemental to the Picturesque scene. The absurdity of Davies’ position in this respect is made conspicuous when, ever contrary, he examines the before and after Gilpin prints (see figures 11 and 12) and insists that, “This second print, in its way, is charming enough. But the first is impressive” (229)![41]

It is this irony, this inconsistency, this disparity that suggests Wordsworth’s professed aversion to the Picturesque should be taken not only with a grain of about of anne, salt, but with a veritable variety of spices—grown, of course, in a garden suitably picturesque. And Contrast Essay! In the final analysis, it is the poetry itself which must provide the theory, rather than the poet himself; and indeed, this is the whole point. The Sublime and the Beautiful. Davies’ suggestion that only Wordsworth frequently used “sublime” and “beautiful” conjunctively, to which he devotes several pages, besides being erroneous, reveals a scant familiarity with Gilpin, for, as we have seen, it was the combination of the beautiful and sublime— “. . . so beautifully sublime, so correctly picturesque” ( Three Essays , 52)—which, for Gilpin, produced the Picturesque and so was central to his own understanding. Whether or not Gilpin offers these words conjunctively once or a thousand times, the point is that the conjunction is omnipresent in his definition of the Picturesque. Just as Brownlow suggests that John Clare transcends the Picturesque by discovering the microcosmos,[42] he also insists that Wordsworth “transcends” the Picturesque by experiencing the “Sublime.” (25) Of course, he is also wrong, and for internet the same reasons. Since the Picturesque never evolved into a finalised coherent theory, remaining vast in scope, since its primary concern was with landscape and graphic art—Price notwithstanding—the very notion of poets’ “transcending” the and contrast examples Picturesque is one which seems born of an intellectualised mule; and although modern critics seem intent to ride this mule for without essay all it might be worth, the beast is clearly an ass of their own imagination. Guide to the Lakes. Davies correctly points out that the college and contrast essay vigorous and much-publicised Picturesque debate raged during the period when Wordsworth was most active as a writer. As Davies states: “The reader of Wordsworth cannot for long go ignorant of the part played by the Lakes in making him everything he was” (3).

Indeed, the cover administration position popularity of the Lake District is inextricably tied with that of Wordsworth. His own A Guide Through the District of the Lakes in comparison and contrast essay examples, the North of England , is, to a large degree, typical of this sub-genre.[43] Not surprisingly, Davies thinks otherwise: Gilpin, he says, believes landscape significant “not for the sake of the people who live in it” (230) but “simply for the painter” (230)—and this despite the following quotation, from Gilpin, two pages earlier: “These smooth-coated mountains, tho of little estimation for the painter’s eye, are, however, great sources of plenty. They are the nurseries of sheep; which are bred here, and fatted in qualitie essay, the valley” (228). Gilpin proceeds to describe the difficult life of the comparison essay examples shepherds. According to Davies, in writing his own Guide , Wordsworth’s “approach was the opposite one” (230)—though it seems that Gilpin’s approach also was opposite. In actual fact, Wordsworth’s guide, as suggested above, is pretty much par for the Picturesque course. Wordsworth even commits the cardinal sin: “The want most felt, however, is that of timber trees. There are few magnificent ones to be found near any of the lakes” (79).

Here Wordsworth censures a scene for lacking a particular pictorial element—so much for the opposite approach. Wordsworth’s Guide also demonstrates an hr resume sap, eloquent command of Picturesque idiom: “. . . by bold foregrounds formed by the steep and winding banks of the river” (43); “None of the other lakes unfold so many fresh beauties . . . “ (39); “ . . . College And Contrast Examples! agreeably situated for water views” (40); “. . . constitute a foreground for ever-varying pictures of the majestic lake” (50). Besides idiom, Wordsworth participates in Picturesque politics, supporting Gilpin in his criticism of white painted houses, and sustaining Price’s landscape gardening theories. A World Essay! Neither is Wordworth’s inclusion of poetry in his Guide anything more than standard.[44] Even the prosaic Handy Guide to college essay examples the English Lakes , now a rare and anonymous sixpenny edition likely destined for the more affluent working class tourist, features such verse as Wordsworth’s: “A straggle burgh of ancient charter proud / And dignified by battlements and towers / Of stern castle, mouldering on the brow / Of a green hill (17). Besides the essay outbreaks of poetry, the Handy Guide inevitably features numerous Picturesque line drawings, including one particular example which offers further indication of the popularity of Picturesque tourism: an uninteresting depiction of Furness Abbey disinherits the usual foreground grouping of rustic figures, replacing them with a party of pic-nicking holiday makers.[45] Davies’ suggestion that Wordsworth’s Guide is “antithetical” (230) to Gilpin’s, for it insists that “the real importance of mountain scenery was not visual, but mental” (230), sounds nice, though unfortunately is nonsense.

Certainly, Gilpin examines landscape from a painterly point of view, though his lengthy guides are filled, as we have seen, with imagination and local human considerations, auditory appreciation and college examples, tactile expressions, emotion and admiration. In his Guide , Wordsworth provide a lengthy extract from Dr. John Brown’s verse Fragment : Now sunk the sun, now twilight sunk, and essay of anne frank, night. Rose in her zenith; not a passing breeze. Sigh’d to the grove, which in the midnight air. Stood motionless, and in the peacefull floods. Inverted hung: for now the billows slept. Along the shore, nor heav’d the deep; but spread. A shining mirror to the moon’s pale orb,

Which, dim and waning, o’er the shadowy cliffs, The solemn woods, and spiry mountain tops, Her glimmering faintness threw: now every eye, Oppress’d with toil, was drawn’d in examples, deep repose. Save that the unseen Shepherd in his watch, Propp’d on his crook, stood listening by hr resume sap the fold, And gaz’d the starry vault, and pendant moon;

Nor voice, nor sound, broke on and contrast essay, the deep serene; But the soft murmur of letter administration position, swift-gushing rills, Forth issuing from the mountain’s distant steep, (Unheard til now, and now scarce heard) proclaim’d. All things at college comparison essay examples, rest, and imagin’d the still voice. Of quiet, whispering in the ear of qualitie essay, night. (84) Wordsworth honours Brown as “one of the first who led the way to a worthy admiration of this country” (84); though in a footnote adds: Dr.

Brown, the author of this fragment, was from his infancy brought up in Cumberland, and should have remembered that the comparison and contrast essay examples practice of folding sheep by night is unknown among these mountains, and that the image of a shepherd upon the watch is out of place, and thesis and dissertation, belongs only to countries, with a warmer climate, that are subject to the ravages from comparison and contrast essay examples, beasts of prey. It is pleasing to essay notice a dawn of imaginative feeling in college comparison essay, these verses. Tickel, a man of no common genius, chose, for the subject of a Poem, Kensington Gardens, in preference to the Banks of the cover for business administration position Derwent, within a mile or two of which he was born. But this was in the reign of Queen Anne, or George the First. Progress has been made in the interval; though the traces of it, except in Thomson or Dyer, are not very obvious. (84) The mention of Tickel immediately invokes neo-classicism and its inability to adopt real landscape, and the shepherd of the fragment becomes an Arcadian figure. At this point we need only recollect Pope’s comment on shepherds “as they may be conceiv’d then to have been,” to comparison and contrast realise the distance already travelled: what once was a rule of poetry is now a grave error. Davies, brimming with “limitations” of the cover letter administration Picturesque, takes Wordsworth’s footnote and college and contrast essay, informs us: “This ‘progress’, however, he clearly regarded as limited” (220). Clarity aside, we might wonder how progress can ever be limited, unless we imagine an internet, acorn limited for not already being an oak. To suggest, by extension, that the Picturesque is therefore limited seems to reject a hill for not being a river.

But there is more than a call for accurate realism in this note, for the “mile or two of which he was born” suggests a sentiment both regional—nationalistic in the larger context—and also, applying Post-colonial hindsight, a conflict between the centre and margin. Treatment of comparison, real British landscape without reference to Virgil and Horace and Company insists upon a new centre. This is clearly manifest when both Wordsworth and Coleridge choose between the cover letter for business administration Alps, the traditional site of the European sublime, and domestic mountains. In The Prelude , for example, Wordsworth dismisses the Alps, shifting the focus to Snowdon, whilst Coleridge's Scafell experience becomes a celebration of Mont Blanc in college comparison and contrast essay, the “Hymn before the Sunrise in the Vale of ben kinsella essay, Chamouny.” As Woodring suggests, “Sometimes implicitly but often with a militant defensiveness, exponents of the picturesque declared it a distinctively English answer to the sublime of the college and contrast examples Alps” (48). Concomitantly, Wordsworth’s regional loyalty suggests a similar centre/margin dichotomy between urban London and the rural north. In another example of Picturesque nationalism, Wordsworth draws a comparison between the Alps and local scenes: The forms of the mountains, though many of them in some points of view the noblest that can be conceived, are apt to run into essay, spikes and needles, and comparison and contrast essay, present a jagged outline which has a mean effect, transferred to canvas. (74) Wordsworth was a great explorer of the countryside, and, it seems, actually a Picturesque explorer. Cover Administration Position! As Dorothy Wordsworth wrote in her journal of a Scottish tour: When we were within about half a mile of Tarbet, at a sudden turning, looking the left, we saw a very craggy-topped mountain amongst other smooth ones; the rocks on the summit distinct in shape as if they were buildings raised up by man, or uncouth images of college and contrast examples, some strange creature. We called out with one voice, “That’s what we wanted!” alluding to the frame-like uniformity of the hr resume sap side-screens of the lake for the last five or six miles. (qtd.

Watson, 104) Note the “craggy-topped mountain amongst other smooth ones,” the “frame” and “side screens.” Note also “in one voice,” or, “as three persons with one soul,” [46] as Coleridge wrote. College And Contrast Essay! They had then found “what they wanted,” and clearly they wanted the administration Picturesque. In addition to this, a letter written by Dorothy to Coleridge in March 1804 includes mention of comparison essay, a beck discovered by Wordsworth: “It is a miniature of all that can be conceived of savage and and dissertation, grand about a river, with a great deal of the beautiful. William says that whatever Salvator might desire could be there found” (qtd.

Watson, 104).[47] With all this travel and exploration it seems more than natural that Wordsworth would one day write his own Picturesque guide, if only college he was not so absolutely clearly and undeniably in opposition to essay about frank and transcendent of the whole thing. . . . Wordsworth’s Guide was first published anonymously in 1810 and college and contrast examples, then, ten years later, in a collection of his own verse. According to W.M. Mercant’s introduction, reviews of the verse were “critical” though the qualitie essay Guide met with “almost unanimous approval” (Guide, 31). Post Apostolical Poetry. The notion that Wordsworth adopted his own critical assessment—dethroning the monarchical sense of vision—has been seriously questioned from various angles.

Regardless, if we are indeed to take Wordsworth at his word, the expectation would be that only this transcendental picturesque—if any picturesque at all—would henceforth appear. Wordsworth, after all, has accused, judged and college and contrast, condemned the Picturesque and we are told by a jury of essay of anne, modern critics that he will no longer be shackled to essay examples that blasted bastion of narrow thinking. How strange then that with the Gospel clearly spelled out, Wordsworth continues to diary frank seek the Picturesque and often with an entirely conventional viewpoint. College Comparison Essay! For example: And not a voice was idle: with the din. Smitten, the precipices rang aloud; The leafless trees and every icy crag. Tinkled like iron; while far-distant hills.

Into the tumult sent an alien sound. Of melancholy, not unnoticed while the stars, Eastward, were sparkling clear, and in the west. The orange sky of evening died away (“Influence of Natural Objects,” 39-46). Understanding the Picturesque in all its theoretical variety—which now, hopefully is the case—reveals this extract clearly and a world essay, undeniably as picturesque in sound and not a transcending of the Picturesque. We have already seen how Wordsworth’s own Guide was written years after the momentous formulation of judgement. College And Contrast Essay Examples! In terms of his poetry, there are numerous other examples which similarly contradict the generally accepted view. The sonnet “Between Namur and Liège,” from Memorials of a Tour on the Continent, 1820 , for example: WHAT lovelier home could gentle Fancy choose?

Is this the stream, whose cities, heights, and plains, War's favourite playground, are with crimson stains. Familiar, as the Morn with pearly dews? The Morn, that now, along the silver MEUSE, Spreading her peaceful ensigns, calls the swains. To tend their silent boats and ringing wains, Or strip the bough whose mellow fruit bestrews. The ripening corn beneath it.

As mine eyes. Turn from the fortified and threatening hill, How sweet the prospect of yon watery glade, With its grey rocks clustering in pensive shade— That, shaped like old monastic turrets, rise. From the smooth meadow-ground, serene and still! This is the entire poem and so quintessentially Picturesque as to require no further comment. More frightening than this—at least for the jury who surely now must be out to lunch—is the attached footnote: The scenery on the Meuse pleases me more, upon the whole, than that of the Rhine, though the river itself is much inferior in grandeur. The rocks both in without internet, form and colour, especially between Namur and Liege, surpass any upon the Rhine, though they are in several places disfigured by quarries, whence stones were taken for college comparison the new fortifications. This is much to be regretted, for they are useless, and the scars will remain perhaps for and dissertation book thousands of years.

A like injury to college essay a still greater degree has been inflicted, in my memory, upon the beautiful rocks of Clifton on ben kinsella essay, the banks of the Avon. Essay Examples! There is probably in existence a very long letter of letter administration position, mine to Sir Uvedale Price, in which was given a description of the landscapes on the Meuse as compared with those on the Rhine. This is the entire footnote and now comes the terrible blind taste test: who could, who would, write such staple, such superficial judging of one scene with another as if they were paintings: Gilpin? Knight? Wordsworth. “Epistle to Sir George Beaumont”—Beaumont, connoisseur, collector, painter, “befriended and encouraged many painters, notably Constable and Ibbetson” (Bicknell, 15) and was a conservative follower of Picturesque tenets (see figure 13)—offers an and contrast essay, example where scenery is described for its own sake, where its very worth is sufficiently innate to need virtually no additional coinage: Within the mirror’s depth, a world at rest— Sky streaked with purple, grove and craggy bield. And the smooth green of many a pendent field. And, quieted and soothed, a torrent small,

A little darling would-be waterfall. One chimney smoking in its azure wreath, Associate all in the calm pool beneath, With here and there a faint imperfect gleam. Of water-lilies veiled in misty stream. (174-83) Of course, the qualitie essay richness here is owed largely to the loveliness of the wordscape, a place opulent in picturesque elements: the craggy bield , waterfall, chimney, the stream. This epistle, penned in 1811, is a veritable treasure trove of picturesque landscape and elements. Never actually sent to Beaumont, it was clearly intended as a publishable poem.

Another typically Picturesque poem is “The Pass of Kirkstone,” published in college essay examples, 1817: Oft as I pass along the qualitie essay fork. Of these fraternal hills: Where, save the rugged road, we find. No appanage of human kind; Nor hint of man, if stone or rock. Seem not his handy-work to mock. By something cognizably shaped;

Mockery—or model—roughly hewn, And left as if by earthquake strewn, Or from the Flood escaped:— Altars for examples Druid service fit; (But where no fire was ever lit. Unless the glow-worm to the skies. Thence offer nightly sacrifice;) Wrinkled Egyptian monument; Green moss-grown tower; or hoary tent;

Tents of a camp that never shall be raised; On which four thousand years have gazed! (3-20) Gone then is the Pope-like catalogisation, the very antithesis of hr resume sap, Wordsworth’s methodology; instead, though the college comparison and contrast poetic eye might survey a scene, the cover for business administration poetic voice is selective of Constable-like charged spots: the fork in the road, one branch leading to reverie, the college richly connotative fraternal hills, the rugged road, which by its very presence admits the absence of essay about, man, and finally the rock, whose shape suggests still another landscape: imagined and drawn of history. There is, in “Composed Among the Ruins of a Castle in North Wales” (1824), a parallel to Price’s theories of landscape gardening, where the patina of time is recommended to provide an unfinished roughness to stonework, to comparison replace bunched bush with unexpected tree and shiny brick with sombre block. This aesthetic was, as we have seen, actually focused not merely upon essay visually based appreciation, but upon comparison examples associated emotional reaction. The acute interest in ruins demonstrated by artists during the Picturesque period was entirely germane with the general elegiac mood and graveyard melancholy.

This interest in essay, ruins, obviously, was shared by Wordsworth. “Composed Among the Ruins,” after a conventionally ominous opening: “Through shattered galleries, ’mid roofless halls, / Wandering with timid footsteps oft betrayed (1-2), finally becomes a eulogium: Relic of college examples, Kings! Wreck of forgotten Wars, To winds abandoned and the prying Stars. Time loves Thee! at his call the Seasons twine. Luxuriant wreaths around thy forehead hoar; And, though past pomp no changes can restore, A soothing recompense, his gift is Thine! (9-14) There can be no clearer example of poetic philosophical perspective—Father Time and Mother Nature, the benevolent patrons of Ruin—entirely born of picturesque aesthetic theory.

Doubtless there is also a playfulness here, and one reminiscent of Gilpin: What share of picturesque genius Cromwell might have, I know not. Certain however it is, that no man, since Henry the Eighth, has contributed more to adorn this country with picturesque ruins. Thesis Book! The difference between these two masters lay chiefly in college and contrast essay, the style of ruins, in which they composed. Henry adorned his landscape with the ruins of abbeys; Cromwell, with those of castles.

I have seen many pieces by this master, executed in a very grand style. . . . Ben Kinsella! (II, 122-3) All this seems further indication of the longevity of the college essay Picturesque. Landscape and (small case) nature clearly are the central rubric of late eighteenth and early nineteenth century cultural movement; and qualitie essay, Wordsworth’s transformation of poetry occurs in comparison essay, a context where new values and aesthetic parameters are well established. Frank! It is the examples colourful mixing of both palettes which is Wordsworth, and hr resume sap, which defines early romanticism. Compared to earlier treatments of landscape and nature, offering that flat canvas description, Wordsworth adopts the criteria of picturesque aesthetics, but incorporates the emotional dimension offered by the associative value of word, of memory, of subjective response.

The elements of Picturesque landscape then become “the stuff that dreams are made of”: dreams reflective, dreams nostalgic, dreams dreaming, and dreams born of a learned appreciation for comparison and contrast essay beauty that is thesis book, particularly and properly Picturesque. There is a final plot twist: Watson cunningly has stacked the deck. He swiftly explains away the Picturesque in Wordsworth’s later poetry by suggesting that this is merely the work of “his uninspired years” (92). Of course, this is much too glib, especially when we remember the examples voracity with which critics inform us of Wordsworth’s rejection of the Picturesque, stressing and re-stressing its “limitations.” Again, what seems a more reasonable explanation is that the Picturesque provided not only the foundations for romantic poetry, but that without the Picturesque there would have been no romantic poetry at essay frank, all. In simple terms, one can perhaps take the college poet out of the Picturesque, but you cannot take the Picturesque out of the poet. Figure 10: Kenneth Clark, Doctor Syntax sketching a lake, from Bicknell. Figure 11-12: Gilpin, Non-picturesque and thesis and dissertation book, picturesque mountain landscape.From Three Essays. Figure 13: Sir George Beaumont, Landscape , from Bicknell. The Foreground: Keats. This section will firstly consider particular difficulties in approaching Keats and the Picturesque, moving then to Keats’ Picturesque view, its effects and influence.

The non-faddish longevity and ultimate importance of the Picturesque is comparison and contrast examples, finally determined. Wordsworth, born with and nurtured on the Picturesque, could never escape its influence and sustenance. Indeed, Wordsworth without the Picturesque seems himself a destitute and picturesque half-starved figure. Keats, although temporally distant from the eighteenth century Picturesque development, attempts to see with the Picturesque vision, to adopt the general philosophy, providing compelling evidence against the standard cultist and faddish judgements offered by faddish modern literary scholars and serves as testimony not only to the Picturesque’s diuturnity, but also its fundamental value. An examination of Keats in hr resume sap, terms of the Picturesque, however, involves a number of initial problems. The Problem With Keats. Firstly, Keats (1795-1821) published his first solitary poem—“O Solitude,” in The Examiner —in 1816. In simple terms, Keats came of age with landscape firmly entrenched as an aesthetic concept that required no further exploration. The Picturesque, initially the only means of discovering landscape, now stood like an old well-travelled train puffing steam on some siding. Landscape was omnipresent, on main lines and branch lines, an aesthetic form no longer solely the stuff of agriculture and ownership.

This is not to college examples imply that exploration could no longer take place, only that the imperative was now only an implication. Secondly, the title of ben kinsella, Keats’ first penned poem—“Imitations of Spenser” (1814)—suggests Keats’ propensity to comparison look backwards, not particularly to the neo-classicist’s Golden Age—though his use of myth glances in that direction[48]—but most particularly to a Golden Age of English poetry: Spencer, Shakespeare, Milton. Not surprisingly, poetic drama and epic seemed the thesis book fairest genres. Thirdly, as Keats claims, his interest was in people not pictures: “Scenery is fine, but human nature is finer” ( Letters , I, 242). However, as with Wordsworth, autotelic acceptance of such claims overlooks the college and contrast essay examples need to mine more valid resources in other areas and risk faulty and perhaps fatal conclusions. Finally, Keat’s interest in language itself, in imagery and metaphor—in addition to hr resume sap the “felicity and college essay examples, variety” ( Letters , xxxi)—leads him towards the adoption of diction born of those same grand masters; as well as to the inevitable effect of the unexpected: his singular phraseology. Ben Kinsella Essay! Standard Picturesque idiom, by now somewhat hackneyed, is unable to convey this effect and Keats’ early poetry provides the lion’s share of colloquialisms.

Further, it becomes quite clear quite soon that Keats’ goal was to depart from stylistic norms, particularly those of the eighteenth century and achieve some degree of originality.[49] All this notwithstanding, the sustaining power of the comparison and contrast essay examples Picturesque—and so its importance—can still be discovered in both the life and works of Keats. “O Solitude,” reveals a vision of landscape which is particularly picturesque: O SOLITUDE! if I must with thee dwell, Let it not be among the jumbled heap. Of murky buildings; climb with me the steep,— Nature's observatory—whence the qualitie essay dell, Its flowery slopes, its river's crystal swell,

May seem a span; let me thy vigils keep. ’Mongst boughs pavillion’d, where the deer’s swift leap. Startles the wild bee from the college comparison and contrast essay fox-glove bell. But though I'll gladly trace these scenes with thee, Yet the sweet converse of an innocent mind, Whose words are images of hr resume sap, thoughts refin’d, Is my soul's pleasure; and it sure must be. Almost the highest bliss of college, human-kind, When to thy haunts two kindred spirits flee. Here, Keats paints no landscape with his words; rather, he adopts an attitude to nature which stems not from the southern regions close to home, but from the essay heartland of quintessential Picturesque scenery.

It is college essay, here, amongst the steep windswept hills, the spilling streams, the dells and lonely haunts, that a true sense of sublime solitude is experienced. Rather than suggest unsupported influence, merely compare “O Solitude” with Wordsworth’s sonnet on the sonnet, “Nuns Fret Not At Their Convents’ Narrow Rooms,” clearly contextualised in the Lakelands: “. . . bees that soar for qualitie essay bloom, / High as the highest Peak of Furness-fells, / Will murmur by the hour in foxglove bells” (5-7). In “Sleep and Poetry” (1816), Keats demonstrates a simple gratification in simple Nature descriptions, beginning his description of Poesy—the highest calling—entirely in naturalistic terms: Should I rather kneel. Upon some mountain-top until I feel. A glowing splendour round about essay examples me hung, And echo back the ben kinsella voice of thine own tongue? (49-52)

Here the mountain top serves as altar to the poet-priest: both the comparison essay material manifestation and the token picturesque echo of poetry’s voice, the situation and book, inspiration. This soon progresses to a unclouded analogy between literature and college and contrast, landscape: Will be elysium—an eternal book. Whence I may copy many a lovely saying. About the leaves, and a world without, flowers—about the playing. Of nymphs in woods, and fountains; and the shade. Keeping a silence round a sleeping maid. (63-68) The opening, “What is more gentle than a wind in comparison and contrast examples, summer” (1), “More healthful than the leafiness of dales?” (7) sets the initial tone: composed of a sappy repetition of feminine rhymes that describes entirely the sappy nature Keats first has in and dissertation book, mind.

The centre weight of “Sleep and Poetry” is sweetness (the word sweet occurs ten times) rather than picturesqueness. Interestingly, Poetry—the answer to comparison examples this famous string of rhetorical interrogations—is described in terms familiar to the Picturesque. There is the beautiful: “beautiful,” “smooth,” “wings of of anne, a swan”; intermixed with the college comparison and contrast essay sublime: “awful,” “fearful claps of thunder,” “low rumblings,” and “sounds which will reach the qualitie essay Framer of comparison and contrast essay, all things.” Keats then once again rambles in his southern fields of “joy,” to “woo sweet kisses,” amongst fanciful “Flora”; all in all, “A lovely tale of human life.” Briefly, Poesy is itself a kind of Edenesque landscape, where the gentle white dove wafts its wings in cooling wind for thesis book the resting poet. And Contrast Essay Examples! And yet Keats knew such joys he must “. . . pass . . A World Internet Essay! . for a nobler life,” and there “find the agonies, the strife / Of human hearts. . . Comparison And Contrast Examples! . (122-124). This re-introduces Poetry, this time in terms of “calling,” and again Keats offers images drawn from the picturesque landscape, eloquent as allegory for the solitude, agonies and transience of the human experience: “cragginess”; “winds with glorious fear”; the sky is book, no longer filled with fluffy white, but “ a huge cloud's ridge”; there are now “mountains” filled with “Shapes of delight, of and contrast essay, mystery, and fear.” Keats, aspires to become the powerful “charioteer,” understanding “the agonies, the and dissertation strife” of essay, “thousands” of different men.

Clearly and letter position, undeniably—and here we can be thankful that the comparison essay examples literary jury who generally overlook Keats and the Picturesque are not only out to lunch but almost completely out of the picture—Picturesque allusions best express those agonies, that strife. The final verse paragraphs provide an extra dimension, an inventory of the art decoration in his friend Hunt’s house situated within the larger context of a world without internet, poetic fancy. Landscape is and contrast essay examples, reframed as landscape painting, providing an a world internet essay, early indication of Keats’ frame of mind: his leanings toward art. It seems clear from comparison and contrast, all this that Keats already understands the symbolic value of the picturesque scene: its ability to conjure up the essence of man’s existence: the qualitie essay beauty of youth coupled with the awful of age, that dialogue which utters mutual pity and ultimate evanescence. At the same time there can be little doubt that Keat’s cheerful disposition at this time makes the college Picturesque an uncertain subject. “I Stood Tip-Toe” (1816) offers another early effort at landscape poetry. Letter Position! Almost at college and contrast essay, once the view from the hr resume sap “little hill” becomes an exercise. To peer about upon variety;

Far round the horizon's crystal air to skim, And trace the dwindled edgings of college comparison examples, its brim; To picture out the of anne quaint, and curious bending. Of a fresh woodland alley, never ending; Or by the bowery clefts, and college and contrast, leafy shelves, Guess where the jaunty streams refresh themselves. (16-22) Unfortunately, there is no unity in qualitie essay, Keats’ picture—despite the superlative editorial annotation of “pure nature-painting”—only a variegated catalogue of nature confused by occasional legends of Hellas and compounded by relentless rhyming couplets. If the landscape speaks to Keats, the voice again has sappily sweet tendencies, as with the feminine rhyme, “Nature's gentle doings” which are “softer than ring-dove's cooings.” Even quintessential picturesque elements become, like “the quaint mossiness of aged roots,” quaint rather than symbolic or expressive. If Keats found any authentic feeling in this landscape, the poem offers barely a sigh. This becomes clear when we compare:

My spirit is too weak—mortality. Weighs heavily on me like unwilling sleep, And each imagined pinnacle and steep. Of godlike hardship tells me I must die. Like a sick eagle looking at the sky. And Contrast Examples! (1-5) This contemplation comes not from the vision of qualitie essay, landscape but “On First Seeing the Elgin Marbles,” written the following year. During this early period, then, Keats is more often touched in a vague spiritual sense not by landscape nor nature but by art. As Maureen B. Roberts explains in her somewhat chimerical The Diamond Path: Individuation as Soul-Making in the Works of college comparison essay, John Keats : Within these few lines are themes and symbols which come to feature prominently in Keats’ mature poetry: the eagle as the transcendent victory of thesis book, beauty—the vision of unity—over the “dizzy pain” of the “undesirable feud” of opposites; the motif of heaviness representing the comparison essay Gnostic “sleep” as imprisonment in the world, and diary of anne, sickness as the self-division which must be transcended in order to attain the ascent. (Roberts) Whatever the extent of Gnostic influence, the fact remains that the Elgin Marbles lead Keats inwards, towards fundamentals, while the college comparison and contrast examples tip-toe view results in little more than a dance through the tulips; indeed by the end of the poem we can only imagine Keats tired of cover for business administration position, his tip-toe prance. And yet, in “To Haydon,” written concomitantly with the Elgin Marble sonnet, Keats composed another in which he speaks of comparison essay examples, men who stare at hr resume sap, sculptures “with browless idiotism.” The sonnet also includes: . . College Comparison Essay Examples! . forgive me that I cannot speak.

Definitively of these mighty things; Forgive me that I have not eagle’s wings, That what I want I know not where to seek. (“To Haydon,” 3-6) Keats then is still searching, rambling, as we shall see, between the vicarious and the actual. There is ben kinsella essay, some certitude: the college comparison and contrast essay unbreakable link between landscape and poetry: “Some flowery spot, sequester'd, wild, romantic, / That often must have seen a poet frantic” (“Epistle to position George Felton Mathew,” 37-8) [50] ; and comparison examples, the particularly evocative effects of picturesque scenery which speak to Keats of Poetry as vocation. Hr Resume Sap! Yet still the searching, which eventually will lead him towards the Picturesque. People not Pictures. March 13, 1818, Keats writes to his friend Bailey: “Give me a barren mould so I may meet with some shadowing of Alfred in the shape of a Gipsey, a Huntsman or as Shepherd.

Scenery is essay examples, fine, but human nature is finer” ( Letters , I, 242). As an addendum to this, Keats felt that the principal use of poetry was to sharpen “one’s vision into the heart and ben kinsella, nature of man” (qtd. Bate, 337). Although this seems to exclude any exploration of the Picturesque, Keats’ catalogue of comparison and contrast essay, characters are, perhaps inadvertently, certainly importantly, all of the Picturesque scene. Further, Turner’s series of Picturesque landscapes of England and Wales, which beyond doubt are Picturesque studies, nevertheless express the idea that “man is qualitie essay, as much a phenomenon of the natural world as are mountains, fields and oceans” (Shanes, 8). It seems clear that Keats, familiar with the beauty of college and contrast, southern landscape, still lacked in any actual experience of the and dissertation Picturesque sublime.

An exhibition of the American painter, Benjamin West, where “. Comparison! . Hr Resume Sap! . Keats was altogether receptive to any effort to attain the ‘sublime’”(Bate, 243), featured one particular painting, “Death on the Pale Horse,” known for stirring such feelings. Keats was ultimately disappointed: . . And Contrast Examples! . there is nothing to be intense upon; no women one feels mad to and dissertation kiss; no face swelling into reality. . And Contrast Essay Examples! . . Hr Resume Sap! The excellence of comparison examples, every Art is its intensity, capable of making all disagreeable evaporate, from their being in close relationship with Beauty and Truth—Examine King Lear you will find this exemplified throughout. (qtd. Bate, 243) Although this does underscore the focus of Keats’ main interest, his dissatisfaction with this painting seems singular. A letter to Reynolds (25 March, 1818), for example, contains the following: You know the Enchanted Castel, it doth stand.

Upon a rock, on the border of a Lake, Nested in trees, A mossy place, a Merlin’s Hall, a dream. You know the clear lake, and the little Isles. The Mounts blue, See what is qualitie essay, coming from the distance dim!

A golden galley all in silken trim. O that our dreamings all, of college comparison and contrast, sleep or wake, Would all the colours from the sunset take. . . . ( Letters , 260-261) Keats explains in an endnote to this poem that his inspiration was Claude’s “Enchanted Castle” in “ Sacrifice to Apollo ” ( Letters , 263) . Further, Manwaring suggests that the without same canvas was transmuted into certain lines of “Ode on a Grecian Urn”—itself formed of pictures; and perhaps a sense of Claude is still heard in “. . . magic casements, opening on the foam / Of perilous seas, in faery lands forlorn” (“Ode to a Nightingale, 69-70). Although Keats will discover a sense of college, sublimity in qualitie essay, landscape during his 1818 Picturesque tour, art provided the source from and contrast essay, which he would most often and most naturally drink. The sense of sublimity through the subjective contemplation of objects is letter for business administration, common to the romantics, but Keats’ “Ode on a Grecian Urn” demonstrates his variance with Wordsworth: for Keats it is the Urn rather than Nature which provides lessons of truth. And yet there is a striking similarity, for the main theme is examples, not the figures on the Urn but the essay diary poet’s own response. The “Scenery is fine, but human nature is finer” notion requires further definition: Keats, by his own confession, states: “. . . my head is sometimes in such a whirl in considering the million likings and antipathies of our Moments” ( Letters , 324); “I carry all matters to an extreme—so that when I have any little vexation it grows in five minutes into a theme for Sophocles” ( Letters , 340). In other words, his youthful mind changes with the frequency of English weather. His comment here is in particular reference to landscape scenes seen in real life: the letter was written during a prolonged stay in Devonshire, during a period described as, “splashy, rainy, misty snowy, foggy haily floody, muddy. . . .” ( Letters , 241).

Even if we willingly expand his scenery/human nature comment to all landscapes and all sunny days—the effect, for example, of offering the college comparison and contrast essay quotation without the thesis context in comparison and contrast, order to prove a point—as ridiculous as this might seem, there still remains, as suggested by without essay the “Gipsey,” “Huntsman” and “Shepherd,” the college and contrast essay Picturesque character . The Picturesque Tour [51] We have so far seen reasons why a Picturesque Tour was long on the books, not least of which is the fact that literature cannot be writ from an exploration only of literature. Diary Of Anne! [52] Keats’ keen literary vision and his initial rural blindness are unwittingly confessed in college comparison and contrast essay examples, “To one who has been long in letter, city pent”: To one who has been long in city pent, ’Tis very sweet to college comparison examples look into the fair. And open face of heaven,—to breathe a prayer. Full in the smile of the blue firmament. Who is more happy, when, with heart’s content, Fatigued he sinks into some pleasant lair.

Of wavy grass, and reads a debonair. And gentle tale of love and ben kinsella essay, languishment. (1-8) Certainly there is college examples, pleasure in this dulcet southern domain, though finally, typically, Keats turns his full attention to a book. Sidney K. Robinson, Inquiry into the Picturesque , repudiating the hr resume sap absurdity of comparing landscapes with paintings, states: For the Picturesque, of course, studying paintings and books was the clearest recognition that designing the landscape was a complex amalgam of raw sensory patterns supplied by nature with the patterns of arrangement and selection inherent in the operation of the human mind. (Robinson 103) Although the connection might seem somewhat tenuous, designing poetry is equally “an amalgam of raw sensory patterns supplied by nature with the patterns of arrangement and selection inherent in the operation of the human mind.” Keats had studied literature and now the necessity of college comparison examples, experiencing raw nature at qualitie essay, first hand could no longer be denied. By mid 1818, Keats realised “there is something else wanting to essay examples one who passes his life among Books and thoughts on Books” (qtd.

Bate, 340). In April, Keats proposed. within a Month to and dissertation put my knapsack at my back and make a pedestrian tour through the North of England, and part of Scotland—to make a sort of Prologue to examples the Life I intend to pursue. . . . ( Letters , 264) As a citizen of the romantic province, experiencing nature at length and up-close was a moral imperative, not only because other poets had trod that path, but because nature, especially the hr resume sap grander and awful, are essential for imaginative energy. Keats knew this and and contrast essay examples, Keats went a-wandering. Thesis And Dissertation! In late June, his travelling companion, Charles Brown, wrote in his journal: The country was wild and romantic, the examples weather fine, though not sunny, while the fresh mountain air, and many larks about us, gave us unbounded delight. As we approached the lake, the scenery became more grand and beautiful; and from time to time we stayed our steps, gazing intently on it. Hitherto, Keats had witness nothing superior to a world Devonshire; but, beautiful as that is, he was now tempted to speak with indifference. At the first turn from the road, before descending to the hamlet of Bowness, we both simultaneously came to a full stop. Comparison! The lake [Windermere] lay before us.

His bright eyes darted on a mountain-peak, beneath which was gently floating a silver cloud; thence to a very small island, adorned with the foliage of trees, that lay beneath us, and surrounded by water of a glorious hue, when he exclaimed: “How can I believe in that?—surely it cannot be!” He warmly asserted that no view in the world could equal this—that it must beat all Italy. Hr Resume Sap! ( Letters , 425-426) (See figure 14. ) It is perhaps difficult for the sensorially saturated modern to and contrast imagine the ben kinsella provocativity and, yes, the sublimity, of such landscape; this lengthy extract, however, makes clear the power of the Picturesque, temporally contextualised, when such scenes were relatively unfamiliar.[53] In a sense, we have here the spectacular importance of the Picturesque, an indication of why a revolution it caused in comparison examples, aesthetics and art; and the comparison with Italy—the fountain-head from which swelled the cover letter Picturesque—is beyond doubt no chancy happening. Keats’ own record of the tour, his correspondence, is equally mottled with superlatives: What astonishes me more than anything is the comparison tone, the colouring, the slate, the stone, the moss, the rock-weed; or, if I may so say, the intellect, the countenance of such places. The space, the magnitude of for business, mountains and waterfalls are well imagined before one sees them; but this countenance or intellectual tone must surpass every imagination and defy any remembrance. ( Letters , 301) (See figure 15.) [54] Here then Keats finally discovers the Picturesque (note the catalogue) as well as its associational value. Paraphrasing Archibold Alison, Hipple states: “An object is picturesque if it is such as to college and contrast awaken a train of associations additional to what the scene as a whole is calculated to excite” (164). Again, the picturesque then is a term whether in landscape, painting or literature which has everything to qualitie essay do with associationism; and we see that Price’s attempt to comparison and contrast essay examples divorce the term from its reference to pictorial representation is by no means peculiar. Ben Kinsella Essay! [55] Keats, clearly, has imagined such scenes, imagines them as he hikes, and yet the intellect seems suddenly insignificant once confronted with the actual.

Keats goes on to tell Tom: I shall learn poetry here and shall henceforth write more than ever, for the abstract endeavour of college comparison and contrast examples, being able to add a mite to and dissertation that mass of beauty which is harvested from these grand materials, by comparison and contrast essay the finest spirits, and put into etherial existence for cover for business the relish of one’s fellows. I cannot think with Hazlitt that these scenes make man appear little. College Comparison And Contrast! I never forgot my stature so completely—I live in the eye; and my imagination, surpassed, is at rest. (301) There is too much for coincidence in for business, these two passages: to “defy remembrance,” to “live in the eye,” to “forget my stature,” besides an echoing of negative capability, is clearly to defy Wordsworth—an assertion that though perhaps he follows in the old poet’s footsteps, he will find his own way in the Picturesque. Indeed, Keats himself admits this point:

As to the poetical Character itself, (I mean that sort of which, if I am anything, I am a Member; that sort distinguished from the wordsworthian or egotistical sublime; which is a thing per se and stands alone) it is not itself—it has no self—it is everything and nothing. Comparison And Contrast! ( Letters , 386-7) In a similar vein, Keats comments on Windermere, which makes. . . . one forget the divisions of life; age, youth, poverty and riches; and refine ones sensual vision into a sort of north star which can never cease to essay about be open lidded and college and contrast examples, steadfast over the wonders of the great Power. ( Letters , 299) [56] At the end of thesis and dissertation, June, Keats visits the “Druids’ Circle.” Gilpin, in his tour of the examples Lakes, discovered this same temple, which he admits is not particularly picturesque, though conjured up pictures of Druid priests and ritual sacrifice. A romantic fancy? Surely not! The pit-falls, obstacles and hardships of the tour increasingly insinuate themselves into his correspondence. And Dissertation! Brown was a veteran hiker. For Keats—by no means weak-kneed nor namby-pamby—the going becomes too tough. The Picturesque of northern Britain is a landscape of antagonistic elements, gentleness is anathema, where the college comparison essay examples only comfort can come from discomfort.

All this, compounded with climactic and topographical alienness, becomes apparent in “On Visiting the Tomb of Burns,” written during the tour: The town, the churchyard, and the setting sun, The clouds, the trees, the rounded hills all seem, Though beautiful, cold—strange—as in a dream, I dreamed long ago, now new begun. The short-liv’d, paly Summer is but won. From Winter’s ague, for a world internet essay one hour’s gleam;

Though sapphire-warm, their stars do never beam: All is cold Beauty, pain is never done: For who has mind to relish, Minos-wise, The Real of college comparison essay, Beauty, free from that dead hue. Sickly imagination and hr resume sap, sick pride. Cast wan upon it? Burns! with honour due. I oft have honour’d thee. Great shadow, hide. Thy face; I sin against the native skies. ( Letters , 308)

Although largely a fault finding mission, a remonstrance, penned by a southerner spoiled by languid southern summer sunshine and summer warmth, there is here, as there is college essay, not in “I Stood Tiptoe” and thesis, other early poems, an college and contrast essay, authentic sense of feeling, a sense of being touched by landscape and nature, a genuineness that foreshadows “Ode to Melancholy.” There is hr resume sap, also an important associational element, translating to the problem of college and contrast, judging beauty when both our judgement and beauty itself are tinged with the omnipresence of brevity and death. If the northern summer is only a brief delivery from winter, then what of our lives? The headiness of the first fine weather days are followed by an account of a country dance, which Keats concludes with what is hr resume sap, becoming a familiar refrain: “This is what I like better than scenery” ( Letters , 307). In Scotland he writes: “I know not how it is, the college Clouds, the sky, the Houses, all seem anti Grecian anti Charlemagnish—I will endeavour to get rid of my prejudices, tell you fairly about the ben kinsella Scotch” ( Letters , 309). Comparison And Contrast! At the thesis and dissertation same time, there is a clue to Keats’ understanding of college comparison and contrast examples, picturesqueness: “The barefooted Girls look very much in keeping—I mean with the Scenery about them. . . . They are very pleasant because they are very primitive” ( Letters , 318-19). Steeped in literature, with much of his experience experienced vicariously, Keats can never entirely lose his prejudice. As hinted above, Keats takes great delight in picturesque characters: Imagine the worst dog kennel you ever saw placed upon two poles from a mouldy fencing—In such a wretched thing sat a squalid old woman squat like an ape half starved from thesis book, a scarcity of Biscuit in college examples, its passage from Madagascar to the cape,—with a pipe in her mouth and looking out with a round eyed skinny lidded, inanity—with a sort of horizontal idiotic movement of her head—squat and lean she sat and puffed out the smoke while two ragged tattered Girls carried her along. Hr Resume Sap! ( Letters , 321-2) Notice the skill with which Keats intensifies the college comparison essay picturesque effect: the mixed dog/ape metaphor, the alliteration and repetition. This, certainly, is a different Picturesque, though nonetheless Picturesque. The detachment we witnessed in Wordsworth—that frequent remoteness from the real trials and tribulations of country life—is also manifest in Keats.

John Clare, Keats’ contemporary, similarly notes: . . . his descriptions of scenery are often very fine but as it is the case with other inhabitants of great cities he often described nature as she appeared in his fancies not as he would have described her had he witnessed the things he describes—Thus it is he has often undergone the stigma of Cockneyism what appears as beautys in the eyes of a pent-up citizen are looked upon essay as conceits by those who live in the country—these are merely errors but even here they are merely the errors of poetry—he is often mystical but such poetical licences have been looked on comparison and contrast, as beauties in Wordsworth Shelley and in hr resume sap, Keats they may be forgiven. (qtd. Watson, 23) The idea that such romanticisms are “merely errors of poetry” is indicative of the times, a kind of Claudian perspective where both the Picturesque and poetic vision could often turn a blind eye to social reality and see instead a dislocated ideal. The subject then is not merely inaccuracy in “descriptions of scenery” but the general anti-utilitarianism of romantic poetry. College Comparison Essay Examples! This, it seems, is much more “comic and faddish” (Brownlow, 43) than learning to appreciate landscape through painting. It is also entirely common to all the romantic poets.

Again, to quote Clare: And een the fallow fields appear so fair. The very weeds make sweetest gardens there. And summer there puts garments on hr resume sap, so gay. I hate the college comparison and contrast plow that comes to dissaray. And man the only object that disdains. Earths garden into deserts for essay his grains. Leave him his schemes of college examples, gain—tis wealth to cover for business administration me. Wild heaths to trace—and not their broken tree. Which lightening shivered—and which nature tries.

To keep alive for poesy to prize. (Clare, 80) Interestingly, however, such romanticism of country life is often omitted during the college comparison examples tour, where Keats comes face to ben kinsella essay face with the squalor—and a foreign squalor to such a southerner—of poverty and often describes it in empathetic or political terms: On our walk in Ireland we had too much opportunity to comparison essay see the worse than nakedness, the rags, the cover letter dirt and misery of the poor common Irish—A Scotch cottage, though in that some times the Smoke has no exit but at the door, is comparison and contrast, a palace to an Irish one. ( Letters , 321) There is qualitie essay, perhaps some implication that a philosophical shift occurs in moving from poetry to comparison and contrast essay examples prose, as if the picturesque vanishes with the replacement of a world, smock for Wellington boots and overalls, a justification for the might of college and contrast essay, “modern” prose. The subject of Keats’ complaint was also the subject of a Picturesque sub-category: the Gainsboroughesque “cottage Picturesque,” where sublimity is replaced by romantic rusticity, where such squalor is marked by its absence: in essence, a gentle Picturesque (see figure 16 ).

In a gasping effort at brevity, much has been overlooked. In summary, Keats’ correspondence during the tour is overgrown with the Picturesque, from poems such as “Ailsa Rock” (see figure 17) and “Ben Nevis,”—which, in its stumbling uncertainty, seem neither a Ben nor a Nevis—to comments such as “evey [sic] ten steps creating a new and without internet, beautiful picture—sometimes through little woods—there are two islands on college comparison essay examples, the Lake each with a beautiful ruin—one of them rich in ivy ( Letters , 338). Essay! [57] In early August, after covering 642 horizontal and vertical miles in college comparison and contrast examples, sometimes cold wet conditions with sometimes poor food and indifferent accommodation, after suffering a fortnight from a cold and sore throat, Keats abandoned the tour and left his friend to continue alone. [58] Watson—in his singular modern study of Keats and the Picturesque, which continues the thesis and dissertation standard criticism instituted with Wordsworth—provides a succinct panorama of the refracted light of influence the Picturesque tour radiates over Hyperion , and there is no need therefore to offer excessive focus. [60] In summary, Watson points out that the power of the poem stems from Keats’ “mythologising imagination” and the sublime “terrifying landscapes which form the background for college essay the colossal figures” (155). But the picturesque, in addition to background, also serves as a form of characterisation, externalising the internal: . . . where their own groans. They felt, but heard not, for the solid roar. Of thunderous waterfalls and torrents hoarse. Pouring a constant bulk, uncertain where. Crag jutting forth to crag, and rocks that seem’d. Ever as if just rising from a sleep,

Forehead to forehead held their monstrous horns; And thus in a thousand hugest phantasies. Made a fir roofing to this nest of qualitie essay, woe. (II,6-14) On similar lines, “The quiet sublime imbues the sorrow-worn face of Moneta within the temple of Western memory built by Keats in The Fall of Hyperion ” (Woodring, 40). There are, however, a few additional points which Watson fails to note. Firstly, the poem opens with Saturn and Thea postured “. . . motionless / Like natural sculpture in cathedral cavern” (I.85-86). The scene is represented through copious visual images at the expense the auditory.

Recollecting, “I live in the eye” from his picturesque tour, there is some hint of the visual memories which form the scenery of Hyperion’s stage. The “fallen divinity” of college comparison essay examples, Saturn exists in a mythico-historical landscape formed of the transcendental imagination and nature experienced during the and dissertation book tour: the “thousand hugest phantasies.” Watson’s closing comment—“ Ode to Autumn originated in the Hampshire harvest-time, not on a Lakeland mountain; and the nightingale, like Keats, sings only in college comparison examples, the south of England” (157)—scores high marks for rhetorical tune and poetic twang; unfortunately, it is falsely based upon the premise that the Picturesque is heterogeneous to Hampshire as well as drawing attention to his ornithological dullness. Following the Picturesque Tour, Watson states: “. . . and there, apart from Canto I of The Fall of Hyperion , Keats turned his back upon the picturesque for ever” (157). Although, again, rhetorically right and essay, conforming to the standard ignominiously moulded analysis of the essay Picturesque, this is not, in actual fact, the essay diary case. Comparison And Contrast! The influence of Claude’s Sacrifice to Apollo on “Grecian Urn” and “Ode to a Nightingale” has already been mentioned. In more general terms, and qualitie essay, as Bate mentions: “It is interesting to note the number of spontaneous phrases and images in his letters now that are later echoed in the poetry, especially in college comparison essay, the Odes“ (358). Although instances are numerous, a couple will prove the cover for business position point. In terms of diction, compare: “There is no great body of water, but the accompaniment is delightful; for comparison essay examples it ooses out from a cleft in and dissertation, perpendicular Rocks, all fledged with Ash. . And Contrast Examples! .” ( Letters , 306) with, “ Fledge the qualitie essay wild-ridged mountains steep by steep” (“Ode to Psyche,” 55). In terms of college essay, a specific memory, compare the excursion to thesis book Ambleside waterfall: “. . . it is buried in trees, in essay, the bottom of the valley—the stream itself is ben kinsella essay, interesting” ( Letters , 300), with, “. . . over college comparison and contrast essay examples the still stream, / Up the hill-side; and now 'tis buried deep / In the internet next valley” (“Ode to a Nightingale,” 76-8). The Picturesque continued to work through Keats’ poetry: not always clearly; but the lines still are drawn.

Recalling Keats’ comments on first seeing Windermere, which included “refine ones sensual vision into a sort of north star,” we move easily to its later transmutation: Bright star, would I were stedfast as thou art- Not in lone splendour hung aloft the night, And watching, with eternal lids apart, Like nature’s patient, sleepless Eremite, The moving waters at their priestlike task. Of pure ablution round earth’s human shores, Or gazing on and contrast, the new soft-fallen mask.

Of snow upon the mountains and thesis and dissertation, the moors; No-yet still stedfast, still unchangeable, Pillow’d upon my fair love’s ripening breast, To feel for ever its soft fall and swell, Awake for ever in and contrast essay examples, a sweet unrest, Still, still to hear her tender-taken breath, And so live ever-or else swoon to death. ( Complete Poems , 329) One of the problems of looking at internet essay, Keats in comparison, a Picturesque context, as mentioned above, is his unwillingness to ben kinsella essay adopt standard phraseologies, choosing instead to create fresh imagery. Although this is indeed a “problem,” it is also a solution. Knight was perhaps the most adamant proponent of “novelty” in Picturesque scenes. A vast expanse of lawn is boring not simply for its smoothness, but for its lack of and contrast essay, surprise.

Abrupt variation produces mixture through novelty. Richard Payne Knight recognised the salutary effect of qualitie essay, “irritation” as an college and contrast essay, interruption of sensations that had become “stale and vapid” through repetition. (Robinson, 7) It seems fair therefore to suggest that poetic coinings—“large dome curtains,” ( Hyperion ) and “massy range” ( Fall of Hyperion ), for example—are a form of such abrupt variation producing mixture through novelty. In a sense, Keats’ poetical methodology stems directly from the lessons of the Picturesque, at least in terms of “the noble metaphor, when it is placed to Advantage, casts a kind of Glory round it, and darts a Lustre through the thesis and dissertation book whole sentence” (qtd. Robinson, 9).

That dart of lustre provides the college and contrast essay interruption, the irritation, the unexpected that is “novelty.” This is key not only to the Picturesque but to much of Keats’ better poetry. Although perhaps out on strechified limb, in danger of and dissertation, barking up the wrong tree, the suggestion merely provides some indication of the less obvious influence of the Picturesque. Comparison Essay! Hipple points out hr resume sap, that the term “picturesque” can and is used solely as a literary term: “Blaire,” he says as a case in point, “repeatedly praises epithets, figures and descriptions as ‘picturesque’ as conjuring up distinct and forcible images.” (186) Indeed, compared with Robinson’s analogy between the complexity and mixture of the Picturesque and identical constituents of the 18th century Whig party, (“Compositions of Politics and Money”)—the picturesque here seems more associated with the wig than the party—the claim seems modest enough. The Liberty of the Picturesque. The difficulty of defining romanticism, which we have deliberately over-looked, stems of course from the diversity of poetry, of styles, of influences and of diction of romantic poets. That variety is college comparison and contrast essay examples, itself a product of the times and hr resume sap, the liberty that the essay Picturesque supported—liberty both in the political and personal sense. Knight, in Progress of a Civil Society , points out the connection between the picturesque landscape garden—and by extension, the Picturesque in general—and the composition of society: As when in formal lines, exact and true, The pruner’s scissors shear the ductile yew, Amused, its shape and symmetry we see, But seek in vain the likeness of a tree;

And while the artist’s pleasing skill we trace, Lament the loss of every native grace: So when too strictly social habits bind, The native vigour of the ben kinsella essay roving mind, Pleased, the well-ordered system we behold.

Its justly regulated parts unfold, But search in and contrast, vain its complicated plan. To find the native semblance of a man, And, ’midst the hr resume sap charms of equal rule, deplore. The loss of graces art can ne’er restore. (qtd. Essay! Robinson, 134) In a sense, an examination of the Picturesque in the context of essay about of anne frank, its influence on romanticism—even when fairness, as here, is the ultimate goal—does a certain injustice to the subject and filters out much of the important material. Comparison And Contrast Examples! Thus, for example, the liberating effect seems somewhat arbitrary. Hipple, in The Beautiful, the Sublime and the Picturesque , occupies a unique position in modern Picturesque analysis, going beyond the ben kinsella positivism of college comparison and contrast, art historians and suggesting that the Picturesque is consequential in and of itself. Although Hipple rarely ventures beyond summary and conflation of individual Picturesque theories, his treatise is comprehensive, detailed and offers an important concluding point:

The aestheticians of this period [eighteenth century] all found their subject to be psychological: the central problem for them was not some aspect of the cosmos or of particular substances, nor was it found among the characteristics of human activity or of the modes of symbolic representation; one and all, they found their problem to be the specification and discrimination of certain kinds of feelings, the determination of the mental powers and susceptibilities which yielded those feelings, and of the impressions and ideas which excited them. Cover Letter For Business Administration Position! (305) Although the and contrast essay Picturesque, despite Hipple’s unqualified assertion, does indeed concern itself with particular substances: the elemental material of a scene; and with human activity: the hiking and picturesque tours, the picturesque guide books and plain and simple painting and poetry; and hr resume sap, with modes of comparison and contrast examples, symbolic representation: the qualitie essay Picturesque itself is a mode of symbolic representation; Hipple’s stress upon the psychological basis is nevertheless an important point, especially when we look forward to comparison essay examples the psychological aspect of romantic poetry. One of the difficulties with the Picturesque is that it never became a unified system; the saving grace of the Picturesque is that it never became a unified system. It is fundamentally concerned with the native vigour of the qualitie essay roving mind, allowing for nature and art to stroll arm in arm, allowing and even insisting upon the liberty of variety and change: the liberty then of Wordsworth and college and contrast essay, Keats. Keats, for all his youth and gentle disposition, found the Picturesque health threatening to essay walk through and almost anomalistic to incorporate in his verse; as a serious poet with ambitions of immortality, [61] he nevertheless realised its essentiality to his artistic development. As Robinson explains: “Picturesque colors are not fresh, delicate ones of spring, but those of autumn whose age and decay bespeak fullness and comparison essay, repose tinged with memory and the sharpness of abrupt terminations” (101). Keats then is seeking, not for something to save his life, but his immortality. Hr Resume Sap! Keats never reached an age when these colours could clearly be seen and so we find glimpses here and there and college and contrast essay, the constant desire to “bid these joys farewell”: those bright colours of youth.

Figure 14: Joseph Farington, Windermere, from Watson. Figure 15: Joseph Farington, The Waterfall at Rydal , from Watson (visited by hr resume sap Keats) Figure 16: Francis Wheatly (1747-1801), Girls washing in a stream, from Bicknell. Figure 17: Ailsa rock, from Bate. Four years after the death of Keats, engraver and publisher Charles Heath and Turner came “to an college comparison essay examples, agreement that Turner would produce a large quantity of water-colours over a number of qualitie essay, years, from which Charles Heath would choose 120 to be line-engraved and subsequently published under the title of and contrast essay, “Picturesque Views in England and Wales.”(Shanes, 5) The Picturesque, even at this date, remains a vital force that warrants the attention of England’s finest artist. Indeed, “Turner was undoubtedly at the height of qualitie essay, his mature creative powers during the years of this series”(Shanes, 17)

The implied perception of the romantic movement as a reaction against eighteenth century neo-classicism or, at examples, the other extreme, as spontaneous literary combustion torched by Wordsworth’s egotistical sublime is prescriptivism unleashed, offering barely the bare bones of a story. It is neither immaterial nor coincidental that the 1770s—the decade of Wordsworth’s birth—also saw the beginnings of English landscape painting as a major genre, signifying not only a general artistic reaction but also attraction . The eighteenth century saw landscape modified from traditional perceptions of ownership, agriculture and trial and of anne, trouble to aesthetic material. College And Contrast Essay! This then is the general Picturesque canvass. The Picturesque movement, in essay, providing the initial way of seeing landscape actually encouraged the viewing of landscape, opening the scenery of England to enthusiastic travellers in search of the Picturesque and finally revealing what had always been there though never before seen. This suddenly seen landscape was no longer lit by the golden light of college comparison examples, a fanciful Golden Age; no longer mottled with classical sylvan shadows, where Pope’s “Fair Thames, flow gently from thy sacred spring, / While on thy banks Sicilian Muses sing”; no longer a continuation of the Works and Days of Hesiod nor theories of Theocritus: now the Island’s landscape might be seen in ben kinsella, common light, casting its own shadow, peopled by common people born and bred, the works and days of a new age. In addition to this aesthetic revolution, the and contrast essay heightened status of landscape provided an environment in which nature, the individual elements of landscape—already of increasing importance by virtue of hr resume sap, developments in the natural sciences—might find its aesthetic value enlarged. The Picturesque movement proved its importance and essay, viability by its very popularity and success. Letter Administration! Picturesque theory intellectualised landscape, transforming it into something that could only college essay examples be truly appreciated through learning, just as neo-classicism had done previously, though now it was no longer classical learning but aesthetic learning that was sought; and qualitie essay, the focus was decidedly the landscape itself rather than a superimposed classicism. It this manner, it was increasingly intellectually acceptable to study landscape, in painting, in college comparison and contrast, poetry, and in pastime. As Christopher Hussey suggests in The Picturesque : The picturesque view of nature was the new, the letter for business administration position only, way of deriving aesthetic satisfaction from landscape.

Previously, Englishmen had simply failed to connect scenery and painting in college comparison and contrast examples, their minds. Letter For Business! They had liked certain views and certain lights, just as all men like sunshine and verdure, for their own sakes. But landscape as such gave them no aesthetic satisfaction. (2) The notion of complete detachment from an aesthetic appreciation of scenery—essentially the unfamiliarity of the familiar—seems, at least at first glance, rooted in a certain outlandishness. Additional proof comes from Wordsworth himself, who lodged for a time near Derwentwater. under the roof of a shrewd and sensible woman, who more than once exclaimed in my hearing, “Bless me! folk [picturesque tourists] are always talking about prospects: when I was young there never was sic a thing neamed.” (qtd. Andrews, 153-4) On a hike through Wales, Uvedale Price came upon college comparison and contrast essay examples a series of natural cascades and expressed his delight to the landowner: He was quite uneasy at the pleasure I felt, and seemed afraid I should waste my admiration. “Don’t stop at these things,” said he, “I will shew you by internet and by one worth seeing.” At last we came to a part where the brook was conducted down three long steps of hewn stone: “There,” said he, with great triumph, “that was made by Edwards, who built Pont y pridd, and it is reckoned as neat a piece of mason-work as any in the country.” (qtd. Robinson, 11)

Neither is this detachment merely a fact of by-gone days: During a recent journey to essay examples England, crossing the North Yorkshire Moors in the company of a local retired farmer, I was struck immediately by the picturesque landscape: a region of sudden chasms, blasted trees and weathered rocky outcrops, of bumbling uncertain stone cottages and barns and shaggy sheep. Essay! My companion was indifferent to its charms. Suddenly, all about the meandering road, we came upon an area quite changed, unusually verdant, with thick hedge-rows and trees full grown and full leafed--and decidedly less picturesque. The farmer suddenly came to comparison examples life. “I did all this,” he began, with an all embracing wave of his hand. Hr Resume Sap! “It used to college examples be like all the rest, now’t bar rocks. Look at it now though.” For the next several miles he lectured on qualitie essay, his “improvements,” singing praise of its cultivated nature and even claiming to have caused changes in local climate! Soon we re-entered the picturesque and protected national park. “Now, just look at that,” he scoffed with a disdainful shake of his head. “It’s bloody awful.”

The Picturesque was, further, a ubiquitous movement which sought to understand the nature of aesthetic perception and to provide prescriptions which essentially affected an entirely new appreciation for comparison and contrast essay examples the wild wilderness of places such as the Cumbrian Lake District. Finally, we should not discount the political and social overtones: the license it provided for liberalism, for variety, for ben kinsella change, for originality. For all its seriousness, Picturesque musings were wont to wander into regions of absurdity, sometimes finding their way into the real world, as with Charles Hamilton’s hiring of a hermit to and contrast essay sit in his back garden hermitage; or the estate village of Old Warden in Bedforshire where, in the early nineteenth century, the residents were cajoled into wearing red cloaks and tall hats to harmonise with the red paint work and charming dormers of their cottages. In the fictional world, this absurdity was also made apparent: A lecture on the picturesque immediately followed, in which his instruction were so clear the essay she soon began to see beauty admired by him, and her attention was so earnest, that he became perfectly satisfied of college comparison and contrast examples, her having a great deal of natural taste. He talked of fore-grounds, distances, and second distances--side-screens and perspectives--lights and hr resume sap, shades;--and Catherine was so hopeful a scholar that when they gained the top of Beechen Cliff, she voluntarily rejected the whole city of Bath, as unworthy to make part of a landscape. (Austen 138) Indeed, the very pith of Picturesque theory might, to the cynical—and especially literary minded—modern, seems daubed with inanity, for it sought to mix landscape and painting, allowing the appreciation of a real scene for comparison and contrast its likeness to art, rather than art for without internet its likeness to a real scene—a notion which Hugh Sykes Davies, Wordsworth and the Worth of Words , finds particularly “unnatural.” The important thing to remember here, however, is that this was, plain and simple, the only way into landscape, the college comparison and contrast essay examples only way to see the invisibly visible. Such satire stemmed from the essay diary of anne frank excesses of the Picturesque movement and the jocularity sometimes manifest in the debate, and is not a suggestion of ignis-fatuus . College And Contrast Examples! Further, as Hussey explains, “the picturesque interregnum between classical and romantic art was necessary in cover for business, order to enable the imagination to form the habit of feeling through the eyes” (4). It is unfortunate the modern reading of the Picturesque has turned a blind eye to the real meaning of Picturesque and adopted the more authoritative expression of Wordsworth himself as well as satirical expression by writers such as Austin and William Combe. And yet the ridiculous that some have found in the Picturesque is found equally in those that find it. J. R. Watson, for example, provides a fitting conclusion: after a quotation in which Coleridge writes of a rocky climbing episode, he writes: “In both Wordsworth and Coleridge there is an exhalation at the danger and excitement . College Comparison And Contrast! . . the qualitie essay danger was there. . . . Comparison Examples! Gilpin penetrated into the valley beyond Rosthwaite, but did not consider it practicable to go further” (186).

So there we have it: the romantic poets were much braver than those mere writers on the Picturesque! And this is good. Qualitie Essay! Watson admits, however, that Coleridge “exaggerated the dangers in essay examples, his letter” (187)! Equally, the idea that the administration Picturesque had already run its course well before Wordsworth offered the final denunciating blow is college comparison and contrast essay, patently absurd. We have already seen how Keats required some close experience of the Picturesque in order to further develop his poetic potential. We can remove further, both temporarily and geographically: Blake Nevius, in his slim volume, Cooper’s Landscapes , argues convincingly that the Picturesque strongly influenced his pictorial sense and description subsequent to his 1826-1833 stay in Europe: What Cooper as a visual artist learned from his travels on the continent is apparent in the later romances. His sharper awareness of pictorial values to be sought in the natural landscape and of the means by which these values could be introduced into imagined landscape is essay about diary frank, most evident . . . in the forest romances written after his return. (89) We move forward in time, we cross the Atlantic, we leap from college and contrast, poetry to qualitie essay prose, yet still the Picturesque remains, exerting its influence. The Picturesque, popularised by the illustrated guides, general debate, fashionable sketching tours, the national fealty of Gainsborough’s work and so on, portrayed a populist and recognisable landscape. Moving away from comparison and contrast essay examples, seventeenth and early eighteenth century depictions of myth-laden Italian scenes, the qualitie essay Picturesque embraced rustic England and adopted a visual idiom from common life.

Bermingham’s suggestion that the comparison and contrast essay examples concomitant “. . . Letter Position! improvement in real landscape, increasing its agricultural yield, raised its commercial and college comparison and contrast essay examples, monetary worth” (1), provides a pragmatic exegesis for the new picturesque fashion and underscores changing cultural values. If agricultural developments—enclosure, consolidation of small holdings and so on—endowed land with new nummary worth, they also caused the physical transformation of large tracts of countryside, working at odds with the increasing sense of cultural and aesthetic worth. As a result, remote rustic regions such as Cumbria’s Lake District, were discovered as “ . . . the image of the homely, the stable, the ahistorical” (Birmingham 9). If at cover for business administration position, the last of the century—beginning with Cowper—there came poets and painters who . . . College Comparison And Contrast! found beauty in hedge-rows and corn-fields, and in Hampstead and Mousehold Heaths, it was because of a long training in seeing landscape pictorially,—a training which of necessity began with the most elaborate and heightened forms of qualitie essay, landscape, with the richest and most obvious appeal, and on the most vast and impressive scale. College! (Manwaring, 232) The importance of the Picturesque stems from the fostering of an qualitie essay, intellectual approach to the appreciation of architecture, gardening and scenery which in turn opened up new vistas of artistic subjects.

The emphasis upon feeling and associational values which grew from analysis of the sublime and beautiful and blossomed in the Picturesque finally allowed those new vistas to be expressed in subjective and romantic terms. Romanticism, then, was, to a large degree, the natural development of Picturesque aesthetics. Of course, the college and contrast essay story continues: Ted Hughes, (1930-) born in West Yorkshire and appointed poet laureate in about diary of anne frank, 1984, has written several volumes which testify to college examples the renewed interest in topographical poetry. And all my holiday snapshots are Picturesque. Andrews, Malcolm. The Search for the Picturesque: landscape aesthetics and without, tourism in Britain, 1760-1800 . Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1989. Austen, Jane. Northanger Abbey . New York: Dell, 1962.

Bate, Walter Jackson. John Keats . Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1963. Benedict, Barbara M. Making the Modern Reader: cultural mediation in and contrast examples, early modern literary anthologies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996. Bermingham, Ann. Landscape and Ideology: the English rustic tradition, 1740-1860 . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986. Bicknell, Peter. Essay Of Anne Frank! Beauty, Horror and Immensity: Picturesque Landscape in Britain , 1750-1850.

Cambridge: The Museum, 1981. Brownlow, Timothy. John Clare and college comparison and contrast, Picturesque Landscape . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983. Combe, William. Doctor Syntax his three tours: in search of the hr resume sap picturesque, of consolation, of college comparison examples, a wife . Hr Resume Sap! London: F. Warne, 1890. Davies, Hugh Sykes. W ordsworth and the Worth of Words. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Dayes, Edward, A Picturesque Tour in and contrast examples, Yorkshire and essay diary frank, Debyshire . London: J. Nichols Son, 1825. Denham, John, Sir. Essay! The Poetical Works . Qualitie Essay! Hamden, Conn: Archon Books, 1969. Dyer, John. Poems . Ed. Edward Thomas.

Lampeter: Llanerch Enterprises, 1989. Gilpin, William. Essay on Prints. Comparison And Contrast Essay! London: 1781. ---. Three Essays: On Picturesque Beauty, On Picturesque Travel, and On Sketching Landscape. London: Printed for R. Diary! Blamire, 1792. ---. Observations, relative chiefly to picturesque beauty; made in.

the year 1772, on college comparison and contrast, several parts of England; particularly the mountains, and hr resume sap, lakes of college comparison and contrast, Cumberland, and Westmoreland . London, Printed for R. Blamire, 1792. ---. A dialogue upon the gardens of the Right Honourable Lord Viscount Cobham at Stow in qualitie essay, Buckinghamshire . Los Angeles: Williams Andrews Clark Memorial Library, University of California, 1976. --- . Observations on the River Wye . Richmond: The Richmond Publishing Co. Ltd, 1973. Greenshields, E.B.

Landscape Painting and Modern Dutch Artists . Toronto: Copp, Clark, 1906. Gray, Thomas. Complete Poems of Thomas Gray. Oxford: Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1966. Handy Guide to comparison and contrast essay examples the English Lakes . Without Internet! Kendal: T. Wilson, undated. Hipple, Walter John. The Beautiful, the and contrast essay examples Sublime, and the Picturesque in hr resume sap, Eighteenth-Century British Aesthetic Theory.

Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1957. Hughes, John. The Poetical Works of John Hughes . Edinburgh: At the Apollo Press, 1779. Hussey, Christopher. The Picturesque: studies in a point of view . London: Cass, 1967. Johnson, Ben. “To Penshurst” The Norton Anthology of English Literature . And Contrast Examples! Ed. Abrams, M.H.

London: W. W. Norton Company, 1975. Keats, John. Complete Poems and cover position, Selected Letters . New York: Odyssey Press, 1935. ---. The Letters of John Keats 1814-1821, Volume One. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1958. Knight, Richard Payne. The Landscape: a Didactic Poem in Three Books Addressed to Uvedale Price . London: Printed by W. Bulmer and Co., Shakespeare Printing, 1794.

Nevius, Blake. Cooper's Landscapes: an essay on the picturesque vision. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976. Pope, Alexander. The Poems of Alexander Pope. Ed. John Butt. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1963. Price, Uvedale.

On the Picturesque . Edinburgh: Caldwell, Lloyd, 1842. Roberts, Maureen B., The Diamond Path: Individuation as Soul-Making in the Works of college comparison essay, John Keats . 1997. http://www.cgjung.com/articles/keats1.html. Robinson, Eric , ed. Selected Poems and Prose of John Clare . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1967. Robinson, Sidney K. Inquiry into the Picturesque . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991. Ruskin, John. (www.stg.brown.edu/projects/hypertext/landow/ruskin)

Serle, John. A Plan of Mr. Pope's Garden . Los Angeles: William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, University of California, 1982. Turner, J. M. W. (Joseph Mallord William), Turner's Picturesque Views in England and Wales, 1825-1838 . Ed. Eric Shanes. Position! London: Chatto Windus, 1983.

Thomson, James. The Seasons and The Castel of Indolence . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972. Watson J. R. Picturesque Landscape and English Romantic Poetry . London: Hutchinson Educational, 1970. Watkin, David. The English Vision: the picturesque in architecture, landscape, and garden design . New York: Harper Row, 1982. West, Thomas. College Comparison Essay Examples! A guide to the lakes, in hr resume sap, Cumberland, Westmorland, and college, Lancashire . 4th ed.

London : W. About Frank! Richardson, 1789. Williams, Ralph M. Poet, Painter and Parson the Life of college and contrast examples, John Dyer. New York: Bookman Associates, 1956. Woodring, Carl. Nature into Art : cultural transformations in nineteenth-century Britain . A World Without! Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1989. Wordsworth, William. Guide Through the comparison essay District of the ben kinsella essay Lakes in the North of England . London: Oxford University Press, 1970.

---. Poems. And Contrast Essay! The poetical works of ben kinsella, Wordsworth . Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1982. [1]As the title suggests, this is a cross disciplinary study. What might seem, initially, a grand tour—with hefty baggage—into remote realms outside literature proper is, in fact, a survey of the essay examples foundations of romanticism. [2]Up until the cover for business administration position 19th century, French Salon duries in state-run competitions adhered to a strict hierarchy of subjects determined in 18th century Rococo and Neo-Classical art: history and and contrast, religious subjects, portraiture, still life and, lastly and hr resume sap, leastly, landscape. Even the French Academy's coveted Prix de Rome for art students had no landscape category until 1817, when historic landscapes with some narrative event were reluctantly allowed. As David Watkin, The English Vision , points out, a similar state existed in the area of architectural paintings: . . And Contrast Essay Examples! . the celebrated architectural competitions for the Grand Prix awarded by the French Academy and later by the Ecole des Beaux-Arts: from the hr resume sap first competition held in 1702 up until 1962 no site was ever specified. In England, however, the simple outline elevation in the form of a diagram on an otherwise blank background gradually gave way to drawings which show the building in its setting and eventually, as in the work of Blore for example, to fully developed water-colours of landscape in which the examples house appears as an incident. (x) [3]When eighteenth century Britons referred to “Poussin” it was normally to Gaspard Dughet and not his now more famous brother-in-law, Nicolas Poussin.

[4]Other influential artists, though less important to Picturesque developments, were Tintoretto, Ruisdael and Hobbema. [5]One such example, as E. L. Manwaring notes, is Jonathan Richardson’s An Account of the hr resume sap Statues, Bas-Reliefs, Drawings, and Pictures in Italy, France, c. (1722) which became, for some time, a standard guide. The section on landscape pictures, tellingly, features a prefatory note explaining precisely what landscape pictures are! cite - Manwaring 62 63. [6]Watkin essentially makes the college essay same point, though contextualised within the standard literary bias: The history of amateur sketching in the nineteenth century in the manner of De Wint and Cox affords another example of the hr resume sap way in college comparison examples, which a particular mode of vision became established as a thing so “natural” that its artificiality and its debt to the theories of Sir Uvedale Price were generally forgotten. (xi) [7]Roundhay Park—its central stately mansion now a noble pub—in my own home town of Leeds, still features a mock ruin. Over-grown with bramble, nettles, grass and dandelion, it is generally understood—by locals and essay, visitors alike—to be as ancient as it is picturesque. [8]See Manwaring, (8).

[9]Johnson’s dictionary, although avoiding the difficulty of defining Picturesque , actually employed it to define other words. [10]Strange then that Burke’s Inquiry is as familiar to academics as the college and contrast essay examples Gospel, whereas Gilpin ideas have become the Apocryphia. [11]The very success of this codification played a prominent role in making banal the very theory it sought to sanctify. [12]The importance of the imagination and of anne, subjective vision in landscape painting goes back at least as far as Claude. Samuel Palmer wrote: “When I was setting out for Italy I expected to see Claude’s magical combinations; miles apart I found the examples disjointed members, which he had “suited to qualitie essay the desires of his mind”; these were the beauties, but the beautiful ideal Helen was his own” (qtd. Greenshields, 16). [13]Gainsborough’s rustic figures were influenced by college comparison examples those of about of anne, Wynant. College Essay Examples! (1620-1684) . [14]Amongst the thesis sagging shelves of picturesque guide-books were those by Thomas Gray, James Clark and Thomas West. [15]Besides Landscape and and contrast essay, An Analytical Enquiry into essay, the Principles of examples, Taste , Knight published books ranging in subject from sexual symbolism to Greek philology. [16]This note by Knight is reprinted as a preface to Price’s The Landscape . Importantly, the dominance of the ocular sense which, in reference to the Picturesque, so bothered Wordsworth and is often adopted in literary analysis in letter administration position, reference to Gilpin was most singular to Knight; and was, in fact, a cornerstone of the debate between Knight and college, Price.

[17]For a detailed historical analysis of enquiries into the sublime and the beautiful, as well as the debt owed by Blake to Joseph Addison, see Walter John Hipple’s The Beautiful, the Sublime and the Picturesque . [18]Somewhat ironically, Wordsworth once rebuked his friend Beaumont for painting-in an imaginary ruined castle in one of his favourite views. [19]Constable was born in Suffolk, and though he found the Lake District too solitary a place, it was there, in 1806, that he met Wordsworth and Coleridge. [20]See Bermingham for reproduced illustrations. [21]C. Meeks, The Railroad Station, An Architectural History. [22]Early pastoral romances—Sidney’s Arcadia (1580-1582) , for example—were resplendent in romance, requiring their courtly readers to possess a familiarity not with nature but classical texts and the conventions of internet, courtly behaviour and are thus excluded from this study. [23]Besides the forced confinement of the college comparison examples heroic couplet, Abraham Cowley in Pindarique Odes (1665) set the example for deliberate irregularity, breaking the chords of the standard Pindaric precedent in an effort to stimulate more intense feeling. [24]This is typical Pope: compare, for example, The Temple of Fame : Here naked Rocks, and empty Wastes were seen,

There Tow’ry Cities, and thesis book, the Forests green: Here sailing Ships delight the wond’ring Eyes. There trees . . Comparison Essay Examples! . (15-18) [25]Only myopic—perhaps: Lines 79-80 of without essay, Pastorals: Summer : “Your praise the tuneful birds to college and contrast essay examples heaven shall bear,/And list’ning wolves grow milder as they hear.” In a footnote, Pope explains: So the verses were originally written. Cover Letter Administration! But the author, young as he was, soon found the absurdity which Spenser himself overlooked, of introducing Wolves into England. (131) Pope’s modesty here, of course, is overshadowed by the impressive achievement of discovering something even Spenser missed. A fortunate discovery too, for the absurdity of the college essay wolves was noticed by the “ Naiads ,” “Jove,” and “Satyrs” to name only a few native English characters included in the poem.

[26]Notwithstanding Wordsworth’s recognition of Thomson as the first poet since Milton to ben kinsella essay offer new images of comparison and contrast examples, “external nature.” [27]Gilpin, in particular, was fond of quoting Thomson in his various tours. [28]The quotation in Section One, from qualitie essay, The Castel of Indolence , Canto I, XXXVIII, sufficiently demonstrates Thomson’s familiarity with the college comparison essay great European painters of landscape which, as we have seen, played a crucial role in the development of the English Picturesque school. [29]Constable, for diary of anne example, quoted several lines from “Summer” for his Salisbury Cathedral from the college comparison essay examples Meadows . [30]Topographical poems from as early as John Denham’s Cooper’s Hill , published in essay of anne frank, 1642, which provides a very early example of comparison, a genre that was to diary of anne win increasing popularity, invariably involve the comparison poet ascending a peak, surveying the a world without essay whole and then painting a word picture of interesting prospects. [31]After Wordsworth’s death, a volume of Keat’s poems was discovered amongst his possession, a gift, the pages still uncut. [32]Read an essay examples, unwillingness to use the word source . [33]Of course, between the lines we discover the essay implication that Gilpin developed nothing.

[34]My own parents, as Yorkshire as Yorkshire Pudding, received, as children of the 1930s, the rare gift of a rare orange for Christmas, finding it to college comparison and contrast examples be the ultimate in letter position, exotic luxury! [36]Davies’ enclosing imagination within the confines of quotation marks subtly suggests that Knight meddles with something that was not, in actual fact, imagination, but some pale imitation, a phantasmagoric and fraudulent imagination, an imagined imagination. [37]Watson’s discomfort is palpable, etched in every repetition of the problem: “Yet the college comparison and contrast examples pugnacity of the note needs some explaining” (72); “Yet the hr resume sap poem also contains a direct attack on the picturesque in its footnote” (74); “Yet, as we have seen, the poem also contains an explicit rejection of the habits of and contrast essay examples, picturesque viewing” (77). Qualitie Essay! Turning to college The Prelude , Watson offers the standard glib solution: another “yet”: “Yet the energy and book, power of the experience seen in the light of memory transforms the picturesque scene into something much more powerful” (76). [38]Even Wordsworth’s initial premise, that the and contrast “jagged outline . . . has a mean effect, transferred to canvas,” is perhaps a sentiment more nationalistic than artistic. [39]Indeed, the cover for business administration position influence of this book extends beyond Wordsworth into other critical examinations of the college comparison essay Picturesque and literature, forming the general thesis, for example, of and dissertation, Brownlow’s study of Clare, who rides the contemporary critical aversion to the Picturesque like a hobby-horse in the Grand National to the point where either the beast dies a sudden death or the race is college comparison and contrast essay examples, cancelled: “The Romantics . Essay Diary! . . inherited the picturesque way of looking at comparison examples, nature, but realised that it, in turn, had become a tyranny, so they invented new ways of seeing which were new ways of feeling” (16). [40]On a personal note, I would mention that the Yorkshire Dales are in fact much more picturesque than the qualitie essay Lake District—as are its native inhabitants. [41]It is typical of and contrast essay examples, Davies’ double-dealing study that these particular pictures are excluded from his pages. [42]Compare this to Wordsworth’s complaint, quoted above, that the cover letter for business administration position picturesque eye sees “Less spiritual, with microscopic view.” [43]Davies also draws attention to Wordsworth’s familiarity with other Picturesque guides, including those of Thomas Gray, Dr.

John Brown, Thomas West and comparison examples, James Clark. In addition: John Harris [“English Country House Guides, 1740-1840,” Concerning Architecture, ed. J. Summerson, 1968.] has catalogued as many as ninety guides . . . including no less than thirty-one editions of guides to a single house, Stowe. We can thus see how far the Picturesque had helped to foster a literary and intellectual approach to a world without essay the appreciation of architecture, gardening and scenery. (vii) [44]Wordworth’s almost exclusive employment of his own poems, however, might be considered—by some—as egotistically sublime.

[45]Although the edition is undated, an advertisement section features a blurb from a Kendal photographer citing an award won at the Edinburgh International Photographic Exhibition in 1890-91. Such is the longevity of this “faddish cult.” [46]This picturesque apperception took place in comparison and contrast examples, 1803. The Prelude was begun in 1799, and completed in the summer of 1805. The conclusion is as obvious as it is unavoidable. We might even waggishly hazard that this superlative picturesque experience took place during the very period of Book XII’s composition.

[47]Although Watson provides the fairest literary based analysis of the Picturesque, it is nevertheless incredible that he includes such evidence yet still endorses conventional assumptions. [48]Keats, as a schoolboy, began a translation of the Aeneid . Alternatively, as Walter Jackson Bate informs us in his minute biography, Keats felt that Pope was “no poet, only a versifier” (49). [49]The notion of originality is itself a legacy of the romantic ethos: originality becomes vital in art and in life; experimentation with new experiences, diction, systems of hr resume sap, thought all become the hallmark of the true romantic genius. Indeed, critics’ unwillingness to college essay give the Picturesque the qualitie essay importance it deserves as both the college essay inaugurator of a new aesthetic vision and as a factor of lasting literary influence stems, perhaps, from the letter for business administration romantic desire to see originality rather than acknowledge the temporal continuity of artistic development. Wordsworth’s preface to Lyrical Ballads disdains overworked poetical diction, though his adoption of Picturesque terminology speaks of college comparison and contrast essay examples, following rather than leading. [50]Thomas Gray, in “The Progress of Poesy” (1754), expresses a similar bond between poetry and landscape: Awake, Aeolian lyre, awake, And give to rapture all thy trembling strings. From Helicon's harmonious springs.

A thousand rills their mazy progress take: The laughing flowers, that round them blow, Drink life and fragrance as they flow. Now the rich stream of music winds along. Deep, majestic, smooth, and strong.

Thro' verdant vales, and qualitie essay, Ceres' golden reign: Now rolling down the steep amain, Headlong, impetuous, see it pour; The rocks and college and contrast essay, nodding groves rebellow to the roar. (I.i.1-12) The central image here is Poetry in qualitie essay, general global expansion, finding echo in both the objects of nature and poets of various ages.

[51]Interestingly, even though Keats himself occasionally uses the word Picturesque in his correspondence; even though his companion Brown, in Walks in the North , offers the clear sign-post: “Here are the beautiful and sublime in unison,” ( Letters , 428), Bate, in his tomeish biography, avoids such inkish sully. [52]Keats’ early literary life was marked by constant frustrations: “. . . I have not an Idea to put to paper—my hand feels like lead . . . I don’t know what to write” (qtd. Bate, 342). [53]Indeed, Keats shortly hereafter saw the first waterfall of his entire life. [54]Perhaps suffering still from college comparison examples, a mind “in such a whirl in considering the million likings and antipathies of our Moments,” Keats, in about of anne frank, a letter filled with similar portrayal, ironically concludes: “. . . descriptions are bad at all times” ( Letters , 301).

Compared to John Hughes’ comment (Section Two), this represents by no means a development in the poetic continuum as Keats’ leanings towards the dramatic. [55]Supporting this, and in the context of the picturesque: “Turner undoubtedly had what John Gage has perceptively called ‘an almost obsessive readiness to associate ideas’” (Shanes, 21). [56]Indeed, Keats’ “negative capability,” unless we suspect that he, like Coleridge, was—to quote Edgar Allen Poe—”buried in metaphysics” seems a direct challenge to comparison essay Wordsworth. The notion itself germinated from a lecture on a world essay, Shakespeare given by Keats’ friend, Hazlitt, who stated that Shakespeare. was the least of an egotist that it was possible to be. He was nothing in himself; but he was all that others were, or that they could become. He had in himself not only the germs of every faculty and feeling, but he could follow them by anticipation, intuitively, into all their conceivable ramification . College Essay! . . He had only to essay think of anything in order to become that thing, with all the circumstances belonging to it. (qtd. Bate, 260)

It is college comparison and contrast essay, no surprise that Keats should whole-heartedly adopt the idea, not only since there is no superior poet to emulate, but because it was so oppositional to the crowned King of romantic poetry: Wordsworth. [57]Perhaps in revolt against the popular, Keats, as in this instance, makes a studious, though far from successful, effort to avoid the word picturesque , even when the description itself spells out the word. Also, ruins are the single most common scenic feature of the tour. [58]In 1739, on a tour of the Alps, Thomas Gray cunningly wrote: Mont Cenis, I confess, carries the without internet essay permission mountains have of being frightful rather too far; and its horrors were accompanied with too much danger to give one time to reflect upon their beauties. (qtd Woodring, 34) In 1803, Coleridge, overwhelmed and college comparison essay, over-tired, abandoned a tour with William and Dorothy Wordsworth. Proof, perhaps, that the sublime can get the essay better of the egotistical. [59]A continuation, perhaps, of the question, “How is it they did not [various picturesque and sublime scenes] beckon Burns to some grand attempt at Epic” ( Letters , 331). [60]The reappearance of the and contrast Druid Circle is taken as a given.

[61]“. . . to one whom you understand intends to be immortal” ( Letters , 305).