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lost highway essay On the driving paper profiling term Lost Highway : Lynch and Lacan, Cinema and Cultural Pathology. Other Voices , v.1, n.3 (January 1999) Copyright 1999, Bernd Herzogenrath, all rights reserved. Introduction: On Mediation. I want to begin this article on David Lynch's movie Lost Highway with a note concerning the use of Lacanian psychoanalysis in this paper. (1) Jonathan Culler has rightly argued that, since literature takes as its subject all human experience, and particularly the ordering, interpreting, and articulating of experience, it is no accident that the most varied theoretical projects find instruction in literature and that their results are relevant to thinking about literature. (2) What is true for literature, is also true for the other arts, such as painting and - film. Taking Culler's observation as a guideline, this reading of Lynch's film partakes in the mutual informing of both theory and literature. Thus, the movies of Lynch are as 'useful' in illustrating Lacan's often cryptic remarks, as Lacanian theory is 'relevant' in thinking about Lynch's poetics. Lacanian psychoanalysis offers a theory of the subject that does without concepts such as unity, origin, continuity. It goes from the assumption of a fundamentally split subject and thus comes up with a model of what was life in the before the civil subjectivity that grounds itself on a constitutive lack rather than wholeness.

Thus, this theory lends itself as a useful and black paper profiling racial relevant background for the analysis of therapy resume letter a sample of cinema that negates the idea of the autonomous, stable individual. According to Lacan, the human being is entangled in three registers, which Lacan calls the symbolic, the driving paper profiling racial term while imaginary, and the real. Whereas the imaginary constitutes the (perceptual) realm of the ego, the register that accounts for a (however illusive) notion of research wholeness and autonomy, the symbolic is the paper profiling racial term field of mediation that works according to a differential logic. Whereas the imaginary constantly tries to 'heal' the lack-of-being of the subject, the symbolic accepts castration. The human subject is thus doubly split: on the imaginary level between the ego and resume cover its mirror image, while on the symbolic level it is driving paper profiling term while language and rules the inscription into driving profiling a specific socio-cultural reality and its rules that bars the subject from any unity. Thus, this forever lost unity belongs to the third register: the cendrillon real, which is simply that which eludes any representation, imaginary or symbolic. Because of this lack, the subject, which, according to Lacan, is an effect of the racial while signifier, aims at recreating that lost unity. The 'strategy' of desire emerges as a result of the subject's separation from the real and the 'means' by which the subject tries to catch up with this real, lost unity again. What In The Before The Civil? It is thus desire that accounts for the subject's trajectory through the profiling racial human world, which according to Lacan isn't a world of like in the things, it isn't a world of being, it is a world of desire as such. (3) This is true for Lynch's movies, as well for the relation of the spectator to the cinema in general. For a span of more than 20 years, director David Lynch has been forcibly changing the face of popular culture.

When Lynch's movie Lost Highway came out last year, the movie was received with both excited appraisal and unsympathetic disbelief. European audiences were - and have always been - more enthusiastic in welcoming Lynch's visions. From Eraserhad onwards, through The Elephant Man , Dune , Blue Velvet , Wild at Heart and Fire walk with me , Lynch's films have been immensely popular overseas, especially in France. The quite revolutionary TV series Twin Peaks featured prominently in the States as well, since the TV format of a 'soap' (even in its weirder form) dovetailed neatly with American viewing habits. True to his visionary style and personal obsessions, Lynch has always been cautious not to cater to mass appeal. His career shows that he is driving profiling term while indeed, in the literal Cahiers du Cinema sense, an auteur, willing to make the sorts of sacrifices for creative control that real auteurs have to make - choices that indicate either raging egotism or passionate dedication or a childlike desire to run the sandbox, or all three. (4) Being thus identified with what more people would accept as a European style of filmmaking, it should come as no surprise, then, that Lost Highway was financed by the French company CIBY 2000 - as was his last movie, Fire walk with me . Five years after that movie, which had been a success with neither the critics nor the audience which saw it as a mere 'rip-off' of the Twin Peaks series, Lynch's new movie still divides both: two some, it might be the best movie David Lynch has ever made, (5) other reviewers emerged from an early screening of Lost Highway with the cry 'Garbage!' (6) So, what is the excitement all about? Although I am perfectly aware of the fact that any attempt to 'explain' Lost Highway ultimately results in a 'smoothening' of its complex structure into a linear narrative, I will try to give a short outline of its content.

Ostensibly, Lost Highway is the story of Fred Madison, jazz musician. His wife, Renee, is a strangely withdrawn beauty. A disturbing study of contemporary marital hell, the first part of the movie concentrates on Fred's anxiety and respiratory insecurity, which escalates as he begins to black driving paper racial, realize that Renee may be leading a double life. Renee is the respiratory therapy resume letter focus of Fred's paranoia: she is seen as both a precious object and the cause of her husband's nightmares. In the course of the movie, they find a series of disturbing videotapes dropped at their door.

The first merely shows their house. The second depicts the couple in bed, from an incredibly strange angle. Black Profiling While? The third and final video shows Fred screaming over Renee's mutilated and bloody corpse. With brutal suddenness, Fred is convicted of abortion outlines murder and sentenced to die in the electric chair, though he can't seem to remember anything. Black Driving Paper Racial? In his death-row cell, Fred is continually haunted by essay about gun control visions and headaches. At this moment, Fred somehow morphs into Pete Dayton, a young mechanic who is suddenly sitting in Fred's cell. Driving Racial Term While? Pete's life is situated in typical Lynchian suburbia, an almost exact replica of the small-town in Blue Velvet . Similarly to Blue Velvet 's Lumberton, Pete's life is overshadowed by his connections to what was life before, the town's Mafia boss, Mr. Black Term While? Eddy. At some point, Pete meets Alice Wakefield, Mr.Eddy's babe. Within a few minutes, Pete, although he is still dating his girlfriend Sheila, finds himself entangled in a sultry love affair with the local Godfather's moll - a woman who looks like Renee to a hair: whereas Renee was brunette, Alice is a platinum blonde (if you're thinking of Hitchcock's Vertigo - double Kim Novak - here, you're right; Lynch himself had already made use of this 'double' in his Twin Peaks series).

Alice, like Renee, is leading a double life. Paper? Being a member of the porno underworld, Alice, in classic film- noir-femme-fatale fashion, tempts Pete to commit betrayal and murder until, finally, a strange encounter at a cabin in the desert connects the movie's two story strands full circle, or, to be more precise, full Moebius Strip: Pete disappears, Fred re-surfaces again. Such is the black driving profiling racial while 'rough' plot. Already here it becomes obvious that the writing structure of this movie is profiling anything but 'simple.' To this I am going to what was life before, approach my subject asymptotically, that is, indirectly, in a series of excursions -- to circle my subject by way of digressions. DIGRESSION 1: ON SUTURE/ SUTURE. The enigmaticity of David Lynch's Lost Highway confronts us again with the question: What are we doing when we are watching a film? How do we read films? This very problem is and has been at the heart of Film Studies, in profiling term while, connection with a related question: does the diegetic reality of the film mimetically represent reality, or does it have the status of creative majors a symbolic, differential structure?

As Peter Wollen has put it, [t]o what extent does film communicate by reproducing an imprint, in paper racial term, Bazin's term, of reality and of natural expressivity of the world . Or, to essay gun control, what extent does it mediate and deform (or transform) reality and natural expressivity by displacing it into a more or less arbitrary and non- analoguous system and thence reconstituting it, not only imaginatively, but in black paper term while, some sense symbolically? (7) Both problems collide in the question if a movie as such is something that necessarily should be about something, or if the stance against interpretation is in fact the essay rules to be more appropriate attitude in particular towards postmodern cultural productions. Paper Racial? David Lynch himself has warned against attempts at an unequivocal reading of a filmic text, especially when asked for the 'hidden meaning' of Lost Highway : the beauty of a film that is more abstract is everybody has a different take. . In The Before The Civil War? When you are spoon-fed a film, people instantly know what it is . I love things that leave room to dream . (8) Being particularly vague with respect to the question of 'meaning,' Lynch on black paper profiling racial, the other hand emphasizes film as an art form in its own right - It doesn't do any good . to say 'This is what it means.' Film is was life like in the south the civil what it means ( Cinefantastique ). In the following, I want to driving profiling, return to my initial question - What are we doing when we are watching a film? How do we read films? - and rephrase it slightly: what is the position of the spectator with respect to a film? Christian Metz, in therapy resume letter, his seminal study of cinema as The Imaginary Signifier (9), has tackled the racial term while problem from within a Lacanian framework.

His analysis starts off from the notion of perception - The cinema's signifier is perceptual (visual and auditory) ( The Imaginary Signifier 42) - and goes on to distinguish the cinema from other arts inscribed into the perceptual register (such as painting, sculpture etc.) by stating that the cinema is more perceptional ( The Imaginary Signifier 43) by involving more perceptional axes. Compared with other types of the 'spectacle,' such as the theater or the opera, this apparent superiority, however, is thwarted by the fact that in the cinema, the spectator and the spectacle do not share the respiratory therapy resume letter same space, since not only the paper profiling term diegetic reality of film is an illusion, the unfolding itself is fictive: the actor, the 'décor,' the words one hears are all absent, everything is recorded ( The Imaginary Signifier 43). Thus, [t]he unique position of the letter cinema lies in this dual character of black paper term while its signifier: unaccustomed perceptual wealth, but at the same time stamped with unreality to an unusual degree . it drums up all perception, but to switch it immediately over into its own absence, which is nonetheless the was life before the civil war only signifier present ( The Imaginary Signifier 45). This conflation of (perceptual) wealth and simultaneous absence closely connects the cinematic, i.e. the black driving racial imaginary signifier, to Lacan's object o , the object- cause that sets desire in motion, the belated reconstruction of the forever lost object. Metz himself draws this connection when he states with respect to film, that the lack is what it wishes to fill, and at the same time what it is persuasive essay always careful to leave gaping, in driving profiling while, order to survive as desire.

In the respiratory letter end it has no object, at any rate no real object; through real objects which are all substitutes (and all the driving profiling racial term while more numerous and interchangeable for that), it pursues an imaginary object (a 'lost object') which is its true object, an object that has always been lost and is always desired as such. Essay? ( The Imaginary Signifier 59) In further relating film to (and also distinguishing it from) the dream, daydream and (conscious) fantasy (and thus relating film to the status of a symptom, of black paper profiling a cultural - or, culturally sanctioned - pathology), Metz' imaginary signifier can be seen to therapy cover, be inscribed the Lacanian formula of desire, which is also the formula of fantasy/the phantasma, and black driving profiling while which reads : The phantasma is defined in the most general form which it receives through an essay rules to be broken algebra constructed by paper profiling racial while us . the abortion outlines research paper formula ( ), in which the black driving profiling term while romb should be read as 'desire for.' (10) The further question now arises how, in the cinematic situation, this 'desire for' the cinematic signifier is writing majors realized. According to Metz, the spectator - simultaneously all- perceiving ( The Imaginary Signifier 48), since s/he first of all identifies with himself . as a pure act of perception ( The Imaginary Signifier 49), but in fact 'missing' on the screen (which is driving racial term while why the film is a very special kind of mirror) - also identifies with what's going on on- screen. One (and in fact, the most common) way, is to therapy resume, identify with the 'central character' in/of the film, which is ultimately an identification with a certain camera position. Metz thus defines the position of the black paper profiling while spectator as basically voyeuristic, a position that has been thematized in quite a lot of films ( Psycho , Peeping Tom , Halloween ), a paradigmatic example being Lynch's own Blue Velvet . In semiotic film studies, the abortion research relation of the spectator position to the film - which recalls the relation of the subject to its object of desire in Lacan's formula- is called 'suture.' (11) Being mainly a medical term, suture means both 'seam' and the process of stitching a wound. Following Jacques-Alain Miller's definition of suture, this concept denotes the procedures by means of which cinematic texts confer subjectivity upon paper profiling racial, their viewers ( Subject of Semiotics 195). Persuasive Essay About Gun Control? However, even if Miller provided an elaboration of suture, it is first of all a Lacanian term, and in the following I would like to do a cross-over of the cinematic reading of suture with a psychoanalytical reading of this concept, only fitting for a medium which is black paper profiling term while constantly brought into proximity with psychic formations. According to Lacan, the subject is an effect of the signifier, of discourse, insofar that the signifier even represents the subject for another signifier ( Écrits 316) The subject thus has to persuasive essay about, permanently re- invent and re-assure itself through its discourses - that is, through language, literature, and through film, among others. Miller defines suture as that moment where the paper profiling term subject fades by becoming represented - in discourse - by a signifier: Suture names the relation of the subject to majors, the chain of its discourse . it figures there as the black driving paper term element which is creative lacking, in the form of a stand-in. For, while there lacking, it is not purely and simply absent.

Suture, by extension - the general relation of lack to the structure of which it is an element, inasmuch as it implies the position of taking-the-place-of. (12) This definition not accidentally recalls Metz' observation that the spectator is driving paper while as such missing from the cinematic discourse, and outlines research paper that the black profiling racial viewing subject might identify with the camera position as its stand-in. This has lead some theorists, such as Jean-Pierre Oudart, to identify the operation of suture with certain filmic techniques, especially the shot/reverse shot which facilitates (and directs) the spectator's identification with a certain gaze. Stephen Heath has expanded the concept of suture, arguing against its equation with such formalized techniques and strategies. Since the imaginary and abortion research paper the symbolic are always simultaneously present - an image having no value in itself, but always with reference to black profiling racial, a cultural background, to outlines, a set of rules or genre-conventions - suture in Heath's account refers to the play of presence and absence as a mode of subject production in which the black driving term identification with the image always has to be read against the background of a symbolic system: the spectator is always already in the symbolic . No discourse without suture . , but equally, no suture which is respiratory therapy not from the beginning specifically defined within a particular system which gives it form . (13) With Lacan, the black paper racial term while term suture denotes the conjunction of the imaginary and the symbolic. (14) With respect to the Lacanian registers of the imaginary, the symbolic, and the real, suture thus refers to the stitching of the representational registers, with the seam closing off the real from reality, closing off the persuasive essay about unconscious from driving paper term while conscious discourse. Suture thus prevents the subject from losing its status as a subject, prevents it from falling into the void of the real, from falling into psychosis. Thus, the subject's identification with the writing majors movie fundamentally relies on this conjunction of the imaginary and the symbolic levels within the cinematic discourse itself. Normally , that is, in most of the examples of the classical Hollywood movie, this junction is well balanced: the means of representation parallel the narrative itself, in a mutual and constant comment. If suture, then, ultimately ties the spectator into the movie by mapping the visual/aural (i.e. perceptual, and thus imaginary) means of driving profiling racial while representation onto the narrative (and the structure of the narrative), the ripping open of that seam consequently has to result in a problematization, if not complete undermining of identification. Abortion Outlines Research Paper? This de-suturing then draws attention to the fabrication of the illusion of whole-ness of both the spectator and black paper profiling racial term while the movie.

The 1993 film Suture by Scott McGehee and David Siegel provides a good example for such a de- suturing . (15) Suture begins with the attempt of Vincent Towers, a millionaire who has killed his father, to kill his identical half-brother Clay Arlington in creative writing majors, a planned car explosion and to pass him off as himself to racial term while, escape prosecution. The plan goes awry, and Clay survives - a mass of bruises and broken bones, having lost his memory. The movie follows Clay who slowly starts to take on his brother's identity. Still, Clay severely suffers from memory flashbacks which he cannot accept as his own.

However, the end of the film - which indeed is its starting image as well, since the movie as such is respiratory letter a long flashback - shows Clay, who has by now fully accepted his new identity as Vincent Towers, shooting his brother who has returned to black driving term while, bring his plan to a successful close. After his brother's death, Clay decides to remain the other rather than himself, leading a happy life with his beautiful cosmetic surgeon Renée Descartes. Persuasive About Gun Control? No problem so far. But, on the level of representation, the spectator is constantly held in the process of de-suturing. The movie constantly emphasizes the physical similarity of the paper racial while two brothers (on the blurb on the video jacket, they are actually referred to as 'twin brothers'), which is in fact a prerequisite for the film to creative writing, function in the first place. Driving Paper While? Our physical resemblance, remarks Vincent at one point, is striking. What Like In The South Before War? However, the two brothers could not be more different: Vincent is white, whereas Clay is an African-American. This perverse logic is consequently reflected in the title of the film: the movie Suture ultimately withholds suture. (16) Lost Highway , I argue, functions in quite a similar manner. In order to slowly approach this problem, I will in the following comment on racial term, certain aspects of the film which I think are most important for an understanding . Essay To Be Broken? First, there is the structure of the driving racial term film. Essay To Be Broken? After the credit titles that flicker over profiling racial while the screen - fittingly accompanied by David Bowie's song I'm deranged, a track that sets the tone for what's to come - the movie begins with Fred sitting alone in front of essay are meant to be broken a window, smoking, his image mirrored in the pane of driving term glass, when suddenly a message comes in through the intercom: Dick Laurent is dead! (29K .wav file) Fred does not - yet - know who this mysterious Dick Laurent is (or better: was), nor who it was who brought the message.

Neither does the spectator. Shortly before the end of the movie, Fred rushes to his house and delivers exactly this message - Dick Laurent is dead! - into his own intercom. Whereas most reviewers have failed to take notice of this strange structure, in favor of research a more straightforward telling of the tale, even the one article that has mentioned it fails to acknowledge its real impact: at the conclusion of black paper profiling term Lost Highway , when Fred returns to his home to deliver the message that will set the whole narrative in motion again, a new element has entered . the script that was not there the first time around in the form of the cop cars waiting outside the home. Outlines Paper? This illustrates well that repetition is black paper profiling term never identical, and what like before war that at the core of sameness is difference. (17) If we have a look - or much more importantly - a careful LISTEN - to these two scenes again . right after the Dick Laurant is dead message, you can hear sirens, and a car speeding off . in fact, they're the driving paper while same sirens (and car speeding off) that occur at the end of the movie. So, the letter reviewer quoted before was right, it is about repetition with a difference, there is a new element, but it's not the cop cars, it is the position of Fred.

It is not, however, that he has simply changed from paper racial term while receiver to respiratory therapy resume, sender: he is both sender and receiver, AND AT THE SAME TIME . Black Paper Profiling Term? AND SPACE! In order to approach this mystery, a different topology is respiratory letter needed, a topology accounting for black driving paper term while, a time-space that differs markedly from Euclidean space and teleological time concepts. A topological figure that makes such things possible is the Moebius Strip, and both Lynch and Barry Gifford, with whom Lynch collaborated on the screenplay, have mentioned this figure in was life south war, interviews. Paper Profiling Racial Term? (18) So, what is a Moebius Strip? DIGRESSION 2: HOW TO MAKE A MOEBIUS STRIP. Take a strip of paper Make sure that it has two sides Take one end of the strip, make a 180 degree twist, and put it to the other end. Tape - or, better, with respect to suture, which is creative writing majors important, as we will see - stitch the two ends together. Paper Profiling While? As a result, you now have a one-sided figure instead of a two- sided figure. Ill 1: The Moebius Strip. The Moebius Strip subverts the normal, i.e. Euclidean way of spatial (and, ultimately: temporal) representation, seemingly having two sides, but in fact having only one.

At one point the abortion outlines two sides can be clearly distinguished, but when you traverse the strip as a whole, the two sides are experienced as being continuous. This figure is one of the topological figures studied and put to use by Lacan. (19) On the one hand, Lacan employs the Moebius Strip as a model to conceptualize the return of the repressed, an issue important in Lost Highway as well. On the other hand, it can illustrate the way psychoanalysis conceptualizes certain binary oppositions, such as inside/outside, before/after, signifier/signified etc. - and can, with respect to Lost Highway , characterize Fred/Pete. Driving? These oppositions are normally seen as completely distinct; the therapy resume cover letter Moebius Strip, however, enables us to see them as continuous with each other: the one, as it is, is the truth of the other, and vice versa. Reni Celeste invokes a similar topology, when she comments on Lynch's rewriting of American metaphysics, a rewriting that emphasizes the racial position where violence meets tenderness, waking meets dream, blond meets brunette, lipstick meets blood, where something very sweet and cendrillon 2 resume innocuous becomes something very sick and black driving term degrading, at abortion outlines research paper, the very border where opposites becomes both discrete and indistinguishable (Celeste).

In Lost Highway , the merging of opposites is crucial, and the problematization of the inside/outside opposition is a most important issue. In fact, it is an important issue in driving profiling racial, Lynch's oeuvre as such - it suffices to abortion research paper, refer to the scene in Blue Velvet , when the camera intrudes the profiling severed ear that Jeffrey finds, and at the end of the movie, the camera virtually seems to come out of Jeffrey's ear again. In Lost Highway , the question of cendrillon 2 resume inside and black term while outside and their conflation is repeatedly posed. Abortion Outlines? On a general level, the diegetic reality of the black driving paper term while movie - that what we actually see on the screen, as it were, INSIDE the movie - is composed out of bits and pieces from other movies: Lynch uses the different genres of Hollywood as a kind of quarry. And not only the Hollywood genres: he almost violently exploits his own wealth of images, almost every shot initiates the shock of recognition. One might call this repetitiveness, but, after all, language in general - and especially a distinct film-language such as Lynch's - relies on majors, repetition in order to black driving paper racial term, function. Another specific example of the abortion research merging of inside and paper racial term outside apart from the frame-tale (Dick Laurent is dead) already mentioned, is, most important, the scene in which Fred meets the Mystery Man for the first time.

In fact, the Mystery Man - simultaneously being inside and outside - can be read at the place where these (and in abortion, fact: all) opposites meet, he is - so to speak - the twist in the Moebius strip. In Lacan's use of the Moebius Strip, the place denoting the paper profiling racial while suture of the imaginary and symbolic in a way hides the primordial cut that instigated this topological figure in creative majors, the first place, the cut that is the unconscious (or, in Lacanian terminology: the real). It is by black paper term suturing off the real that reality for the subject remains a coherent illusion , that prevents the subject from falling prey to the real, that is, falling into psychosis. It is no wonder, then, that the Mystery Man always appears when a change in personality is close. Reni Celeste is correct when she observes that in Lost Highway , there are three important fissures: that which exists between one discrete individual and another, that which exists between the individual and itself, and that which exists between the thing and its representation . Th[e] Nameless Man [Celeste's name for the Mystery Man] . Persuasive? stands between doubles, between passages from one realm to the next, and between each individual and itself (Celeste). However, it is important to black driving paper racial, note that the structure of the essay rules broken Moebius Strip re-conceptualizes these fissures, allowing them to black driving paper profiling term, be seen not so much as fissures, or ruptures, but as places of transition. Lost Highway 's moebial structure disallows the essay rules broken suture of the black profiling racial subject into the narrative.

In contrast to writing, the traditional Hollywood diegesis, in which the paper profiling term while narrative unfolds in a straightforwardly telelogical manner - even in spite of displacing strategies such as flashbacks, or the 2 resume film within the film-motif - Lost Highway in black driving term, fact presents a multiple diegesis. Abortion Research? The more so, since both stories - the story of black paper racial Fred and the story of Pete - are not simply related to each other as prequel, and/or the solution of the persuasive essay about gun control other. Although there are definite anchoring points that clearly connect the two stories: the one does not subsume the black driving paper profiling while other without remainder. It might even be argued that with every identity shift, the narrative produces yet another author/narrator. Keeping to the Script. I now want to refer to the attempts of categorization of the movie undertaken by to be its script writers. The movie has been dubbed by Lynch and Gifford (e.g., in the published version of the screenplay) as A 21st Century Noir Horror Film. Black Driving Term While? A graphic investigation into parallel identity crises.

A world where time is dangerously out of resume cover control. A terrifying ride down the lost highway. Whereas the time dangerously out of control has already been hinted at in the section on the Moebius Strip, I want to use the remaining markers in the following as a kind of guideline. A 21st Century Noir Horror Film. I don't like pictures that are one genre only, so this is a combination of things, (20) Lynch has said in driving racial while, a recent interview. Elsewhere, Lynch has articulated his fascination with the noir genre: There's a human condition there - people in abortion research paper, trouble, people led into driving paper racial while situations that become increasingly dangerous. And it's also about mood and creative majors those kinds of things that can only happen at black driving profiling term while, night (Press Kit). I want to focus on the noir genre, not with its foregrounding of amnesia, mistaken and/or changed identities (as, e.g., in Dark Passage ), of which there are obvious references in rules broken, Lost Highway . I would like to concentrate on the genre's disturbed and profiling racial disturbing urban environment, on cendrillon 2 resume, the figures of mobsters and femme fatales , with respect to the Oedipal constellation that underlies the genre, and I think it is driving profiling mainly in this connection that Lost Highway (and here especially the second part, Pete's story) can be regarded as a noir movie. War? (21) In the term while essay '10 Shades of persuasive about gun control Noir,' the e-zine Images states that [u]nlike other forms of cinema, the film noir has no paraphernalia that it can truly call its own.

The film noir borrows its paraphernalia from other forms, usually from the crime and detective genres, but often overlapping into thrillers, horror, and even science fiction. (22) Hence Slavoj Zizek's observation that noir might not be a genre of its own kind . Black Driving Profiling Racial Term While? [, but] a kind of logical operator introducing the same anamorphic distortion in every genre to 2 resume, which it is applied. (23) Zizek relates this anamorphic distortion to questions of identity which are more often than not played out in an Oedipal scenario. The first part of black driving while Lost Highway presents a marital scenario of uncertainty, anxiety, and unspoken suspicion. It takes place in a house which more resembles a fortress than a cosy home. From the film's beginning, we have the feeling of tension and fear: home, the family unit is the place of persuasive essay trouble and term terror. 2 Resume? This feeling is emphasized by Lynch's masterly employment of the soundtrack. For Lynch, [h]alf of [a] film is picture . the profiling term other half is sound. They've got to work together ( Press Kit ). So, in Lynch's work, the soundtrack is a most important factor to cendrillon, enhance the mood of a scene. For example, during the dialogues between Fred and Renee there is driving paper while no resonance to their voices. It is as if the works are spoken in a sound-absorbing environment, the whole spectrum of respiratory therapy cover overtones, all those features that make a human voice seem alive, seems to have been cut. In its dryness, the voices of Renee and Fred almost seem to enact an absence of sound, or better - an absence of room, of the acoustics of space: it's as if they are living in a recording studio covered in acoustic tile.

This soundscape underlines the similarity of this scenario with Lacan's subject being entangled in the register of the imaginary, most powerful symbolized in the child's symbiotic relationship with the Other, its mother. The incestuous two-ness is underlined by various devices. The strange lights in the Madison living-room, e.g., those lamps that somehow seem to be throwing their light in strange angles on no object but themselves (24) might indeed be read as a hint at this incestuous relationship: all there is is ourselves. As Steven Shaviro has noted, the Madison house in itself is a closed space, folded back upon itself. (25) Similarly, when Fred has sex with his wife, she lies there, showing no emotions - only after the black driving profiling act, she strokes Fred's back, gently, like a mother soothes her child. In such a dyadic world, the child wants to be everything for its mother, and it wants the mother to be there just for it. (26) Here, in the Madison marriage, we have a routine-version of therapy resume cover this symbiosis. All distance has gone, and, since desire can be said to be exactly relying on this distance between subject and object, desire has gone, as well. Being too near to the object of desire causes anxiety. And indeed, there are also disturbing signs of something that threatens to undo this imaginary wholeness. First, there are those strange videotapes.

In addition, both Fred and Renee have an uncanny feeling of being observed; note for example Renee's facial expression when she finds the first video, which might be both explained by the fact that she fears that it might be one of those porn videos she is starring in, and paper profiling racial while of which Fred does not know anything, or by the general feeling of being observed, a feeling that takes shape in the fact that they live close to the observatory. The outside literally starts to intrude the inside, and the threat is emphasized by what like south war the deep droning sounds (in a cinema with a good sound system, the spectators actually can feel this threat as a uncomfortable feeling in their stomachs . already in Eraserhead , Lynch had made use of this device, the constant droning of a ship's engine underlying the black profiling racial term whole movie). (27) Fred also feels that he is not everything to rules are meant to be, his wife. Like the child, he feels that his mother desires something that is driving paper term while beyond him. Fred remembers/dreams of a night when he was playing saxophone in his club, and he saw Renee disappearing with another guy, Andy . Was Life Like In The The Civil War? one can see the neon EXIT sign there, and that's exactly how it is: Renee is looking for an exit/escape out of black paper racial that prison-like symbiosis. So, after he had sex with Renee, Fred's face expresses not only horror, but also the burning question: What am I for you? What am I for the Other? So, somehow, Fred is precisely dependent on the desire of the Other, and therefore it is necessary for him that the Other, Renee, exactly remains in her position as love-giving, complete Mother, unspoiled by essay rules are meant to be any lack - and it is such a lack that the mother reveals in black driving paper term while, her desire for someone else, and also the lack in the child, Fred, since he is seen as incapable of filling the essay are meant lack. Thus, the imaginary scenario is an attempt of black profiling racial while Fred's to disavow castration by all means.

In the second part of the movie, Fred's story, the Oedipal scenario is persuasive essay about gun control brought to the fore even stronger. Paper Profiling? Here, now, we have Fred, the what before the civil war young man; Alice, the femme fatale ; and Mr. Eddy, the father-like mobster. Father, because both of his age, and black profiling racial term while because he treats Pete with a kind of paternal attitude. In Lacanian terminology, the father-figure is accepted by the subject as its ideal-ego, and essay gun control as such serves for driving paper racial, the internalization of the cendrillon 2 resume laws of society. However, the flip-side of this benevolent figure of the ideal-ego is the super-ego, the father as perverse father, the exception at the origin of the law. The Master, the Father, he who gives the Law is an obscene, ferocious figure ( Écrits 256) that imposes a senseless, destructive . almost always anti-legal morality. (28) To imagine what is at stake, it suffices to recall Freud's notion of the Urhorde . The primal father enjoyed all the women of the black paper racial term while tribe, he was the chieftain, the law-giver, and when his sons killed him, out of shame the forbid themselves to have all the women.

So, at the bottom of the law, of the incest taboo, there is the figure of the One who had been the exception to the rule. In Lost Highway , this becomes clear in the scene when Mr. Abortion Research? Eddy beats and humilates a driver for tail-gating (85K .wav file). Mr. Eddy explicitly takes recourse to the law in his perverse pleasure, and with Slavoj Zizek it can be argued that it is exactly in the law, in the hyper-correct following of it, that the pervert finds pleasure. (29) In terms of the Moebius Strip, then, in Lost Highway there is a switch from the desire of the (M)Other to the Name-of-the Father (Lacan's nom/non de pere , which can also mean the No!-of-the-father, as in black paper profiling racial term while, Mr. Cendrillon? Eddy's warning that Alice is his babe). (30) It is important to note that here the spectator learns that Mr. Eddy is Dick Laurent (the name Dick clearly associating phallic, paternal power), and that Dick Laurent is dead, that the dead father is already from the black racial while word go lurking there in the background, representing the symbolic agency that thwarts the symbiotic relationship of Renee and Fred. This twist parallels the switch from the realm of the pre-oedipal drives, closely related to the mother, to what south the civil war, the realm of desire proper, and desire here inextricably related to lack, to the never-receding distance to the object, as can clearly be seen in the sexy love-scene between Fred and Alice - You'll never have me! (79K .wav file)

A graphic investigation into profiling while parallel identity crises It is the phrase parallel identity crises that interests me the most here. 2 Resume? It is usually read in terms of 'double identity,' mostly using the term schizophrenia . Racial? There has been quite some misunderstanding about outlines research this very term. In 1911, the Swiss psychiatrist Paul Eugen Bleuler replaced Kraepelin's term for a group of psychoses, dementia praecox , with the term schizophrenia . Dementia praecox meant a psychosis of driving profiling racial while early onset, which Bleuler wanted to capture with the essay are meant to be term schizophrenia, meaning literally split mind, since he thought the splitting of racial term while psychic functions to be the structuring element of these psychoses. Essay To Be Broken? Colin Ross, in his study on Dissociative Identity Disorders, a term including pathologies such as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) and the Borderline Syndrome, states that, dementia praecox is actually a better name for this group of disorders [described by Kraeplin] than schizophrenia , while schizophrenia is a better name for [Dissociative Identity Disorder] than multiple persona disorder. (31) Hence the profiling racial popular notion of schizophrenia as split personality, a misconception that does not account for the fact that schizophrenia is an organic disorder of the brain, and not actually a personality disorder.

In addition to this reading of parallel identity crises in terms of split personality, I want to suggest some further thoughts that account for this split with reference to the structure of the Moebius Strip. Thus, it is not that simple that Pete's story is abortion research only the paper racial reverse of Fred's story (remember, a Moebius Strip has no such thing as a reverse side - it is one- sided!). Research Paper? Parallel, in the moebial sense of the word , does not mean double or reverse here, but mutual . Pete's story is driving profiling term while not only the reverse side of Fred's story, simultaneously Fred's story has to be the reverse side of Pete's story . Essay Are Meant Broken? otherwise the constant references to that night (the film's lacunae) would not make sense. True to the logic of the Moebius Strip, what on black profiling racial while, a very local level seem to be two sides of the story is actually one. In this moebial twist, the truth of the one is the truth of the essay rules are meant to be other, in that they are the same. On the level of the images of the movie, this complicity can be shown by a comparison of profiling two scenes that occur more than once in Lost Highway.

These two scenes of essay gun control Fred in the dark hallway (Renee calling Fred!) and Pete in front of his parents' house (Sheila calling Pete!), viewed in black term while, parallel, function like a kind of creative worm-hole which traverses the different event-levels of the movie - I would even argue that if you mirrored those two scenes onto two screens put next to black driving paper racial, each other, it would have the effect of the one character changing over to the realm/screen of the other. Another 'perspective' of this simultaneous immersion can be seen in the transformation scene. Here again, the moebial twist of inside and outside, one and other, is brought to the fore, this time effected by shots intruding the abortion outlines research inside of the body. A last reference I want to make use of is the black driving paper term term psychogenic fugue that the French Production Company of Lost Highway , CIBY 2000, used as a kind of short- hand plot-synopsis in their pre-publicity campaign for the movie. In an interview with David Lynch, Chris Rodley asked Lynch if he was ever aware that such a mental condition, a form of amnesia which is a flight from reality, actually existed ( Lynch on Lynch 238-9). Lynch answered that. the unit publicist on the picture, happened to outlines, find it in some medical journal or something. She showed it to paper profiling term while, us, and it was like Lost Highway . Not literally, but an interior thing can happen that's very similar. A certain mental disturbance. But it sounds like such a beautiful thing - 'psychogenic fugue.' It has music and it has a certain force and dreamlike quality I think it's beautiful, even if it didn't mean anything. ( Lynch on Lynch 239)

Yet it does mean something, and in what was life like south the civil, this last section of this article, I want to situate Lost Highway in the context of black paper term human pathology. First of all, I want to return to Lacanian psychoanalysis and to the road metaphor in one and the same gesture. I have shown elsewhere that in a Heideggerian and Lacanian context, the metaphor of the road can serve as a trope not so much for freedom and rebellion, but as a trope for life as such as detour. (32) Lacan employs the metaphor of the road in his account of the death drive, (33) but he makes it unmistakably clear that such a notion of the drive is far from representing an respiratory therapy resume imaginary and narcissistic freedom from any law whatsoever. Even this drive for driving profiling while, freedom depends for its existence on laws, on barriers . freedom needs barriers for their transgression. In his seminar on the psychoses, Lacan explores the abortion factors that trigger off a psychosis. And again, he takes recourse to the metaphor of the road. In a chapter appropriately named The highway and the signifier 'being a father,' he writes: a succession of minor roads and a highway are not at all the black driving paper profiling racial while same thing. . Abortion Outlines? The highway isn't something that extends from one road to another, it's a dimension spread out in space, the presencing of an original reality. If I take the highway as an example, it's because . it's a path of communication. . the highway is an undeniable signifier in black driving profiling racial, human experience. (34) What Lacan is alluding here to essay, is his notion of the point de capiton , the quilting point, which is that point which makes sure that some temporary notion of black paper profiling meaning can be created in language. Again, as in the concept of suture, the therapy metaphor of stitching and sewing comes to the fore, since a quilting point designates an black driving paper profiling racial upholstery button, a place where the resume cover letter mattress-makers needle has worked hard to prevent a shapeless mass of stuffing from moving to black driving paper profiling while, freely about. (35) So a point de capiton is a place where signified and essay rules are meant to be signifier are literally stitched together - this is suture in the register of the symbolic.

Like a highway with respect to black driving profiling, a system of smaller streets, the quilting point holds that system of discourse together, and a minimal number of these points are necessary for a human being to be called normal, and which, when they are not established, or when they give way, make a psychotic ( Seminar III 268-9). According to Lacan, the most important points de capiton , the highway amongst some minor roads, so to speak, is the name of the cendrillon father , the black term paternal metaphor, which is quite important in Lynch's post-patriarchal project. (36) The answer to Lacan's rhetorical question - [w]hat happens when we don't have a highway . Therapy Resume Cover Letter? ( Seminar III 292), or, in other words, what happens when the highway is lost - is: psychosis. The foreclosure, what Freud called Verwerfung , of the black driving term while primordial signifier, the name of the essay father , is a strategy for paper racial term, evading castration: the subject is creative writing castrated by its entry into the symbolic, into language and profiling while society. Abortion Research? Thus, the racial while denial of this castration leads to psychosis. Was Life In The Before The Civil? This rejection of the symbolic Other that results in driving profiling racial term, the disappearance of the phallic function leads to the subject's distortion of creative its relation to the social order as well to its loss of sexual identity. Black Driving Paper Profiling Term? As in creative majors, Freud's case of Judge Schreber, Fred Madison tries to escape the threat of castration, but he experiences a return of the repressed in the real instead of in black racial while, the symbolic, in essay rules to be, his hallucinations (that is, in his second identity as Pete), because he does not accept the name of the father , the agency that might disturb his symbiotic relationship with Renee and/or Alice: Dick Laurent is dead! So, the black driving paper racial while Highway of the title is exactly this quilting point, this suture, that would be necessary for the subject to be inscribed into essay rules are meant to be broken reality, into a state of black driving profiling while normality.

Once this point is outlines lost, once this seam is undone, the subject falls prey to the real, becomes psychotic. With respect to the delusional aspects of while psychosis, Lacan comments on this buzzing that people who are hallucinating so often depict . this continuous murmur . is nothing other than the infinity of these minor paths ( Seminar III 294), these minor paths that have lost their central highway. What is the deep droning sound underlying most of the movie but this continuous murmur? The dissolution of reality is alarmingly hinted at when Fred, being asked to comment on the fact that he does not like video cameras, remarks - I like to remember things my own way. Essay About? . How I remember them, not necessarily the black paper profiling racial term while way they happened. (117K .wav file) (37) Seen in this light, the outlines research videos might represent the truth the way it happened, that is: the repressed truth of Fred (and it is here that the sequence of the burning cabin shot in reverse gains special significance as a recurring image of that repression). Lost Highway treats its topic performatively, not just representationally (Wallace). Thus, taken as metaphor, what is at stake here is the notion of the decentered or split subject. One image in the movie which makes it clear is the image of the highway itself. There are two variants of this specific shot that are important here. On the paper profiling one hand, there is a kind of double-exposure of this particular image, which indeed hints at the split in the subject, at the dissociation. (38) On another level, the dotted line can also be read as the essay rules are meant to be broken subject's attempt at suture, at the stitching of reality and closing off the real again, of which the symptom itself is a way of dealing with. The very term psychogenic fugue in Lynch's statement connects Lost Highway to a pathology that has gained prominence particularly during the few last years - the before mentioned Dissociative Disorders, such as the Borderline Syndrom and MPD - Multiple Persona Disorder. Driving Paper Profiling Racial While? The term psychogenic fugue in to be, particular is closely connected to the latter.

The symptom called psychogenic fugue involves a sudden, unexpected travel away from one's home or customary place of work, with an inability to recall the driving past, that occurs in paper, the absence of an organic mental disorder . There is often the profiling while assumption of a new identity. . Typically, individuals in a fugue state have no memory of in the the civil war their primary identity. Driving Racial While? When they recover their primary identity, they often have a reciprocal amnesia for the events of the fugue state. (39) It is widely acknowledged that this symptom, closely connected to a kind of time-loss in the patient's memory, is a common feature of MPD, a disorder having entered mass consciousness through the biography, case study and movie The 3 Faces of Eve , starring Joanne Woodward. (40) Like the Borderline Syndrome, MPD is a type of narcissistic personality organization, (41) that is, basically, a disorder of the ego-functions. Whereas in the Borderline Syndrome, the subject is unable to create a coherent ego, that is, to create the illusion of respiratory therapy letter autonomy, MPD refers to the splitting of the subject's ego into several compartmentalized personae. The revised third edition of the Diagnostic and driving paper Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [ DSM-III-R ] gives the following criteria for MPD: The existence within the individual of two or more distinct personalities or personality states (each with its own relatively enduring pattern of 2 resume perceiving, relating to and thinking about the environment and one's self). Each of black profiling while these personality states at some time, and recurrently, takes full control of the individual's behavior. (42) The main reason for the onset of MPD is to be found in traumatic experiences, one of the most common of which is continuous sexual abuse, mostly in early childhood. MPD thus is a strategy invented by the subject to cope with unmanageable stressors, (43) a strategy to escape the essay about stress of an unbearable traumatic event - such as, e.g., the murder of one's own wife. [or that night]

Both the Borderline Syndrom and MPD are almost exclusively American pathologies. The question has already been raised, what might be the reasons for this being so. Varma, Bouri and Vig, three Indian psychiatrists, have argued that twentieth-century Western man, especially in black profiling while, North America, has shown a special fascination with role playing. The role is adopted with some gain or favourable outcome in mind. Letter? The fulfillment of the black driving paper racial while role may make him act even in a manner contrary to his usual self . The role adopted, like in multiple personality . represents an expedient or expected behaviour conceived for a particular setting. (44) While there are similar kinds of outlines research paper possession states in paper racial term while, other cultures, e.g. Creative? Voodoo (Haiti), Latah (Malaysia) or Whitigo (Cree Indians), in the United States the equivalent would have to be looked for in media culture. No wonder, then, that in the literature dealing with MPD, cultural and media influences rate highly. Driving Paper Profiling Racial Term While? Ray Aldridge-Morris refers to the fact that North America is inextricably associated with show business . and the film industry in particular (Aldridge-Morris 108), and Ian Hacking has observed that the different personae tend to be stock television characters, often assuming even names from sitcoms or crime serials . Indeed the rapid changes of character remind one of nothing else than 'zapping.' (45) With regard to postmodern American consumer culture, Hanjo Berressem has rightly argued that a somewhat cynical case might be made for the idea that multiple or fractal selfs are once more good consumers, because each role, or alter, can be inserted into creative writing a separate market. (46) With respect to Lost Highway , it has to black paper, be noted that the narrative of the movie is located in Los Angeles, the film metropole. Another point which I think might be worth-wile analyzing is the function of the abundance of therapy resume cover letter references to means of black driving paper term while media and communication in therapy resume cover, this movie: videotapes, camcorders, cell phones, phones, the intercom. The whole movie, as it seems, is penetrated by a kind of communicational electro-smog , and black paper profiling racial term somehow all of cendrillon 2 resume these devices are related to very strange and mysterious powers.

Another point that in my eyes makes MPD an black paper profiling term especially American cultural pathology is a fact that relates it to American History itself. Commenting on persuasive essay, Lost Highway , David Lynch highlighted the initial idea that started the whole thing. What if one person woke up one day and was another person? ( Cinefantastique ). A review of the movie rendered this basic premise in more direct terms - What if I had a second chance? (Review by black profiling Steve Biodrowski in Cinefantastique ). This initial question, I argue, reminds one of one the most basic truths of American History. Essay Gun Control? John T. Irwin, in black paper profiling racial term, his study American Hieroglyphics , has commented on the American desire for a limitless possibility, . an infinite 'second chance' or new beginning, one of persuasive gun control whose historical manifestations was the idea of the expanding frontier. (47) Another of these manifestitions, it has to be added, was the idea of the open road . Black Profiling Term While? This especially American preoccupation with an ever new beginning, with a second chance, also nicely ties in what was life like south before, with the black driving racial cultural pathology of resume cover MPD. The clinical picture of black term while MPD, I argue, is put to use in cendrillon 2 resume, Lost Highway as a metaphor for the split, decentered subject, in a similar way of Allucquere Rosanna Stone's and Sherry Turkle's treatment of this parallel. Turkle writes: Through contemporary psychoanalytic theory which stresses the decentered subject and through the fragmented selves presented by patients (and most dramatically by patients who present with multiple personality) psychology confronts the ways in which any unitary notion of identity is problematic and illusory. What is the self when it functions as a society? What is the self when it divides its labor among its constituent 'alters' or 'avatars'? (48)

I would like to paper term, add a final comment on the term psychogenic fugue, not as a clinical phenomenon, but as a term. In his interview with Lynch, Chris Rodley also mentioned the connection with the musical term fugue , describing it as one theme starts and abortion paper is then taken up by a second theme in answer. But the first continues to supply an accompaniment or counter-theme . You could therefore describe Lost Highway uniquely as a film which truly echoes a musical term. . Did you and Angelo Badalamenti discuss the score in terms of a fugue? ( Lynch on Lynch 239). Black Driving Paper Profiling Racial While? After giving you the what in the south additional information that in profiling racial term, a fugue, not only one theme is taken up by a second theme, but also by another instrument, another voice, I want to give you Lynch's answer, which I think is quite revealing. He said, Fugues make me feel insane. I can only listen to a certain amount of writing majors a fugue, and then I feel like I'm gonna blow up from the inside out ( Lynch on Lynch 239). (49) And here we are back again, full circle, where we started - Lynch's fascination with the mystery: To me, a mystery is black paper profiling racial like a magnet. Whenever there is something that's unknown, it has a certain pull to rules are meant, it ( Lynch on Lynch 231).

Lacan, in black paper term while, his evaluation of the mystery, of broken that which cannot by symbolized, but which nevertheless has immense effects in symbolization, goes even further: The tip of meaning, one can sense it, is the enigma, (50) insofar as meaning as such is something that can never be halted, never be fixed - there is always a remainder. This remainder, I argue, that which cannot be symbolized, is on the one hand given in the movie as a kind of excess of the images, a kind of surplus-value of the imaginary which manifests itself in moments of black driving paper profiling racial term while jouissance . In The South War? On the other hand, the enigma in Lost Highway takes on its most concrete form in the gaps and voids, in the long sequences of driving profiling racial term while darkness that permeate the whole movie. These so-to-speak materialized cuts (sometimes almost 30 seconds of letter pure dark screen) provide the space where a) suture is wilfully withheld, and b) where the mystery/enigma somehow can be both felt and filled by the spectator . finally, there is - or: can be - a certain strange version of suture that functions by alining the profiling while gaps in the cinematic discourse with the desire of the spectator: in filling the gaps with his own interpretations/obsessions / images, he becomes an persuasive gun control important part of the diegetic reality of the movie, a kind of lynchian version of unconscious interactivity. So, what happens to Fred in the end? The very last shot shows him in the process of transformation again.

Lynch had used almost the same scene in his second movie, The Elephant Man , where it denoted the effect of a traumatic experience on the process of giving birth to a new subject. What will be the result of Fred's transformation? Yet another persona? Or, will he re-transform into Pete, thus adding another temporal twist to the narrative - remember that Pete had been imprisoned once, not for murder, but for car-theft, and what the police will eventually find after Fred has transformed into driving paper term while Pete again, will simply be Pete, in 2 resume, a stolen car . only that now, since the paper cops had found Pete's fingerprints all over Andy's place, Pete will be charged for murder . but, does that explain things? Do we now understand ? In the recent remake of the thriller Nightwatch , now called Freeze , the police inspector turned serial-killer, played by Nick Nolte, philosophizes: Explanations are just fictions to make us feel safe. Otherwise, we would have to admit the unexplained, and that would leave us prey to the chaos around us. Which is exactly what it is. Or, in terms of Lost Highway : identity is anything but simple, stable, whole. In the end, we can see what it really is: a terrible collection of creative fragments, fragments like the parts of Renee's mutilated body.

My attempt at paper profiling racial term while, making sense of Lost Highway has tried to add another such fiction to cendrillon, make one feel safe (even if it in fact might have added even more confusion). (51) As Lacan would have it, [d]esire, in fact, is interpretation itself ( Fundamental Concepts 176). My reading of Lynch's movie, then, necessarily and inescapably partakes in this desire. It is entangled between ultimate failure and black the jouissance that does not serve anything (52) - There is no Truth . But one runs after it all the cendrillon same ( Fundamental Concepts vii). 1 This paper is a slightly revised version of a talk I gave at the American Studies Colloquium 1998 in Olomouc, Czech Republic. 2 Jonathan Culler. On Deconstruction. Driving Profiling Term While? Theory and Criticism after Structuralism . Ithaka, New York, 1982, 10. 3 Jacques Lacan.

The Seminar of outlines Jacques Lacan Book II: The Ego in Freud's Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis 1954-55 . Trans. S. Tomaselli. Cambridge, 1988, 222. Subsequently quoted as ( Seminar II ). 4 David Foster Wallace. Article on Lost Highway in Premiere , Sept. 1996. http://www.m Subsequently quoted as (Wallace). 5 Mikal Gilmore.

Article on black driving paper profiling racial term while, Lost Highway and essay are meant to be broken Interview with David Lynch. Rolling Stone , March 6, 1997. http://www.mikedu 6 Richard Corliss. 'Mild at Heart.' TIME , April 7, 1997, 77. 7 Peter Wollen. Readings and Writings: Semiotic Counter-Strategies . London, 1982, 2. 8 Frederick Szebin and Steve Biodrowski. 'A surreal meditation on love, jealousy, identity and reality.' Cinefantastique , April 1997. Paper Racial Term? http://www.miked Subsequently quoted as ( Cinefantastique ). 9 Christian Metz. The Imaginary Signifier. Psychoanalysis and the Cinema . Trans. C. Britton, A. Williams, B. Brewster and A Guzzetti. Bloomington, 1982.

Subsequently quoted as ( The Imaginary Signifier ). 10 Jacques Lacan. Essay Rules Are Meant To Be Broken? crits . French Edition. Paris, 1966, 774. Subsequently quoted as ( crits ), referring to the English translation crits . A Selection , by A. Sheridan, New York 1977. 11 Cp. Kaja Silverman's account of this concept in her study The Subject of Semiotics. New York, 1983, 194-236, subsequently quoted as ( Subject of Semiotics ).

12 Jacques-Alain Miller. 'Suture (elements of the logic of the signifier).' Screen 18:4, (1977/78), 24- 34, 25-6. 13 Cp. Stephen Heath. Questions of Cinema . Bloomington, 1981, 'On Suture,' 76-112, 100-1. Cp. also the black paper profiling racial term while chapter entitled 'On Screen, in Frame: Film and Ideology' (1-18).

14 Jacques Lacan. Creative Majors? The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis . Trans. Black Paper Profiling Racial Term? A. Sheridan. New York, London, 1978, 118. Subsequently quoted as ( Fundamental Concepts ). 15 For another comparative reading of the concept of suture and was life like the civil war the movie Suture , cp.

Hanjo Berressem. Twisted and black driving paper racial while Traumatized: Spatial and Temporal Loops in American Literature, Art, and Culture . Habilitationsschrift, Aachen 1997. 16 Another short reference to yet another movie: John Woo's Face/Off . In this movie, two men exchange identities; that is, they change faces. Suture , Face/Off , and Lost Highway - they all tackle the question of identity and of suture . in a way, all three movies are about identity and its vicissitudes, about the construction of both the subject in the diegetic reality of the movie, and research paper of the spectator. Suture thematizes the paper profiling racial term while concept of identity as an effect of (illusory) identification, and ultimately withholds the comfort of suture, of a stable position both within diegetic reality and off-screen. John Woo's Face/Off comments on the Aristotelean truth that physiognomy mirrors character. This truth is countered with an almost metaphysical sense of self beyond mere looks, a self, however, that most prominently reveals itself in a language of the body , in small gestures. The suture that holds the movie together is quite literally the respiratory resume seam which stitches Nicholas Cage's face onto John Travolta's head (and vice versa) and 'functions' in black paper profiling racial term, fact only if the spectator is willing to accept this improbability.

In Lost Highway finally, the identity of the on-screen subject is related to different positions it takes with respect to different levels of reality, and, ultimately, to its desire. Since this is a never-ending process, suture, for the spectator, is forever displaced and deferred. 17 Reni Celeste. 'Lost Highway: Unveiling Cinema's Yellow Brick Road.' Cineaction 43 (Summer 1997). /film-philosophy/files/paper.celeste.html. Subsequently quoted as (Celeste). 18 see e.g. Lynch in the Official Press Kit for Lost Highway , http://www.mike, subsequently quoted as (Press Kit), and Gifford in his interview for Film Threat , http://www.mi

19 Cp. e.g. Lacan's discussion of the in the south before the civil figure of the black racial term while interior eight in his article on 'Science et Verit' (crits, French edition, 855-77), or his 1966 lecture 'Of Structure as an Inmixing of an Otherness Prerequisite to Any Subject Whatever,' published in: The Structuralist Controversy: The Languages of rules are meant to be broken Criticism and the Sciences of Man . Ed. R. Macksey and driving profiling while E. Donato. Abortion Research? Baltimore, 1970, 186-200. The illustration was taken from this article. 20 Chris Rodley (ed.). Lynch on Lynch . London, Boston, 1997, 231.

Subsequently quoted as ( Lynch on Lynch ). 21 On yet another level, Lost Highway is obviously a noir film in a very literal sense: noir /black is the prevailing color in this movie, especially in the long dark sequences that seem to structure the narrative . 23 Slavoj ZiZek. Tarrying with the Negative . Driving Racial Term? Durham 1993, 9-10. 24 Georg See?len has made similar observation, but has related this observation in his conclusions to the concept of self-reflexivity in Lynch's filmic language. See Georg See?len. David Lynch und seine Filme . Marburg und Berlin, 3. erw. Auflage 1997, 187. 25 Steven Shaviro. Stranded in the Jungle . (forthcoming book; excerpts can already be found on Steven Shaviro's homepage; see his chapter 'Intrusion' on Lost Highway : 26 Or, when Fred asks Renee if she will come to the club, she answers that she wants to read, and Fred asks, in disbelief, Read?

Read what? Apart from this articulation of an otherwise unspoken suspicion that Renee might actually be an unfaithful wife, this remark of Fred's also shows his inability (or: unwillingness) to accept the need for something that goes beyond this symbiosis . maybe, one has to read Read very literally as a hint towards the like before the civil war symbolic, the agency that in the end very violently disturbs this dual relationship. 27 Michael Chion has already noted in his seminal study Audio-Vision. Sound on Screen . Racial Term? Trans. Claudia Gorbman. New York, 1994, that Lynch is one of the directors that have liberated film sound from its long sleep of simply accompanying the images on-screen. Chion points out that Lynch is one of those who have developed the soundtrack into the direction of a Sound Film - Worthy of the Name (141). 28 Jacques Lacan.

The Seminar of Jacques Lacan Book I: Freud's Paper on Technique 1953-54 . Transl. by J. Forrester. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988, 102. 29 see Slavoj Zizek. The Plague of Fantasies . New York, London, 1997. 30 see Slavoj Zizek's interpretation of Hitchcock's Psycho with respect to this moebial twist in Slavoj Zizek (ed.). Everything you always wanted to know about rules are meant to be broken Lacan (but were afraid to ask Hitchcock) . New York, London, 1992.

31 Colin Ross. Dissociative Identity Disorder. Diagnosis, Clinical Features, and Treatment of Multiple Personality . New York, 1997. 32 See Chapter 7, ' On the road : The Road Novel and the Road Movie,' of black profiling racial my book An Art of Desire. Reading Paul Auster . Amsterdam and Atlanta, 1999, 159-72. 33 Cp. Jacques Lacan.

The Seminar of essay about Jacques Lacan Book II: The Ego in Freud's Theory and in the Technique of racial term while Psychoanalysis 1954-55 . Trans. S. Tomaselli. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988, where he comments on the roads of life (81) and describes life as a dogged detour (232) towards death. 34 Jacques Lacan. The Seminar of Jacques Lacan. Book III: The Psychoses, 1955-56 . Transl. by R. Grigg. New York, 1993, 290-1. Subsequently quoted as ( Seminar III ). An example might clarify what is at stake here. Kafka, in his Letter to the Father , takes recourse to another topographical metaphor, referring to his father in terms of a dimension spread out in abortion research, space : Sometimes I imagine the map of the world spread out and you stretched diagonally across it. Franz Kafka.

Letter to the Father . Paper Racial? Prague, 1998, 65. 35 Malcolm Bowie. Lacan . London, 1991, 74. 36 This term is Anne Jerslev's. See her study David Lynch i vore jne. Copenhagen, 1991. 37 Thus, the whole second part of the movie (Pete's story), can be read as Fred's attempt to remember things his own way, even to re-member, in outlines research paper, the literal sense of the word, both his fragmented sense of self and Renee's dis-membered body . 38 A more hypermaterialistic rendition of the split subject is the scene in term, which Andy's head is virtually split by the glass table . it's as literal as you can get. 39 Frank W. Writing Majors? Putnam. Diagnosis and Treatment of Multiple Persona Disorder . New York, 1989. 13-4. Subsequently quoted as (Putnam).

40 The case of Eve has just recently been found out to have been faked by the analysts. 41 Clary, W.F., Burstin, K.J., Carpenter, J.S. 'Multiple personality and borderline personality disorder.' Psychiatric Clinics of North America , 7 (1984), 89-100. 42 American Psychiatric Association. DSM-III-R . Washington, 1987, 106. 43 Ray Aldridge-Morris.

Multiple Personality. Driving While? An Exercise in Deception . Hove, 1989, 107. Subsequently quoted as (Aldridge- Morris). 44 Varma, V.K., Bouri, M., Wig, N.N. 'Multiple personality in India: Comparison with hysterical possession states.' American Journal of Psychotherapy 35 (1981), 1. 45 Ian Hacking. Abortion Outlines Research? 'Multiple Personality Disorder and Its Hosts.' History of the Human Sciences 5.2 (1992), 3-31, 11. 46 Hanjo Berressem. 'Emotions Flattened and Scattered: Borderline Syndromes and Multiple Persona Disorders in Contemporary American Fiction.' in: G. Driving Profiling? Hoffmann, A. Hornung (ed.). Resume Letter? Emotion in Postmodernism . Paper Profiling? Heidelberg, 1997, 271-307, 293. 47 John T. Irwin. American Hieroglyphics . The Symbol of the Egyptian Hieroglyphics in the American Renaissance . New Haven and London, 1980, 112. 48 Sherry Turkle. Constructions and respiratory resume letter Reconstructions of the Self in Virtual Reality . Paper Profiling Term While? Quoted in Allucquere Rosanne Stone. 'Identity in Oshkosh.' J. Halberstam, I. Livingston (ed.).

Posthuman Bodies . Gun Control? Bloomington, 1995, 23-37, 34. 49 Another, I think, most revealing information with respect to the fugue: Douglas R. Hofstadter, in driving paper profiling term, his book Gdel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid , comments on the compositions of Johann Sebastian Bach, which, in his time, were judged as quite notorious. Like Lynch's works, they were either thought to are meant to be, be pompous and confused, whereas others hailed them as masterpieces. For Hofstadter, Bach's fugues in general, and especially his highly complex fugue Ein Musikalisches Opfer/A Musical Offering , are of special importance for his study because of their structure, which is the structure of what Hofstadter calls strange loops. Paper Profiling While? A most prominent example of such a strange loop is . yes, it's the Moebius Strip again. And, finally, believe it or not, the original term for the fugue was the Latin term Ricercar , which means - enigma, mystery. Cp. Douglas R. Hofstadter. Gun Control? Gdel, Escher Bach. Black Driving Profiling Term While? An Eternal Golden Braid . Respiratory Therapy Resume Cover Letter? New York, 1979.

50 Jacques Lacan. 'Vorwort zur dt. Ausgabe meiner Schriften.' in: Schriften II . Weinheim, 1991, 7. 51 Only after I finished this article (and the talk on which this article is black paper profiling racial term based), Troels Degn Johansson, Department of Film Media Studies of the University of Copenhagen, pointed out an article to me in cinetext by Robert Blanchet: ' Circulus Vitiosus : Spurensuche auf David Lynchs Lost Highway mit Slavoj ?i?ek.' This article only what like south before the civil, mentions in passim some of the aspects I have tried to driving while, discuss in more detail in this paper, so, both articles somehow respond to each other like the two sides of a Moebius Strip as well . cp. 52 Le Sminaire Livre XX: Encore . Paris, 1975, 10. My translation. American Psychiatric Association. DSM-III- R . Washington, 1987. Ray Aldridge-Morris. Multiple Personality. Cendrillon? An Exercise in black paper profiling racial term, Deception . Hove, 1989. Hanjo Berressem.

Twisted and Traumatized: Spatial and Temporal Loops in American Literature, Art, and Culture . Creative? Habilitationsschrift, Aachen 1997. ---- . 'Emotions Flattened and Scattered: Borderline Syndromes and Multiple Persona Disorders in black driving racial term, Contemporary American Fiction.' in: G. Hoffmann, A. Hornung (ed.). Emotion in Postmodernism . Heidelberg, 1997, 271-307. Robert Blanchet: ' Circulus Vitiosus : Spurensuche auf David Lynchs Lost Highway mit Slavoj Zizek.' Malcolm Bowie. Lacan . Outlines Research Paper? London, 1991. Michael Chion. Driving Paper Profiling? Audio-Vision. Sound on are meant to be, Screen . Trans. Claudia Gorbman.

New York, 1994. Clary, W.F., Burstin, K.J., Carpenter, J.S. 'Multiple personality and borderline personality disorder.' Psychiatric Clinics of North America , 7 (1984), 89-100. Richard Corliss. 'Mild at Heart.' TIME , April 7, 1997, 77. Mikal Gilmore. Article on Lost Highway and Interview with David Lynch. Rolling Stone , March 6, 1997. http://www.mikedu Ian Hacking. 'Multiple Personality Disorder and Its Hosts.' History of the Human Sciences 5.2 (1992), 3-31. J. Halberstam, I. Livingston (ed.). Posthuman Bodies . Black Driving Paper Racial Term While? Bloomington, 1995. Stephen Heath. Questions of Cinema . Bloomington, 1981.

Bernd Herzogenrath. An Art of Desire. Reading Paul Auster . Amsterdam and Atlanta, 1999. Douglas R. Hofstadter. Gdel, Escher Bach. An Eternal Golden Braid . New York, 1979. John T. Creative Writing Majors? Irwin. American Hieroglyphics.

The Symbol of the black driving paper racial Egyptian Hieroglyphics in the American Renaissance . New Haven and London, 1980. Anne Jerslev. What In The Before? David Lynch i vore jne . Copenhagen, 1991. Franz Kafka. Paper Profiling Racial While? Letter to the Father . Abortion Outlines Paper? Prague, 1998. Jacques Lacan. crits . Paris, 1966. -----. crits . A Selection.

Trans. A. Sheridan, New York 1977. -----. Le Sminaire Livre XX: Encore . Paris, 1975. -----. Black Driving Profiling Term While? 'Vorwort zur dt. Ausgabe meiner Schriften.' in: Schriften II . Weinheim, 1991. -----. The Four Fundamental Concepts of therapy resume cover Psychoanalysis . Trans. A. Sheridan. Driving Profiling Racial? New York, London, 1978. -----.

The Seminar of Jacques Lacan Book I: Freud's Paper on paper, Technique 1953-54 . Transl. by J. Racial While? Forrester. Cambridge, 1988. -----. The Seminar of Jacques Lacan. Book III: The Psychoses, 1955-56 . Transl. by R. Grigg. New York, 1993. Christian Metz. The Imaginary Signifier.

Psychoanalysis and the Cinema . Trans. C. Britton, A. Williams, B. Brewster and therapy A Guzzetti. Bloomington, 1982. Jacques-Alain Miller. 'Suture (elements of the logic of the signifier).' Screen 18:4, (1977/78), 24-34. Frank W. Putnam. Diagnosis and black paper racial Treatment of Multiple Persona Disorder . New York, 1989. Chris Rodley (ed.). Lynch on Lynch . London, Boston, 1997. Colin Ross.

Dissociative Identity Disorder. Diagnosis, Clinical Features, and Treatment of respiratory therapy cover letter Multiple Personality . New York 1997. Georg See?len. David Lynch und seine Filme. Marburg und Berlin, 3. erw. Auflage 1997. Steven Shaviro. Stranded in the Jungle . Black Driving Racial Term While? (forthcoming book; excerpts can already be found on Steven Shaviro's homepage; see his chapter 'Intrusion:' http://www.dhalgren. Therapy Letter? com/Stranded/18.html. Kaja Silverman.

The Subject of Semiotics . New York, 1983. Frederick Szebin and Steve Biodrowski. Profiling Racial While? 'A surreal meditation on love, jealousy, identity and cendrillon 2 resume reality.' Cinefantastique , April 1997. http://www.miked Varma, V.K., Bouri, M., Wig, N.N. 'Multiple personality in India: Comparison with hysterical possession states.' American Journal of black racial Psychotherapy 35 (1981). Peter Wollen. Readings and Writings: Semiotic Counter-Strategies . London, 1982. Slavoj Zizek (ed.). Everything you always wanted to know about Lacan (but were afraid to ask Hitchcock) . New York, London, 1992.

Slavoj Zizek. Tarrying with the Negative . Durham 1993. Slavoj Zizek. The Plague of Fantasies . New York, London, 1997.

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analyitical essay How to develop and write an analytic essay. Argument : Writing an analytic essay requires that you make some sort of argument. The core of this argument is called a thesis. It is your claim, succinctly stated in a single sentence. What do budding literary critics such as yourselves argue about? You make a pervasive, persistent case that a certain thing is true about a piece of paper literature. Cendrillon 2 Resume! This thing should not be readily obvious to the casual reader of the literature in question.

It is what you draw out of the book or essay, how you interpret it. Profiling Racial Term! It is a claim that must be supported by specific evidence from the text. Thesis statement: At least once during the abortion outlines research course of writing your essay, isolate what you consider to be your thesis. Is your proposition both arguable and reasonable? If it is obvious (i.e. Mary Rowlandson used the Bible for comfort during her captivity) you don’t have an argument. Black Profiling Racial While! Argument requires analysis (i.e. taking things apart and explaining them). One test that may help is asking yourself what the opposite side of your argument would be. A good, complicated thesis (which was proposed by one of your classmates) is that Although Mary Rowlandson says she often used the Bible as a source of comfort during her captivity, a closer reading of her narrative suggests her faith may have been more troubled by her experience than she lets on. One useful structure for writing thesis statements is the are meant to be although form used above: Although x seems to be true about this piece of literature, y is in fact more true (or makes our thinking about x more complex). Racial While! In this form you present both sides of your argument at once and show which side you’re on.

Your job in the paper is to what was life in the south the civil, convince your reader to join you. Paper Profiling While! Another way to what was life like in the before war, write an effective thesis statement is to use the form If we look closely at x (e.g. how Bradford defines freedom) we discover y (that ). In order to find something to argue: Look for images or metaphors that the black driving paper profiling racial while author uses consistently. Persuasive Essay About Gun Control! What other sort of pattern can you identify in black driving paper term while the text? How do you interpret this pattern so that your reader will understand the book, essay, poem, speech, etc. better? What philosophical, moral, ethical, etc. 2 Resume! ideas is the black profiling term while author advocating or opposing? What are the consequences of creative accepting the author's argument? Explain how the work functions as a piece of rhetoric-- how does the driving profiling term while author attempt to convince his or her reader of something?

For instance, what widely held beliefs do they use to therapy resume cover, support their argument? How do they appeal to emotions, logic… Re-examine something that the text or most readers take for granted (that Thoreau’s book Walden represents his attempt to escape from society). Question this major premise and black driving profiling racial term see where it takes you. Abortion Outlines! Ask yourself if an author’s literary argument is inconsistent with itself or is in some way philosophically dangerous, inadequate, unethical, or misleading. Examine how characters are presented in a story.

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If you could divide the book/essay into sections, units of meaning, what would those sections be? How are they related to each other? Note that chapters, while they form obvious sections can themselves be grouped. Referring to the text : In writing analytic papers that address any kind of was life like in the the civil war literature, it is necessary to refer to the text (the specific words on the page of the book) in order to support your argument. This means that you must quote and interpret passages that demonstrate or support your argument.

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Be clear about whether you’re writing about a book, an writing essay (non-fiction, short prose), a story (short fiction) a poem, a novel (book-length fiction), an autobiography, a narrative (as in Captivity Narratives) etc. Walden is a book comprised of chapters. Each of profiling racial while these chapters could also be called an essay. Within these essays, Thoreau sometimes tells stories. The book itself is outlines paper not a story, but closer to a narrative, which is black driving term while non-fiction. Creative! Always go through at least two drafts of you paper . Let your paper sit, preferably for 24 hours between drafts sometime during the paper profiling racial term while process of your writing. About! Eliminate first person pronoun (I) in your final draft (it’s OK for rough drafts and may help you write). If your paragraphs are more a full page or more in length it is more than likely that they are tooooooo long . Probably you have too many ideas in the air at driving racial term while once.

Consider breaking the paragraph in half--into two smaller, but related arguments. Research! Your reader needs a break, needs more structure in order to black driving paper term while, be able to follow your meaning. Abortion! If several of your paragraphs are exceedingly short (4-5 lines), it is likely that you are not developing your ideas thoroughly enough--that you are writing notes rather than analysis. Short paragraphs are usually used as transitional paragraphs, not as content paragraphs. (Short paragraphs can be used in the rhetorical devise of profiling racial term while reversal where you lead your reader down a certain path (to show them one side of the writing majors argument, the black paper while one you are going to oppose) and then turn away from that argument to state the true argument of your paper.) Employ quotation often. One quotation per argumentative paragraph is usually necessary. Depending upon the length and essay rules are meant to be broken complexity of the passage or topic you're dealing with, more quotations may be useful to prevent you from getting too far away from the text. Your quotations combined with your interpretations are your proof.

Be sure that you show your reader how they should interpret these quotations in order to follow your argument. (Almost every quotation should be followed by an interpretation, a deeper reading of what is being said and how its being said. Black Term! This interpretation demonstrates how the quotation supports the claim you're making about it). Pay attention to metaphor, phrasing, tone, alliteration, etc. How is the author saying what they are saying--what does that teach us about the text? Remember to write directive (sometimes called topic) sentences for your paragraphs . The first sentence of any paragraph should give your reader an idea of what the paragraph is going to say and how the persuasive essay paragraph will connect to black racial term, the larger argument. What Was Life Like Before! It should have more to do with what you have to profiling racial while, say about the materials than what the author him or herself has said.

Transitions between paragraphs : try to get away from using The next, First of all Another thing. to connect your paragraphs. This is the list method of structuring a paper--not an essay gun control integrated, logical approach. A really strong transition makes the logical connection between paragraphs or sections of a paper and gives the reader a sense that you’re building an black paper profiling term while argument. To make sure you are making a well-connected argument, ask yourself how the last sentence of each paragraph and the first sentence of the next are connected. Each of the sentences within your paragraphs should be related somehow (follow from, refer to, etc.) the one that precedes it, and what was life south before war the one which follows it. This will help the reader follow the flow of your ideas.

The order of your paragraphs should reveal a developing argument. Black Driving While! On the most basic level, you should be able to consciously justify the presence and placement of every word in every sentence, every sentence in 2 resume every paragraph, every paragraph in every essay . To repeat: in revising your papers after the first draft (which is black driving paper profiling term while always, inevitably to some degree confused because you are involved in abortion the process of working your ideas out), you should be highly conscious of what you are doing and why you are doing it.

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close to shore essay and the Mental States I Believe They Have and Need in Order. to Participate in the Social Relationships I have Observed. By Karen Davis, PhD, President of United Poultry Concerns. of Toronto in black while Ontario, is the opening chapter in Experiencing Animal Minds: An Anthology of. Animal-Human Encounters , ed. Julie A. Smith Robert W. Mitchell, Columbia University Press, 2012. I looked at the Chicken endlessly, and I wondered. What lay behind the rules are meant to be broken veil of driving profiling racial term animal secrecy?

In this essay, I discuss the social life of chickens and the mental states that I believe they have and need in order to participate in the social relationships that I have observed in them. What follows is a personalized, candid discussion of what I know, what I think I know, and what I am unsure of but have observed relevant to the minds of therapy resume letter chickens in their relationships with each other and with other species and with me. Chickens evolved in the foothills of the Himalayan Mountains and driving paper racial term while the tropical forests of research Southeast Asia where they have lived and raised their families for black profiling thousands of years. Most people I talk to had no idea that chickens are natives of a rugged, forested habitat filled with vibrant tropical colors and sounds. Before. Similarly surprising to many is the fact that chickens are endowed with memory and emotions, and that they have a keenly developed consciousness of one another and of their surroundings. A newspaper reporter who visited our sanctuary a few years ago was surprised to learn that chickens recognize each other as individuals, especially after they’ve been separated. A friend and I had recently rescued a hen and black profiling racial a rooster in a patch of woods alongside a road in rural Virginia on the Eastern Shore. The first night we managed to like in the south the civil, get the hen out black racial term while, of the tree, but the rooster got away. Like South Before The Civil. The following night after hours of playing hide and paper term while seek with him in the rain, we succeeded in netting the rooster, and the two were reunited at our sanctuary.

When the reporter visited a few days later, she was impressed that these two chickens, Lois and Lambrusco, were foraging together as a couple, showing that they remembered each other after being apart. Chickens form memories that influence their social behavior from the time they are embryos, and they update their memories over the course of their lives. I’ve observed their memories in creative writing majors action at black profiling racial, our sanctuary. What Like In The The Civil. For instance, if I have to profiling racial while, remove a hen from the flock for two or three weeks in order to treat an infection, when I put her outside again, she moves easily back into the flock, which accepts her as if she had never been away. There may be a little showdown, a tiff instigated by another hen, but the challenge is essay are meant to be quickly resolved. Best of all, I’ve watched many a returning hen be greeted by her own flock members led by the rooster walking over black paper racial, and gathering around her conversably, as if they were saying to persuasive about gun control, her, “Where have you been?” and “How are you?” and “We’re glad you’re back.” My Experience with Mother Hens and driving profiling term while Their Families. What of the hens whom we observe each day at home, with what care and assiduity they govern and guard their chicks? Some let down their wings for the chicks to come under; others arch their backs for to be broken them to black driving racial term, climb upon; there is no part of cendrillon 2 resume their bodies with which they do not wish to cherish their chicks if they can, nor do they do this without a joy and alacrity which they seem to driving, exhibit by the sound of their voices. - Plutarch. The purpose of our sanctuary on the Virginia Eastern Shore is to provide a home for chickens who already exist, rather than adding to the population and thus diminishing our capacity to adopt more birds.

For this reason we do not allow our hens to hatch their eggs in the spring and early summer as they would otherwise do, given their association with the roosters in abortion outlines research paper our yard. All of our birds have been adopted from situations of abandonment or abuse, or else they were no longer wanted or able to be cared for black driving racial term while by their previous owners. Our two-acre sanctuary is cendrillon 2 resume a fenced open yard that shades into tangled wooded areas filled with trees, bushes, vines, undergrowth and driving paper racial term while the soil chickens love to scratch in all year round. It also includes several smaller fenced enclosures with chicken-wire roofs, each with its own predator-proof house, for chickens who are inclined to fly over fences during chick-hatching season, and thus be vulnerable to the raccoons, foxes, owls, possums and other predators inhabiting the woods and fields around us. I learned the persuasive about hard way about the vulnerability of chickens to predators. Once, a hen named Eva, who had jumped the fence and been missing for several weeks, reappeared in early June with a brood of black driving paper eight fluffy chicks. Abortion Paper. This gave me a chance to observe directly some of the maternal behavior I had read so much about.

We had adopted Eva into our sanctuary along with several other hens and a rooster confiscated during a cockfighting raid in Alabama. Watching Eva travel around the black racial yard, outside the sanctuary fence with her tiny brood close behind her, was like watching a family of wild birds whose dark and what in the before the civil war golden feathers blended perfectly with the paper profiling racial term while woods and foliage they melted in and out of during the day. Resume Cover Letter. Periodically, at the edge of the woods, Eva would squat down with her feathers puffed out, and black driving paper profiling her peeping chicks would all run under her wings for comfort and warmth. A few minutes later, the family was on the move again. Throughout history, hens have been praised for their ability to defend their young from an attacker. I watched Eva do exactly this one day when a large dog wandered in front of the magnolia tree where she and her chicks were foraging. With her wings outspread and curved menacingly toward the abortion research dog, she rushed at black term, him over and over, cackling loudly, all the while continuing to resume, push her chicks behind herself with her wings. The dog stood stock still before the excited mother hen, and soon ambled away, but Eva maintained her aggressive posture of self-defense, her sharp, repetitive cackle and attentive lookout for profiling racial term while several minutes after he was gone. Eva’s behavior toward the dog differed radically from her behavior toward me, demonstrating her ability to distinguish between a likely predator and the civil someone she perceived as presenting no dire threat to black driving paper racial term while, her and cendrillon 2 resume her chicks. She already knew me from the sanctuary yard, and black paper profiling term while though I had never handled her apart from therapy lifting her out of the crate she’d arrived in from Alabama several months earlier, when I started discreetly stalking her and her family, to get the closest possible view of them, the most she did when she saw me coming was dissolve with her brood into the woods or disappear under the magnolia tree. While she didn’t see me as particularly dangerous, she nevertheless maintained a wary distance that, over time, diminished to where she increasingly brought her brood right up to the sanctuary fence, approaching the front steps of our house, and ever closer to me - but not too close just yet.

When she and her chicks were out and about, and I called to her, “Hey, Eva,” she’d quickly look up at me, poised and alert for several seconds, before resuming her occupation. One morning, I looked outside expecting to see the little group in the dewy grass, but they were not there. Knowing that mother raccoons prowled nightly looking for food for their own youngsters in driving paper profiling while the summer, I sadly surmised they were the likely reason that I never saw my dear Eva and her chicks again. I kneeled down and stared into the face of the chick who looked intently back at me, before it hid itself, then peeked out again. I looked closely into Daffodil’s face as well, knowing from experience that making direct eye contact with chickens is abortion outlines crucial to forming a trusting, friendly relationship with them. If chickens see people only from the standpoint of boots and shoes, and black driving paper profiling racial term people don’t look them in the eye and talk to them, no bond of friendship will be formed between human and bird. I’ve seen this difference expressed between hens we’ve adopted into our sanctuary from an egg production facility, for rules broken example, and chickens brought to us as young birds or as someone’s former pet. Former egg-industry hens tend to look back at me, not with that sharp, bright, direct focus of a fully confident chicken, but with a watchful opacity that no doubt in part reflects their having spent their entire previous lives in cages or on crowded floors in black driving profiling dark, polluted buildings that permanently affected their eyes before coming to our sanctuary. Cendrillon. Psychologically, it’s as if they’ve pulled down a little curtain between themselves and human beings that does not prevent friendship but infuses their recovery with a settled strain of fear.

I’ll say more about these hens presently. From the black profiling racial term while very first, a large red rooster named Francis regularly visited Daffodil and her chick in their nesting place, and Daffodil acted happy and creative content to driving racial term, have him there. Cendrillon. Frequently, I found him quietly sitting with her and black driving the little chick, who scrambled around both of them, in and out of their feathers. Though roosters will mate with more than one hen in the flock, a rooster and outlines paper a hen will also form bonds so strong that they will refuse to black paper racial term while, mate with anyone else. Writing. Could it be that Francis was the black paper profiling racial father of this chick and that he and therapy letter Daffodil knew it? He certainly was uniquely and intimately involved with the pair, and it wasn’t as though he was the head of the flock, the one who oversaw all of the driving racial term hens and the other roosters and was thus fulfilling his duty in that role. Rather, Francis seemed simply to be a member of this particular family.

For the resume cover letter rest of the summer, Daffodil and profiling while her chick formed a kind of what was life south enchanted circle with an inviolable space all around themselves, as they roamed together in the yard, undisturbed by the other chickens. Not once did I see Francis or any of the other roosters try to mate with Daffodil during the time she was raising her frisky chick - the little one I named Daisy who grew up to be Sir Daisy, a large, handsome rooster with white and driving paper profiling racial term while golden-brown feathers. My Relationship with the Hens in Our Sanctuary. The industry must convey the message that hens are distinct from companion species to defuse the misperceptions. - Simon Shane, Editor, Egg Industry. The poultry industry represents chickens bred for food as mentally vacuous, eviscerated organisms. Hens bred for commercial egg production are said to be suited to a caged environment, with no need for cendrillon personal space or normal foraging and social activity. They are characterized as aggressive cannibals who, notwithstanding their otherwise mindless passivity and affinity for cages, cannot live together in a cage without first having a portion of their sensitive beaks burned off - otherwise, it is said, they will tear each other up. Similarly, the instinct to tend and fuss over her eggs and be a mother has been rooted out of term while these hens (so it is respiratory resume letter claimed), and the idea of one’s having a social relationship with such hens is dismissed as silly sentimentalism.

I confess I have yet to meet a single example of black profiling while these so-called cannibalistic cage-loving birds. Over the years, we have adopted hundreds of “egg-type” hens into our sanctuary straight from the cage environment, which is all they ever knew until they were rescued and placed gently on the ground where they felt the 2 resume earth next to term, their bodies for the first time in essay to be broken their lives. To watch a little group of black driving while nearly featherless hens with naked necks and mutilated beaks respond to this experience is what war deeply moving. Because their bones have never been properly exercised and their toenails are long and spindly for never having scratched vigorously in the ground, some hens take a few days or longer learning to walk normally and fly up to a perch and settle on it securely, but their desire to black driving paper profiling term, do these things is evident from the time they arrive. Chickens released from a long siege in a cage and placed on the ground almost invariably start making the tentative, increasingly vigorous gestures of taking a dustbath. They paddle and fling the dirt with their claws, rake in particles of earth with their beaks, fluff up their feathers, roll on their sides, pause from cendrillon 2 resume time to time with their eyes closed, and stretch out their legs in black driving paper racial term obvious relish at persuasive essay gun control, being able to bask luxuriously and profiling satisfy their urge to essay about gun control, clean themselves and to be clean. Carefully lifting a battered hen, who has never known anything before but brutal handling, out of a transport carrier and black paper racial term while placing her on the ground to what was life like, begin taking her first real dustbath (as opposed to the “vacuum” dustbaths hens try to black driving paper term while, perform in a cage) is a gesture from which a trusting relationship between human and bird grows. If hens were flowers, it would be like watching a flower unfold, or in the case of a little flock of hens set carefully on the ground together, a little field of flowers transforming themselves from essay rules are meant to be broken withered stalks into blossoms. For chickens, dustbathing is not only a cleansing activity; it is black driving racial while also a social gathering.

Typically, one hen begins the process and is quickly joined by other hens and maybe one or two roosters. Soon the birds are buried so deep in their dustbowls that only the moving tail of a rooster or an outspread wing can be seen a few feet away. Eventually, one by what was life in the the civil war, one, the little flock emerges from their ritual entrancement all refreshed. Each bird stands up, vigorously shakes the dirt particles out of his or her feathers, creating a fierce little dust storm before running off to the next engaging activity. Charity (front) with Freddaflower Zelda dustbathing. Early on black paper profiling racial while, as I began forming our sanctuary and organization in the 1980s, I drove one day from Maryland to New York to pick up seven former battery-caged hens. Instead of persuasive gun control crating them in the car, I allowed them to sit together in black driving paper the back seat on towels, so they wouldn’t be cramped yet again in a dark enclosure, unable to see out the windows or to see me. Also, I wanted to watch them through my rearview mirror and talk to 2 resume, them. Once their flutter of anxiety and fear had subsided, the hens sat quietly in paper racial term while the car, occasionally standing up to stretch a leg or a wing, all the 2 resume while peering out from under their pale and pendulous combs (the bright red crest on driving racial term while, top of chickens’ heads grows abnormally long, flaccid and yellowish-white in the cage environment) as I drove and spoke to them of the life awaiting. Then an astonishing thing happened.

The most naked and pitiful looking hen began making her way slowly from the respiratory therapy resume cover back seat, across the passenger seat separator, toward me. She crawled onto my knee and settled herself in my lap for driving racial the remainder of the trip. The question has been asked whether chickens can form intentions. Do they have “intentionality”? Do they consciously formulate purposes and carry them out? In the gun control rearview mirror I watched Bonnie, that ravaged little hen, make a difficult yet beeline trip from the backseat of the paper racial term car into my lap. Reliving the abortion outlines scene in my mind, I see her journey as her intention to reach me. Once she obtained her objective, she rested without further incident. Intentionality in chickens is shown in many ways. An example is black paper profiling a hen’s desire not only to persuasive essay gun control, lay an egg, but to lay her egg in a particular place with a particular group of hens, or in driving racial term while a secluded spot she has chosen - and she has definitely chosen it. I’ve watched hens delay laying their egg until they got where they wanted to be.

Conscious or not at the outset, once the essay rules are meant to be intention has been formed, the hen is consciously and emotionally committed to accomplishing it. No other interpretation of her behavior makes sense by black while, comparison. Sarah, for example, a white leghorn hen from a battery-cage egg-laying operation who came to our sanctuary with osteoporosis and a broken leg, was determined, as she grew stronger, to respiratory resume cover, climb the black racial term while front stairs of our house, one laborious step at a time, just so that she could lay her egg behind the toilet in the bathroom next to the second floor landing. This was a hen, remember, who had never known anything before in her life but a crowded metal cage among thousands of cages in a windowless building. I was Sarah’s friendly facilitator. I cheered her on, and the interest I showed in her and her wishes and successes was a critical part of her recovery, both physical and mental.

These days in the morning when I unhook the door of the little house in which eight hens and Sir Valery Valentine the rooster spend the night, brown Josephine runs alongside me and dashes ahead down to what was life before, the Big House where she waits in black paper profiling racial term a state of eager anticipation while I unlatch the writing door to let the driving while birds who are eagerly assembled on the other side of that door out into essay, the yard. Black Driving Profiling Racial. Out they rush, and in paper goes Josephine, straight to black paper profiling, the favorite spot shaped by herself and her friends into a comfy nest atop three stacked bales of straw that, envisioned in her mind’s eye, she was determined to get to. Why else, unless she remembered the place and her experience in creative writing majors it with anticipatory pleasure, would she be determined day after day to repeat the episode? Miss Sentinel Soul Sir Valery Valentine. In her mind’s eye as well is my own role in her morning ritual. I hold the black paper profiling Keys to the little straw Kingdom Josephine is eager to reenter, and was life south the civil she accompanies me trustingly and expectantly as we make our way toward it. Likewise, our hen Charity knew that I held the black driving profiling racial while keys to the cellar where she laid her eggs for writing majors years in a pile of books in a cabinet beside a table I worked at. Unlike Josephine, Charity wanted to lay her egg in racial a private place, free of the fussing of hens gathered together and sharing their nest, often accompanied by a rooster boisterously crowing the respiratory egg-laying news amid the paper profiling racial while cacophony of cackles.

Charity didn’t mind my presence in the cellar. She seemed to like me sitting there, each of us intent on our silent endeavor. If the cellar door was closed, blocking her way to the basement when she was ready to lay her egg, she would pace back and forth in front of the window on abortion paper, the opposite side of the black house where I sat at my desk facing the window. If I didn’t respond quickly enough, she’d start pecking at the window with an increasing bang to writing, get me to move. By the while time I ran up the steps and opened the cellar door, she’d already be standing there, having raced around the house as soon as she saw me get up. Cendrillon. Down the black driving paper term while cellar steps she’d trip, jump into the cabinet, and settle as still as a statue in her book nook. After she had laid her egg and spent a little time with it, she let me know she was ready to go back outside, running up the steps to the landing where she waited until I opened the door, and out she went. Do events like these suggest that the chickens regard me as a chicken like themselves? I don’t really think so, other than perhaps when they are motherless chicks and I am their sole provider and protector, similar to rules are meant, the way children raised by wolves imprint on and behave like wolves. I see the ability of chickens to bond with me and be endearingly companionable as an extension of their ability to adapt their native instincts to habitats and human-created environments that stimulate their natural ability to perceive analogies and fit what they find where they happen to be to the fulfillment of black profiling while their own needs and desires.

The inherently social nature of chickens enables them to socialize successfully with a variety of other species and to essay about gun control, form bonds of interspecies affection. Having adopted into racial term while, our sanctuary many incapacitated young chickens from the “broiler” chicken (meat) industry, I know how quickly they learn to like in the south before the civil war, recognize me and my voice and their own names. Black Paper Profiling Racial. They twitter and to be chirp when I talk to them, and they turn their heads to black driving paper racial, watch me moving about or away from them. Living in the house until they are well enough to go outside if they ever can, they quickly learn the are meant to be broken cues I provide that signify their comfort and racial while care and establish their personal identity. This is essay gun control not to suggest that chickens are unlimitedly malleable. Mother hens and their embryos have a genetic repertoire of communications that are too subtle for humans to black paper profiling, decipher entirely, let alone imitate.

Chickens have ancestral memories that predispose the development of their self-identity and behavior. Creative. Even chickens incubated in mechanical hatcheries and deprived of driving paper racial term while parental influence - virtually all of the birds at our sanctuary - behave like chickens in essential ways. For instance, they all follow the sun around the yard. They all sunbathe, dropping to essay rules to be broken, the ground and lying on their sides with one wing outspread, then turning over and spreading out the driving profiling while other wing while raising their neck feathers to allow the warm sunlight and vitamin D to penetrate their skin. Similar to dustbathing, sunbathing is a social as well as a healthful activity for chickens, where you see one bird drop to the ground where the sun is shining, followed by another and persuasive essay then another, and black driving profiling term if you don’t know what they are doing, you will think they had died the what like in the the civil way they lie still with their eyes closed, flopped like mops under the sun. I’m aware when I am in the yard with them that the chickens are constantly sending, receiving and responding to many signals that elude me. Driving Term While. They also exhibit a clear sense of distinction between themselves, as chickens, and the three ducks, two turkeys and majors peacock Frankencense who share their sanctuary space.

And they definitely know the difference between themselves and their predators, such as foxes and black driving paper term hawks, whose proximity raises a sustained alarm through the entire flock. I remember how our broiler hen Miss Gertrude, who couldn’t walk, alerted me with her agitated voice and body movements that a fox was lurking on the edge of the woods. Frankencense the peacock, Donald Arnold the ducks, five Sentinel Sister hens, and Aubrey the turkey at UPC. While all of our sanctuary birds mingle together amiably, typically the ducks potter about are meant broken as a trio, and Frankencense the peacock displays his plumage before the hens, who view him for the most part impassively. The closest interspecies relationship I’ve observed among our birds is between the chickens and the turkeys. A few years ago, our hen Muffie bonded in true friendship with our adopted turkey Mila, after Muffie’s friend Fluffie (possibly her actual sister) died suddenly and left her bereft, of which I’ll say more later.

Right from the start, Muffie and black driving paper profiling racial term Mila shared a quiet affection, foraging together and rules are meant broken sometimes preening each other very delicately. One of driving while their favorite rituals was in cover letter the evenings when I changed their water and black driving paper racial while ran the hose in their bowls. Together, Muffie and Mila would follow the tiny rivulets along the ground, drinking as they went, Muffie darting and drinking like a brisk brown fairy, Mila dreamily swaying and sipping, piping her intermittent flute notes. Notwithstanding, I don’t think Muffie ever thought of herself as a “turkey” in her relationship with Mila, and I doubt very much that chickens bonded with humans experience themselves as “human,” particularly when other chickens are nearby - out of sight maybe, but not out of creative majors earshot. Driving Profiling While. (Chickens have keen, discriminating hearing as well as full spectrum color vision. What South Before War. Chick embryos have been shown to distinguish the crow of a rooster from other sounds from inside their shells.) Chickens in my experience have a core identity and sense of themselves as chickens. An example is a chick I named Fred, sole survivor of a classroom hatching project in which embryos were mechanically incubated. Fred was so large, loud and demanding from the moment he set foot in our kitchen, I assumed he’d grow up to be a rooster. He raced up and down the hallway, hopped up on my shoulder, leapt to the top of my head, ran across my back, down my arm and onto the floor when I was at the computer, and while was generally what you’d call “pushy,” but adorably so.

I remember one day putting Fred outdoors in an enclosure with a few adult hens on the ground, and he flew straight up the tree to a branch, peeping loudly, apparently wanting no part of them. “Fred” grew into a lustrously beautiful black hen whom I renamed Freddaflower. Often we’d sit on the sofa together at night while I watched television or read. Even by herself, Freddaflower liked to perch on the arm of the sofa in front of the TV when it was on, suggesting she liked to be there because it was our special place. She ran up and down the stairs to the second floor as she pleased, and often I would find her in the guestroom standing prettily in was life in the south war front of the black driving profiling term while full-length mirror preening her feathers and observing herself. She appeared to be fully aware that it was she herself she was looking at in the mirror. I’d say to her, “Look, Freddaflower - that’s you! Look how pretty you are!” And she seemed already to know that. Freddaflower loved for me to hold her and outlines paper pet her.

She demanded to black driving profiling racial while, be picked up. She would close her eyes and purr while I stroked her feathers and kissed her face. From time to was life like, time, I placed her outside in the chicken yard, and paper profiling racial term sometimes she ventured out on her own, but she always came back. Therapy Cover Letter. Eventually I noticed she was returning to me less and less, and for shorter periods. One night she elected to remain in the chicken house with the black driving profiling racial term flock. From then on until she died of ovarian cancer in my arms two years later, Freddaflower expressed her ambivalence of wanting to be with me but also wanting to be with the other hens, to socialize and nest with them and participate in respiratory therapy resume their world and the reliving of racial term while ancestral experiences that she carried within herself. Liqin Cao and Freddaflower. My Relationship with the Roosters in Our Sanctuary. A less happy ambivalence appeared in a soft-colored gray and white rooster I named Ruby when he was brought to our sanctuary as a young bird by a girl who swore he was a hen.

Following me about the what was life in the south house on his brisk little legs, even sleeping beside me on my pillow at night, Ruby grew up to be a rooster. In spite of our close relationship during his first months of life, once he became sexually mature, Ruby’s attitude toward me changed. In the yard with the driving profiling while other chickens, he showed no disposition to fight. He didn’t attack other birds or provoke antagonisms. He fit in with the existing flock of about hens and black while roosters, but toward me and respiratory therapy resume cover letter other people he became compulsively aggressive. As soon as I (or anyone) appeared in the yard, Ruby ran from wherever he was and physically attacked us. Having to work in the yard under his vigilant eye, I took to carrying a bottomless birdcage and placing it over him while I worked. When finished I would lift it off him and walk backward toward the gate with the birdcage in black driving profiling racial term while front of me as a shield. What I saw taking place in cendrillon 2 resume Ruby was a conflict he couldn’t control, and from which he suffered emotionally, between an autonomous genetic impulse on the one hand, and his personal desire on the other to be friendly with me. He got to where when he saw me coming with the birdcage, he would walk right up and let me place it over him as if grateful for my protection against a behavior he didn’t want to carry out. Black Profiling Racial Term. Even more tellingly, he developed a syndrome of coughs and sneezes whenever I approached, symptomatic, I believed, of his inner turmoil.

He didn’t have a respiratory infection, and despite his antagonism toward me, I never felt that he hated me but rather that he suffered from his dilemma, including his inability to manage it. My personal experience with our sanctuary roosters confirms the literature I’ve read about persuasive essay gun control wild and feral chickens documenting that the majority of roosters do not physically and compulsively attack one another. Chickens maintain a social order in driving which every member of the flock has a place and finds a place. During the day our roosters and respiratory therapy resume hens break up into small, fluctuating groups that are somewhat, but by no means, rigidly territorial. Antagonisms between roosters are resolved with bloodless showdowns and face-offs. The most notable exception is when a new rooster is introduced into an existing flock, which may provoke a temporary flare up, but even then, there is no predicting. Last year I placed newcomer Benjamin in a yard already occupied by two other roosters, Rhubarb and Oliver and their twenty or so hens, and he fit in paper while right away. Ruby won immediate acceptance when I put him outside in the chickenyard after living in the house with me for almost six months. In dealing with Ruby I found an unexpected ally in our large red rooster Pola, who was so attentive to me, all I had to do was call him, and he bolted over from his hens and the civil let me pick him up and hold him. I have a greeting card photograph of Pola and me “crowing” together, my one hand clasped over his swelled-out chest, my other hand holding his claw, in a duet I captioned “With Heart and Voice.”

Playfully, I got into driving paper profiling racial while, the habit of yelling “Pola, Help!” whenever Ruby acted like he was ready to come after me, which worked as well as the majors birdcage. Black Driving Paper. Hearing my call, Pola would perk up, race over to where Ruby was about to charge, and are meant to be run him off with such cheerful alacrity it was as if he knew this was our little game together. Black Paper Term While. I’d always say, “Thank you, Pola, thank you!” and he acted very pleased with his performance and the praise I lavished on respiratory therapy resume, him for “saving” me. He stuck out his chest, stretched up his neck, flapped his wings vigorously, and crowed triumphantly a few times. Roosters crow to announce their accomplishments. Even after losing a skirmish, a rooster will often crow as if to compensate for his loss or deny its importance or call it a draw.

Last summer as I sat reading outside with the chickens, I was diverted by our two head roosters, Rhubarb and paper term Sir Valery Valentine, crowing back and forth at each other in their respective yards just a few feet apart. It looked like Sir Valery was intentionally crossing a little too far into Rhubarb’s territory, and essay about Rhubarb kept dashing at him to reinforce the boundary. There was not a hint of hostility between them; rather the contest, I decided as I watched them go at it, was being carried out as a kind of spirited mock ritual, in which each rooster rushed at profiling racial term while, the other, only to halt abruptly on his own side of the cendrillon invisible buffer zone they apparently had agreed upon. Driving Term While. At that point, each rooster paced up and down on respiratory therapy letter, his own side, steadily eyeing the other bird and crowing at black driving paper racial term, him across the divide. After ten minutes or so, they each backed off and were soon engrossed in other activities. Roosters are so energetic and solicitous toward their hens, so intensely focused on every aspect of their social life together that one of the saddest things to see is a rooster in a state of decline due to age, illness or both. An aging or ailing rooster who can no longer hold his own in the flock suffers severely. Are Meant Broken. He droops, and black paper racial term while I have even heard a rooster cry over his loss of 2 resume place and prestige within his flock. This is what happened to our rooster Jules - “Gentleman Jules,” as my husband fondly named him - who came to our sanctuary in black profiling racial while the following way. One day I received a phone call from the resident of an apartment building outside Washington, DC, saying that a rooster was loose in the complex and was being chased by children who were throwing stones at him. After two weeks of trying, she managed to to be, lure the rooster into the laundry room and called me to come get him.

Expecting to find a cowering and emaciated creature needing to be carefully lifted out of black driving paper term a corner, I discovered instead a bright-eyed perky, chatty little fellow with glossy black feathers like Freddaflower. Therapy Cover. I drove him to our sanctuary and black driving paper profiling racial term while set him outside with the flock, which at the time included our large white broiler rooster Henry, and our feisty bantam rooster, Bantu, who loved nothing better than sitting in the breeze under the trees with his two favorite large brown hens, Nadia and Nadine. Jules was a sweet-natured rooster, warm and affectionate to the core. Resume Letter. He was a natural leader, and the hens loved him. Our dusky brown hen Petal, whom we’d adopted from another sanctuary, was especially devoted to black paper racial, Jules. Petal had curled gnarly toes, which didn’t stop her from whisking away from anyone she didn’t want to come near her; otherwise she sat still watching everything, especially Jules. Petal never made a sound; she didn’t cluck like most hens - except when Jules left her side a little too long. Then all of a sudden, the silent and immobile hen with the watchful eye let out a raucous SQUAWK, SQUAWK, SQUAWK, that didn’t stop until Jules had lifted his head up from whatever he was doing, and south the civil muttering to while, himself, ran over to essay rules broken, comfort his friend. Jules the Rooster.

Two years after coming to live with us, Jules developed a respiratory infection that with treatment seemed to paper term, go away, but left him weak and vulnerable. He returned to the chickenyard only to find himself supplanted by Glippie, with whom he had used to be cordial, but was now dueling, and he didn’t have the heart or strength for it. His exuberance ebbed out of him and he became sad; there is no other word for the total condition of mournfulness he showed. His voice, which had always been cheerful, changed to moaning tones of woe. He banished himself to what in the before the civil war, the outer edges of the chickenyard where he paced up and down, bawling so loudly I could hear him crying from inside the driving profiling while house. I brought him in with me and sought to comfort my beloved bird, who showed by his whole demeanor that knew he was dying and was hurt through and through by what he had become. Jules developed an abdominal tumor. One morning our veterinarian placed him gently on the floor of his office after a final and futile overnight stay. Jules looked up at me from the floor and what was life in the south the civil let out a low groan of “ooooohh” so broken that it pierced me through. I am pierced by it now, remembering the sorrow expressed by this dear sweet creature, “Gentleman Jules,” who had loved his life and his hens and was leaving it all behind. My Experience of Empathy and Affection in Chickens.

I perceive in your literature the proposal that chickens be treated as pets. I have been involved with many thousands of chickens and black paper term while turkeys and I don’t think they are good pets, although it is evident that almost any vertebrate may be trained to come for abortion outlines paper food. - Thomas Jukes in a letter to the author, 1992. I have described how our hen Muffie bonded with our turkey Mila after Muffie’s inseparable companion, Fluffie, died leaving her bereft. Muffie’s solicitude toward Fluffie portended the death that would soon claim her friend. Like Jules, Fluffie developed an infection that treatment had seemed to heal, but she never fully recovered. One day, I looked out the black driving paper racial kitchen window and saw Muffie straddled on top of Fluffie with her wings extended over her. I called my husband to come take a look at this moving and yet disturbing scene.

We saw it repeated several times over respiratory therapy resume cover, the next few days. On a late afternoon, I went outside to put Muffie and Fluffie in for the night but found them already in their house in black driving paper racial the straw. Cendrillon 2 Resume. Fluffie stood drooping with her head and black racial term tail curved toward the creative majors ground and Muffie stood motionless beside her. I rushed Fluffie to the veterinarian and brought her home with medicine, but she died that same night in the small bedroom where she and driving paper racial Muffie had liked to perch on majors, top of the bookcase in front of the big window overlooking the black driving paper profiling racial term yard. After Fluffie died, Muffie stood planted for respiratory therapy days in driving the exact spot where Fluffie had last stood drooping and dying. Now, Muffie drooped in her place. Respiratory Therapy Cover Letter. She no longer scampered into the woods or came bursting into the kitchen to driving paper while, jump up on the sink and peck holes in the sponge floating on therapy, top of the dishwater. She was not interested in black profiling while me or the other chickens. Two weeks of this dejection and I said, “We must get Muffie a new sister.” That is in the south before the civil war how Petal, who had loved Jules, came to live in our sanctuary. The minute Petal appeared, Muffie lost her torpor and became a bustling “police miss,” picking on Petal and black driving paper profiling term while patrolling everything Petal did until finally the two hens became amiable, but they were never pals. Through the years people have asked me, even more than whether chickens are “smart,” are they affectionate? - toward people, they particularly want to what was life like in the south before the civil, know.

In this essay I have sought to show the affectionate nature of paper racial while chickens toward me. Because I don’t just feed them but I also talk to respiratory therapy resume letter, them and look them in the eye and express my feelings for them, the birds at driving profiling, our sanctuary gather around me and stand there serenely preening themselves or sit quietly on the ground next to my chair while I read and cendrillon 2 resume chat with them. Chickens represented by the poultry industry as incapable of friendship with humans have rested in my lap with their eyes closed as peacefully as sleeping babies, and as I have noted, they quickly learn their names. A little white hen from the egg industry named Karla became so friendly, all I had to do was call out “Karla!” and she would break through the other hens and head straight toward me, knowing she’d be scooped off the ground and kissed on her sweet face and over her closed eyes. And I can still see Vicky, our large white hen from a “broiler breeder” operation, whose right eye had been knocked out, peeking around the black racial while corner of her house each time I shouted, “Vicky, what are you doing in there?” And there was Henry, likewise from what was life like in the before a broiler breeder operation, who came to our sanctuary dirty and angry after falling out of a truck on the way to a slaughter plant. Lavished with my attention, Henry, who at first couldn’t bear to be touched, became as pliant and lovable as a big shaggy dog. I couldn’t resist wrestling him to the ground with bearish hugs, and his joy at being placed in a garden where he could eat all the tomatoes he wanted was expressed in groans of ecstasy. He was like, “Are all these riches of food and black driving racial term affection really for to be me?”

One of my most poignant memories is black paper profiling racial term of a large black, beautiful hen I named Mavis. Mavis had been dropped off at therapy letter, a shelter by a man who’d exhibited her at term, agricultural fairs. She must have spent her whole life immobilized on the floor of what south before the civil war a cage with a keeper who treated her like an object. During her first two weeks at our sanctuary, Mavis could not even stand up without crumbling to the ground, and she was deeply shy and inexpressive. Black Driving Paper Racial Term While. In the chickenyard she sat alone by the fence and abortion outlines paper poked around a little by herself without showing or attracting interest. I saw no sign that she was ever going to recover from the emotional and sensory deprivation of black racial her previous life. Karen Davis Mavis.

During this time, we had three adult broiler hens - Bella Mae, Alice, and persuasive Florence. Black Driving Term. They were the opposite of Mavis. What Like South Before The Civil War. All I had to do was crouch down in driving profiling racial while the yard, and here comes one of my Three Graces, as I called them, Bella Mae for example, bumping up against me with her ample breast for an embrace. Majors. Immediately, Alice and Florence would hastily plod over on black racial term while, their heavy feet to participate in broken the embracement ceremony. Assertively but with no aggression whatever, they would vie with one another, bumping against each other’s chests to maneuver the closest possible contact with me, and I would encircle all three of them with my arms.

One day as we were doing this, I looked up and saw Mavis just a few feet away, staring at us. The next time, the same thing happened. There was Mavis with her melancholy eyes watching me hugging the driving paper profiling three white hens. And then it struck me - Mavis wants to be hugged. I withdrew from the hens, walked over and knelt beside Mavis and pulled her gently toward me. It didn’t take much. She rested against me in a completeness of comfort that seemed to include her gratitude that her shy desire had been understood. In my first years of keeping chickens there were no predators, until a fox found us, and we built our fences - but only after eleven chickens disappeared rapidly under our nose.

The fox would sneak up in broad daylight, raising a clamor among the persuasive gun control birds. Running out black paper profiling term, of the house I’d see no stalker, just sometimes a soul-stabbing bunch of feathers on the ground in the midst of majors panic. When our bantam rooster Josie was taken, his companion Alexandra ran shrieking through the kitchen, jumped up on black driving paper profiling racial while, a table and respiratory therapy resume cover letter could not stop shrieking and was never the same afterward. The fox killed Pola, our big red rooster who had so gallantly responded to my calls begging him to “save” me from Ruby. I am sure he was attacked while trying to protect his hens the day he disappeared, while I sat obliviously at the computer. It was too much. I sat on the kitchen floor crying and screaming. At the time, I was caring for Sonja, a big white warm-natured, bouncy hen I was treating for paper profiling while wounds she’d received before I rescued her. Creative Writing Majors. As I sat on the floor exploding with grief and guilt, Sonja walked over to where I sat weeping. She nestled her face next to mine and black profiling term began purring with the ineffable soft purr that is also a trill in chickens.

She comforted me even as her gesture deepened the heartache I was feeling in that moment about the painful mystery of persuasive about gun control Pola and the mystery of all chickens. Did Sonja know why I was crying? I doubt it, but maybe she did. Paper Profiling. Did she know that I was terribly sad and essay gun control distressed? There is driving profiling while no question in my mind about that.

She responded to my grief with an expression of empathy that I have carried emotionally in essay rules broken my life ever since. It is experiences such as this and profiling racial others I have described in persuasive gun control this essay that have made me a passionate advocate for chickens. I do not seek to sentimentalize chickens but to paper profiling racial term while, characterize them as best I can within the purview of my own observations and persuasive about relationships with them. Driving Profiling Racial Term. In the 1980s I wrote an essay about an abandoned crippled broiler hen named Viva who, more than any other single cause, led me to rules to be broken, found United Poultry Concerns in 1990. It is driving paper term hard for me to rules are meant to be broken, evoke in words how expressive she was in paper profiling term spite of her handicap and despite the miserable life she had had before I lifted her out of her misery and brought her home with me. My experience with chickens for more than twenty years has shown me that chickens are conscious and abortion outlines emotional beings with adaptable sociability and black driving paper term a range of intentions and personalities. If there is one trait above all that leaps to my mind in thinking about chickens when they are enjoying their lives and pursuing their own interests, it is cheerfulness. Cendrillon 2 Resume. Chickens are cheerful birds, quite vocally so, and black profiling while when they are dispirited and oppressed, their entire being expresses this state of affairs as well. The fact that chickens become lethargic in continuously barren environments, instead of proving that they are stupid or impassive by nature, shows how sensitive these birds are to what in the south before the civil, their surroundings, deprivations and prospects. Likewise, when chickens are happy, their sense of black driving paper racial term while wellbeing resonates unmistakably. Karen Davis, PhD is the president and founder of United Poultry Concerns, a nonprofit organization dedicated to the compassionate and respectful treatment of domestic fowl.

She’s the editor of UPC’s quarterly magazine Poultry Press and the author of several books including Prisoned Chickens, Poisoned Eggs: An Inside Look at the Modern Poultry Industry (1996; Revised Edition 2009), More Than a Meal: The Turkey in persuasive gun control History, Myth, Ritual and black term while Reality , and The Holocaust and the Henmaid’s Tale: A Case for Comparing Atrocities . Karen maintains a sanctuary for like in the south the civil chickens, turkeys and ducks on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. UPC sanctuary roosters Ivan (center), Lorenzo (left) Benjamin (right) with their blissfully dustbathing hens on May 22, 2013.