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alfred kohn homework Alfie Kohn has been a leading voice in diabetes phd thesis education for technology, better than two decades. The author of phd thesis 11 books and numerous articles in high-profile outlets, he is an comparative, influential go-to guy for education reporters seeking expert comments on everything from standardized testing policy to student motivation. Let me admit at the outset that I don#8217;t really believe reading what he has to say is bad for you. But if Kohn were writing about diabetes phd thesis, his own work, that would probably be his takeaway message. A Cruel Angel's Thesis! Kohn has made a virtual industry out of diabetes finding interesting and provocative insights in the psychological literature and a cruel angel's thesis music, following them off the edge of a cliff. It#8217;s worth reading Kohn simply because others do, and he is helpful as a pointer to interesting psychological literatures that have been ignored.
I say #8220;pointer to#8221; rather than #8220;interpreter of#8221; because his summaries of these interesting literatures are usually incomplete and diabetes phd thesis, misleading. Grade Essays On Martin Jr! For that reason, I think of Kohn as the honeyguide of diabetes education. The honeyguide is a bird that leads humans to introduction to essay generator, bee colonies. Once the phd thesis human has opened the hive and a cruel thesis sheet, taken the honey, the diabetes bird feeds on the wax and larvae that remain behind. So it is with Kohn. He will lead you to something interesting and useful, but if you want to use it, you will have to do the work yourself. I have not read all of Kohn’s sizable body of writing, but I have read pieces on learning experiences, three of his major themes from the last decade: the role of homework in schooling, the role of praise and reward in motivation, and most recently, the role of self-discipline in academic achievement.
There are enough similarities in Kohn’s treatment of these topics to draw some generalizations. Phd Thesis! Kohn specializes in attacking conventional wisdom in education. He takes a common practice that people think is helpful and then shows it’s not helpful, and in fact is destructive. Introduction Generator! Most people think that homework helps kids learn, praise shows appreciation and makes them more likely to do desirable things, and self-discipline helps them achieve their goals. Kohn argues that each of these conclusions is wrong or over-simplified. Homework may bring small benefits to some students, but it incurs greater costs and overall is likely not worth assigning. Praise doesn’t help academic achievement, it controls children, it reduces motivation, and makes them less able to make decisions.
Self-discipline is oversold as an educational panacea, and in some contexts may actually be undesirable. Kohn consistently makes factual errors, oversimplifies the literature that he seeks to explain, and phd thesis, commits logical fallacies. For example, in this 2006 Education Week piece, Kohn questions the value of essay homework. He claims that the data showing that homework boosts academic achievement in elementary school are soft and diabetes, brushes aside data showing that it boosts academic achievement in high school, saying that “more sophisticated statistical controls#8221; show that it doesn’t help at all. Research Papers! This summary does not correspond with the conclusions of most researchers, (see, for phd thesis, example, this review of the a cruel angel's music homework literature). Kohn also argues that two common justifications for homework#8212;to automatize skills and to provide practice time for mastery#8212;are based on flawed assumptions.
Kohn claims that time on task is diabetes not important to learning, and that the only skills that can be automatized are behavioral, that is, physical responses such as a golf swing. On both points, he’s in error. Second Luther! (Once could cite many examples: two would be the chapter on automaticity in pilots#8217; perception by Mica Endsley, and diabetes, the chapter on practice time by Anders Ericsson, both in technology the Cambridge Handbook of phd thesis Expertise and Expert Performance. In his book, Punished by Rewards , Kohn claims “Praise, at least as commonly practiced, is a way of using and perpetuating children’s dependence on us. It gets them to conform to our wishes irrespective of what those wishes are.” (p. 104.) Kohn also argues that praise and rewards for introduction generator, good behavior are destructive to motivation. The truth is actually somewhat more complicated. Rewards can reduce motivation, but only when motivation was somewhat high to start with. If the student is unmotivated to phd thesis, perform some task, rewarding him will not hurt his motivation. Praise can be controlling and exact a psychological cost, but its effect on the recipient depends on how it’s construed: does the number child think you are offering sincere appreciation for a job well done, or sending the message that future behavior had better be in line with expectations? There is important psychological work showing that the diabetes role of praise and reward is complex. Carol Dweck is a leader in this field and her book, Mindset, provides a good overview.
In a recent piece in the Phi Delta Kappan, Kohn argues that self-discipline has been over-sold, and indeed, that it has a dark side—too much self-control may be associated with anxiety, compulsiveness, and dampened emotional responses. He notes that some researchers put few or no qualifications on their enthusiasm for essays experiences, self-control, essentially arguing that more is always better. But Kohn proceeds from a definition of “self-control” that differs from that used by these researchers (Roy Baumeister, Angela Duckworth, Walter Mischel, and Marty Seligman), and indeed, by virtually all of the important researchers in the field. They define self-control as the ability to marshal your cognitive and emotional resources to help you attain goals that you consider important. Diabetes! Kohn defines self-control as using willpower to accomplish things that are generally regarded as desirable. Thus by on martin jr, Kohn’s definition, a child shows self-discipline when she determinedly (and miserably) slogs towards a goal that she does not value, but that her parents (or others) deem important. Researchers use the former definition when they claim that they find no disadvantages to self-control, and that they observe positive associations with achievement, social adjustment, mental health. Kohn’s point—that authoritarian control leads to negative outcomes—is not very startling and is shared more or less universally by diabetes, researchers. Kohn falls prey to logical fallacies on occasion.
In the same Kappan piece on self-discipline, Kohn writes “Learning, after all, depends not on what students do so much as on how they regard and construe what they do. To assume otherwise is to revert to a crude behaviorism long since repudiated by serious scholars.” (p. 170). This is a false dilemma . Kohn offers me the choice of agreeing with his version of a constructivist learning theory or agreeing with a behaviorist theory. Actually, those are not my only introduction to essay generator choices of learning theories. (I have yet to find a Kohn piece in which behaviorism#8212;a theory whose heyday was fifty years ago, and is now ignored by most learning theorists#8212;did not take a beating.) Kohn’s work often makes use of misleading vividness, or perhaps better, a variant of that fallacy. His articles are characterized by a long, vehement attack on diabetes phd thesis, the target and a brief, subdued qualification of the attack. The pale qualification, though important to an accurate characterization of the literature, is likely forgotten by essays, the reader. Diabetes Phd Thesis! For example, the Kappan piece is an attack on three fronts (psychological, philosophical, and political) on the usefulness of self-discipline.
Kohn also notes “While I readily admit that persevering at worthwhile tasks is good#8212;and that some students seem to lack this capacity—. Technology! . . .” This qualification indicates that an important topic ought to be “when is self-control useful, and when is it destructive?” But the phd thesis message of the article is unqualified: self-discipline is papers bad. Kohn is not bad for you nor dangerous to your children. Diabetes Phd Thesis! Indeed, he#8217;s helpful to conclusion, the field as a provacteur. In each case, the literature he cites (and mischaracterizes) invites important questions for educators. Homework is associated with achievement, but what are the drawbacks?
Can we achieve those gains some other way? What are the diabetes phd thesis most effective types of homework? Do we praise too much? How can we know what is the right type of praise, and when to use it? How can we encourage children to be self-disciplined, and at the same time guard against children completely forfeiting their goals in favor of the goals of teachers, parents and coaches?
Kohn#8217;s work can help us to formulate these questions, but should not be read as a guide to comparative, the answers because it cannot be trusted as an diabetes phd thesis, accurate summary of the research literature.
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essay on criticsm The Harvard Classics. 1909#150;14. The significance of the essay in the formation and perpetuation of critical doctrine is also apparent if one turns to the formal histories of criticism. Systematic treatises on the theory of the fine arts, including literature, have appeared at intervals since the time of diabetes, Aristotle. The science of to essay generator, ?sthetics, as we know it, was developed in Germany during the latter half of the eighteenth century, and it forms an integral portion of the philosophical system of Kant and of many other philosophers. Diabetes? But these formal treatises upon the nature of beauty, involving as they do the analysis of the beautiful as it exists in the natural world and in works of art, appeal primarily to a few thinkers and scholars, and not to the general public.
It is true that men of genius like Goethe, Schiller, and Burke have the faculty of discussing the philosophic basis of ?sthetic theories in such a way as to make them interesting and highly instructive to the general reader. But as a rule the systematic treatises upon the nature and a cruel angel's sheet, history of the diabetes phd thesis, fine arts, and of literature in particular, have been necessarily addressed to a limited audience. The discussions which have really caught the ear of the public have been the technology papers, casual utterances of brilliant men in the act of attacking or defending a literary creed, of writing a preface to a book or a play, or of hazarding, in some dialogue, pamphlet, or essay, a new opinion about beauty, a new theory of poetry or of prose. To understand, therefore, the history of actual critical opinion, one must study the essay. It is a very variable, highly personalized literary form: resembling now a dinner-table monologue or dialogue, and now a letter to a friend. Here it is a mere sparkling fragment of diabetes phd thesis, some solid mass of philosophical theory, and there it is a tiny jewel of paradox, interrogation, or fancy; here an echo of some great historical debate over essays experiences tragedy or comedy, and there the diabetes, first faint stirring of some new, living idea, which by experiences and by will be tossed about with all the winds of doctrine. But however changeable this literary type may be, one who reads the various essays in The Harvard Classics can hardly fail to get a general notion of the nature of #147;the essay.#148; The type will gradually make itself clear to him, as something different from the formal treatise, the dialogue or the letter or the magazine article.
He will learn to watch the diabetes phd thesis, type emerge into clear outline with Montaigne 1 and Bacon. 2 He will see that it modifies itself under the influence of national traits or of the essays conclusion, fashions of successive historical periods, that it differentiates itself into species and varieties, precisely as other literary types undergo variation and development under specific conditions. It will flourish in one age and decline in another, as do the drama and the lyric, although, like them, the essay represents a certain permanent mood which never goes wholly out of fashion. The reader who is interested in literary criticism will soon find that the essay has been a particularly convenient form for conveying literary theories from one mind or age to another. The #147;critical essay,#148; while conforming in general to the flexible laws of diabetes phd thesis, #147;the essay,#148; is comparative, used for a specific purpose. It deals with the emergence, continuance, and disappearance of critical opinions; it records, in an informal but none the less effective manner, the judgment of Europe upon books. Let us take a specific example.
Charles Lamb#146;s #147;Essay on diabetes, the Tragedies of Shakespeare#148; 3 is a singularly perfect specimen of #147;the essay#148; type. It is personal and casual. It opens with the sentence: #147;Taking a turn the other day in the Abbey, I was struck with the affected attitude of a figure, which I do not remember to have seen before, and which upon examination proved to be a whole-length of the celebrated Mr. Garrick#148;; and then Lamb passes, with apparent artlessness, from the affectations and tricks of actors to the profound question of the possibility of an adequate representation of the second on martin luther, personalities of phd thesis, Hamlet and Lear upon the stage. This personal essay, with its odd whims and essays on martin luther jr, fancies, deepens page by page into a masterly critical essay, which makes a distinct phase of the attitude of the English mind toward England#146;s greatest poet. The two essays which have just been mentioned#151;personal in their immediate character, and yet even more significant as representing doctrines which came to be held by a generation or a school#151;may also serve to illustrate a third aspect from which essays may be regarded. One may study them, in chronological order, as successive indications of a national point of view. Thus the English critical essay, in the Elizabethan period, in the seventeenth century, or in any subsequent epoch, reveals the precise extent to which the English mind accepts, modifies, or rejects the main body of European critical doctrine. As affording material for such a chronological study, it is not essential that any particular English critical essay should be marked by personal distinction of style, or by special critical acumen. The undistinguished mass of book reviews, of gossip about writers, about the stage and other forms of contemporary art, is often the most valuable evidence of the instinctive working of the English mind. What does an average bookish Englishman, in a given decade, understand by the words #147;tragic,#148; #147;comic,#148; #147;heroic,#148; #147;the unities,#148; #147;wit,#148; #147;taste,#148; #147;humor,#148; #147;Nature#148;?
The historian finds the answer in a thousand casual expressions, each one of diabetes, which bears the stamp of the period and the race. The Englishman interprets the general laws and phrases of European criticism in terms of his own neighborhood and time, and binary, a collection of diabetes, English critical essays thus illustrates the traits of the English national character. Let us now turn from the broader relations of the essay with criticism, and endeavor to ascertain precisely what the grade essays luther, word #147;essay#148; means. The older English form of the word is #147;assay,#148; i. e., a trial or experiment. It is derived, through the French, from a late Latin word #147;exagium,#148; which means a standard weight, or more precisely, the act of weighing. The word #147;examine#148; comes from the same Latin root. As defined by the #147;Century Dictionary,#148; #147;essay#148; means I, A trial, attempt or endeavor; 2, An experimental trial or test; 3, An assay or test of metal; 4, In literature, a discursive composition concerned with a particular subject, usually shorter and less methodical and finished than a treatise; a short disquisition. Dr. Samuel Johnson, who was himself one of the diabetes phd thesis, most famous essayists of a cruel sheet, his day, defines #147;essay#148; in his Dictionary as #147;A loose sally of the mind; an irregular indigested piece; not a regular and orderly composition.#148; Possibly it was the diabetes, Doctor#146;s happy word #147;sally#148; which suggested to a recent writer, Mr. F. Comparative? N. Zabriskie, the following excellent definition: #147;The essay is properly a collection of notes, indicating certain aspects of a subject, or suggesting thoughts concerning it; #133; not a formal siege, but a series of assaults, essays or attempts upon it.#148; It is for diabetes phd thesis this reason that Mr. Zabriskie calls the essayist the excursionist of literature, the literary angler, the meditator rather than the thinker; and comparative conclusion, he points out that the German mind is not adapted to phd thesis, the essay, since the Germans are not satisfied to make mere assaults upon a subject, mere excursions into it; they must go through a subject from end to end and leave it a conquered territory.
Montaigne, who was the initiator of the modern essay (1580), laid stress upon its essentially autobiographic nature. He confesses that he writes #147;not to discover things, but to lay open myself.#148; He thinks that an essay binary, essay should be spontaneous and free from phd thesis, every artificial trammel. It should have the characteristics of open, varied, wide-ranging talk: #147;I speak unto paper as unto the first man I meet.#148; Lord Bacon, whose first edition of essays appeared in binary, 1597, is more orderly than Montaigne. He masses his material more closely, keeps to his topic, packs his sentences as full as they will hold. He is too austere for the leisurely, personal method of Montaigne; he imparts his concentrated worldly wisdom coolly, almost impassively; he loves the pregnant opening and close. #147;To write just treatises,#148; he says, #147;requireth time in the writer and leisure in the reader, which is the cause that hath made me choose to diabetes, write certain brief notes, set down rather significantly than curiously, which I have called essays; the word is essays, late, but the thing is ancient. For Seneca#146;s Epistles to Lucilius, if one mark them well, are but essays#151;that is, dispersed meditations.#148; And finally, Addison, whose essays sum up the early eighteenth century as completely as Montaigne and Bacon represent the phd thesis, late Renaissance, is essay, quite as explicit as they are in emphasizing the informal character of this type of literature: #147;When I make choice of a subject that has not been treated on diabetes, by others, I throw together my reflections on sheet music, it without any order or method, so that they may appear rather in diabetes phd thesis, the looseness and freedom of an essay, than in the regularity of a set discourse.#148; #147;The thing is ancient#148;; there is no doubt of experiences, that. Analogies to the mood of the diabetes, modern essay and to its urbane, free, flexible methods of discussion, may be found in second essays, the #147;Dialogues#148; of Plato, 5 in the #147;Lives#148; 6 and #147;Morals#148; of Plutarch, in the letters of Cicero, 7 Horace, and the younger Pliny, 8 in the gossipy #147;Attic Nights#148; of Aulus Gellius, in the talks of Epictetus, 9 and the Meditations of Marcus Aurelius. 10 There is nothing new under the sun; and there were Greek and Roman gentlemen quite as capable as Montaigne of writing with frankness, ease, quaintness, and an open-minded attitude of skeptical inquiry. But though they often revealed the spirit of the modern essayist, they were groping uncertainly after the appropriate literary form. Montaigne#146;s great achievement was to hazard his fortunes in an unsurpassed series of #147;sallies,#148; #147;assaults,#148; #147;assays#148; upon a hundred entrenched topics, and always to come bravely off#151;so that his tactics became the model for all literary skirmishes. To think and feel and write like Montaigne was to produce the modern essay.
Without his example, it is diabetes, doubtful if we should have had the essays of educational papers, Lamb, of Emerson, and diabetes phd thesis, of Stevenson. Supporting the whole theory and second essays on martin king jr, practice of Montaigne, undoubtedly, stood the phd thesis, Renaissance itself. This #147;re-birth#148; of the second grade on martin king, human mind, this new awakening of phd thesis, vital energies and intellectual powers, involved a new way of looking at the world. Nothing seemed quite the same as it had been. Church and empire and feudal system were apparently weakening; new nationalities, new languages were to be reckoned with; new continents were explored, new inventions altered the face of daily life; a new intellectual confidence, inquiry, criticism, supplanted the medi?val obedience to authority. There was a new #147;weighing,#148; #147;assaying#148; of all things. The actual world was changing before men#146;s eyes, and the inner world changed no less. Introduction Generator? There was universal curiosity about individual capacities and opinions, experiences and diabetes, tastes.
The whole #147;undulating and various#148; scheme of things#151;to use a favorite expression of Montaigne#151;was a direct provocative of the essay state of mind; and the essay form, in turn, in its looseness, vagueness, and sheet music, range, was singularly adapted to the intellectual spirit of the period. One type of Renaissance essay, for example, concerned itself with a casual survey of the fragments of the classical and medi?val world. Modern books like Taylor#146;s #147;Classical Heritage of the Middle Ages,#148; and #147;The Medi?val Mind,#148; Einstein#146;s #147;Italian Renaissance in England,#148; Sir Sidney Lee#146;s #147;French Renaissance in England,#148; Spingarn#146;s #147;Literary Criticism in diabetes, the Renaissance,#148; and Saintsbury#146;s #147;History of Criticism#148; set before us, with abundance of detail, the kind and extent of educational, knowledge of the past which was possessed by Renaissance essayists. Caxton#146;s naive Prologues and Epilogues 11 to the popular classical and medi?val books which he issued in English, Sir Philip Sidney#146;s chivalrous #147;Defense of Poesy,#148; 12 and Edmund Spenser#146;s explanation to Sir Walter Raleigh of the purpose of diabetes phd thesis, #147;The Faerie Queene#148; 13 are good illustrations of the attitude of typical Englishmen toward the imaginative life of the past. Gregory Smith#146;s collection of #147;Elizabethan Critical Essays#148; affords a fairly complete view of the second grade on martin jr, critical ideas which sixteenth-century England had inherited from Europe. The evolution of the English critical essay, during the three hundred years which have elapsed since then, is mainly the story of the preservation of these ideas and their modification or transformation under the successive impacts of new intellectual forces, and of differing social and literary conditions. Another type of essay, originating in phd thesis, the Renaissance, and a favorite with Montaigne, deals not so much with books as with life itself. The new culture, the novel intellectual perceptions, altered at once the accepted theories of man#146;s duty and destiny. Essay? Montaigne does not dogmatize about these matters: he asks questions, he suggests possible answers.
The speculative essay, the philosophical and scientific essay, the social essay which draws its materials from the ever-renewed revelation of the actual life of phd thesis, man, all find their source in an awakened curiosity. The enthusiasm, the gusto, with which sixteenth-century men discussed every topic within their range of vision, has remained an integral element of the effective essay. A man may set himself sadly and grimly to work upon his formal treatise, and write it through to the end with disillusion in second grade essays on martin luther king jr, his soul. But the born essayist, though knowing well enough that his raids into diabetes, unconquered territory must be merely a perpetual series of luther jr, sallies and retreats, nevertheless advances gayly to the assault. Like Lamb and Stevenson, he preaches without being a preacher; like Huxley and phd thesis, Tyndall, he teaches when he means only to inform; so communicable and infectious is to essay generator, this gift of curiosity about life.
There is diabetes, a third type of essay, originating in the Renaissance emphasis upon individualism, and comparative essays, confidently asserting itself upon the pages of diabetes phd thesis, Montaigne, 14 Addison, Hazlitt, De Quincey, 15 Emerson, 16 Thoreau, 17 and a hundred other men. It is the autobiographic, #147;egotistic#148; essay#151;in which there is rarely any insolence of essay binary, egotism, but only an phd thesis, insatiable curiosity about oneself, and an entire willingness to discuss that question in public. If you like the man who is talking, this kind of essay is the most delightful of introduction, all. But it betrays a great deal, and like lyric verse#151;the most intensely personalized mode of poetry#151;it sometimes betrays too much. When the right balance is struck between openness and phd thesis, conceit, or when, as with Emerson, the comparative conclusion, man is sweet and sound to the core, the self-revealing essay justifies itself.
Indeed, it is thought by some critics that the subjective or lyrical quality of the essay is diabetes, a part of its essential character. Thus Professor A. C. Bradley has asserted: #147;Brevity, simplicity, and singleness of presentation; the strong play of personality, the subjective charm, the delicate touch, the educational research, limited range of phd thesis, theme and of treatment, and the ordered beauty through exclusion of all disordered moods and fiercer passions#151;these flow directly from the presence and dominance of the lyrical element, and these are the constant features of the Essay.#148; In fact, one of the most interesting studies made available through The Harvard Classics is the survey of various national moods in successive historical periods. Take, for instance, the English essayists of the eighteenth century. Here are characteristic utterances of men so differently yet richly endowed as Addison and Swift, Steele and Defoe, 19 Sidney and Samuel Johnson, Hume 20 and Burke, 21 yet the student of the educational research, eighteenth century, whether he is reading Hume or Burke on Taste, or Johnson explaining the plan of his great Dictionary, 22 Defoe#146;s ironical scheme for ridding the world of Dissenters, or Addison#146;s delicately sentimental musings in Westminster Abbey, detects, beneath all the differences in style and varieties of personal opinion, the unmistakable traits of race, nation, and period. These essays are thus historical documents of high importance. Phd Thesis? One understands better, for reading them, the England of Marlborough and of Walpole, the England of the Pitts and the four Georges. Any one century, as Carlyle said long ago, is the lineal descendant of all the preceding centuries, and an intelligent reading of the English essays of the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries is one of the best ways of learning that significant lesson. Even if the reader of these essays has no special knowledge of English history, and has hitherto paid but little attention to the influence of one school of thought upon its successors, he cannot help discovering one difference between what we have called #147;the essay#148; and its more specialized from #147;the critical essay.#148; #147;The essay#148; moves in a circle. Its orbit tends to return perpetually upon itself. One may even say that the type was already complete in Montaigne, and that since then it has made no real advance; that we have only a succession of essayists, doing, of course with infinite personal varieties of pattern, precisely what Montaigne showed them how to do.
But the critical essay advances, albeit by zigzag lines. It is obliged to tack, as the winds of doctrine shift and essays experiences, the tides of opinion ebb and flow, yet it is always steering, and diabetes, not merely drifting. Take, for example, the most famous critical essay of the Greeks, the #147;Poetics#148; of Aristotle. It is an attempt to establish certain fundamental principles of ?sthetic criticism, such as the laws of binary number, epic poetry and diabetes phd thesis, the nature of tragedy. Introduction Generator? It analyzed the phd thesis, structure of contemporary works of literary art, tested the second essays king, psychological effect of poem and play upon the mind of the reader and phd thesis, spectator, and laid down some shrewd rules for the guidance of poets. It is an essay rather than an introduction to essay generator, exhaustive treatise, but it is by no means the diabetes, sort of introduction, essay which Montaigne would have written had he been a Greek. Diabetes? It is impersonal, analytical, scientific.
And so logical is its matter, so penetrating its insight, that it became a model of sound critical procedure. The writer of the critical essay, in essays experiences, short, finds that his course has been laid out for him by phd thesis the very nature of the task which he has undertaken. The mere essayist, as we have seen, can sail in a circle, starting and ending with his own fancies; but the man who uses the essay as the angel's music, vehicle of criticism must use chart and compass; must proceed from a given starting point to a definite point of arrival. And he cannot do this if he is diabetes, ignorant of the efforts of his predecessors, and unaware of the general aims and methods of thesis sheet, critical procedure. If he is writing, for instance, on the theory of poetry, he does not wish to leave the matter where he found it: he desires to make, if he can, a contribution to that branch of diabetes, human knowledge. But he is not likely to succeed unless he has a tolerably clear notion of just how far the world-old discussion has proceeded at the point where he himself takes up the comparative conclusion, debate. When Horace wrote that clever versified essay on the poet#146;s art, an essay which has been irreverently termed #147;the business man#146;s guide to poetry,#148; he had no intention of slavishly imitating the rules of the Greek theorists. But after all, his father had sent him to a Greek University, and the ghosts of diabetes, his old professors were peeping over his shoulders as he wrote. And when, long afterward, the Italian Vida and the Frenchman Boileau came to write their own verse essays on the same topic, the ghost of the clever Roman held their pens. Sidney and Shelley, in composing their eloquent Defences of Poetry, 23 had probably no conscious thought of continuing the second essays luther king, formal discussion of poetic theory which the Greeks began and the Renaissance resuscitated; nevertheless, their confessions of faith in poetry form an essential chapter in the evolution of criticism.
So with the prefaces of Wordsworth and diabetes phd thesis, Coleridge and Walt Whitman. 24 These men are innovators in theory and practice of their craft, but, like most of the successful innovators and technology, #147;modernists#148; in art, they possessed a fairly accurate knowledge of the ancient defenses which they were trying to carry by assault. Yet these assaults, no matter how brilliant, never really end the siege. Diabetes? The final truth escapes complete analysis and definition. The history of the critical essay shows only a series of approximations, a record of second grade essays king, endeavors which must be constantly renewed. Out of diabetes phd thesis, all this variety of effort, however, three tendencies of criticism emerge. They are usually called the #147;judicial,#148; the essay binary number, #147;interpretative,#148; and the #147;impressionistic.#148; The theoretical distinction between these tendencies of diabetes, criticism is essay, clear enough. #147;Judicial#148; criticism passes judgment upon established facts. It deals primarily with rules, with the #147;canons#148; of diabetes phd thesis, criticism, although it may, of essays conclusion, course, examine the principles upon which these rules are based. Its estimates are likely to be dogmatic and magisterial.
It says bluntly, in the voice of Jeffrey, that Wordsworth#146;s #147;Excursion#148; #147;will never do#148;; that his #147;White Doe of phd thesis, Rylstone#148; is generator, #147;the very worst poem we ever saw imprinted in a quarto volume.#148; It declares, with Professor Churton Collins, that #147;Criticism is to literature what legislation and government are to states.#148; The aim of diabetes, #147;interpretative#148; criticism, on the other hand, is not so much to pass judgment upon a specific work, as to explain it. Learning Experiences? It seeks and establishes, if possible, correct texts; it makes clear the biographical and historical facts essential to an understanding of the diabetes, work in question. It finds and reveals the meaning and beauty there contained. It points out the ethical and social significance of the literary product. To explain a book, no doubt, is often tantamount to judging it; for if the book be demonstrated to be full of corruption, that is the most effective way of declaring it a corrupt book. Research? Nevertheless, the object of the #147;interpretative#148; or #147;appreciative#148; critic is primarily expository, and diabetes phd thesis, he prefers that the reader himself should pass ultimate judgment, in the light of the exposition which has been made. He puts the needful facts before the jury, and then rests his case.
Sainte-Beuve 25 is a master of this sort of criticism, as Jeffrey is of the binary number, magisterial. The #147;impressionistic#148; critic, finally, does not concern himself overmuch with the canons. Diabetes? He leaves #147;universal considerations#148; and #147;the common sense of introduction, most#148; to his rivals. Diabetes? Textual criticism bores him. The examination of binary, principles strikes him as too #147;scientific,#148; the massing of biographical and historical details seems to him the work of the historian rather than the critic. He deals frankly in his own #147;impressions,#148; his personal preferences, the adventures of his soul in phd thesis, the presence of masterpieces.
He translates the sensations and emotions which he has experienced in his contact with books into symbols borrowed from all the other arts and from the a cruel angel's thesis, inexhaustible stores of natural beauty. His rivals may call him a man of caprice rather than a man of taste, but they cannot really confute him, for diabetes such are the infinitely varied modes of essay binary, physical and psychological reaction to the presence of the beautiful, that nobody knows exactly how the other man feels. We must take his word for it, and diabetes, the words of impressionistic criticism have often been uttered with an essays, exquisite delicacy and phd thesis, freshness and radiance that make all other types of literary criticism seem for thesis sheet the moment mere cold and formal pedantries. So much for the theoretical distinction between the three tendencies. But no one can read many pages of the phd thesis, masters of modern criticism without becoming aware that all three tendencies frequently reveal themselves in the same man, and even in the same essay. Some of the famous #147;impressionists,#148; like Lamb, Stevenson, Lemaitre, and Anatole France, know a great deal more about the #147;canons#148; than they wish at introduction generator, the moment to confess. Phd Thesis? They play so skillfully with the overtones of criticism because they know the fundamental tones so well. Stevenson attempts #147;scientific#148; criticism in his essay on #147;Style,#148; #147;historical#148; criticism in his essay on Pepy 26 Jeffrey occasionally writes #147;national character#148; criticism quite in the expository method of Sainte-Beuve.
Coleridge and comparative, Emerson, Arnold and Ruskin, 27 are too many-sided and richly endowed men to limit their literary essays to any one type of criticism.