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Words: 481 - Pages: 2. ct | EXPERIMENT NO. 2 | graphs and equations | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | SCORE | | | | | | | | | | | | daradar, roubie Dave h. | (SURNAME, GIVEN NAME, MI) | bsit- agd/2nd | | phys-201 l | (COURSE AND YEAR) | | (SUBJECT CODE AND SECTION) | 201211482 | | june 25, 2013 | (STUDENT NO.) | | (DATE OF PERFORMANCE. Words: 270 - Pages: 2. What Are the write research internet Problems Being Encountered by the Irregular Students. Nova University Dissertations. . Write Research Paper. Lacson Foundation Maritime University-Molo, Inc. College of Business Iloilo City Scope and Delimitation of the Study This study will not only determine the problem of the irregular students but also to know how effective the southeastern dissertations system of the paper internet school to handle the problems of the baby essay irregular students during enrollment. The respondents of write internet, this study is nova southeastern dissertations consist of research censorship internet, ten (10) irregular Mar-E students, fifteen (15) CSM, ten (10) BST, ten (BSBA), ten (BSIT), ten . The respondents were the irregular students of John B. Lacson Foundation Maritime University who were officially enrolled during academic year 1013-2014, first semester. Words: 993 - Pages: 4. flash mob of all the block of BSIT fourth year. I feel so nervous slight because I was thinking what if I forgot the steps and what if we are not performing it well and not doing it on timing to the music.
But no I’m wrong because we perform it well and some of the faculty teacher is satisfied to our presentation and congratulate Mrs. Essay School. Chua Razo by having this presentation. Finally we are done we proceed to the games some of my classmates joining the games football but I am not joining because im. Words: 398 - Pages: 2. . Table 2. What is the percentage of facebook users of the BSIT - 2C students? Table 2 shows the paper censorship internet percentage of facebook users wherein 69% chose facebook, while 12% of them chose twitter while 19% of the paper respondents chose both facebook and twitter. This shows that most of the respondents use facebook rather than the other two. Table 3. What is the research paper internet percentage of twitter user of the BSIT - 2C students?
Table 3 shows the perentage of twitter users among the thesis introduction outline respondents wherein while 12. Words: 374 - Pages: 2. Playing Computer Games and Study Habits of Hcdc Students. . Rationale of the research censorship Study This research we have conducted is editing and revising research papers sharing out the information about the playing of computer games and study habits of the BSIT students of Holy Cross of Davao College. Research Paper Censorship. With this study, the thesis paper readers may able to know what is the level of perception of the BSIT students and their extent to study habits if these particular activities are good for research paper them as a student or may harm them mentally, emotionally, and physically. Paper. Words: 4528 - Pages: 19. Positive and Negative Impacts of Technology among BSIT Students of Iloilo State College Of Fisheries Barotac Nuevo Campus Chapter I Introduction Background of the Study The rise of technology in the classroom opened up new doors for educators, who saw the potential for computer use and the incorporation of research internet, multimedia elements to engage and college, motivate students. This innovative educational structure used video production software and the World Wide Web to move lecture presentations out of the. Words: 2777 - Pages: 12. Internet. Perceptions of southeastern, College Students Toward Rh Bill.
University of Science and write internet, Technology, Cabanatuan City, 1ST semester, AY 2013-1014. A total number of 100 BSIT 3rd year students (20% of the total population of BSIT 3rd year students) are the and revising papers respondents of paper censorship, this study. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This study may provide vital information to the students/youths, their parents, and argument, professors who show concern to this study: To the Students/Youths. This study will encourage the write research paper internet students/youths to be aware on how they take care of themselves. To. Words: 3683 - Pages: 15.
Mark Jommel V. Mago BSIT 1B English Time to change This is a story of studies interview preparation, man who falls in love to a girl who made him change his life. His name is Kram; he is paper internet a t.d.h guy or a tall, dark and handsome guy. Although he got the looks and the charm. The girl she loves the essay most whose name is write research paper censorship internet Kitty doesn’t like him. Outline. They are at the same section in high school years. Kram is arrogant, selfish and a bully sometimes. He likes when someone is being bullied, he likes when someone. Words: 585 - Pages: 3. Effects of Study Habits in paper internet, Academic Performances of Third-Year BSIT Students Chapter I Introduction Background of the Study The extent of student’s learning in academics may be determined by university, the grades a student earns for a period of learning has been done.
It is believed that a grade is a primary indicator of such learning. If a learner earns high grades it is concluded that they may also have learned a lot while low grades indicate lesser learning. However, many experiences and write paper censorship internet, studies. Words: 3423 - Pages: 14. Submitted to: Mrs. Case Studies Interview. Carina E. Fernandez INSTRUCTOR Submitted by: Camela R. De Guzman BSIT-4 Introduction Automobile, Inc., a national firm that markets a software package for car dealers. The manual records that it maintains do not accurately reflect the inventory status - the numbers and types of automobiles and trucks on the lot. When a new shipment arrives, it takes several days to update the inventory records. A salesperson might have a buyer.
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Words: 403 - Pages: 2. Dumping Argument Essay. strictly followed as follows: 7:00 -8:30 A.M.- Assessment of the computer equipment of the school’s Computer Laboratory. (Michelle E. Alagoy and Fourth Year IT Students) 8:00-8:30 - Registration – (Marilou Alngag and Fourth Year IT Students) 8:30-9:00 - Opening Ceremonies amp; Orientation/ Presentation of the Training Design 9:00-10:00 - Session 1 (With Working Break) MS-Excel and Data Types – Cherry Gatin, 4th Year BSIT Student 10:00. Write Research Paper Censorship. Words: 1457 - Pages: 6. Barnachea, Erwin A. BSIT – 4.1C Reaction Paper in “Dead Stars” by research papers, Paz Marquez-Benitez Confusions, heartbreak and love, these are the things that encapsulates the story of the research internet Dead Stars. It is a beautiful and a typical love story which highlights the confusions on the relationship between the three characters namely Alfredo, Esperanza and dumping argument essay, Julia. The story is research paper a collection of complex situation that every man has to go through in life. As the story goes, you will be more enticed to read it. Words: 437 - Pages: 2. purpose of the research paper is to determine the use of the nova university dissertations computer on the field of engineering to be useful if contribute this tactic and write research, easy to create a design. We hope that this paper will meet your approval. Respectfully yours, Altair Pumaren BSCE-2 Sean Pexie Rocero BSIT-1. Research. Words: 277 - Pages: 2. Informative Speech “Wide-Spread Used of Prohibited Drugs Lead Teenagers to a Deteriorated Future.” Quintela, Ma. Censorship. Katrina G. Dissertations. BSIT 2A Informative Speech “Wide-spread used of prohibited drugs lead teenagers to paper censorship a deteriorated future.” Good Morning.
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I. Write Research Paper Censorship! Exploitation of Migrant Workers. Many countries rely on migrant workers to fill labor shortages in sectors that are low-paying, dangerous, and poorly-regulated. Migrants are concentrated in sectors such as agriculture, construction, and domestic work, and are often at high risk of workplace abuse. Their migration status, language barriers, isolation, and admission, limited access to paper, services can compound these abuses and further limit access to redress. While many governments are beginning to baby argument essay, engage in a process of reform, the most promising initiatives and commitments have arisen from the write research private sector rather than governments. These include commitments from New York University and the Guggenheim regarding labor contracts for essay prompts workers involved in constructing their buildings in the United Arab Emirates, and improved work contracts for workers producing tobacco for write research paper Philip Morris Kazakhstan, a subsidiary of good essay, Philip Morris International, one of the world’s largest tobacco companies. Large numbers of complaints from migrant domestic workers regarding nonpayment of wages and a series of high-profile abuse cases led Indonesia to censorship internet, suspend migration of domestic workers to southeastern dissertations, Malaysia in June 2009 until new protections could be put in place. The two governments have indicated their intent to revise a 2006 Memorandum of write research internet, Understanding (MOU) to allow domestic workers to keep their passports and have a weekly day of rest, but after several bilateral meetings and missed deadlines, negotiations have stalled on a minimum wage and the recruitment fee structure. Approximately 300,000 domestic workers, mostly from good admission prompts Indonesia, work in Malaysia. Censorship Internet! The labor laws exclude domestic workers from core protections such as a weekly rest day and limits to hours of work. Many domestic workers labor up to 18 hours a day, seven days a week, for wages of 400 to 600 ringgit (US$118-177) a month.
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Human Rights Watch recommends that the write research censorship internet governments of Indonesia and Malaysia revise the 2006 Memorandum of Understanding to include: A commitment to extend equal protection under Malaysia's labor laws to admission, domestic workers, specifically Section XII of the Employment Act of 1955 and the Workmen's Compensation Act of write paper censorship internet, 1952. Provision for a standard contract that ensures minimum labor protections, including a 24-hour rest period each week, a fair minimum wage, a limitation on weekly hours of work, and benefits. Mechanisms for timely remedies for editing and revising papers migrant domestic workers in cases of abuse, and sanctions for write censorship employers and and revising research papers, labor agents who commit these abuses. Stronger regulations governing recruitment agencies, including eliminating the practice of write research paper, deducting salaries to repay excessive recruitment fees, and mechanisms to monitor and enforce these standards. Tens of thousands of migrant workers travel each year to the Central Asian economic powerhouse of Kazakhstan in search of employment. Thousands of these migrant workers, often together with their children, find work in tobacco farming. As documented in the report,“Hellish Work: Exploitation of Migrant Tobacco Workers in Kazakhstan,” Human Rights Watch research in 2009 found abuse and introduction outline, exploitation of many migrant workers by tobacco farm owners who employ them for seasonal work. Tobacco farm owners in Kazakhstan contract with, and supply tobacco to, Philip Morris Kazakhstan (PMK), a subsidiary of Philip Morris International (PMI), one of the research censorship world’s largest tobacco companies. Migrant tobacco workers variously told Human Rights Watch how some employers confiscated their passports, failed to provide them with written employment contracts, did not pay regular wages, arbitrarily deducted their earnings, and argument, forced them to work excessively long hours.
Some employers also failed to provide migrant workers with potable water, adequate hand-washing and other sanitary facilities, or adequate living conditions. In the worst cases, workers carried out write research censorship internet forced labor, or were subject to thesis paper, situations analogous to forced labor, in which employers confiscated migrant workers’ passports and in some cases required them to perform other work without pay, in addition to tobacco farming. Human Rights Watch documented 72 cases of children working in tobacco farming in 2009, the internet youngest of nova southeastern university, whom was 10. International and Kazakhstani law prohibits employing children under 18-years-old in write paper, harmful or hazardous work. Experts agree that the difficulty of the work, the risks associated with handling tobacco leaves, and editing and revising papers, exposure to pesticides, renders tobacco farming one of the worst forms of child labor, or labor from which children under 18 are categorically prohibited. Children who worked with their families on tobacco farms typically missed several months of school each year, or even entire academic years.
Human Rights Watch first brought to PMI its concerns about the treatment of migrant workers on tobacco farms producing tobacco for PMK in October 2009. In response, PMI and paper censorship, PMK have committed to introduction outline, implement measures to paper, expand and strengthen their labor and other rights protection for migrant workers, including: strengthening the contracts PMK signs with tobacco farm owners as well as requiring landowners to preparation, conclude contracts with each worker guaranteeing minimum labor standards and other conditions. Write Censorship Internet! Other commitments include improving training of agronomists, farmers, and workers, as well as the safe-handling instructions and safety of application of dumping argument, pesticides and internet, fertilizers. PMI and good essay, PMK have also stated that they will engage with the Kazakhstani government to address the ability of children of migrant workers to attend local schools and to have alternatives to work during the summer months. PMI also is working with a third-party organization to conduct monitoring of its implementation of these initiatives, and is undertaking reforms to better address labor rights violations in its supply chains in write research paper censorship, its global markets beyond Kazakhstan. Human Rights Watch recommends that the admission school government of Kazakhstan: Establish accessible complaint mechanisms and rigorously investigate complaints of paper, abuse, irrespective of a migrant workers’ contractual status or migration status. Ensure children of migrant workers have access to local schools and other social services, and studies interview preparation, increase training for parents, children, employers, and others regarding the hazards of child labor in tobacco. The Human Rights Watch report, “Walls at write research internet, Every Turn: Exploitation of Migrant Domestic Workers through Kuwait's Sponsorship System” describes how workers become trapped in exploitative or abusive employment, only to face criminal penalties for leaving a job without the studies interview employer's permission.
Government authorities arrest workers reported as absconding and write research paper internet, generally deport them from thesis Kuwait, even if they have been abused and seek redress. The country's more than 660,000 migrant domestic workers constitute nearly a third of the work force in write paper censorship, this Gulf country of only outline 1.3 million citizens. However, domestic workers are excluded from the labor laws that protect other workers and guarantee protections such as a weekly rest day and limits to hours of work. Kuwaiti lawmakers reinforced this exclusion as recently as February 2010, when they passed a new labor law for paper the private sector that failed to cover domestic work. A proposed new labor law specifically aimed at domestic workers would ensure greater protections.
However, the draft law has remained under parliamentary review for the past seven months, and did not appear on the agenda for the October 2010 parliamentary session. Data compiled by college admission Human Rights Watch shows that in research censorship internet, 2009, domestic workers from Sri Lanka, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Ethiopia filed over essay, 10,000 complaints about their treatment with their embassies in Kuwait. The domestic workers interviewed cited a variety of abuses by their employers, including nonpayment of wages, refusal to grant days off, and write research paper censorship, physical or sexual assault. They found they could only pursue a legal claim if they were willing to wait weeks or months in a crowded embassy shelter while negotiations with their sponsor, or a protracted legal case, proceeded. Sponsorship regulations prohibit domestic workers from changing jobs without their sponsoring employers’ consent, leaving them dependent on individual employers for college admission their livelihood. An absconding report by the employer immediately invalidates a migrant worker's legal residency status. Paper Censorship Internet! Under this system, a worker who has faced abuse must choose between waiting for months or years with no legal means of earning income or foregoing claims to legal redress. Kuwait provides no expedited labor courts despite the essay country's huge population of migrant workers and the fact that wage complaints top the list of workers' grievances. Long waits, poor information about their rights and options, and slim chances of achieving justice mean that many workers give up on redress. Human Rights Watch recommends that the government of Kuwait: Reform the research censorship internet current sponsorship system, including taking immediate steps to remove absconding as a legal violation and permitting workers to change jobs without an employer's consent.
Cease arresting and deporting workers for leaving jobs where employers violated their rights, and instead provide domestic workers with emergency shelter and expedited complaint mechanisms. Ensure that a proposed labor law for domestic work does not create weaker or unequal protections to those in the main labor laws. Lebanese families employ an southeastern university dissertations estimated 200,000 migrant domestic workers, primarily from Sri Lanka, Ethiopia, the Philippines, and Nepal. In its “Without Protection: How the Lebanese Justice System Fails Migrant Domestic Workers” report, Human Rights Watch reviewed 114 Lebanese judicial decisions affecting migrant domestic workers and found that lack of accessible complaint mechanisms, lengthy judicial procedures, and write paper censorship internet, restrictive visa policies dissuade many workers from filing or pursuing complaints against their employers. Even when workers file complaints, the police and case preparation, judicial authorities regularly fail to treat certain abuses against domestic workers as crimes. Human Rights Watch did not find a single example among the 114 cases it reviewed in which an employer faced charges for locking workers inside homes, confiscating their passports, or denying them food, even though these violations of the law are commonplace. Complaints that workers file against employers often languish in court for months, and internet, sometimes years. This poses an added burden on the workers because Lebanon's restrictive visa policies make it hard for them to remain in the country to pursue the case. Cases of physical violence against migrant domestic workers often fail to garner sufficient attention from police and prosecutors. For example, a review of police reports in grad, numerous cases of violence against these workers shows that police investigating these cases regularly ask employers only research paper internet general questions and paper introduction, accept their statements as truthful without cross-checking their statements with other potential witnesses.
While authorities have prosecuted certain cases of severe beatings against migrant domestic workers, these cases remain rare and research censorship, have resulted in only light sentences. The most severe sentence for physical abuse of thesis paper, which Human Rights Watch is paper aware was one month in prison imposed by a criminal court on papers June 26, 2010, against an employer who repeatedly beat a Sri Lankan domestic worker while forcibly confining her to the house. Human Rights Watch documented numerous violations of due process and the right to a fair trial in censorship internet, cases in which migrant domestic workers were accused of a crime, usually theft. Of the 84 criminal cases against domestic workers reviewed by Human Rights Watch, 37 of the workers (44 percent) lacked a defense lawyer. Good College Essay Prompts! Most—at least 57 of 84 cases reviewed—also faced police and court proceedings without the help of certified translators, even though many do not speak fluent Arabic.
Researchers also found that workers were detained before trial in write censorship internet, 64 out of the 84 cases. Most who were eventually found not guilty had been detained during trial for an average of three months before being released, although at least four had been jailed for more than eight months before a court found them not guilty. In June, the Ministry of paper outline, Labor instituted a hotline to receive workers' complaints, but its effectiveness remains unproven. Most migrant domestic workers do not know about the hotline, whose operators do not have language support for any of the languages migrant workers commonly speak, such as Amharic, Hindi, Tagalog, Tamil, Malagasy, or Nepali. Human Rights Watch recommends that the government of Lebanon: Develop a national plan to research censorship, increase the editing research likelihood that complaints against employers for crimes committed against migrant domestic workers lead to prosecution, including training programs for police officers, immigration officials, prosecutors, and judges. Enact legislation to write censorship, create a simplified dispute resolution mechanism to settle salary disputes between employers and migrant workers in a timely manner. Provide access to paper, legal aid and certified interpreters for migrant domestic workers who are victims of abuse or are accused of a crime. Reform the visa sponsorship system so that workers' visas are no longer tied to individual sponsors, and so that workers can file complaints without fear of detention and deportation.
In 2010, Human Rights Watch monitored several cases in which Saudi Arabia’s justice system failed migrant workers, highlighting broader problems of access to research paper, redress and fair treatment. Several aspects of Saudi Arabia’s labor laws and immigration sponsorship system put migrants at high risk of abuse. Migrant workers’ residency is tied to their immigration sponsor (a company or an individual employer), who must provide consent for the worker to change jobs or to argument essay, get an internet exit visa from the baby argument essay Interior Ministry to leave the country. This system gives employers inordinate control over workers and can trap them in abusive situations. Saudi Arabia has also failed to research paper censorship internet, finalize reforms to the labor law to extend protections to baby dumping, the country’s approximately 1.5 million migrant domestic workers, who are currently excluded from basic guarantees such as a weekly day of rest or limits to hours of paper censorship, work. Several migrant domestic workers were only able to report complaints of grave physical abuse after returning to their home countries because complaint mechanisms in Saudi Arabia remained inaccessible. Editing And Revising Papers! For example, in late August, Lahadapurage Daneris Ariyawathie, a domestic worker from Sri Lanka returned home and needed an operation to remove dozens of nails and metal objects she said her Saudi employers had hammered into her body after she complained of being overworked. Write Research! A Kenyan newspaper, The Nation, reported that in January, Saudi authorities summarily deported Fatma Athman, a domestic worker from Mombasa, a week after she suffered injuries she said resulted from her employer pushing her off a third-floor balcony. In the past, Saudi authorities have been slow to investigate or prosecute abusers in similar cases.
The criminal case against the employers of Keni binti Carda, an admission essay Indonesian domestic worker who says she was burned by her employers in September 2008 before they put her on a plane back home, was only investigated following international pressure and has been subject to research paper, protracted delays. Human Rights Watch also documented several cases in baby, 2010 in which workers complaining of unpaid wages were unable to obtain redress and write research, were effectively trapped in the country once their residency permits expired. In one example, Jadawel International, a Saudi company, failed to pay workers more than six months of salaries that they owed them. Managers told workers they were working toward a solution for paying the back salaries and renewing their residency permits, without which workers could not leave the compound for fear of arrest, access medical treatment, or leave the country. Following Human Rights Watch communication with the good college admission essay company’s chairman, Jadawel renewed most residency permits, issued exit visas, and paid six months outstanding salaries in August, although workers stated on paper censorship internet October 24, 2010, that salary payments were three months in arrears. Saudi Arabia’s labor courts are notoriously slow, often taking years to hear and decide a case, which can then be appealed, further delaying a final decision. Migrant workers on low incomes of a few hundred dollars a month, most of which they send home, cannot afford to wait that long. Migrant workers also lack the resources that companies have to admission grad school, hire lawyers to present their case. In other cases, migrant workers accused of crimes may face harsh penalties such as the death sentence and several obstacles to a fair trial including limited access to lawyers and translators.
In a prominent case, Saudi Arabia's Supreme Court upheld the death penalty for Rizana Nafeek, a Sri Lankan domestic worker. Nafeek had been in censorship internet, Saudi Arabia for two weeks in May 2005 when her employers’ 4-month-old baby died in her care. A recruitment agency in Sri Lanka had altered the birth date on her passport to university dissertations, suggest she was 23, but her birth certificate later confirmed she was 17 at write paper, the time. Though she was arrested in 2005, she did not have access to legal counsel until after a court in Dawadmi sentenced her to death in 2007. As of November 2010, the death sentence had not been carried out. Human Right Watch recommends that the government of Saudi Arabia: Create effective mechanisms to monitor migrant workers' working conditions, including accessible complaints mechanisms such as hotlines, and take steps to resolve labor disputes in a timely manner. Rigorously prosecute employers and employment agents who abuse migrant domestic workers and ensure that migrants have access to competent translators and a lawyer during legal proceedings. Adopt comprehensive immigration and labor reforms so that workers do not require the consent of their first employer to transfer jobs or leave the country, and so that domestic workers receive equal protection under labor laws. Human Rights Watch's report, “From the editing and revising research papers Tiger to the Crocodile: Abuse of Migrant Workers in Thailand,” describes the widespread and severe human rights abuses that migrant workers—who originate from Burma, Cambodia, and write research, Laos—face in Thailand, including torture in detention, extortion, sexual abuse, trafficking, forced labor, restrictions on good college admission essay prompts organizing, violent retaliation against complainants, and write research paper, even death.
Eighty percent of these migrant workers are from Burma, many of whom are fleeing ethnic and political conflict back home. Local police and officials often ignore or fail to effectively investigate migrants’ complaints. National laws and case interview preparation, policies and provincial decrees prohibit migrants from write paper establishing their own organizations, such as trade unions, and asserting their rights. Policy restrictions on changing employers, moving outside designated areas, and convening meetings with more than a handful of persons leave migrants vulnerable to exploitation and ill-treatment. Migrants reported constant fear of detention and extortion by police, who demand money or valuables from dumping essay migrants in their custody in return for research censorship their release. It is not uncommon for a migrant to lose the equivalent of one to several months pay in a single extortion incident. Human Rights Watch found that a number of provinces continue to essay, restrict migrants’ use of mobile phones and motorcycles, severely limit freedom of movement, prohibit migrant gatherings, and paper censorship, enforce nighttime curfews. Human Rights Watch recommends that the government of Thailand: Revoke laws and national and editing research, provincial policies that bar migrants from forming labor unions, changing employers, organizing assemblies, and exercising their rights to freedom of expression, association, and movement. Establish an write paper censorship independent and impartial commission to investigate allegations of abuse by police and other authorities against migrants. Such a commission should be empowered to baby argument, subpoena, require presentation of evidence, and recommend criminal and civil charges against write censorship, abusers.
It should make reports public periodically. In 2010, New York University (NYU), the Guggenheim Foundation, and their government-owned partners announced new contractual safeguards for workers employed in building an NYU campus and a branch of the Guggenheim on Saadiyat Island, Abu Dhabi. As of November, Le Louvre Abu Dhabi, another major international construction project on Saadiyat Island, had not made any specific public commitments on thesis introduction labor standards for its workers. A May 2009 Human Rights Watch report, “The Island of Happiness: Exploitation of Migrant Workers on Saadiyat Island, Abu Dhabi,” documented how the UAE government and development authorities had failed to tackle worker abuse, including unlawful recruiting fees, unpaid wages, and a sponsorship system that gives employers inordinate power over workers. These contribute to a cycle of abuse that leaves migrant workers deeply indebted and often unable to leave their jobs.
In repeat visits to research paper, the island in 2010, Human Rights Watch interviewed workers who, consistent with earlier findings, had paid exorbitant recruitment fees that took months or years to recover, and whose employers had confiscated their passports. In early 2010, NYU and its partner, the Executive Affairs Authority of Abu Dhabi, announced it would require all companies involved in building and operating the NYU Abu Dhabi campus to reimburse workers for good college recruiting or other employment-related fees they are found to have paid. The new terms also bar companies from confiscating worker passports, and require them to provide 30 days annual leave, health insurance, and premium rates for overtime work, among other benefits. In September 2010, the Guggenheim and its government-owned partner, the Tourism Development Investment Company (TDIC), said all companies involved in building and operating the museum's Abu Dhabi branch would be required to provide workers with electronic wage payment, overtime provisions, annual leave, a weekly day off, and health insurance. Companies would also have to give workers contracts in local languages before they enter the research paper internet UAE, and and revising research, give them access to a complaints body at TDIC. Unlike NYU, the Guggenheim did not include explicit provisions to require companies to reimburse workers for any recruitment or other employment-related fees, although it reaffirmed an employer's responsibility for such fees. Indebtedness for write paper recruitment fees remains the essay school primary factor that creates conditions of forced labor, with workers required to use their wages to pay off the research fees, and pressured into remaining in their jobs regardless of thesis paper introduction outline, abusive conditions. Write Paper Censorship! Every single worker interviewed for the 2009 report, as well as all workers interviewed in 2010, had paid such fees before coming to work in the UAE.
The new measures announced by NYU and the Guggenheim lack clear provisions for enforcement or for independent, third-party monitoring of employer compliance. Nor did they address workers’ rights to collective bargaining, strike, and have a fair minimum wage. They did not specify what penalties, if any, will be imposed on contractors that violate the terms. It is also unclear what legal recourse NYU Abu Dhabi or the prompts Guggenheim have in the event of a breach by a contractor employing workers on its project, with which it will have no direct contractual relationship. Human Rights Watch calls upon NYU, the Guggenheim, the Louvre, and the government of the UAE to: Establish a mechanism to monitor labor practices within the operations of the new branch, as well as those of internet, any subcontractors and their affiliates (including those who provide construction and maintenance services). Editing Papers! This monitoring mechanism should oversee how migrant workers are hired and treated during their employment with the Abu Dhabi branches, as well as subcontractors and affiliates. Write Research Paper! Penalize and terminate relationships with any contractors that continue to work with labor agencies or sub-agencies that charge workers fees and/ or mislead workers regarding conditions of employment upon arrival in the UAE. Case Interview! Create mechanisms that would encourage compliance by subcontractors (i.e. Write Research! retain experienced and reputable labor and construction lawyers and admission, give them a mandate to ensure that all construction and maintenance related contracts require meaningful compliance with labor laws).
Hundreds of thousands of children work on US farms, but are less protected than all other working children in the United States. Write Research Paper Censorship Internet! The 1938 Fair Labor Standards Act specifically exempts farm worker youth from minimum age and maximum hour requirements, exposing them to editing and revising research papers, work at far younger ages, for far longer hours, and under more hazardous conditions than children in other jobs. Federal protections that do exist are often not enforced, and state child labor laws vary in strength and write internet, enforcement. As a result, child farm workers, most of whom are Latino and include both domestic and international migrants, often work 12 to 14 hour days, and risk pesticide poisoning, heat illness, injuries, and lifelong disabilities. Many, especially migrant children, drop out of school; girls are sometimes sexually harassed. While federal legislation that would close the loophole and protect child farm workers remains pending, some government agencies have moved to improve conditions: the Department of Labor added more than 250 new field investigators since early 2009 and plans to add more; the Environmental Protection Agency has pledged to strengthen its assessment of pesticide health risks, and to propose amendments to federal worker protection standards by 2012. Human Rights Watch recommends that the government of the United States: Via the US Congress should amend the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) to apply the same age and hour requirements to nova university, children working for hire in agriculture as already apply to all other working children.
Congress should also raise the minimum age for particularly hazardous work in write censorship internet, agriculture to 18, in line with existing standards in all other industries. Via the US Department of Labor should increase agricultural workplace inspections targeting child labor and minimum wage violations and significantly increase civil money and criminal penalties within the limits allowed by law to improve compliance. It should also press for much-needed amendments to the list of jobs in agriculture that are deemed to be “particularly hazardous” for children. II. Abuse and good essay, Detention at Borders. Men, women, and children often risk their lives to cross borders and are frequently subject to abusive treatment while in research, grey areas: no-man’s lands between border checkpoints, on the high seas, and at international zones of airports.
Many countries have border control policies that are hostile, discriminatory, and flout international standards, particularly along frontiers at the margins of territories that often lie beyond the research papers sight of media and write paper censorship internet, other witnesses. Southeastern University! Governments—often in the form of border and coast guards—may fail to paper, screen migrants to identify asylum seekers, trafficking victims, unaccompanied children, and grad, other members of research paper censorship, vulnerable groups, or subject them to violence, extortion, poor conditions in detention, and refoulement (forced return to torture or persecution). As of November 2010, Egyptian border guards in thesis introduction outline, 2010 had shot dead at least 28 migrants attempting to cross the Sinai border into Israel. A government official said in March that security forces had “only” killed 4 percent of those attempting to cross in 2009. Egypt continues to detain refugees and migrants and charge them with illegal entry before military courts that do not meet international fair trial standards. Many of those trying to cross into Israel at or near the Sinai border come from refugee-producing countries such as Eritrea and write research, Sudan. Israel's policy of forcibly returning to Egypt some of those who do make it across, without adequately considering possible asylum claims, also violates international law. Thesis Paper Introduction! Migrants and research censorship internet, refugees who Israel forcibly returns to Egypt face arbitrary arrest and detention, unfair trials before military courts, and forcible deportation without the chance to make asylum claims. Egypt denied UNHCR access to and revising papers, detained refugees and migrants, preventing them from making asylum claims. In January, Egyptian security officials arrested at least 25 Sudanese refugees and asylum seekers and detained many incommunicado for up to three months.
Many are vulnerable to paper, deportation even though they hold refugee documentation from the UNHCR. On January 25, Egyptian authorities returned Muhammad al-Haj, a recognized Sudanese refugee, to his home country, in nova university dissertations, violation of the research prohibition of refoulement. Human Rights Watch recommends that the Egyptian government: Order border police to use lethal force only as a proportional and baby essay, necessary response to paper censorship, a threat to life, and good admission prompts, conduct a thorough and impartial investigation into the killings of African migrants, make the results public, and prosecute responsible border police officers and officials with oversight responsibility. Research! Cease using military tribunals to try civilian migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers detained in the Sinai. Essay Admission Grad School! Guarantee UNHCR access to all migrants who have international protection needs in official custody. Human Rights Watch recommends that the internet Israeli government: Conduct no additional coordinated returns to editing, Egypt of persons who cross the Sinai border until: Israel institutes a system that ensures border-crossers the ability to present asylum claims, and Egypt credibly guarantees that it will respect returnees' rights under international human rights and refugee law and research paper censorship, not to return them to countries where they could face persecution. Since May 2009, Italy has joined forces with Libya to patrol the waters from the interview preparation coast of Libya to Italy’s Mediterranean territories, principally the island of Lampedusa. Libya in 2010 operated patrol boats provided by Italy with Italian personnel on write research paper board to interdict boat migrants on the high seas and in argument essay, Libyan waters and return them summarily to Libya with no screening to identify refugees, the sick or injured, pregnant women, unaccompanied children, victims of trafficking, or victims of violence against women.
All interdicted boat migrants are detained upon arrival in Libya in research paper censorship internet, overcrowded and university, unsanitary conditions. Libya is not a party to the 1951 Refugee Convention and has no asylum law or procedure. In April, Libyan Foreign Secretary Moussa Koussa said his country “does not have any refugees but only illegal migrants who break the paper censorship internet laws.” In July the research papers government said that there were 3 million irregular migrants in Libya. Research Paper Censorship! A new law on “Illegal Migration” criminalizes trafficking of thesis introduction outline, migrants but does not mention protections for refugees. In June, Libya closed the write research censorship internet office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in Tripoli and expelled its representative. It later allowed the office nominally to essay grad, reopen but only with highly restricted permission to censorship internet, work on behalf of refugees and thesis paper outline, asylum seekers whom it had registered prior to closing, and without access to newly detained migrants and asylum seekers. On June 28, a group of detained Eritrean migrants tried to escape from research paper censorship a migrant detention center after Libyan officials allowed Eritrean embassy officials to take their photos and forced them to editing research, complete forms raising fear of deportation. In response, Libyan authorities transported 245 Eritrean detainees from the Misrata detention on Libya’s northern coast to another detention center at al-Biraq, north of write research paper internet, Sabha, in good college prompts, an apparent attempt to deport them. Some of these Eritreans were among those whom Italy had forcibly returned to Libya without giving them an opportunity to claim asylum. After an international outcry, Libya released this group but did not provide them with any support or protection. They remain in Libya.
Human Rights Watch recommends that the Libyan government: Sign and ratify the 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol and research internet, establish asylum procedures in conformity with international refugee standards. Improve the deplorable conditions of detention in Libya, and prosecute officials responsible for abusing migrants in and out of detention. Human Rights Watch recommends that EU institutions and member states: Refrain from thesis introduction outline concluding multilateral or bilateral readmission agreements with Libya until Libyan policies and practices with regard to migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers fully meet international standards. Pressure Italy to stop cooperating with Libya to forcibly return migrants—including apparent asylum seekers—to Libya where they are routinely subjected to write research paper censorship internet, inhuman and degrading treatment and where potential refugees are not effectively protected. Ensure that the EU external border control agency, Frontex, is not involved in activities that result in refoulement.
On January 1, 2010, a readmission agreement between the European Union and research, Ukraine came into force that provides for the return of third-country nationals who enter the EU from Ukraine. Readmission agreements are a cornerstone of the EU’s so-called externalization strategy for asylum and migration, the core of which is to stop the write research paper flow of migrants and asylum seekers into editing and revising papers the EU by write research paper internet shifting the burden and responsibility for migrants and refugees onto countries that neighbor the Union, in this case Ukraine. Ukraine has a dysfunctional asylum system, and from August 2009 through August 2010, no government body had the essay admission grad school mandate to recognize or provide protection to refugees. Censorship Internet! Ukraine is struggling to manage the backlog of claims that were not processed during that time. Not only has Ukraine been unable or unwilling to provide effective protection to refugees and asylum seekers, it has also subjected some migrants who returned from neighboring EU countries to nova, torture and other inhuman and degrading treatment.
Out of 161 interviews of refugees, migrants, and asylum seekers in research paper censorship, Ukraine, Slovakia, and Hungary whom Human Rights Watch interviewed in June 2010, 48 said they had been returned from Slovakia or Hungary. Introduction Outline! Most of those 48 said they had asked for research censorship internet asylum upon arrival in those countries, but that their pleas had been ignored and they had been swiftly expelled. These practices breach the right to seek asylum contained in the binding EU Charter of Fundamental Rights. Both Slovakia and Hungary also returned unaccompanied children to Ukraine in violation of and revising, their international obligations to protect them. Human Rights Watch recommends that Slovakia, Hungary, and other EU member states: Suspend the return of third-country nationals to Ukraine under the EU-Ukraine readmission agreement or bilateral readmission agreements until Ukraine meets international standards with respect to the human rights of returned migrants, particularly with regard to the practice of torture, inhuman or degrading treatment, and arbitrary detention and until Ukraine demonstrates willingness and the capacity to write paper censorship, provide a fair hearing to case interview preparation, asylum seekers and effective protection to refugees. Human Rights Watch recommends that Ukraine: Ensure that all migrant detainees in state custody are treated in a humane and dignified manner and that their detention fully complies with Ukraine’s international obligations governing the administrative detention of migrants. Immediately investigate allegations of torture and write internet, abuse of migrants in State Border Guard Service custody, including at the time of apprehension and in all phases of detention and transfer. Ensure that border guards quickly forward all requests for asylum to the regional migration service and discipline any personnel who obstruct access to asylum. In 2010, Greece was faced with 10,000 requests by other EU member states to case interview, return migrants and write research paper internet, asylum seekers there under the Dublin II regulation, the instrument that assigns responsibility among EU states for examining asylum claims.
Dublin II generally holds that the country of first entry is baby dumping argument responsible for examining the claim. Greece was the censorship entry point for about 75 percent of the southeastern university dissertations 106,200 irregular migrants entering the research paper EU in 2009; that percentage rose to 80 percent in the early months of 2010, according to The Economist . In September 2010, UNHCR described the studies interview situation for migrants and asylum seekers in Greece as a “humanitarian crisis.” Despite the government’s repeated commitments to internet, overhaul its broken asylum system, restore appeal rights, ensure humane treatment for introduction outline migrants, and police accountability for ill-treatment, it had made no progress in any of those areas by write research internet year’s end. A Presidential Decree containing modest reforms, including addressing a backlog of more than 46,000 cases, remained stalled partly because of the country’s budget crisis, while only 11 of 30,000 applicants (0.04 percent) were granted asylum at college, first instance in 2009. Migrants and asylum seekers continued to be detained in substandard conditions, with little or no assistance to unaccompanied migrant children and censorship internet, other vulnerable groups, many of dissertations, whom live in write paper internet, destitution or on the streets, at risk of exploitation and trafficking. During an October visit, the UN special rapporteur on torture investigated ill-treatment of migrants, as well as the detention of asylum seekers, women, and children.
On October 20, he called on southeastern dissertations the EU not to transfer asylum seekers to Greece under the Dublin II regulation. Human Rights Watch recommends that other EU member states: Suspend all Dublin II transfers to Greece. Human Rights Watch recommends that Greece: Invite UNHCR to write censorship internet, take over its asylum system as long as it is incapable of doing so. Baby! Completely reform its asylum system to provide access to the procedure for all asylum seekers and fair and timely adjudication of claims. Improve conditions of detention in all places of write internet, migration detention to editing and revising research, meet international standards. The Canary Islands government's decision to keep 200 unaccompanied migrant children in emergency shelters, which are not subject to normal care regulations, puts the children at research censorship internet, risk and baby dumping essay, threatens their well-being. While some conditions have improved in recent years, the centers fail to comply with the Canary Islands government's minimum care standards for write censorship internet migrant children and paper outline, have no occupancy limits.
The approximately 100 children in the biggest and most secluded emergency center, La Esperanza, receive low-quality food, lack adequate heating, hot water, and blankets, and report exposure to frequent violence from other children. The emergency centers were established in 2006 as a temporary measure in response to an unprecedented number of unaccompanied migrant children arriving on the islands. Some conditions have improved since 2007, including access to education, training opportunities outside their residences, and more frequent monitoring visits. Other serious concerns also persist in write research paper censorship, emergency centers. These include the absence of college admission essay prompts, a functioning mechanism to file confidential complaints, mixing of younger children with older peers in one emergency center, insufficient access to the asylum procedure, absence of occupancy limits, and limited opportunities to research paper censorship, become integrated in thesis paper, the community. In addition, the substandard conditions at La Esperanza center threaten children's well-being. The Canary Islands government informed Human Rights Watch orally on June 15 that it plans to close down La Esperanza emergency center by December 2010 and move children to other centers, including the emergency centers at Tegueste and Arinaga. It has not committed to making those centers subject to its own established minimum standards of care. Human Rights Watch recommends that the government of the Canary Islands:
Close La Esperanza emergency center as a matter of write research paper censorship, priority and case studies, transfer all children to adequate care arrangements. End the emergency regime as a whole and paper censorship, bring all centers for unaccompanied minors in dumping argument, line with Canary Islands minimum standards and occupancy limits for centers accommodating unaccompanied migrant children. III. Inadequate Health Care for write paper censorship Migrants in thesis outline, Detention. We are sweating at night on the floor; we don’t know what illnesses we have, but we pass them back and forth…. I asked the research censorship internet officer to go to the clinic, but he said, “You just need to wait for deportation.” Especially when they know you are a foreigner, they don’t take you serious. Editing Research Papers! —Jean Marie, 28, immigration detainee, Lusaka Central Prison, Zambia, October 3, 2009. Migrants frequently face barriers in accessing health care. Research Paper! Migrant populations in detention can be particularly vulnerable, as they are entirely reliant on the government to provide or facilitate their access to services.
Under international law, states have an obligation to ensure medical care for all prisoners at least equivalent to that available to college admission, the general population; human rights law also requires that a core minimum of write research censorship internet, health care services be provided without discrimination on the basis of citizenship or social origin. Yet despite these protections, prisoners in Zambia and dumping essay, Malawi are often held in life-threatening conditions. Human Rights Watch researchers have found that migrant detainees held in write research paper, prisons—sometimes inappropriately or unnecessarily—also experience discrimination, and faced conditions or health care inferior to those provided to non-migrant prison populations. In August 2010, Human Rights Watch became aware of serious health and justice concerns in the cases of approximately 230 Ethiopian migrants imprisoned in good college admission essay, Malawi. The migrants had recently been convicted of paper censorship, illegal entry and editing papers, sentenced to various terms of imprisonment, with an average sentence of 10 months. Reports from write censorship these prisoners suggested that their trials were conducted in a language they were unable to understand, with no translation provided, raising concerns that the trials may not have met international fair trial standards.
While many, if not all, prisoners in Malawi face poor prison conditions, reports suggest those experienced by Ethiopian detainees in some Malawian prisons are significantly worse than the norm, and admission, could have serious health implications. For example, in write research paper, one prison some 85 non-Malawian inmates were housed in a small, smoke-filled kitchen, measuring 3.4 by 3.9 meters. Some of the inmates were forced to stand for 16 hours a day while the cell was locked: one or more were forced to essay, crouch in the chimney. Inmates reported respiratory ailments and symptoms consistent with malnutrition-related disorders, but often could not report serious health problems because they did not speak the officers’ language. Human Rights Watch has recommended that the government of Malawi: Improve conditions of detention and in particular overcrowding in Malawi’s prisons, ensuring that non-Malawian prisoners are held under conditions of detention equivalent to Malawian prisoners. Provide migrant detainees with a designated interpreter through whom they can request medical assistance and through whom they may make complaints to censorship internet, prison authorities empowered to address prison conditions. In Zambia, immigration detainees—including administrative detainees held pending deportation—are frequently held in prisons, made to await deportation without due process, and southeastern, mixed with convicted and pre-trial criminal prisoners. Human Rights Watch, the paper censorship internet Prisons Care and Counselling Association (PRISCCA), and the AIDS and Rights Alliance for Southern Africa (ARASA) interviewed immigration detainees in Zambian prisons and found that only 38 percent of those interviewed had ever seen a magistrate or judge, compared with 97 percent of non-immigration detainees.
Many who were detained appeared to have reasonable claims to studies interview, legal status. Write Paper! Immigration detainees are routinely told to pay for their own deportation and are held until they pay. Being held behind bars can have life-threatening consequences for all inmates, including immigration detainees. Overcrowding, malnutrition, rampant infectious disease, grossly inadequate medical care, and good college prompts, routine violence at the hands of prison officers and write, fellow inmates make Zambian prisons death traps for essay grad school inmates of all nationalities. In 2010, the Zambia Prisons Service employed only 14 health staff—including one physician—to serve its 16,666 prisoners. Write! Tuberculosis (TB) rates in Zambia’s prisons are more than ten times those in the general population, and HIV rates almost double.
Yet despite being held under the same unhealthy conditions as Zambian inmates, immigration detainees interviewed by Human Rights Watch, PRISCCA, and ARASA had been tested for both TB and HIV in thesis paper outline, detention at even lower rates than their Zambian counterparts; six percent of immigration detainees had been tested for TB compared to 23 percent of write paper, all detainees, and 21 percent of immigration detainees had been tested for HIV compared with 57 percent of all detainees. Such a disparity is attributable to a combination of discrimination against immigration detainees in editing research papers, accessing care, and the fact that immigration detainees, on average, spend less time in detention than convicted detainees. Human Rights Watch recommends that the government of Zambia: Boost prison-based health services to include HIV and TB testing and paper censorship, treatment, and ensure accessibility of such services to and revising research, immigration detainees on equal terms. Amend the Immigration Act to require that any administrative detention for the purposes of deportation be explained on a case-by-case basis and shown to be proportionate and necessary, and write research internet, include specific limits on the duration of administrative detention for the purposes of deportation. Paper Outline! Ensure that each immigration detainee receives a hearing in a timely manner and is able to request asylum. IV. Discriminatory Treatment of Migrants. France launched a highly-publicized campaign against Roma from write research censorship internet Eastern European in thesis paper introduction outline, late July 2010, moving to write paper censorship internet, forcibly evict Roma (and French travelers “gens du voyage”) living in unauthorized camps and to return migrant Roma (who are mostly EU citizens) to their countries of origin.
By the end of good college prompts, August, 128 of the camps had been destroyed, and by mid-September, over one thousand Roma from Romania and Bulgaria had been removed from France, the majority through “assisted voluntary returns” involving cash inducements and threat of deportation. There is evidence that the government specifically targeted camps occupied by migrant Roma from Eastern Europe with a view to organizing expulsions, and concerns remain that evictions were carried out without appropriate safeguards. At time of writing, a government-sponsored immigration reform bill, already passed by the lower chamber of parliament, is under examination in write research paper censorship, the French senate. Nova Southeastern! The draft law weakens migrants’ rights and paper censorship, contains provisions that widen the grounds for expelling EU citizens to include abuse of France’s welfare system, profiting from begging by others, and “abusive” occupation of land. The last-minute introduction of the latter provisions and political rhetoric around their introduction strongly suggested they were aimed at Roma from Eastern Europe. The European Commission applied pressure on France in September for good college failing to implement correctly a 2004 EU directive on freedom of movement for EU citizens, which contains protections against summary and mass expulsions, neither of which appear to have been respected in the case of the expulsions of write paper internet, Roma to Romania and Bulgaria. While a positive move, the thesis paper introduction commission’s actions did not take France to task for discrimination against Roma, although it has said it will continue to monitor France’s compliance with its human rights obligations in this area. The commission’s actions prompted France to censorship internet, indicate it will take steps to remedy the thesis paper introduction shortcomings in national legislation. The immigration reform currently being debated also includes limiting the rights of appeal of migrants held in research paper, deportation detention, and withdrawing acquired citizenship from case studies interview preparation persons convicted of killing a public official, such as law enforcement officers, firefighters and judges.
Human Rights Watch recommends that the French government: Ensure all camp evictions are conducted lawfully and in compliance with international standards on evictions, including with necessary safeguards, such as appropriate advance notice, compensation for lost or damaged belongings, and alternative accommodation. Conduct an independent review of its “voluntary assisted return” program and the policy of expulsion of write internet, migrant Roma. Ensure that any expulsion measures are based on individual review and dumping argument, do not discriminate on the grounds of research paper internet, ethnicity or nationality. Thesis Introduction! Withdraw problematic provisions of the immigration reform bill, including those targeting Roma, weakening the rights of migrants in research censorship, detention, and withdrawing citizenship from naturalized French convicted of certain crimes. Racist and xenophobic violence, including against migrants, remains a serious problem, with the government not only slow to acknowledge the problem and adopt appropriate legal and policy responses, but exacerbating a climate of intolerance with anti-immigrant and anti-Roma discourse. The plight of seasonal agricultural migrant workers was laid bare in January 2010, when 11 African seasonal migrant workers were seriously injured in drive-by shootings and there were mob attacks over baby dumping argument, a three-day period in Rosarno, Calabria, in south Italy. Internet! Every winter, thousands of seasonal migrant workers go to admission grad, Rosarno to write paper censorship, harvest citrus fruits. Most are hired without legal employment contracts, and work in conditions that are often exploitative, involving low pay, failure to pay, and abusive treatment. Following two drive-by shootings of African migrant workers on the same day, migrants organized protests, some of which resulted in violence and criminal damage of property. In the most serious episode attributed to migrants, a woman and her children were forced out of their car, the woman was hit in the face with a rock, and the car set ablaze.
More shootings and mob beatings targeting migrants followed, there were two attempts to run over migrants (including with a bulldozer), and an arson attack on southeastern dissertations a house occupied by migrants. In addition to the 11 seriously injured migrants, at paper censorship internet, least 10 other migrants, 10 law enforcement officers, and 14 local residents required first aid treatment. Over one thousand migrants left the thesis paper outline town after the paper censorship internet violence, most of them evacuated by law enforcement personnel. To date, three Italians have been convicted of essay grad school, violence against paper internet, migrants during the Rosarno unrest, although none of those responsible for the targeted shootings or mob attacks have been brought to justice. Five African migrants were convicted and sentenced in late January in expedited trials for incidents during the riot after the first two drive-by shootings. Anti-migrant discourse has become a staple of Italian politics, with elected officials making statements linking migrants to crime. This has exacerbated an paper introduction outline existing climate of hostility, prompted in part by several high profile murders and research paper internet, rapes attributed to nova dissertations, foreigners. Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi said in January 2010 that fewer foreigners in Italy “means fewer people to swell the ranks of criminals,” while the research paper censorship mayor of Milan said in May 2010 that “illegal immigrants who don’t have regular work usually commit crimes.” Elected officials at the local and interview preparation, national level have engaged in derogatory rhetoric about Roma (many of whom are Italian citizens) and Romanians, blaming them for crime and urban blight. Human Rights Watch recommends that the Italian government: Ensure existing criminal provisions that provide for penalty enhancement in racially-motivated crimes are utilized and fully implemented. Ensure that attacks on migrants, Roma, and other ethnic minorities are promptly investigated by law enforcement and write research paper censorship internet, those responsible are brought to justice.
Condemn forcefully and consistently all racist and interview, xenophobic statements, especially by write research censorship public and elected officials, and make clear that racist discourse has no place in Italian society. Since 2005, up to 3 million Zimbabweans have fled political persecution and economic collapse in their country and sought refuge and economic opportunities in neighboring South Africa. In 2008 and 2009, 261,000 claimed asylum, overwhelming an asylum system which already faced a backlog of just over 100,000 cases. Responding to international calls to grant Zimbabweans in South Africa temporary special protection, South African authorities in April 2009 announced a “special dispensation” policy under which Zimbabweans would receive special permission to remain and work in South Africa. Essay! While the policy was never implemented, South Africa stopped deporting Zimbabweans that same month, ending a practice that had seen over write paper, an estimated half-a-million Zimbabweans forced back to and revising research papers, their country since early 2007. On September 2, 2010, due to perceived improvements in censorship internet, the situation in Zimbabwe, South African authorities announced an end to the special dispensation policy, and essay grad school, confirmed deportations would resume on January 1, 2011. However, the write censorship September 2 decision allows Zimbabweans (asylum seekers, the undocumented, and admission, those with fraudulent South African identity papers) currently working, studying, or operating a business in South Africa to regularize their status by December 31, 2010. Write! To qualify, applicants must hold a Zimbabwean passport, which they can obtain from Zimbabwean authorities in editing research, South Africa, and prove they have been in the country since at least May 31, 2010. Human Rights Watch and other organizations have voiced concern that four months is insufficient time to ensure that all Zimbabweans wishing to apply can do so, and that those who miss the deadline will be caught up in South Africa’s likely resumption of mass deportations of Zimbabweans in early 2011. Impact on censorship Asylum System and Genuine Refugees. Human Rights Watch is also concerned that lack of additional resources for the asylum system and inadequate safeguards against police abuses means resumed deportations of Zimbabweans will lead to more violations of argument essay, asylum seekers’ rights.
Once deportations have resumed, Zimbabweans will have only two options to lawfully enter and remain in South Africa: apply for asylum, or apply for a temporary residence permit under the Immigration Rules’ work, study, and business provisions. The majority who wish to enter or remain in South Africa will be unable to apply for such a residency permit due to a combination of permit fees, lack of skills, lack of censorship, Zimbabwean identity documents, and lack of sponsorship by South African employers or educational institutions. Paper Introduction! For most Zimbabweans, the only way to remain legally in South Africa will be to claim asylum, which guarantees them a right to remain in the country until the claim has been resolved. In 2011, therefore, there is likely to be a significant rise in Zimbabwean asylum applications. South Africa’s asylum system—already buckling under the strain of research paper censorship, hundreds of thousands of Zimbabweans’ claims and tens of good college prompts, thousands of claims by other nationalities—will be under further pressure. As documented in write research paper censorship, our June 2008 report, “Neighbors in thesis outline, Need,” this will almost certainly lead to write research, even less access to the asylum system, resulting in police arrests, prolonged detention, unlawful deportation of genuine refugees, and a drop in the quality and timeliness of decisions for asylum seekers in genuine need of dumping, international protection. Recommendations to the South African government: Extend the deadline for research paper internet Zimbabweans to register in editing and revising research papers, South Africa until at research internet, least June 1, 2011, to ensure that those wishing to apply have enough time to do so; support the Zimbabwean authorities in South Africa to rapidly issue passports to baby dumping argument, all Zimbabweans wishing to register.
In light of the likely dramatic increase in Zimbabwean asylum applications following resumed deportations, take all necessary steps to ensure that anyone wishing to claim asylum in South Africa can easily lodge their claim and is guaranteed protection from police arrest, detention, and deportation. Federal reforms to the laws that regulate which migrants may enter and remain in the US mostly stalled in 2010. Instead, constituent states considered problematic immigration laws. Write Censorship! An Arizona law, SB 1070, authorized police to interrogate anyone who they reasonably suspect to be undocumented. Human Rights Watch opposed SB 1070, concerned that it would lead to racial profiling. In July a federal court enjoined enforcement of the most controversial sections of thesis introduction, SB 1070, including the “reasonable suspicion” interrogations. The court’s decision is under appeal.
October 2010 marked one year since the US Immigration and Customs Enforcement agency (ICE) published a report calling for replacing the write current punitive approach to detaining immigrants with a “civil detention model.” The agency has been working on programmatic steps to achieve that goal. In 2010, it took the positive step of good college admission essay prompts, establishing a computerized detainee locator system, enabling attorneys, government officials, and write research paper censorship, family members to locate an admission grad immigrant held in one of around 300 detention facilities throughout the country. However, several other key reforms that Human Rights Watch has called for write internet based on its research are stalled or need additional effort by the agency. Aspects of immigration detention procedures needing prompt reform include: While the ICE detainee locator system is an nova southeastern dissertations important first step, much more needs to be done to ensure that ICE uses its detention facilities only as necessary.
In 2009, ICE held between 380,000 and 442,000 people in approximately 300 facilities, at write, an annual cost of US$1.7 billion. These people are not imprisoned as punishment for criminal offenses, but rather are detained for baby civil immigration violations. Many are deprived of their liberty for months, and write research paper, even years. Treatment of Detainees with Mental Disabilities. Immigrants with mental disabilities are often unjustifiably detained for years, sometimes indefinitely. They also must undergo deportation hearings without the right to a government-appointed attorney, which means approximately 60 percent go through court hearings without a lawyer. Human Rights Watch has documented numerous cases in which people with mental disabilities were prevented from making claims against deportation—including claims of US citizenship—because they were unable to represent themselves. Some people interviewed by Human Rights Watch did not know their own names, were delusional, could not tell the time, or did not know that deportation meant removal from the baby dumping argument United States. Sexual Violence against Female Detainees.
Human Rights Watch has compiled documented incidents and allegations of sexual assault, abuse, and harassment in immigration detention since the formation of ICE in 2003. In one such incident, five women detained at the Port Isabel Service Processing Center in Texas were assaulted by a guard in 2008 when he entered each of their rooms in the detention center infirmary where they were patients. He ordered them to paper censorship internet, undress and touched intimate parts of introduction, their bodies. While ICE has taken some steps to address the problem of sexual assault, including proposing new requirements for how detention facilities must prevent and write research censorship internet, respond to sexual abuse, the agency should act swiftly to improve oversight of the entire detention system and ensure accountability. On February 22, ICE wrote to Human Rights Watch, announcing the agency's intention to “minimize the paper introduction outline number of detainee transfers to the greatest extent possible.” This important commitment came after Human Rights Watch raised serious concerns about ICE's policy of write research censorship internet, transferring large numbers of immigrant detainees to facilities far from where they lived.
The transfers impede and dumping essay, sometimes completely bar detainees from accessing an attorney and interfere with detainees' ability to present key witnesses and internet, evidence in immigration court. And Revising Research! Sometimes transfers completely alter the law applied to censorship, their deportation or asylum case, for example, the act of sending a detainee from preparation one jurisdiction to another can determine whether she may ask an immigration judge to allow her to remain in the United States. In light of the 1.6 million detainee transfers recorded between 1997 and 2006, and data from 2008 that show that a majority of detainees were transferred two or more times, ICE’s statement of intention is a positive step. Internet! However, it needs to make specific changes to its internal policies to address this serious problem. Human Rights Watch recommends that the US government: Ensure that immigrants are not detained unnecessarily, with particular attention to preventing the detention of admission grad school, persons with mental disabilities without justification, and provide appointed counsel for non-citizens with mental disabilities in immigration proceedings. Establish legally enforceable standards to govern conditions of detention, including access to medical care; reform policies to limit the transfer of detainees away from paper censorship internet counsel and family; and improve accountability and oversight mechanisms in the detention system to prevent and case studies preparation, respond to abuses.
Reform federal immigration law to ensure that all migrants’ human rights are protected even while their presence in the United States is strictly regulated. In Cote d'Ivoire, as elsewhere in West Africa, women and girls are trafficked from paper Nigeria for editing papers forced prostitution. Most appear to come from Delta and Edo states in Nigeria and are lured into research censorship internet migrating with promises of gainful employment in West Africa or Europe. Instead, they are forced to pay off an exorbitant debt through prostitution, with threats of harm by women overseeing the brothels should they fail to do so. The problem appears to be rising, with the thesis Nigerian embassy repatriating scores of victims this year alone. Cote d’Ivoire has failed to ratify the UN Trafficking Protocol and likewise has no domestic legislation against trafficking, resulting in serious legislative deficiencies to tackle the problem.
Human Rights Watch recommends that the government of Cote d’Ivoire: Sign and ratify the UN Trafficking Protocol, and research paper censorship internet, pass a domestic anti-trafficking law that provides a framework for editing research papers combating trafficking, including trafficking for the purpose of prostitution, in accordance with international standards. Conduct a thorough and comprehensive national investigation into the trafficking of censorship internet, West African women and girls for the purposes of research papers, prostitution, in order to determine the scale of the problem, the main trafficking routes, and the conditions and threats under which the women and girls live. Under the current domestic legal framework, arrest and prosecute those engaged in research, recruiting children for essay admission grad school prostitution and those who force women and girls into prostitution. More than two million migrant domestic workers are employed in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait and are at high risk of abuse and exploitation due to gaps in labor laws and write research paper internet, restrictive immigration practices. The combination of deceptive recruitment practices in home countries, indebtedness due to placement fees, confinement to the workplace upon employment, withholding of passports, and abuses summarized earlier in this report, can contribute to situations of forced labor, trafficking, and slavery-like conditions. In May 2010, the Nepalese embassy in Riyadh confirmed several cases in which Kuwaiti employers hired Nepalese domestic workers, illegally transported them to Saudi Arabia against their will, and nova southeastern, forced them to work for Saudi families.
The Saudi families typically paid the Kuwaitis fees for trafficking the workers, and when finished employing them, often abandoned them at the Nepalese embassy to avoid paying fines for illegal hiring. Write Research Paper Censorship! Although many of the Nepalese women arriving at the embassy appeared to have suffered abuse, including sexual abuse, diplomats said that Saudi authorities, while typically facilitating repatriation of these domestic workers, did not provide them with specialized services or investigate the Saudi employers who illegally employed or abused them. Saudi Arabia passed an anti-trafficking law in dumping, July 2009. The law prohibits all forms of trafficking, and includes specific provisions addressing migrant workers, including prohibiting sale of research internet, work permits, receiving commissions in return for southeastern employment, and stiffer penalties if the crime was committed across national borders. Write Paper Internet! The Kuwaiti parliament is considering a draft of an anti-trafficking law, first proposed in July 2008, that would also punish trafficking across borders. Human Rights Watch recommends that the governments of Kuwait and Saudi Arabia: Cooperate to case interview, prevent, monitor, and write research censorship internet, prosecute cases of cross-border trafficking of case preparation, migrants. Research Paper Internet! Institute and enforce comprehensive legal frameworks to essay, combat human trafficking, including implementation of write censorship internet, Saudi Arabia’s anti-trafficking law, adoption of such a law by Kuwait, and reforms to labor and immigration laws. Provide specialized services to victims of trafficking including appropriate health and counseling services. In Senegal, at least 50,000 young boys live in conditions that amount to a modern form of slavery.
They generally come from small villages and are sent by parents to cities around Senegal to study the Quran. However, many of the men who operate these residential schools offer little education and instead force the boys to beg for up to baby dumping argument essay, ten hours a day. The boys must return a daily demanded sum or face severe physical abuse. While the boys suffer from paper censorship internet malnutrition and frequent diseases, many of the teachers live in relative affluence. Many boys are trafficked internally within Senegal or from neighboring Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, the Gambia, Mali, and Mauritania. In 2005, Senegal passed a law that criminalized trafficking and forcing another person to beg for financial gain; in September 2010, one month after President Abdoulaye Wade announced a ban on all forms of essay admission school, begging, the country applied the law for the first time, arresting and prosecuting nine men who were exploiting young boys under their de facto guardianship through forced begging.
It was considered a landmark case by local and international organizations working on the issue, and the number of boys on the streets in Dakar clearly reduced given the legitimate threat of prosecution. However, only a month later President Wade reversed course and announced that the censorship internet ban on begging would no longer be applied—and the number of boys forced to beg on interview the street appeared to return to its previous ubiquity. As of October 2010, Guinea-Bissau, the neighboring country that sends the write censorship internet greatest number of these young boys to Senegal, had no law against trafficking. However, a draft law that would bring the country's legislation in studies, line with international obligations is set to appear before the National Assembly in early 2011. Border officials, children's rights workers, and police said the law was essential to stem the flood of write research paper censorship, boys who are taken across the outline border each year to be exploited in Senegal. Guinea-Bissau’s National Assembly should act quickly to pass a law criminalizing human trafficking. The draft law, which the Assembly recently placed on its agenda for its October-November session, would empower police, judicial officials, and civil society to improve protection of the write internet country’s children, thousands of whom are trafficked from Guinea-Bissau to Senegal and other countries each year. Human Rights Watch recommends that the government of Senegal: Resume prosecutions of those who traffic and abuse boys through forced begging. In particular, undertake proactive police work to target the most exploitative teachers, and editing papers, extend the state's crackdown on forced begging to other cities in Senegal. Strengthen and expand the research internet mechanisms in place to temporarily house, clothe, and feed boys recovered from abusive Quranic schools, and to return them to their families.
Establish minimum standards in Quranic schools that protect a child's right to education, health, and physical and mental development, and baby dumping argument essay, require all such schools to be registered and periodically inspected by state officials to ensure they conform to such standards. Human Rights Watch recommends that the government of Guinea-Bissau: Immediately enact the draft legislation that criminalizes child trafficking, and enforce its provisions through the arrest and research censorship internet, prosecution of individuals who traffic boys to Senegal under the guise of southeastern university dissertations, religious education. Increase the capacity of civil and border police units, particularly in the Bafata and Gabu regions, to deter child trafficking and other illegal cross-border movements of children. Nisha Varia, senior researcher in write research paper censorship internet, the women’s rights division, coordinated the compilation and nova southeastern university dissertations, publication of this report.
The contents are based on the field research and writing of several Human Rights Watch staff: Jane Buchanan, Zama Coursen-Neff, Corinne Dufka, Bill Frelick, Nadim Houry, Megan McLemore, Sarah Mehta, Heba Morayef, Priyanka Motaparthy, Samer Muscati, Alison Parker, Meghan Rhoad, Phil Robertson, Rebecca Shaeffer, Gerry Simpson, Judith Sunderland, Katherine Todrys, Simone Troller, Nisha Varia, Matt Wells, and Christoph Wilcke. The findings on Zambia are based on joint field research by Human Rights Watch and Nyaradzo Chari-Imbayago of the AIDS and Rights Alliance for Southern Africa, Chris Mumba of the Treatment Advocacy and Literacy Campaign, and Godfrey Malembeka of the Prisons Care and Counselling Association. Janet Walsh, deputy director in the women’s rights division, Bill Frelick, director of the refugee program, and censorship internet, Danielle Haas in the program office reviewed the report. Clive Baldwin, Aisling Reidy, and James Ross, all from the legal and policy office, provided legal review. Daniela Ramirez provided editing and production assistance, and essay admission, Grace Choi and Fitzroy Hepkins provided production assistance. Human Rights Watch Reports on research paper censorship Migrants in 2010. Human Rights Watch, From the Tiger to the Crocodile: Abuse of Migrant Workers in Thailand , February 23, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/02/23/tiger-crocodile-0.
Human Rights Watch, “Off the Backs of the Children”: Forced Begging and Other Abuses against Talibes in Senegal , April 15, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/04/15/backs-children-0. Human Rights Watch,Prisons Care and Counselling Association, AIDS and baby, Rights Alliance for Southern Africa, and Human Rights Watch, Unjust and Unhealthy: HIV, TB, and Abuse in Zambian Prisons , April 27, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/04/27/unjust-and-unhealthy-0. Human Rights Watch, Slow Reform: Protection of Migrant Domestic Workers in Asia and write research paper censorship, the Middle East , April 28, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/04/28/slow-reform-0. Human Rights Watch, Eternal Emergency: No End to Unaccompanied Migrant Children’s Institutionalization in Canary Islands Emergency Centers , June 22, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/node/90993. Human Rights Watch, “Tough, Fair, and editing and revising research papers, Practical”: A Human Rights Framework for Immigration Reform in the United States , July 9, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/07/09/tough-fair-and-practical-0. Human Rights Watch, “Hellish Work”: Exploitation of Migrant Tobacco Workers in Kazakhstan , July 14, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/07/14/hellish-work-0. Human Rights Watch, Deportation by Default: Mental Disability, Unfair Hearings, and Indefinite Detention in the US Immigration System , July, 26 2010, Human Rights Watch, Without Protection: How the Lebanese Justice System Fails Migrant Domestic Workers , September 16, 2010, Human Rights Watch, Walls at Every Turn: Exploitation of Migrant Domestic Workers Through Kuwait's Sponsorship System , October 6, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/10/06/walls-every-turn-0. Human Rights Watch, Ukraine: Buffeted in the Borderland: The Treatment of Asylum Seekers and Migrants in Ukraine (forthcoming December 2010).
Other Human Rights Watch Materials on research paper internet Migrants in baby essay, 2010. “Human Rights Watch Interviews with African Migrants Seriously Injured in Individual Attacks,” Human Rights Watch interviews, February 4, 2010, Letter from Human Rights Watch to The Honorable Prime Minister, Mr. Write Research Paper Censorship Internet! Abhisit Vejjajiva, “ Open Letter of Concern for the Safety and Security Of Migrant Workers in thesis introduction, Thailand,” February 16, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2010/02/16/open-letter-concern-safety-and-security-migrant-workers-thailand. “Thailand: Migrant Workers Face Killings, Extortion, Labor Rights Abuses,” Human Rights Watch news release, February 23, 2010, Letter from Human Rights Watch to the Lebanese government voicing concern over migrant and refugee arbitrary detentions, February 24, 2010, Letter from Human Rights Watch to the Government of Greece on Reform of the Asylum and Immigration System, April 28, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2010/04/28/letter-mr-michalis-chryssochoidis-ministry-citizen-protection-greece.
“Kuwait: Deliver Promised Rights Reform,” Human Rights Watch news release, May 12, 2010, “US/Mexico: Investigate Border Killings,” Human Rights Watch news release, June 11, 2010, “US/Mexico: Investigate Border Killings,” Human Rights Watch news release, June 11, 2010, “Libya: Do Not Deport Eritreans,” Human Rights Watch news release, July 2, 2010, Letter from Human Rights Watch to research censorship, The Honorable Prime Minister, Mr. Abhisit Vejjajiva, “Open Letter Requesting Investigation of Claims Migrants Deported from Thailand Facing Human Rights Abuses by DKBA,” July 19, 2010, Letter from essay Human Rights Watch, to Mr. Michalis Chryssochoidis, Minister of Citizen Protection, “ Open Letter to the Government of Greece on Reform of the Asylum and Immigration System,” July 28, 2010, Letter from Human Rights Watch to H.E. Dr. Khalid al-Karaki, Deputy Prime Minister and write paper censorship, Minister of Education, “ Undocumented Migrant Children’s Right to Education, Human Rights Watch Letter to Jordanian Minister of Education,” September 9, 2010. Letter from Human Rights Watch to the Governments of Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka, “Prevent Abuses Against Migrant Domestic Workers, Human Rights Watch Letter to the Governments of Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, and southeastern university, Sri Lanka,” November 23, 2010, “Greece: End Inhumane Detention Conditions for Migrants,” Human Rights Watch news release, December 6, 2010 , http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2010/12/06/greece-end-inhumane-detention-conditions-migrants.
Global: Flawed Policies Expose Migrants to Abuse. Iran: Afghan Children Recruited to Fight in Syria. Jordan: Syrian Refugees Being Summarily Deported. Syria: First Atrocities Trials Held in Europe. Saudi Arabia: Domestic Worker Brutalized. UN Human Rights Council Confronts Venezuela. Witness to Carnage in Burma’s Rakhine State. Burma: Military Commits Crimes Against Humanity. Burma: Satellite Imagery Shows Mass Destruction. Burma: Targeted Sanctions, Arms Embargo Needed.
Crimes against Humanity by write research Burmese Security Forces Against the Rohingya Muslim Population in Northern Rakhine State since August 25, 2017. Human Rights Watch defends the rights of research papers, people in 90 countries worldwide, spotlighting abuses and bringing perpetrators to justice.
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Power Management S3 Tricks and Tips. This document is intended to explain how S3 (suspend/resume) works and has some tricks and tips to help debug and research paper censorship internet, diagnose S3 issues. S3 is the college admission, ACPI sleep state that is known as sleep or suspend to RAM. It essentially turns off most power of the system but keeps memory powered. When the user hits the sleep key, this generates a hardware interrupt which is caught and handled by the embedded controller (EC). ACPI defines two approaches to research paper, handle power buttons - fixed hardware or generic hardware. In the fixed hardware scheme, EC triggers a low-pulse to prompts, the PWRBTN# pin and Southbridge (SB) sets PWRBTN_STS bit in PM1_STS register to indicate to the operating system that a power button event occurs. In the generic hardware scheme, EC triggers a change to a GPIO pin to generate a general-purpose event to BIOS, and BIOS issues a Notify(PWRB, 0x80) to paper censorship internet, the operating system.
You can observe which GPE is triggered by examining the files in /sys/firmware/acpi/interrupts and see which one increments when the event occurs. The kernel handles the GPE and based on which GPE gets triggered it then executes the appropriate handler in good admission essay prompts, the ACPI DSDT table (the DSDT, Differentiated System Description Table, contains AML bytecode that is executed in the kernel context by the kernel's ACPI driver. For example, if GPE 0x1e is triggered then AML bytecode method _GPE._L1E() or _GPE._E1E() is executed depending on it being Level or Edge triggered (the method name has a L or E prefix corresponds to Level or Edge triggered events). Typically the method just creates a Notify() event which gets passed over to user space via the /proc/acpi/event interface and research censorship internet, handled by editing and revising acpid and ultimately this calls /etc/acpi/sleep.sh which in write paper censorship, turn calls pm-suspend. Note: Level-triggered or edge-triggered depends on the design and the configuration of the SB, and firmware (BIOS) must implement it correctly. The pm-suspend script prepares the machine for college suspend, typically this involves unloading broken modules that don't suspend well and then finally writing the text mem to write paper censorship internet, /sys/power/state.
Writing to good essay, /sys/power/state initiates the kernel side of the suspend. Research Paper Censorship! First it suspends all user space tasks (freezing them). Next the kernel traverses the device tree and for each driver it calls the registered suspend method. It is the responsibility of editing each driver to ensure the correct state is saved to allow the hardware to resume correctly and this is research, where a lot of grad bugs can occur. The kernel then executes the ACPI methods _PTS() (Prepare to sleep) and/or _GTS() (Going to Sleep) which are again in then DSDT. This byte code generally does platform specific magic, such as writing magic values to the embedded controller and even calling System Management Mode (SMM) code in research, the BIOS via the use of System Management Interrupts (SMI). The kernel has no knowledge of what is happening while these methods are executing - the byte code controlling the BIOS and Embedded Controller interactions are out of the kernel's control. And Revising Papers! Obviously if the AML byte code or BIOS code being executed in SMI is buggy it can cause S3 issues and there is little can be done to easily fix this in the kernel.
When the methods return control back to the kernel the system is almost ready to suspend. The kernel writes the address of the resume wakeup code into a data structure and the address is written into the Firmware Waking Vector (as specified by the Fixed ACPI Description Table (FADT)). The kernel fetches the addresses of the PM1a/PM1b control registers from the FADT and research paper internet, writes the sleep type (SLP_TYP) and sleep enable (SLP_EN) bits to the registers and this triggers the sleep. The kernel will sit in thesis paper introduction, a wait loop until it gets put to sleep by the pending action of writing to the PM control registers. After kernel writes SLP_TYP and research internet, SLP_EN, it is nova southeastern, common a SMI is generated by SB (called Sleep SMI as it is invoked after the kernel considers that the system is in S3).
Note that it is up to research censorship, the BIOS to save specific BIOS and Embedded Controller state. This is normally done in the _PTS/_GTS Method calls and in Sleep SMI. Sometimes this is were weird BIOS or EC state issues cause suspend/resume to fail. A break down of the calls in the kernel is as follows: Eventually the essay grad, user wants to write internet, wake their machine up from S3 suspend. The user presses a power button which wakes up the CPU and it jumps to a known BIOS start address. The BIOS does some setup to get the memory controller, restore some device states, and then reads the ACPI status register to tell it if it was in a suspended state. The BIOS then jumps to the wakeup address saved in the Firmware Waking Vector. The kernel resume code pointed to by the Firmware Waking Vector is some real mode x86 code that sets the CPU back into normal kernel protected mode and then restores CPU register state and pops back down the studies interview, call suspend call chain to do the resume. At this point the write paper internet, kernel calls the thesis outline, ACPI _WAK() method, it then resumes drivers, unfreezes threads and user space processes and we return back to point where mem was just written to /sys/power/state.
To user space, nothing has really changed, apart from a jump forward in time by the clock. The first bit of magic to be aware of is in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/realmode/wakeup.S. this directly maps to the wakeup_header defined in write research, arch/x86/kernel/acpi/realmode/wakeup.h: during suspend, header-pmode_entry is set to wakeup_pmode_return() in function acpi_save_state_mem() and kernel state is saved into southeastern, a wakeup header which is a real mode copy (to acpi_realmode) of a chunk of code and data in wakeup_code_start..wakeup_code_end. acpi_wakeup_address points to the real mode code + data and acpi_sleep_prepare() uses this to set the waking vector before suspending. To understand resume, we need to examine the final phase of suspend. Assembler function do_suspend_lowlevel in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S performs the final phase of write paper internet suspend, it basically does the following: saves cpu state + registers calls acpi_enter_sleep_state() which ultimately ends end suspending and CPU halts.
If this fails, the essay prompts, registers + cpu state are restored and we return from do_suspend_lowlevel(). The wakeup from S3 works as follows: BIOS (realmode) inspects the ACPI waking vector and censorship internet, jumps out of BIOS real mode into college prompts, wakeup_code() in paper internet, arch/x86/kernel/acpi/realmode/wakeup.S. Recall that this code is a copy in good essay prompts, real mode memory - this code then ljmpl's to wakeup_pmode_return(). Research Paper Censorship Internet! wakeup_pmode_return() in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S restores registers, the gdt, idt and ltd (hence comes out of real mode), and restores the stack pointer does a final sanity check to see if a saved magic value is papers, as expected and if all is OK resturns back to pop the write research internet, stack and return from school do_suspend_lowlevel() as if nothing has happened. As you can now see, suspending and resuming is rather non-trivial. The following sections explain how where to look for research censorship internet S3 bugs: We rely on drivers behaving correctly in their suspend/resume methods, if state is not saved/restored correctly then broken drivers can break in subtle and mysterious ways. Drivers may oops during suspend or resume, which causes headache for good college essay prompts debugging since these normally happen while the console is suspended.
The first thing to try is to boot the kernel with kernel parameter: no_console_suspend. Next switch to VT1 and suspend/resume using Ctrl-Alt-F1 or: login on VT1 and suspend using: Repeat several times to internet, see if you can capture a kernel oops. Use a digial camera to photo graph the introduction outline, oops message or if it scrolls too quickly off the screen limit the kernel oops message by hacking dump_stack() (arch/x86/kernel/dumpstack.c) to dump out less off a stack trace. If you know the bug exists in research, a driver but you cannot get an oops and you have no console then things get tricky. The PC does can only save state in thesis outline, the real time clock (RTC) over reboots, so we have to result to write paper censorship, saving a hashed state of the device suspend details in the RTC. We use the good college essay prompts, /sys/power/pm_trace interface to enable PM debugging as follows: If resume fails, quickly reboot the machine as you have. 3 minutes before the updates to research censorship, the RTC corrupt the saved hashed state.
Once rebooted, look for university the Magic numbers: text in the kernel log, use dmesg, and write paper internet, look for something like: You may even get lucky and case, get a device being mentioned as the problematic driver, e.g.: Device numbers sometimes are show, use lspci to track down the problematic device. The next trick is to remove the module and repeat the write paper censorship, suspend/resume to see if this was the problem driver or not. If a driver is not suspending/resuming correctly one workaround is to baby dumping argument essay, then add the name of the modules to the MODULES= list in /etc/default/acpi-support. However, the best approach is to find out why the driver is breaking suspend/resume and fixing it.
However, /sys/power/pm_trace is known to be a little temperamental and may yield false positives. An alternative approach is to remove all modules and do a suspend/resume cycle. Research Internet! If this works, then start loading modules one by one until you find one that causes the case preparation, hang. As you may now be aware, we are very reliant on the BIOS + ACPI for suspend/resume and write research censorship, more often than not these cause the bugs. The issues fall into several categories: In this scenario, the kernel passes control over to BIOS, and we BIOS never returns control back to the kernel. This can occur when the ACPI _PTS() or _GTS() methods call into the BIOS via SMIs - these are rare, but possible. In this case, one needs to enable ACPI AML code execution tracing and thesis paper introduction, see if these methods are being executed at the time of the hang. One may also want to check whether the system hangs after kernel writes SLP_TYP and SLP_EN.
If so, BIOS may hang in Sleep SMI. More likely though BIOS either never jumps back to the Firmware Waking Vector or it jumps to the wrong location, or has really screwed up the processor state and returns to the kernel via the Firmware Waking Vector but does not execute in the kernel correctly. At this point one should sanity check to see if the BIOS actually made it back into the kernel. One of paper internet a handful tricks can be used: 1. Write some code in wakeup_pmode_return() (arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S) to flash the LEDs on to indicate the BIOS jumped back to the kernel. Example code below: unfortunately a lot of the newer machines don't seem to even have the luxury of a keyboard LED, so you may need to try the following strategies: 2. Write some code in wakeup_pmode_return() (arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S) to dump state in port $80 and use a port $80 debug card. You need to boot with io_delay=udelay or io_delay=0xed so not to clobber port $80 on port I/O delay operations.
3. Write some code in wakeup_pmode_return() (arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S) to zap the CMOS settings on resume. When the machine hangs, reboot. Your BIOS may beep and complain about the CMOS being cleared, and/or you may need to baby essay, go into the BIOS set up to re-set the BIOS config back to a sane state. Write Research Censorship! If this happens you at least know that the BIOS transitioned from a S3 wakeup and jumped back into the kernel. We are very reliant on ACPI to do things right, sometimes it just does not. Preparation! A few things worth checking are: Method _PTS(). This ACPI Method needs to research paper, exist and is required to transition the machine to the suspend state correctly.
Unfortunately we rely in the ACPI AML code and the underlying BIOS code (if used) to editing, do the right thing. Method _GTS(). Research Paper! This ACPI Method is not required, but needs to work correctly if it does exist. Like _PTS() it is platform specific and may interact with the BIOS/Emebedded Controller in a closed and proprietary way. PM1a/b register settings from grad FADT. These are tweaked to set the PM power type and suspend enable at S3 suspend time, so if the addresses are incorrect the kernel may be just twiddling the wrong registers.
These can be dumped out using one of the following: and the edit FACP.dsl and write paper censorship, check that the PM1A/PM1B event and control blocks look sane. You need to consult the good college, chipset specific data sheet to research censorship internet, sanity check these register addresses. Pressing the suspend hot key should in theory trigger a suspend. The easiest thing to check is that the ACPI events are being passed down to acpid to kick off the suspend. Use the following to spy on ACPI events: If this fails, then next thing to check is for any GPEs occurring. If you don't observe any GPEs then there could be a problem with the key waking up the Embedded Controller and thesis paper introduction, the Embedded Controller poking the censorship internet, Southbridge which in turn causes the GPE. To observe the GPEs, use: then press the thesis outline, button and see if any of the write research, GPE event counters increment. If not, you have a button + Embedded Controller issue.
Finally, if acpi_events to occur then make sure pm_suspend is being run. Southeastern! This is a shell script, so you can add in debug and write it to a log file to observe if it's being called. If it's not, then there is a problem with acpid calling the sleep script which calls pm-suspend. If pm-suspend is being called, then the final issue is paper censorship, most probably the kernel attempting to suspend by fails because of broken ACPI Methods such as _PTS(). These need to be debugged by enabling the ACPI driver debug and observing the AML byte code being executed for these methods. The following power management kernel messages are a little terse and it's instructive to know what they really mean: Usually means dpm_suspend_noirq failed because some devices did not power down. dpm_prepare() failed to prepare all non-sys devices for a system PM transition.
The device should be listed in the error message. sysdev_suspend failed because some system devices did not power down. It has been known for southeastern machines to sit in resume for 300+ seconds before finally completing resume. Normally this means that during resume the kernel is reconfiguring some hardware, for example, the PCI configuration spaces and needs to do a short delay. Write Research Censorship Internet! Sometimes the CPU can pop into baby essay, a very low C state and write research paper censorship internet, the HPET cannot wake it up - the case, timer interrupt gets lost. For example, the research paper internet, AMD C1E idle wait can sometimes produce long delays on resume. And Revising Research Papers! This is a known issue with the failed delivery of interrupts while in deep C states. Write Paper Censorship Internet! If you have a BIOS option to disable C1E then first disable this and retry. Alternatively, re-test with the kernel parameter idle=mwait - this will disable the more power optimal C1E idle, so it's not energy star friendly. If this is successfully then you should look at more optimal workarounds such as disabling the admission essay prompts, local APIC or disabling the APIC completely, so boot with nolapic or nolapic_timer kernel parameters.
Finally, it may be worth exploring the kernel HPET parameters to see if this helps stop or work around the delay. Kernel/Reference/S3 ( alexhung 2011-09-15 10:12:23) The material on this wiki is write research paper censorship, available under a free license, see Copyright / License for details.
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analyzation essay How to develop and write an analytic essay. Write Research Censorship! Argument : Writing an college admission essay analytic essay requires that you make some sort of argument. The core of this argument is called a thesis. It is internet your claim, succinctly stated in a single sentence. What do budding literary critics such as yourselves argue about? You make a pervasive, persistent case that a certain thing is thesis paper introduction true about a piece of write research paper censorship literature.
This thing should not be readily obvious to the casual reader of the editing research papers literature in question. It is what you draw out of the book or essay, how you interpret it. It is a claim that must be supported by research internet, specific evidence from the text. Thesis statement: At least once during the course of grad school writing your essay, isolate what you consider to censorship internet, be your thesis. Is your proposition both arguable and reasonable? If it is obvious (i.e. Editing! Mary Rowlandson used the Bible for comfort during her captivity) you don’t have an argument. Argument requires analysis (i.e. taking things apart and explaining them).
One test that may help is asking yourself what the opposite side of your argument would be. A good, complicated thesis (which was proposed by one of your classmates) is that Although Mary Rowlandson says she often used the Bible as a source of comfort during her captivity, a closer reading of write paper internet her narrative suggests her faith may have been more troubled by case studies preparation, her experience than she lets on. One useful structure for writing thesis statements is the although form used above: Although x seems to be true about this piece of literature, y is in fact more true (or makes our thinking about x more complex). In this form you present both sides of your argument at once and show which side you’re on. Your job in research internet, the paper is to convince your reader to join you. Another way to write an effective thesis statement is to admission school, use the form If we look closely at research internet x (e.g. how Bradford defines freedom) we discover y (that ). In order to find something to essay, argue: Look for images or metaphors that the author uses consistently. What other sort of pattern can you identify in the text? How do you interpret this pattern so that your reader will understand the book, essay, poem, speech, etc. better? What philosophical, moral, ethical, etc. ideas is the author advocating or opposing? What are the consequences of accepting the author's argument?
Explain how the work functions as a piece of rhetoric-- how does the author attempt to convince his or her reader of something? For instance, what widely held beliefs do they use to support their argument? How do they appeal to emotions, logic… Re-examine something that the text or most readers take for granted (that Thoreau’s book Walden represents his attempt to escape from society). Question this major premise and see where it takes you.
Ask yourself if an author’s literary argument is inconsistent with itself or is in some way philosophically dangerous, inadequate, unethical, or misleading. Write Research Paper Internet! Examine how characters are presented in a story. Paper Introduction! How do they help the main character to develop? Which characters are trustworthy? Which are not? Why are they presented this way? What counts as evidence: Structure : How the parts of the book or essay follow one another; how the write research paper internet parts are assembled to make a whole? Why does the author start where they start, end where they end? What is the good college prompts logical progression of thought? How might that progression be intended to affect the reader What effect might this progression of ideas have on a generic reader or on a reader from the time period in which the work was written? Does the piece move from the general to the specific or vice versa?
If you could divide the book/essay into write research internet sections, units of meaning, what would those sections be? How are they related to each other? Note that chapters, while they form obvious sections can themselves be grouped. Referring to the text : In writing analytic papers that address any kind of literature, it is necessary to refer to the text (the specific words on university, the page of the book) in order to support your argument. Paper Censorship! This means that you must quote and interpret passages that demonstrate or support your argument. Quotation is usually stronger than paraphrase. Remember also that your purpose in writing an essay is not merely to admission school, paraphrase or summarize (repeat) what the research paper internet author has said, but to make an argument about how the make their point, or how they have said what they have said. Language : includes the way an author phrases his or her sentences, the key metaphors used (it’s up to you to explain how these metaphors are used, why these metaphors are appropriate, effective, ineffective, or ambiguous). Is the way a sentence is phrased particularly revealing of the author’s meaning? Practical Essay-writing Hints: Please title your paper and make the college essay title apt and enticing--I LOVE a good title. It puts me in write research paper censorship, a good mood before I start reading.
Be clear about whether you’re writing about a book, an essay (non-fiction, short prose), a story (short fiction) a poem, a novel (book-length fiction), an autobiography, a narrative (as in nova university, Captivity Narratives) etc. Walden is a book comprised of chapters. Each of these chapters could also be called an essay. Paper Censorship Internet! Within these essays, Thoreau sometimes tells stories. Good College Admission Essay! The book itself is not a story, but closer to a narrative, which is internet non-fiction. Always go through at least two drafts of essay you paper . Let your paper sit, preferably for 24 hours between drafts sometime during the process of your writing. Eliminate first person pronoun (I) in write research internet, your final draft (it’s OK for studies preparation rough drafts and may help you write).
If your paragraphs are more a full page or more in length it is more than likely that they are tooooooo long . Paper! Probably you have too many ideas in the air at once. Consider breaking the paragraph in half--into two smaller, but related arguments. And Revising Research Papers! Your reader needs a break, needs more structure in order to be able to follow your meaning. If several of your paragraphs are exceedingly short (4-5 lines), it is likely that you are not developing your ideas thoroughly enough--that you are writing notes rather than analysis. Short paragraphs are usually used as transitional paragraphs, not as content paragraphs. Research Censorship Internet! (Short paragraphs can be used in the rhetorical devise of reversal where you lead your reader down a certain path (to show them one side of the argument, the one you are going to oppose) and then turn away from that argument to college, state the true argument of your paper.) Employ quotation often. One quotation per argumentative paragraph is usually necessary. Depending upon write research censorship internet, the length and complexity of the passage or topic you're dealing with, more quotations may be useful to prevent you from baby dumping essay, getting too far away from the write research paper censorship text.
Your quotations combined with your interpretations are your proof. Case Studies! Be sure that you show your reader how they should interpret these quotations in order to follow your argument. (Almost every quotation should be followed by an interpretation, a deeper reading of what is being said and how its being said. This interpretation demonstrates how the quotation supports the claim you're making about it). Pay attention to metaphor, phrasing, tone, alliteration, etc. How is the author saying what they are saying--what does that teach us about the write research censorship internet text? Remember to write directive (sometimes called topic) sentences for research your paragraphs . The first sentence of any paragraph should give your reader an write paper censorship internet idea of what the good college admission essay paragraph is write research paper censorship internet going to say and how the paragraph will connect to the larger argument.
It should have more to do with what you have to say about the materials than what the author him or herself has said. Transitions between paragraphs : try to get away from using The next, First of all Another thing. to connect your paragraphs. This is the and revising research papers list method of write research structuring a paper--not an integrated, logical approach. A really strong transition makes the logical connection between paragraphs or sections of interview preparation a paper and gives the reader a sense that you’re building an argument. To make sure you are making a well-connected argument, ask yourself how the write research last sentence of each paragraph and the first sentence of the next are connected.
Each of the essay grad school sentences within your paragraphs should be related somehow (follow from, refer to, etc.) the one that precedes it, and the one which follows it. This will help the internet reader follow the flow of your ideas. The order of your paragraphs should reveal a developing argument. On the most basic level, you should be able to consciously justify the presence and placement of admission essay every word in every sentence, every sentence in every paragraph, every paragraph in every essay . To repeat: in revising your papers after the write research first draft (which is always, inevitably to thesis paper introduction outline, some degree confused because you are involved in the process of working your ideas out), you should be highly conscious of what you are doing and why you are doing it.
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Engagement and Learning What Is_? Programme. 'How was your performance today?' I could be asking a teacher, a driver, a stockbroker or a lover. 'Performance' is a recurrent term within today's general lexicon, yet practitioners and theorists in the field of Performance Studies disagree as to what constitutes this nebulous art form. In the paper censorship context of the contemporary art world it allows us to suggest a practice full of good college admission prompts paradoxes, wilfully refusing to write research internet, be fenced in. As a starting point, allow me to guide you through an undulating path of definitions or suggestions on the road to understanding Performance Art. I will not be directing you towards a signpost marked 'Performance Art' because there is no such thing. But if there were, you would find a plethora of practioners squabbling at its base, with the live durational performance artists staging an infinite sit-in.
Performance is an 'essentially contested concept'. 1 Practitioners and theorists occupy this space of admission prompts disagreement, allowing the research censorship field to unfold and incorporate a multitude of practices. Amelia Jones explains that Body art and performance art have been defined as constitutive of postmodernism because of college essay prompts their fundamental subversion of modernism's assumption that fixed meanings are determinable through the formal structure of the work alone. 2 Performance Art cannot be described simply in terms of a particular structure or work. All forms and media are at the artist's disposal. Write Research Internet? Santiago Sierra's work Veterans of the Wars of nova university dissertations Northern Ireland, Afghanistan and Iraq facing the corner, 2011 at the Manchester Gallery of Art simply installed a performer in research paper censorship internet a bare room for seven hours a day over nine days.
Pauline Cummins and Louise Walsh collaborated on their 1992 Sounding the editing Depths video, photographic and research paper internet, sound installation, projecting mouths onto each other's bodies; proclaiming bodily ownership amid this turbulent period of lack of control over Irish women's bodies. Indeed, Performance Art cannot be said to studies preparation, stem from any one particular discipline: theatre, dance or the paper censorship internet visual arts. London's Live Art Development Agency describe Live Art as 'a gene pool of artists, whose work is good college essay prompts rooted in a broad church of disciplines, they have crossed each other's paths, blurred each other's edges and, in the process, opened up new creative forms. 3 With practices from different art forms performing (excuse the pun), Performance Art is, then, interdisciplinary, collapsing the boundaries between disciplines. Write Internet? This essay, however, focuses on good college admission prompts, performance .in the visual arts, a practice ubiquitous in research paper the contemporary art world. Performance Art is contingent, simply, on the presence (and absence) of the body. Editing Research Papers? The body, site, audience and time are its four pillars, with corporeal action the central axis. Artists turned to paper, the physical body and brought an 'aliveness', a temporality and instability to artworks. Typical understanding of Performance Art is as a solo practice with the artist's body-as-medium at its core; an embodied practice. But the practice may also incorporate other bodies: performers and audience members. In 2010 Dominic Thorpe made a live, durational performance in the 126 gallery, Galway, completely in darkness.
Redress State, Questions Imagined gave the audience small torches to illuminate the darkened performance site as they wished, engaging the viewer in an auditory, sense experience. Thorpe's removal of essay admission grad one of our senses refocused our experience of his work into write research paper a physical, embodied one. It is the action of the body, the authenticity of an activity, that frames it as Performance Art. RoseLee Goldberg describes the context thus: '. the live presence of the artist, and the focus on nova southeastern, the artist's body, became central to notions of 'the real', and a yardstick for installation and video art. 4.
Performance Art, from its beginnings, occurred in both alternative and formal locations. Site is a potent element in censorship the framing of the work. A work of live performance on the street will have a distinct reading to baby argument, one viewed in paper a gallery context. Indeed a performative video or photograph shot on the street has a different interpretation to one shot in a studio. This essay is paper outline littered with examples of live performance works with the site listed as a significant element to write research paper censorship internet, the manifestation of the works.
Time, or what is called duration in introduction Performance Art, is a critical element. Write? Performance Art is a time-based practice. Durational work — generally anything over three hours — is a particular strand of admission school practice and inevitably brings with it elements of endurance. Endurance comes in write censorship different forms; from the essay school grande endurance or masochistic performance 5 to write research paper censorship, the petite endurance, occurring in performances that explore everyday life. 6. With the body at the centre of performance practice, what kind of activity occurs? The influential Performance Studies scholar and theatre director Richard Schechner describes performance as 'an ephemeral event which shares characteristics with a nexus of college essay activities including play, game, sport, and ritual. 7 Consider the following artworks: Chris Burden, Shoot, 1971. Burden walked into F Space gallery, California and had himself shot in the arm. Marina Abramovic /ULAY, Rest Energy, 1980, ROSC '80, Dublin.
A bow and arrow is held taut by the performers' body weight, the arrow pointed directly at Abramovic's heart. One slip or break in concentration and the arrow could pierce Abramovic's heart. Franko B, I Miss You!, 2002, Tate Modern. Franko walked up and down a catwalk, bleeding from the research paper internet veins in good prompts each arm, painting the canvas-covered floor with his blood. Works such as these are often thought of when considering Performance Art; sensational and risky, they challenge the very integrity of the corporeal body, and are emblematic of grande endurance works. Performance practice, even from the research 1960s and '70s, also includes works focusing more on participation and university, transforming everyday actions: Dennis Oppenheim, Reading Position for Second Degree Burn, 1970.
A photographic work in two parts. Oppenheim lies on the beach, firstly with a book over his chest and write, latterly without the book, displaying evidence of sunburn with the shadow of the absent book. Joseph Beuys, Bureau for Direct Democracy, 1972. Southeastern Dissertations? A live performance. Over the 100 days of write research censorship Documenta 5, Beuys invited the audience to engage in conversation with him on democracy and politics. Pipilotti Rist, Ever is Over All, 1997.
A performance to video. A young woman walks along a city street, smashing the grad windows of parked cars with a large tropical flower. Performance Art — the Performing Arts. The Performing Arts refers to write paper, theatre, dance, opera and dumping essay, the circus. Write Research Paper Censorship? Cultural anthropologist Victor Turner made a key distinction between Performance Art and the Performing Arts when he declared Performance Art as: 'making, not faking'.
8 Put simply, the case studies preparation artist is actually shot in the arm, car windows are really smashed, skin is research paper internet truly sunburned. These are not illusions but actual bodily experiences. Dumping? In the 1970s, Performance Art stood in direct opposition to theatre. As the write research paper censorship internet form has developed this oppositional distinction is not as relevant, due to many crossovers and similarities. Performance occupies an in-between place. Editing Research? The performance artist is not 'acting' in the traditional theatrical sense.
They are not performing themselves but not not performing themselves either. The performance frame is contingent and temporary, holding the paper internet performer in a liminal, provisional and suspended place. This frame of performance time is a particular construct the artist or performer steps into. Kira O'Reilly's cutting piece, Untitled Action: NRLA, The Arches, Glasgow, 2005, is a construct performed in public. While in editing research papers action it may relate to forms of write research self-harm, made public and placed in interview the Live Performance frame, it offers the viewer an empathetic human-to-human encounter. Precisely because O'Reilly performs live, inhabiting the same place and time as the audience, and is the artist/maker constructing the paper censorship action, the prompts work becomes an intersubjective experience.
9 Josette Feral illucidates: '. 'performance' attempts not to tell (like theatre) but rather to provoke synaesthetic relationships'. 10. A short and rocky road into censorship the history of performance. There are a variety of thesis paper proposals as to how Performance Art developed and, as all good postmodern students know, history is write research paper internet not objective, it is a contextualised construction. From the studies perspective of a practitioner in the field of performance from the visual arts, allow me to sketch the relatively brief history of Performance Art. RoseLee Goldberg's book, Performance Art: From Futurism to the Present, first published in 1979, dates the beginning of Performance Art very precisely to research, 20 February 1909: the day the first Futurist Manifesto was published in Le Figaro newspaper. She charts her theory on the development of the art form up through Constructivism, Dada, Surrealism and Bauhaus and cites the significant influence of the Black Mountain College in the US as foundational, referring to John Cage in prompts music, Merce Cunningham in dance and Allan Kaprow's Happenings. Looking to research paper, parallels in Europe, she cites the papers practices of Piero Manzoni, Yves Klein and paper, Joseph Beuys as important — artists we identify more immediately as belonging to the visual arts. Goldberg's arc of Performance Art encompasses the different disciplines of good admission theatre, dance, visual art and research paper censorship, music into the family of Performance Art. Goldberg explains that '. by its very nature performance defies precise or easy definition beyond the simple declaration that it is live art by artists.
Any strict definition would immediately negate the possibility of performance itself. 11. Another historical perspective from baby dumping, close to the emblematic era is Performance by Artists, edited by A. A. Bronson and Peggy Gale and also published in 1979. Write Research Censorship Internet? In her Introduction, Gale opens by studies interview, making two clear distinctions in practice between Canada/US and Europe. She cites European practice as 'more theoretical, more intellectualised — if only write research because of the apparent rejection of those qualities of narration and entertainment [as seen in Canadian and US works]. Interview Preparation? [European practice employs] tableaux vivants. [and is]. a form of extended sculpture. 12. Looking at this from the globalised world of the twenty-first century, it is informative to note that in the days before the multifarious biennials and blockbuster exhibitions criss-crossing the world there was a proposal suggesting two clear branches of practice.
Gale cites a foundational figure in each location: Vito Acconci in Canada/US and Joseph Beuys in Europe. Thomas McEvilley, in research internet a less historically-focused trajectory, suggests three fountains of interest as noteworthy in the development of case studies preparation Performance Art practice: Performance emerges from the history of research theatre and outline, begins as a counterpoint to realism. McEvilley's reference to painting as a springboard for write internet, Performance Art resonates in Harold Rosenberg's watershed 1952 essay, 'The American Action Painters', illustrating a turn in practice; '. what was to go on the canvas was not a picture but an event [. Essay School? ] The image would be the result of this encounter. 14 Performance artworks are events that have at their core a living, breathing body presented in an art frame. Hans Namuth's 1950 documentary film of Jackson Pollock at work is also influential, aligning the medium of film with an artist's action. Performative practice is extant in the contemporary art world. At a cursory glance we can cite Matthew Barney's mammoth Cremaster series and Cindy Sherman's Untitled Film Stills, with the artist taking on write censorship internet, different guises, staging (or performing) images of feminine stereotypes.
Looking at this trajectory it is interesting to note that even from its emblematic period, performance practice was not contingent on essay admission grad, the presence of a live audience. Artworks were called Performance Art simply when artists used the body. Works performed to camera in the artist's studio include: Bruce Nauman, Self-Portrait as a Fountain, 1966-67, in research paper front of an invited audience; Gilbert George, The Singing Sculpture, 1970, at the Nigel Greenwood Gallery in London, and sometimes in thesis paper outline front of an unintentional audience; Tehching Hsieh's One Year Performance, 1981-1982. Hsieh stayed outdoors in New York for one year, while his audience — New Yorkers going about their everyday lives — unintentionally witnessed his performance. 15.
Performance Art — live or mediated presentation? The current generation's engagement with Performance Art from its emblematic period is mostly through grainy black and white photographs. These images themselves become iconic references to influential works, and are unavoidably dislocated from the write context of their live presentation. They live bound up in baby dumping essay the mythology of the event. It is the re-presentation of these ephemeral events that excites; the absent made present, the disappeared reappearing in the form of photography, video and research paper censorship, stories. Alanna O'Kelly made her 1995 live performance Oms in St Mary's Abbey, Dublin. In the darkly-lit twelfth-century chapel, O'Kelly's feet and studies interview, calves were illuminated as she ran on the spot. Write Research Paper Internet? The hairs on her legs stood out, the sound of her breath audibly taxed. I did not witness this live performance and have only seen fleeting video documentation of university it, but it lives in the annals of write research paper internet Performance Art folklore. It is through documentation and casual conversations that the myth (and life) of live performance works continues. The 'evidence' of such artworks are available to case studies, us through representations of the event: photographs, posters, sometimes videos, and always stories, testimony and mythology.
What had been absent from censorship internet, discussions around performance from the visual arts was this distinction between the live, communal moment between performer and editing and revising, audience and a performance experienced through a mediated presentation. That was until Peggy Phelan's ontological proclamation of performance's contingency on the live experience: 'Performance's only life is in write the present'. 16. Phelan's seminal essay focuses on the 'manically charged' present of a live performance. Thesis Paper? This 'presentness' of both performer and research censorship internet, spectator calls for, in Phelan's terms, the interview active participation of the audience in the liminal space of live performance.
The audience become interpreters or co-creators when experiencing live performance; the emancipated spectator that philosopher Jacques Rancire writes of. This spotlight on the relationship between the live performer and live audience refocused discussion about Performance Art to its liveness and write research censorship internet, its relational bond with the audience. The term Live Art emerged in the UK, and was formalised with the formation of the Live Art Development Agency in and revising papers 1999. Live Art centres on the temporality and ephemerality of Performance Art in write research paper its widest sense. Amelia Jones, on the other hand, prefers to essay admission, consider Performance Art works via their mediated presentation (photographs and videos).
She opts to refer to the works as Body Art rather than Performance Art and claims the viewer can also have this performative relationship with an image from a performance work. 17 (Here we are challenged by the multiple contemporary uses of the term 'performance'. This performative relationship with artworks engages the viewer as an embodied, creative interpreter.) The mediated document, Jones claims, is write censorship equally as valid as the live performance and indeed is dissertations more neutralised and set apart, allowing the viewer to consider it outside of the manically charged present of live performance. This wonderfully sophisticated disagreement does, however, offer us some clarity. With Phelan's declaration of the 'presentness' of research censorship Performance Art and the emergence of the term Live Art on the one hand, and Jones' subsequent hypothesis and focus on case preparation, mediated works/documentation — Body Art — we may glimpse the possibility of a distinction in modes of presentation, all of which come under the internet umbrella term Performance Art. Live Performance Art: Live presentation in front of an paper introduction outline, audience, corporeal acivity made public: Performance Art/Live Art. A mediated presentation, made privately to the camera or re-presentation of a Live Performance: Performance Art/Body Art. Performance Art and the Death of the Object. Ephemerality and immateriality have always been important aspects of Performance Art.
For some practitioners in the 1960s and '70s this immateriality was a form of write research paper censorship internet protest directly against the art market. They produced oneoff ephemeral events that could not be contained, priced and sold. In the contemporary era of service industries and commodified events, this political stance against the art market is paper introduction outline especially complicated. Tino Sehgal's performance works are hinged purely on live encounters. He fundamentally avoids the production of any objects, and exhibits and sells his works with no written or visual documentation. In his 2004 performance, This Objective of That Object, the visitor is surrounded by five people who remain with their backs to the viewer. Write Paper Censorship? The five chant, 'The objective of this work is to become the object of a discussion'; when the visitor does not respond they slowly sink to the ground.
If the visitor engages with them they begin a discussion. Sehgal's works have been collected by a number of significant institutions around the world, including the Tate, London and the Museum of Modern Art, New York. Prompts? 18 On the sale of his work, the artist stipulates that there are no written instructions, no written receipt and no images. Write Paper? Sehgal's practice has been read as the full stop in the death of the admission object: 'Body Art should be seen as an extension of, not substitute for, conceptual art'. 19.
Adrian Heathfield frames the current flux in performance practice as eventhood. 'Eventhood allows spectators to live for a while in the paradox of write research paper censorship two impossible desires: to and revising papers, be present in the moment, to savour it, and to save the moment, to still and preserve its power long after it has gone. Write Paper? 20 There are, of course, no rules: performance artists may make ephemeral events and school, produce images, videos or objects around those events, or structure their work to live purely in the moment of its live performance. Heathfield's distinction suggests that the write research paper internet detritus and documentation of live action functions as a relic of an event passed into memory but, as Jones asserts, these subsequent performative artworks hold their own potency independent of the live moment. The reception of argument Performance Art is a creative and relational process; its live manifestation offers a unique relationship. The live audience may construct the meaning and interpretation of the work. American performance artist Marilyn Arsem's practice has focused particularly on write censorship internet, the relationship between her live performances and the audience's reception. Her 1991-1993 performance Red in Woods was designed for a single viewer and involved twenty-eight performers. In a snow-filled wood outside Boston the thesis lone audience member followed a length of red wool. At their own pace the viewer encountered objects and performers along their journey. 'Each person's understanding of the performance was unique, coloured by her or his own concerns, undiluted by write research, anyone else's perspective.' 21 Live performance lives in the experiential, a process made public, an encounter inviting the editing research papers viewer to engage, bringing their own personal meaning to the work. An exciting and potent part of live performance is the research mythology that develops around a one-off temporal event; the essay grad creative reverberations that come from the audience. Art writing plays an important role, from the formal essays and write research censorship, reviews to the social media forums such as blogs, Facebook and and revising papers, Twitter, where the audience's transformative experience is communicated.
Live performance from the visual arts in research paper Ireland is currently a vibrant practice, grounded in responding with the physical body and psychological self. There are many theories on how and why this kind of practice has developed, with suggestions that such evolution is closely connected to the Troubles, amid which artists felt conventional forms of art making failed to express the experiences happening outside the door of the studies studio. 22. The significance of paper censorship Alastair MacLennan within Irish practice cannot be underestimated: a teacher in Belfast from the mid '70s, MacLennan asks his audience to paper, witness and write paper censorship internet, co-inhabit the visceral territories he explores. In 1988 MacLennan made a seminal work, The Burn, in southeastern the shell of the research paper building adjoining the old Project Arts Centre in Dublin. In an eight hour non-stop actuation (MacLennan's term for his performance installations), he moved slowly around the burned-out shell of the building amid rubble and specifically placed objects, including pigs' heads and burned-out flags, electrifying the sitespecific installation with the human body. Another important point of reference is Brian O'Doherty/Patrick Ireland's performative stance in editing research response to the political situation in Ireland. In 1972, O'Doherty changed his name to Patrick Ireland in a ritual performance, again at paper censorship internet, the Project Arts Centre, in good admission essay protest against the Bloody Sunday massacre in Derry. He vowed to sign all of his subsequent artworks as Patrick Ireland. In 2008 O'Doherty buried Patrick Ireland in a Live Performance in the grounds of IMMA in recognition of the progress of the peace process.
Samuel Beckett's late plays, Not I, That Time and Breath, 'exist somewhere between installation and poetry, their strict aesthetic bringing the meditative rhythms of visual art into performance.' 23 His works are essential pivots for performance practitioners globally, but clearly have special significance for Irish artists. Current practice is an ever shifting beast, difficult to contain within the write research paper censorship internet crosshairs of an essay written contemporaneously. Nevertheless, Performance Art currently stands at a particular moment of paper introduction evolution. As collections around the world attempt to reflect and collect performance works, there has been some significant examination into methods of extending, capturing and archiving the ephemerality of paper performance works both in theory and in practice. TRACE: Displaced was performed live at argument, the National Review of Live Art in Glasgow in 2008.
In a replica of the TRACE art space in Cardiff, five artists (Andre Stitt, Beth Greenhalgh, Lee Hassall, Phil Babot and Roddy Hunter) performed durationally over four days. On a table outside the installation, Heike Roms made a live documentation of the live performance using Post-it notes, polaroids and typed sheets of paper. At one point she noted one of the performers making an action in the centre of the installation — the site, she noted, in the gallery in Cardiff that Northern Irish artist Brian Connolly had buried his time capsule during his 2002 live performance Initiate. Roms layered the live action we were viewing with shadows of past performances and a history of the Cardiff site. Connolly's ephemeral work — absent to our eyes — was brought alive, contained within a collective memory and communicated to the present, displaced audience in Glasgow. Recently, we have also seen significant structural developments for Performance Art in the visual art world.
In 2009 the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York appointed their first Curator-in-Chief for Performance Art, and the Whitworth Gallery, Manchester cleared its permanent collection and installed fourteen durational performances for a three-week exhibition. 24 2010 saw the first retrospective of a performance artist: Marina Abramovic's The Artist is research Present at MoMA. Galleries and museums are currently opening their doors to live Performance Art, either 'eventing' an exhibition or making exhibitions centred on Live Performances. This development opens the white cube to a messy unpredictability. Live performance is often a chaotic beast, with the collision of the fluctuating unknowns of action, site, time and audience. Part of the excitement of anything witnessed live is this tantalising unknown; each iteration of a live performance is unique and unrepeatable. Alongside these recent developments in the canon of the visual arts are the multifarious performance festivals.
In many countries around the editing world significant festivals of Performance Art show a wide range of Live Performances over concentrated periods of time. The National Review of Live Art in Glasgow, set up in 1979, is one of the write censorship internet longest running festivals of Live Art in the world, showing a variety of Performance Art practices. In 2005 RoseLee Goldberg set up Performa, a Performance Art biennial in New York, focusing on live presentations. In 2001 IMMA hosted the essay grad school performance event Marking the Territory. Over a three-day period twenty-three artists from sixteen countries performed at the museum. Live Performance can happen anywhere, at any time, for any duration. Bbeyond, the Northern Irish performance collective, perform regularly on the streets of Northern Ireland — often unannounced but sometimes framed within an arts festival — making dynamic interventions in paper censorship public spaces, outside galleries or cultural institutions.
Abramovic, on the other hand, performed live in the cathedral of grad contemporary art, MoMA, New York in 2010 for three months. Performance Art remains an extraordinarily complex and expressive idea, which transcends language, form, image and monetary value. It defies categorisation: it's live; it's mediated; it appears; it disappears; it's an experience; it's an image; it's a smell; it's a sound; it exists; it persists; it's a video; it's a photograph; it's a story; it's an object; it's an idea; it's a relationship; it's called Live Art; it's called Body Art; it's called Performative Practice. It is Performance Art, asking 'us what it means to be here, now'. 25. © Amanda Coogan, 2011.
Strine, Long and Hopkins in their 1990 survey article 'Research in Interpretation and Performance Studies: Trends, Issues, Priorities', cited in Dwight Conquergood, 'Of Caravans and Carnivals: Performance Studies in Motion', TDR, Vol. 39, No. 4, Autumn 1995, pp. 137- 141. Also see Marvin Carlson, 'What is research Performance?', in Henry Bail (ed.), The Performance Studies Reader, London: Routledge, 2004. Amelia Jones, Body Art/Performing the Subject, University of Minnesota Press, 1998, p. 21.
Live Art Development Agency, London, http://www.thisisliveart.co.uk/about_us/what_is_ live_art.html (accessed 11/5/2011), The Live Art Development Agency 2009. RoseLee Goldberg, Performance Art: From Futurism to interview preparation, the Present, London: Thames and Hudson, 2001, p. 9. See Kathy O'Dell, Contract with the Skin: Masochism, Performance Art, and the 1970s, University of Minnesota Press, 1998, which describes masochistic performance practices, including Gina Pane, Vito Acconci, Chris Burden and early Abramovic/ULAY. See Peggy Phelan, 'On Seeing the Invisible: Marina Abramovic's The House with the Ocean View', Milan: Charta, 2003. Phelan cites Linda Montano, Allan Kaprow and Tehching Hsieh as American-based artists who explored the research censorship structure of ritual and everyday life in their performances. Richard Schechner, as cited in Mike Pearson, 'Theatre/Archaeology', in TDR, Vol. Editing Research? 38, No. 4, Winter 1994. Victor Turner, From Ritual to research censorship internet, Theatre: The Human Seriousness of Play, New York: PAJ Publications, 1984, p. 93. See Rachel Zerihan, 'Revisiting Catharsis in Contemporary Live Art Practice: Kira O'Reilly's Evocative Skin Works', in Theatre Research International, Vol. 35, No.
1, pp. And Revising? 32-42. Paper Censorship Internet? Josette Feral, 'Performance and Theatricality: The Subject Demystified', in Modern Drama, Vol. Nova University Dissertations? 25, 1982, p. 179. Goldberg, pp. 8-9.
A. A. Bronson and write, Peggy Gale, Performance by Artists, Toronto: Art Metropole, 1979, p. 1. Thomas McEvilley, Stages of Energy: Performance Art Ground Zero?, as cited in Peggy Phelan, 'On Seeing the paper introduction outline Invisible: Marina Abramovic's The House with the Ocean View', Milan: Charta, 2003, p. 174. Harold Rosenberg, 'The American Action Painters', in The Tradition of the New, originally in Art News 51/8, December 1952. See Adrian Heathfield and the Live Art Development's 2009 book Out of Now for a full discussion on the significance of Hsieh's practice. Peggy Phelan, Unmarked: The Politics of Performance, London: Routledge, 1993, p. 146. See Amelia Jones, Body Art/Performing the Subject. IMMA have yet to add a work of Live Performance Art to their collection (1/10/2011). Jon Erickson, 'Performing Distinctions', in PAJ: A Journal of Performance and Art, Vol. 21, No. 3, September 1999, p. 101. Adrian Heathfield, Live: Art and Performance, London: Routledge, 2004, p. 9. Marilyn Arsem, Red in Woods. Research Censorship Internet? See www.marilynarsem.net (accessed 23/7/2011).
Andre Stitt, Lecture for Points d'Impact, Performance Art Festival, Centre for Contemporary Art, Geneva, 2009. Alison Croggon, Review of 'Beckett's Shorts', Theatre Notes, 23 April 2009 (Web accessed 27/5/2011). Marina Abramovic Presents . at the Whitworth Gallery of Art, Manchester, 3-19 July 2009. Interestingly, of the fourteen international artists in the exhibition Alastair MacLennan, Kira O'Reilly and myself, Amanda Coogan, are Irish or live on the island. See http://www.thisisliveart.co.uk/about_us/what_is_live_art.html (accessed 11/5/2011). Nova Dissertations? The Live Art Development Agency 2009.
Irish Museum of Modern Art, Royal Hospital, Kilmainham, Dublin 8, D08 FW31, Ireland.