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Aqa gcse media studies coursework

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Die #8220;Revolution im Regal#8221; hat begonnen! Der Aufruf zur Zusammenarbeit im Bereich Category Management auf der Biofach tragt erste Fruchte. Aqa Gcse Media Coursework! Mehrere Projekte sind begonnen worden unter Beteiligung aller Handelsstufen. Essay Fundamental Rights! Hier das Modell des Verbund-CM von der Biofach: Revolution im Regal Vortrag auf der Biofach 2017. Aqa Gcse Media! Category Management ist in der Bio-Branche angekommen! Der Vortrag richtet sich vor allem an essay rights, selbststandige Naturkost-Fachhandler mit einem bis max. Coursework! 3 Geschaften, die die Investition in are your short-term and long-term, eine eigene Regal-Software und zusatzliches Personal scheuen, aber trotzdem professionelle, gut strukturierte Regalspiegel fur Ihren Markt anstreben. Das flachenbereinigte Steigerungs-Potential liegt bei minimal 5% bis zu zweistelligen Zuwachsen! Im letzten Jahr haben uber 150 Einzelhandler und 40 Naturkost-Hersteller an media, meinen CM-Seminaren teilgenommen und so einen Einstieg in what are your goals mba essay, das komplexe Thema bekommen. Media Studies Coursework! Es wurde daruber hinaus deutlich, dass der Naturkost-Handel jetzt Modelle braucht, um CM in my essay, der Praxis mit Leben zu fullen. Aqa Gcse Studies! Welche Kriterien setze ich an, um das fur mein Geschaft richtige Sortiment zu fuhren?

Wie gestalte ich die Regalspiegel? Wie verschaffe ich mir einen Uberblick uber eine Produkt-Kategorie? Welche Software-Hilfsmittel stehen zur Verfugung? Auf der Biofach 2017 werde ich im Rahmen des Vortrages in Kooperation mit Biovista und dem Software-Hersteller #8220;Quant#8220; zeigen, welche Moglichkeiten es gibt, Synergien zwischen Hersteller, Gro?handler und Fachhandler herzustellen. What Are Your Short-term And Long-term Career Mba Essay! Gemeinsam das richtige Sortiment entwickeln und bestmoglich prasentieren, das ist das Ziel. Bio goes social media Marktgesprach in aqa gcse media coursework, Fulda.

Heute treffen sich Branchenvertreter aus dem Biohandel, Fachhandler, Hersteller, Medienvertreter zum 3. Homework He! sogenannten Marktgesprach im Morgensternhaus in media studies, Fulda. To World! Es geht um die Frage, inwieweit die sozialen Netzwerke dazu beitragen konnen, auf die Themen der Bio-Branche aufmerksam zu machen. Studies Coursework! Dazu gibt es drei Impulsreferate und workshops. Mananger! Neue Seminare im September jetzt ausgebucht. Aqa Gcse Media Studies! Die vom bioverlag aus Aschaffenburg veranstalteten Category Management Seminare im Flux Biohotel im Werratal mit mir als Fachreferent sind aktuell ausgebucht. Homework He! Bei Interesse an coursework, inhaltlicher Schulung zum Thema Sortimentsfuhrung, Platzierung, Flachenoptimierung oder an CM-workshops fur Handel und Herstellung bitte melden. Homework Mananger! Oder mochten Sie eine Prasentation der innovativen CM-Software Quant? Dann vereinbaren Sie einen Termin.

Und wie zufrieden sind Ihre. CM Seminare fur den Bio-Fachhandel und Bio-Hersteller. Aqa Gcse Media Coursework! Im April/ Mai und September veranstaltet der Bioverlag vier Seminare zum Thema Category Management mit mir als Referenten. Ziel der Seminare ist es, ein gemeinsames Verstandnis von Category Management speziell im Bio-Fachhandel zu entwickeln. Should Double Space! Category Management betrachte ich in media coursework, diesen Seminaren nicht als ein abstraktes, effizientes Tool aus den Wirtschaftswissenschaften („Survival of the space Fittest“), sondern ich mochte die Chancen und Potentiale von CM moglichst konkret an aqa gcse media studies, den Bedurfnissen des Biomarktes ausrichten. Mananger! Die Orientierung unserer Branche an aqa gcse media, bestimmten Werten, wie z.B.

Biodiversitat, Okologie, Sozialvertraglichkeit und organische Vielfalt, hat auch Auswirkungen auf unsere Sortimentspolitik. Deshalb spreche ich von „Bio#8221;-Category Management und habe meine Firma auch im Hinblick darauf so genannt! Einladung zum Vortrag im Fachhandelsforum auf der Biofach in double space my essay, Nurnberg. Am Donnerstag, 11.2.2016 findet im Rahmen des Fachhandelsforum in aqa gcse media studies coursework, Halle 9 ein Vortrag zum Thema #8220;Category Management als Kundenorientierung#8221; statt. Are Your Career Mba Essay! Der Vortrag, den ich in Kooperation mit dem bio verlag, JAM Kommunikationsberatung und Klaus Braun Kommunikationsberatung halte, richtet sich sowohl an aqa gcse media, der Naturkost-Einzelhandel, als auch an what are your mba essay, die Bio-Hersteller, die das Category Management jetzt professionell angehen wollen. Aqa Gcse Media Studies! Wenn Bio-Hersteller und Handel enger zusammen arbeiten, entstehen weniger #8220;Reibungsverluste#8221; und die Kommunikation gegenuber den Bio-Konsumenten wird klarer und aussagekraftiger! Ein frohes und gesundes neues Jahr 2016. What And Long-term Career! Sehr geehrte Naturkost-Freundinnen und -Freunde, das neue Jahr steht ganz im Zeichen von Category Management. Studies! Durch verschiedene Veranstaltungen und Presseveroffentlichungen im letzten Jahr ist deutlich geworden, dass unsere Bio-Branche hier Nachholbedarf hat.

Wir sollten die brachliegenden Ressourcen im Sortiment ausschopfen. Nicht jedes Neuprodukt bietet wirklich Neues. In vielen Produkt-Kategorien ist eine gewisse Sattigung eingetreten. Homework He! Sicher ist ein ausdifferenziertes Bio-Sortiment ein Qulitatsmerkmal der Biomarkte. Auch sollte im oberen Preissegment ein hochwertiges Angebot bestehen. Media Studies! Allerdings muss immer wieder uberpruft werden, welche Produkte bei den Kundinnen und Kunden nicht angenommen werden.

Auch die Ubersichtlichkeit der Regale muss gewahrleistet sein. Ideas Problem Solving! Immer neue Produkte #8220;hineinzustopfen#8221; ist der falsche Weg. Sortimentserweiterungen sollten gepruft werden und wenn sie sinnvoll erscheinen, muss das entsprechende Regal umgebaut werden, unter Umstanden ist dann die Auslistung einiger anderer Produkte notwendig. Aqa Gcse! Ein standardisierter Hinweis auf Neuprodukte durch einen Regalstopper erleichtert der Kundschaft zusatzlich die Orientierung. in diesem Sinn wunsche ich uns Bio-Aktiven viel Erfolg und gute Gesprache mit unseren Kundinnen und Kunden. Homework! Denn letztlich wissen unsere Kundinnen und Kunden oft ziemlich genau, welches Angebot sie vorfinden wollen. Veranstaltungshinweis: DIE ZUKUNFT DES FACHHANDELS.

16.11.2015, Tagung fur den Bio-Fachhandel in media studies coursework, Fulda: Bio unterliegt nicht mehr unserer Nischenpolitik, sondern den Gesetzen des Marktes. Essay Fundamental Rights! Was das fur den Fachhandel bedeutet, ist Thema einer Tagung, die BioHandel mit zwei Partnern am 16. Aqa Gcse Studies! November in Fulda veranstaltet. Referent ist u.a. Professor Hendrik Schroder vom Lehrstuhl Marketing Handel der Universitat Duisburg-Essen, ein ausgewiesener Fachmann fur Category Management! Category Management ist ein laufender Prozess. Essay! Sortimente bleiben im Idealfall nicht stehen, sondern entwickeln sich mit den fuhrenden Marken weiter. Verbraucher-Bedurfnisse werden zeitnah aufgenommen und umgesetzt. Bei uber 20 gro?en Produkt-Kategorien kann da schon mal der Uberblick uber den aktuellen Stand verloren gehen.

Um dem stetigen Fluss von Neuprodukten, Ein- und Auflistungen Herr zu werden, gibt es eine Software, die von der Kundenlauf-Planung uber die Regalplanung bis zur Steuerung der Umsetzung alle Prozesse dokumentiert. Aqa Gcse Media Coursework! So wei? jede/r, wann wer welche Produkte ein- oder ausgelistet hat und wo Neuprodukte stehen sollen. Fundamental! Damit beschleunigt sich die Innovationskraft eines Biomarktes erheblich und die KundInnen haben zurecht den Eindruck, bei einem Fachhandels-Geschaft einzukaufen. Media Studies Coursework! Mehr Infos erhalten Sie mit einer Anfrage bei info@bio-cm.de. Causes To World War 1! Ordnung im Regal ist mit der neuen Software immer gewahrleistet!

Fachhandelstag beim Naturkost-Gro?handel Kornkraft. Am 10.6.2015 habe ich im Rahmen des Fachhandelstages des Gro?handlers Kornkraft eine Einfuhrung in media, das Thema #8220;Category Management im Fachhandel#8221; gegeben. Mananger! 20 Naturkost-Einzelhandler aus der Region Nordwest, Bremen waren gekommen, um sich uber aktuelle Themen des Bio-Fachhandels auszutauschen. Media! Themen, die im Rahmen meines Vortrages angesprochen wurden: Was ist Category Management – klassisch CM im Bio – Fachhandel: Wo laufen sie denn? Erkenntnisse zum Kundenlauf Zahlen Daten Fakten – gezielt den Uberblick bekommen Auch der Bio-Kunde ist Konig!?

Der „Category Captain“ steuert die Kategorie Der Regalspiegel.

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Plato The Apology Essays and Research Papers. Poage PHIL 1301 July 15, 2013 Apology : Is Socrates Guilty or Innocent? The Apology is media studies coursework, Plato’s accurate depiction of the . Socrates’ own defense at the trial provoked by what short-term and long-term mba essay, Meletus. However, besides current accusers, Socrates has to speak out to defense against media, former accusers who have created prejudices of him for long time. Former accusers prosecute Socrates for “studying things in the sky and causes to world war 1 essay below the earth” and “[making] the worse into the stronger argument” ( Plato 18b-c). Moreover, Meletus, who. Apology , Athenian democracy , Euthyphro 1276 Words | 4 Pages. ? Analysis of Apology by Plato The Apology is an account by Plato of Socrates’ speech . given at his trial in 399 BC.

Socrates was an Athenian philosopher accused of two crimes: corrupting the youth and aqa gcse coursework not believing in the gods. Should Double Space! In Socrates’ speech, he explains to a jury of aqa gcse media 501 Athenians why he is not guilty of the crimes he is accused of. He uses a variety of logical arguments to refute his charges yet in the end he is still found guilty and sentenced to death (Grube 21). Socrates’ use. Argument , Arguments , Corruption 2058 Words | 5 Pages. Critical Analysis of The Apology of Socrates by Plato Socrates was an orator and philosopher whose primary interests were . logic, ethics and epistemology.

In Plato’s Apology of Socrates, Plato recounts the speech that Socrates gave shortly before his death, during the trial in 399 BC in which he was charged with corrupting the young, and by not believing in the gods in war 1 whom the city believes, also being a busybody and intervene gods business. Aqa Gcse Media Studies! The name of the homework he work itself is not mean what it is. Apology , Meaning of life , Philosophy 2091 Words | 5 Pages. Plato’s Apology is a narrative of the famous speech of Socrates that is made during his trial. Aqa Gcse Media Studies! Instead of ideas problem solving apologizing, Socrates attempts to . Aqa Gcse Coursework! defend himself and his actions. He is put on trial due to to world war 1 essay, his accusations of corrupting Athens, not acknowledging the same gods as the state, and creating new gods. During his dialogue, Socrates remains very calm and aqa gcse media studies coursework speaks with honesty.

He focuses on what is said rather than his manner of homework mananger speech. When he is media coursework, first presented in from of the jury, Socrates asks. Apology , Knowledge , Meaning of what are your goals mba essay life 942 Words | 3 Pages. Opinion of aqa gcse studies Socrates in mananger Platos The Apology Review of the Character of Socrates I believe that Socrates, from the text of Plato’s “The Apology ”, although possibly crazy and aqa gcse media coursework very . arrogant, had good intentions in his journeys of examining the wise people of what career mba essay his time. During his journeys he was simply questioning the people who were thought to be the wisest men of Athens about the aqa gcse studies coursework things they supposedly knew. I feel that leaders and people who are looked up to in a society need to be examined regularly. This examination keeps people of power. 2002 albums , 2006 singles , Aristotle 937 Words | 3 Pages. Wisdom and Ignorance Are They Synonyms? In The Apology , by Plato , Socrates explains who he is and what kind of should double space life he lived; . he also identified himself with being wise and studies coursework having a gift of wisdom.

The title though is a bit misleading; it is fundamental rights, not to be confused with apologizing or being sorry for aqa gcse media coursework, one's actions. It is, Socrates attempt to defend himself and his conduct--certainly not to apologize for it. War 1 Essay! Socrates used different images or ways to describe wisdom, and aqa gcse studies that came off as being ignorant. Apology , Aristotle , Knowledge 997 Words | 3 Pages. the volatile state of the Athenian government, it is not surprising that Socrates had much to say on the topic of political philosophy. Central to his . political theory was his position on how citizens ought to approach ethics and politics. Short-term And Long-term Goals Mba Essay! In the Apology , Socrates' conduct demonstrates his belief that citizens must not be complacent when it comes to political virtue. In order to aqa gcse studies coursework, push citizens out of complacency, Socrates used a method called the “elecnhus” to prod citizens to homework he, discover the true definition. Athenian democracy , Justice , Law 2312 Words | 6 Pages.

The Teaching Styles of the Apology of Plato an the Gospel of Luke. educators. They have both influenced countless people with their teachings. However, comparing the two is slightly strange since Socrates is the subject of . the story, which is told by Plato , and Luke is the teller of the story of Jesus. A comparison can be made between the two as Socrates is a great teacher while Plato is mostly silent and coursework Luke, while not overly prevalent in the his story can be compared to essay fundamental, other accounts of the story of Jesus among which his by far the most didactic. But when you. Apology , God , Jesus 1241 Words | 3 Pages. Hoonmo Koo Professor Richard Fletcher Philosophy 3210 March 4, 2013 History of Ancient Philosophy Paper 2 Recall that at Apology 37d, . “It would be a fine life for me, indeed, a man of my age, to go into exile and spend his life exchanging one city for studies coursework, another, because he’s always being expelled (C. D. C. Reeve, P- Apology 37d)” Admittedly, Socrates could probably have avoided death by recommending exile if he wanted to, but he chose not to do so. Then, what exactly, was in his mind?

After. American films , Black-and-white films , Ethics 990 Words | 3 Pages. Melinda Leager PHIL 201-03/04/08 Instructor: Dr. Dennis L. Burke September 7, 2012 Response Paper “The Apology ” by Plato . In this reading Plato tells the story of Socrates and his trial which ultimately lead to his death sentence. Socrates was a 70 year old man at peace with his own mortality yet willing to face his accusers with an almost definite possibility of my essay death to maintain his own integrity and aqa gcse media coursework beliefs and morality. He fully understood from the beginning of his trial what the essay sentence. Apology , Law , Oracle 686 Words | 2 Pages. other traits led him to be put on media coursework, trial for failing to recognize the gods represented by homework he, the state, creating new gods, and corrupting Athens' youth.

Soon . Aqa Gcse Studies! after the good ideas problem solving essay trail, Plato wrote an account of the speech that Socrates used to aqa gcse, defend himself, titled The Apology . In order to clarify the causes ideas communicated in The Apology , Plato , a close friend of Socrates, took the liberty of creating a dialogue between his brother, Glaucon, and Socrates. This dialogue found in The Republic, is known as The Cave. Apology , Knowledge , Philosophy 1784 Words | 5 Pages. 10/29/2013 People are accused all over the world for crimes they are not guilty of. Aqa Gcse Media Studies Coursework! In the goals mba essay text “ Platos . Apology ” Socrates is accused of a crime which is slander.

Socrates believes that teaching is not crime and he shouldn't be prosecuted for such an act.Teaching is not a crime. How can he be accused of something that isn't wrong in society? Even though Socrates is proven guilty he has no regrets. He believes he did nothing wrong and is happy to share his knowledge with people. Black-and-white films , English-language films , Epistemology 540 Words | 2 Pages. 1. Introduction In this essay in is a discussion about based on media coursework, philosopher and which group of people Plato thinks should be ruling and why. Homework He! . The essay will start off with clarifying key concepts, for example what is a philosopher because it is much easier to understand the easy when one understands the key terms in it, terms that will appear throughout the essay itself. Then Plato’s theory will then be analysed in more detail and aqa gcse media studies coursework it is also of are your short-term and long-term goals mba essay great importance that one also talks about Plato’s.

Ethics , Justice , Logic 1546 Words | 4 Pages. an expression of character whereby the poet (using dialogue) and aqa gcse media coursework the actor (in a dramatic presentation) imitate a character. Furthermore, where that . imitated character has undesirable traits, the imitation is to be avoided. And later, in Book X, Plato claims that most poetry of necessity contains evil men (in order to mananger, produce interest and pleasure), and this too forms a basis for a wide-ranging condemnation of poetry. That imitation has harmful effects is a complex matter; Plato’s argument rests. Aristotle , Epistemology , Imitation 1018 Words | 3 Pages. Plato's The Apology is an account of the speech Socrates makes at the trial in which he is media studies, charged with not recognizing the gods recognized by . the state, inventing new deities, and corrupting the good problem solving essay youth of Athens. Socrates' speech, however, is by no means an apology in our modern understanding of the aqa gcse media coursework word. The name of the dialogue derives from the Greek apologia, which translates as a defense, or a speech made in defense. Thus, in The Apology , Socrates attempts to defend himself and his conduct--certainly.

Apology , Aristotle , Court 497 Words | 2 Pages. 24c, of Apology , written by Plato about Socrates’ trial, starts off with Meletus accusing Socrates of corrupting the youth . of causes essay Athens. Socrates claims that if either of them is doing wrong it is aqa gcse media coursework, Meletus because he involves himself in things that he does not really interested in solving essay or cares about. Aqa Gcse Media! Socrates proves that Meletus is not concerned about the youth and also that he himslef is not a corrupter of the youth by asking Meletus a number of questions along with questions he answers himself. Apology , Better , Corruption 755 Words | 2 Pages. Plato (/?ple?to?/;[1] Greek: ??????, Platon, broad;[2] 428/427 or 424/423 BCE[a] – 348/347 BCE) was a philosopher, as well as mathematician, . in good solving Classical Greece, and an influential figure in philosophy, central in Western philosophy. He was Socrates' student, and founded the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in studies coursework the Western world. Along with Socrates and his most famous student, Aristotle, Plato helped to lay the foundations of Western philosophy and science.[3] Alfred. Aristotle , Ethics , Logic 835 Words | 3 Pages.

Tearra Daniel Philosophy 1030 Plato 2/20/2013 Plato was a well-known wrestler, and the name by which we know him . today was his ring name. Plato means broad or flat: presumably in this case the former meaning, referring to his shoulder. At his birth in 429 B.C. Plato was given the for a problem name Aristocles. He was born in Athens, or on the island of Aegina, which lies just twelve miles offshores from Athens in the Saronic Gulf. Plato was born into one of the great political families of media studies coursework Athens. His. Athens , Ontology , Philosophy 1707 Words | 5 Pages. ? Euthyphro – Plato NAME PHI208: Ethics and Moral Reasoning Instructor date Euthyphro – Plato . The discussion between Socrates and Euthyphro is one of the most famous Socratic discussions because of the meaning set behind the actions.

This discussion is focused on what is the piety or the ideas problem holiness asked by Socrates to Euthyphro. Aqa Gcse Coursework! Socrates appoints Euthyphro to help him understand what piety is as he admits he does not know, in order to help with his case against. Ethics , Euthyphro , Morality 1183 Words | 3 Pages. There were many great philosophers who have contributed in making philosophy what it is today, one of them being Plato . In addition to homework he, being an . outstanding philosopher, he was also a mathematician and a writer. Aqa Gcse Media! One of Plato’s biggest inspirations was his very own teacher Socrates. Socrates never wrote down a word of what he said, but thankfully Plato was able to record it all down for war 1, him and wrote many dialogues about Socrates words and teachings.

One of Plato’s most famous works was his dialogue. Aristotle , Belief , Epistemology 1686 Words | 5 Pages. In order for Plato to create his idea of a perfect society, he makes the aqa gcse argument that censorship is essential for good problem, the benefit of the society . as a whole. Though his idea opposes the fundamental beliefs of his audience, Plato creates a rhetorical strategy that disputes the case in which there must be censorship within the Republic. Plato also argues that monitoring what the children are exposed to will ultimately benefit not only the children, but the entire Republic. In order for aqa gcse media studies, Plato to get his audience. Adeimantus of Collytus , Glaucon , Logic 1106 Words | 5 Pages. Apology , in for a problem solving greek, means ‘to give defense’ (###). In Plato’s Apology , Socrates is blamed for numerous acts and elegantly defends . himself in front of the court.

To start off, he was first accused of studying astrology and aqa gcse studies coursework demonology and passing his knowledge and beliefs to good ideas essay, other people. His first response to this was blatantly asking who has heard him speaking of such acts: “…should tell each other if anyone of you has ever heard me discussing such subjects to any extent at all” (19d). Aqa Gcse Media Studies! He also claims. Apology , Crito , Law 2263 Words | 6 Pages. Miss Moore was trying to mananger, get across, on realization of economic inequity through the eyes of a young girl, is equivalent to media studies coursework, Plato and the . Are Your Short-term And Long-term Mba Essay! message he was trying send to the ignorant on how to demonstrate that our senses twist out reality, filter out some data, and reduce our capability to grasp the actual reality. Both “The Lesson” by Toni Cade Bambara and “Myth of a Cave” by Plato share the same idea that each story is dealing with people that don’t face reality and accept life by any matter just by. Mind , Prison 998 Words | 3 Pages. PLATO ON TRADITION AND BELIEF. 1.Socrates gets Laches to media studies coursework, agree to a new definition of to world war 1 courage by arguing that not all cases of courage . are a sort of media coursework endurance.He asks Laches if he would consider courage to be noble to which Laches replies he would.Socrates then asks him would he consider foolish endurance to be seen as hurtful,to which Laches also agrees.With this in mind Laches agrees to a new definition of double courage to media, include only essay fundamental wise endurance. Aqa Gcse Media Studies Coursework! 2/5 2.They conclude that knowledge.

Courage , Epistemology , Ethics 579 Words | 3 Pages. in the Republic, Plato claims that only a very few individuals are capable of understanding how human life is to be lived. If it could be done, . the rest of us would be best off it we were to let out causes to world essay, lives be controlled by aqa gcse studies, such individuals. This position held by Plato has been one of much discussion and disagreement over the years. In this paper I will attempt to give my own insight and should stand on studies, Plato's position and will evaluate his position as it emerges throughout the Apology , the Crito and should double my essay the. Crito , Human , Justice 2599 Words | 6 Pages. ?History of Europe Literature Final Paper In Plato's Apology , Socrates is in trial for coursework, corrupting the double space my essay youth and not believing in gods . the city believe in. The book has three parts. In the first part, Socrates gives a long speech.

This is media studies, Socrates defense against his accusers. Homework He! During this speech, Socrates says many examples of characters in Greek books. For example, he talks about the clouds which is a comedy play. Socrates also talks about media studies, Anaxagoras in the first part. In the second. Epistemology , Homer , Normal science 1318 Words | 3 Pages.

could have built more off of homework he what we already know now to better ourselves in the long run. But it’s truly the irony that makes Socrates’s life and aqa gcse media studies knowledge . such a big deal to people today. Leibowitz, David. Homework He! The Ironic Defense of Socrates: Plato's Apology . N.p.: n.p., 2011. Aqa Gcse Studies! N. pag. Web. 2 Oct.

2014. . Apology , Irony , Philosophy 984 Words | 2 Pages. The Life of Plato Co-authored with Christopher Planeaux Plato was born around the year 428 BCE into an established Athenian . Essay! household with a rich history of political connections -- including distant relations to both Solon and Pisistratus. Plato's parents were Ariston and Perictone, his older brothers were Adeimantus and Glaucon, and his younger sister was Potone. In keeping with his family heritage, Plato was destined for the political life. Aqa Gcse Media Studies! But the Peloponnesian War, which began a couple. Apology , Aristotle , Critias 1471 Words | 5 Pages. Philosophy in causes Apology Plato was known to be one of Socrates' students, and aqa gcse media knew him for over 40 years. Although Plato's version . of Apology is popularly believed to be (the most accurate) historical recount of what happened in space 399 B.C on the day of Socrates' trial, historians cannot be sure the validity of everything he wrote. Aqa Gcse Studies! It can be argued that it is actually a philosophical work, remarking on the teachings of Socrates and his beliefs, which he stood by homework he, even until his death. Plato does attempt. Apology , Ethics , Meaning of life 1367 Words | 4 Pages.

OCT 4, 2010 • 1. In the media coursework Apology , Socrates recounts how he disobeyed the unjust order of the Thirty Tyrants to arrest a fellow citizen; . he also claims that he will never stop philosophizing, regardless of what the good ideas essay legally constituted political authority commands. Yet, in aqa gcse coursework the Crito, Socrates provides numerous arguments for obeying the decision of the legally constituted political authority, even though the decision (to put Socrates to death) was unjust. Critically assess whether Socrates’s view. Aristotle , Law , Logic 1176 Words | 3 Pages. Clouds vs. The Apology In Aristophanes' Clouds and in Plato's Apology we see extensive fictional representations of the . historical figure, Socrates, who left us no literary works under his own name. When comparing these two representations, readers often assume, as a result of the nature of the comedic genre, that Aristophanes' portrayal of Socrates is exaggerated and fallacious. On the other hand, Plato's account is often taken more seriously as a result of the philosophical genre and the. Apology , Aristophanes , Logic 1640 Words | 5 Pages.

Plato's The Allegory of the Cave as Means to Explain The Apology of the Cave” As Means to Explain “The Apology ” Authors sometimes use one work to explain or elaborate on the intricacies of another piece of . theirs. Plato is one such example as he uses “The Allegory of the mananger Cave” as means to better decipher “The Apology of Socrates.” Plato himself never appears in either dialogue, but it is clear that he disagrees with how Socrates’s trial ended and hopes to aqa gcse media studies coursework, prevent another unneeded execution in the future. In “The Apology of Socrates,” Socrates is accused of not. Apology , Knowledge , Meletus 1681 Words | 5 Pages. over the homework he function of aqa gcse poetry are shown in The Republic by Plato and in The Defense of Poesy by Sir Philip Sidney. These two pieces describe the . critics’ opinion over what poetry should be. Even though Plato and Sidney had different, as well as some similar, views concerning the purpose and use of poetry, these views were all based on should double, the culture and aqa gcse media studies society in which they were surrounded, as well as the time period in which they lived.

Plato and homework he Sidney were two very distinct men who each lived in. Ancient Rome , Aristotle , Drama 994 Words | 3 Pages. Apology Paper SangYeob Kim College of studies coursework Southern Nevada PHIL 102 - 1005 Howe, Richard March 15, 2013 Apology Paper In . Mananger! Apology by media coursework, Plato , Socrates, who is convicted and sentenced to causes war 1 essay, death by the jury of Athenian citizens, not only pleads his innocence, but also expresses his opinion on aqa gcse studies coursework, democracy. The speeches and dialogues Socrates makes in this book raises a question for the reader whether the jury of Athenian citizens is should space, justified in convicting Socrates and media condemning him to death. Although. Athenian democracy , Athens , Authority 1158 Words | 3 Pages. The Apology is written by Plato of Socrates' trial, at 70 years of homework he age Socrates was accused of impiety and corrupting the youth . of Athens. Plato’s account consists of three speeches that were given by Socrates during this trial. Socrates speaks before the men of Athens, his jury, in 399 BCE and confesses he has forgotten who he was, he then recollects who he is, and finally he proclaims who Socrates is.

The trial began with the prosecutors presenting their case against the accused before the. Apology , Athenian democracy , Athens 625 Words | 2 Pages. The Greek Philosopher Plato Plato was born in 429 B.C.E. and media died in ideas 347 B.C.E. he was one of the aqa gcse media classical Greek philosopher . who was also mathematician. He was one of the most dazzling writers in the Western literary tradition one of the most penetrating, wide-ranging, and influential authors in the history of mananger philosophy, Kraut (2004). Plato travel for many years studying under his teacher Socrates learning from him.

He wrote dialogues between Socrates and aqa gcse studies coursework the other explores who traveled with. Apology , Aristotle , Philosophy 1168 Words | 3 Pages. Corresponding Critique Plato and Aristotle’s contributions to literary theory ought to be measure equally against each other as both having . Ideas! provided original methodologies for aqa gcse media coursework, the critique and education of literature. Plato’s Apology is an example of his proposed ideal form of double space prose, showing Socrates to be speaking from aqa gcse media coursework, logos (logic) as opposed to the former Greek poet’s employment of homework mananger catharsis as the prime vessel for aqa gcse media studies coursework, literature’s performance. The poetry of his time, claims Plato , is lacking in reason. Aristotle , Emotion , Literature 1297 Words | 4 Pages.

“The irreverent, disobedient Socrates of the Apology is inconsistent with the Socrates of the Crito.” Construct an argument supporting or . refuting this claim. Be sure to homework, incorporate textual evidence. In Plato’s Apology , Socrates comes off as a defiant and disobedient man with little respect for media studies, his accusers and to world even for aqa gcse media coursework, the jurors on whom his fate depends. Essay Fundamental! This may seem in stark contrast with the stoic Socrates in Crito who would rather accept the death sentence than let his friend Crito help. Jury , Justice , Law 1054 Words | 3 Pages. truth of justice, if Socrates were able to find the relationship between the soul and city in his ideal city then he would have the true meaning of . justice. We saw from the reading how he broke down the city's parts and also the soul. According to Plato , Socrates broke down the perfect city into four parts; each part is media, tied to a specific virtue that he believes will help define justice. The first three virtues are wisdom, courage, and causes essay moderation.

Wisdom is the whole knowledge, which describes the. Caste , Caste system in India , Ethics 1792 Words | 4 Pages. Comparison Between Crito and Apology. Comparison between Crito and Apology For these two articles that we read in Crito and media studies Apology by Plato , we could . know Socrates is an enduring person with imagination, because he presents us with a mass of good ideas for a problem solving contradictions: Most eloquent men, yet he never wrote a word; ugliest yet most profoundly attractive; ignorant yet wise; wrongfully convicted, yet unwilling to studies, avoid his unjust execution. Essay Fundamental Rights! Behind these conundrums is a contradiction less often explored: Socrates is at coursework, once the homework he most Athenian, most. Apology , Aristotle , Athenian democracy 1653 Words | 4 Pages. Many Philosophers made a difference in society but Plato is perhaps recognized as the most famous. His writings have had a profound effect on . people, politics, and the philosophy throughout the centuries. He was a public figure and he made major contributions to society.

Plato helped to aqa gcse, lay the philosophical foundations of modern culture through his ideas and essay writings. One of the most philosophical thinkers of aqa gcse media Western civilization, Plato is the only author from ancient Greek times whose writings. Aristotle , Epistemology , Neoplatonism 1868 Words | 6 Pages. Apology Paper In the Apology by Plato , the fundamental scene is set up on the jury; Socrates is standing in coursework front of . his accusers, Meletus, Lycon and Anytus. He is defending for himself against the four charges brought by the accusers. Socrates is what are your short-term and long-term, charged with inquiring the heaven and searching things beneath the earth, a Sophist, not believing the god of aqa gcse media studies Athens, and corrupting the causes to world war 1 essay youth.

Therefore, surrounding him was a group of wealthy young audiences. In the Apology , Socrates is defending for himself. Apology , Aristophanes , Electric charge 1478 Words | 4 Pages. Plato - Plato WHEN Socrates was sixty years old, Plato , then a youth of twenty, came to studies coursework, him as a pupil. When . Causes To World War 1 Essay! Plato was sixty years old, the seventeen-year-old Aristotle presented himself, joining the Teacher's group of Friends, as the members of the Academy called themselves. Aristotle was a youth of media gentle birth and breeding, his father occupying the position of physician to King Philip of to world war 1 Macedon. Possessed of a strong character, a penetrating intellect, apparent sincerity, but great personal. Apology , Aristotle , Athens 440 Words | 2 Pages. Differences between Plato and Aristotle. The Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle are responsible for some of aqa gcse studies coursework these major early discoveries and causes war 1 essay are a big reason as to where we are . today due to their endeavors to understand various philosophical topics. In this essay, I am going to aqa gcse media, explain Plato’s views on knowledge and science, Aristotle’s views on change and science, and ultimately how although both contributed to man’s understanding of philosophy today, Aristotle started a departure from the views of Plato and into an entirely new.

Aristotle , Epistemology , Nature 2492 Words | 6 Pages. Platos Apology, Summary, Main Characters. Socrates - The protagonist of The Apology , as well as all of good for a problem essay Plato's other dialogues. Socrates seems to media studies, be a very simple man, not having many . material possessions and speaking in a plain, conversational manner. Causes War 1 Essay! However, this seeming plainness is all a part of the ironic characteristic of Socrates' method. Professing his own ignorance, he engages in conversation with someone claiming to be an expert, usually in ethical matters. Media Coursework! By asking simple questions, Socrates gradually reveals that his interlocutor. Apology , Conversation , Dialogue 758 Words | 2 Pages. importance for him was ethics and to world living a good life. During his trial and written in Plato’s “The Apology ” he gave the idea that truth needs . to be pursued by changing your position through questioning and conflict with opposing ideas. It is THIS idea of the truth being pursued, rather than discovered, that characterizes Socratic thought and much of our “Western” philosophical thought today.

Plato : Plato was born in around 428 BC and lived until 348 BC, he was a classical Greek philosopher, mathematician. Aristotle , Epistemology , Ethics 966 Words | 3 Pages. The Three Modes of Persuasion: Socrates Apology. Persuasion: Socrates’ Apology In speaking of effective rhetorical persuasion, we must appeal to our target audience in a way that will get . them to accept or act upon the point of view we are trying to portray. Aristotle said that we persuade others by aqa gcse media studies, three means: (1) by the appeal to their reason (logos); (2) by the appeal to their emotions (pathos); and rights (3) by the appeal of our personality or character (ethos) (Corbett and Connors 32). When Socrates, an infamous rhetorician, gave his “ apology ” to his fellow. Apology , Aristotle , Athenian democracy 1334 Words | 3 Pages.

himself as to aqa gcse media studies, why he would be perceived as impious. Found in the Apology , another of Plato's Five Dialogues, Socrates aims to defend his . Fundamental Rights! principles to aqa gcse media, the five hundred and one person jury. Finally, the Crito, an to world war 1, account of Socrates' final discussion with his good friend Crito, Socrates is offered an opportunity to escape the prison and his death sentence. As is known, Socrates rejected the suggestion. It is in aqa gcse media studies coursework the Euthyphro and causes to world war 1 the Apology that it can be deduced that Socrates is not guilty as charged.

Crito , Dialogues of Plato , Euthyphro 1676 Words | 4 Pages. ?“The Apology ” by Plato Summary Plato's “The Apology ” is the speech Socrates makes at a trial in which he is . accused with not recognizing the media studies gods recognized by the state, inventing new deities, and essay fundamental rights corrupting the youth of Athens. Despite its title, however, the speech is not an “ apology ”. The word “ apology ” comes from the aqa gcse media studies Greek word “apologia” which means a defense, or a speech made in defense. It can then be inferred that Socrates is not apologizing for his “wrongdoings”, but is instead defending. Afterlife , Apology , Aristophanes 498 Words | 2 Pages. Socrates is causes to world, shocked to learn that Euthyphro is prosecuting his own father. Euthyphro defends his actions, believing that it is studies coursework, just to do so even though his . acquaintances maintain that “it is impious for a son to double, prosecute his father for murder” ( Plato , 8). Quickly, Socrates gets to the heart of the matter. Euthyphro is positive in his belief, therefore Socrates asks him directly: “what is the pious, and what the impious?” (9).

Euthyphro’s first definition of piety is simple: “the pious is to do. Aristotle , Definition , Euthyphro 1030 Words | 3 Pages. The main argument in The Apology by famous ancient Greek philosopher Plato is whether, notorious speaker and media studies philosopher Socrates . is corrupting the should space my essay youth by preaching ungodly theories and teaching them unlawful ideas that do harm to individuals and society. In his words Socrates quoted the prosecution's accusation against aqa gcse coursework, him: Socrates is guilty of corrupting the minds of the young, and of believing in supernatural things of good problem solving essay his own invention instead of the aqa gcse media studies coursework gods recognized by the state. 1 Further. 2005 albums , Argument , Corruption 903 Words | 3 Pages.

Aakram Plato’s apology response One of the most controversial statement Socrates make in his apology is “virtue doesn’t come . from money but from virtue comes money and every other good of man, public as well as private.” He says that good ethics and morals can make you wealthy. Should Double! If that was true then he would be the richest person alive at that time because he states several times in his defense that he is on media coursework, the right path and saying the are your career mba essay right thing like he says “for where ever a man’s place. Ethics , Morality , Plato 495 Words | 2 Pages. The Apology Gentlemen, I am your very grateful and aqa gcse studies devoted servant, but I owe a greater obedience to God than to you; and should so long as I draw . breath and have my faculties, I shall never stop practising philosophy and exhorting you and elucidating the aqa gcse coursework truth for everyone that I meet.” This particular quote was used by Socrates in his defense in the Apology by Plato . Socrates was the first philosopher to go against society and the beliefs of the general community, which he was punished for. In the Apology. Belief , Ethics , Morality 502 Words | 2 Pages. Biography of Plato . Plato was a Greek philosopher, mathematician, rhetorician, writer, founder of ideas Academy, and even a double . Olympic champion. He was born in 427 BCE in family of wealthy and aqa gcse influential Athenian parents: Ariston and Perictione. Plato's real name was Aristocles. For his athletic figure his wrestling coach called him Plato , which means “broad”. As Plato was from a wealthy family, he got the best teachers of double space that time, who taught him music, grammar and athletics.

At the age of. Aristotle , Athens , Dialectic 483 Words | 2 Pages. Kevin Langieri February 1, 2013 Philosophy of Human Nature Professor Gregor Topic 1: Plato’s Apology This paper examines the significance . of studies coursework Socrates’ opening lines in Plato’s Apology . Socrates’ opening lines establish the key points of his defense, which he explains in further detail as his dialogue continues. Socrates’ essentially makes four points with his opening two lines, which become relevant later on. To understand why these points are significant, it is important to make the charges. Apology , Aristotle , Knowledge 908 Words | 3 Pages. Philosophy Plato Personal Opinion.

Philosophy Providing Answers for Questions Questions for Answers Kristen Riso 5250378 PHIL . 1F91 Professor: Dr. Lightbody TA: David Corman Word Count: 1941 The Apology written by Plato’s is an excellent piece of are your short-term career goals philosophical literature that can teach us many things. Most importantly this fine literature gives us the utmost insight into the philosophy of Socrates’. As well it teaches us the idea of asking questions and probing. Belief , Knowledge , Mind 1945 Words | 5 Pages. Some of the best sources of information about Socrates' philosophical views are the early dialogues of his student Plato , who tried to provide . a faithful picture of the methods and teachings of the great master.

The Apology is aqa gcse media, one of the war 1 essay many-recorded dialogues about Socrates. It is aqa gcse media, about how Socrates was arrested and charged with corrupting the youth, believing in no god(s) (Atheism) and for being a Sophist. Causes Essay! He attended his trial and put up a good argument. I believe that Socrates was wrongfully. Crime , Mind , Philosophy 1136 Words | 3 Pages.

A Life Sketch of Plato and His Works. If Thales was the first of all the great Greek philosophers, Plato must remain the best known of all the Greeks. The original name of this . Athenian aristocrat was Aristiclis, but in his school days he received the nickname Platon (meaning broad) because of his broad shoulders. Plato was born in Athens, Greece to one of the oldest and most distinguished families in media studies coursework the city. He lived with his mother, Perictione, and his father, Ariston (Until Ariston died.) Born in an aristocratic and rich. Aristotle , Philosophy , Plato 899 Words | 3 Pages. Critical Analysis of good problem essay Plato and Aristotle. ON POL 311 (HISTORY OF POLITICAL THOUGHT) TOPIC A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PLATO AND ARISTOTLES POLITICAL THOUGHT WRITTEN BY OKWOR, STEPHEN . USHIE 09/ED/EF/814 DEPT OF EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATIONS (POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT) FACULTY OF EDUCATION SUBMITTED TO DR. EJERE DEPT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE AND PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF UYO, UYO AKWA IBOM STATE MAY, 2012 A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PLATO AND ARISTOTLES POLITICAL THOUGHT In order to compare these great philosophers.

Government , Justice , Law 1648 Words | 6 Pages. Platos Influence in Western Culture. Plato (429-347 B.C.E) is seen by aqa gcse studies, many as one of the homework he greatest philosophers of the classical period, if not of all time. Coming from a wealthy . Athenian family it is the belief that he followed and further developed philosophy from his mentor Socrates. His first works are seen as the most trust-worthy accounts of media Socrates life, and after his death Plato would continue to essay rights, develop Socrates works with the help from Plato’s most famous student, Aristotle. During this time Plato would develop his most famous.

Academy , Apology , Aristotle 1250 Words | 3 Pages.

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45 Biography Templates #038; Examples (Personal, Professional) A biography is simply an account of someone’s life written by another person. A biography can be short in aqa gcse studies the case of few sentences biography, and homework he, it can also be long enough to fill an entire book. The short biographies explain a person’s basic life facts and their importance, but the long biographies would go an studies, extra mile and include more details to make an interesting read. You may find yourself in a situation which requires you to write a biography of a famous person, a close friend or a relative. For this reason, it pays to know how to come up with a biography and the important details that you should include in it. The lives of many people have interesting bits of ideas, information, but you ought to studies know what to capture in the biography and what to leave out. The length of a biography depends on the type of information that should be included. The length will determine the nature of information and how extensively it will explain the life of ideas problem solving, a person. For instance, if you are to aqa gcse coursework write a short paragraph about a person it will mostly capture the important details that identify the person compared to problem essay a pages-long biography that may even include the person’s childhood experiences and achievements shaping their life.

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franzen gaddis essay The following essay by Jonathan Franzen appeared in The New Yorker . The following text has been transcribed from the 30 September 2002 issue. Mr. Media Studies Coursework? Difficult: William Gaddis. and the Problem of.

For a while last winter, after my third novel came out, I was getting a lot of angry mail from strangers. What upset them was not the novel — a comedy about a family in crisis — but some impolitic remarks I'd made in the press, and what short-term, I knew that it was a mistake to send more than bland one-sentence notes in reply. But I couldn't help fighting back a little. Taking a page from an old literary hero of mine, William Gaddis, who had long deplored the reading public's confusion of the writer's work and the writer's private self, I suggested that the letter writers look at my fiction rather than listen to distorted news reports about its author. A few months later, one of the original senders, a Mrs. M—, in Maryland, wrote back with proof that she'd done the reading. She began by listing thirty fancy words and phrases from my novel, words like diurnality and antipodes, phrases like electro-pointillist Santa Claus faces. Aqa Gcse Media? She then posed the dreadful question: Who is it that you are writing for? It surely could not be the essay rights, average person who just enjoys a good read. And she offered this caricature of me and my presumed audience: The elite of New York, the aqa gcse media, elite who are beautiful, thin, anorexic, neurotic, sophisticated, don't smoke, have abortions tri-yearly, are antiseptic, live in lofts or penthouses, this superior species of good problem essay humanity who read Harper's and The New Yorker . The subtext seemed to aqa gcse media studies be that difficulty in causes war 1 essay fiction is the tool of socially privileged readers and writers who turn up their noses at the natural pleasure of a good read in favor of the invidious, artificial pleasure of feeling superior to other people.

To Mrs. M—, I was a pompous snob, and a real ass-hole. One part of me, the part that takes after my father, who admired scholars for their intellect and their large vocabularies and was something of a scholar himself, wanted to media studies coursework call Mrs. M— a few names in reply. But another, equally strong part of me was stricken to learn that Mrs. M— felt excluded by for a solving essay my language. She sounded a little bit like my mother, a lifelong anti-elitist who used to media studies get good rhetorical mileage out of the mythical average person.

My mother might have asked me if I really had to use words like diurnality, or if I was just showing off. In the homework he, face of hostility like Mrs. M—'s, I find myself paralyzed. It turns out that I subscribe to two wildly different models of coursework how fiction relates to essay fundamental rights its audience. Aqa Gcse Studies Coursework? In one model, which was championed by Flaubert, the best novels are great works of art, the people who manage to homework he write them deserve extraordinary credit, and if the average reader rejects the work it's because the average reader is a philistine; the value of any novel, even a mediocre one, exists independent of how many people are able to appreciate it. We can call this the Status model. It invites a discourse of genius and art-historical importance. In the aqa gcse media studies coursework, opposing model, a novel represents a compact between the writer and the reader, with the writer providing words out of which the reader creates a pleasurable experience.

Writing thus entails a balancing of self-expression and communication within a group, whether the group consists of Finnegans Wake enthusiasts or fans of Barbara Cartland. Every writer is first a member of a community of readers, and the deepest purpose of causes essay reading and writing fiction is to sustain a sense of media studies connectedness, to resist existential loneliness; and so a novel deserves a reader's attention only as long as the author sustains the reader's trust. This is the Contract model. The discourse here is one of pleasure and connection. My mother would have liked it. To an adherent of Contract, the what short-term and long-term career, Status crowd looks like an arrogant connoisseurial elite. To a true believer in Status, on media studies, the other hand, Contract is a recipe for what short-term goals, pandering, aesthetic compromise, and a babel of media competing literary subcommunities. With certain novels, of course, the distinction doesn't matter so much. Pride and Prejudice, The House of Mirth: you call them art, I call them entertainment, we both turn the double space, pages. But the two models diverge tellingly when readers find a book difficult.

According to the Contract model, difficulty is a sign of trouble. In the most grievous cases, it may convict an author of aqa gcse media studies coursework placing his selfish artistic imperatives or his personal vanity ahead of the audience's legitimate desire to mananger be entertained — of being, in other words, an asshole. Taken to its free-market extreme, Contract stipulates that if a product is disagreeable to you the fault must be the aqa gcse media studies, product's. Homework Mananger? If you crack a tooth on media coursework, a hard word in a novel, you sue the author. If your professor puts Dreiser on your reading list, you write a harsh student evaluation. If the local symphony plays too much twentieth-century music, you cancel your subscription. Problem Essay? You're the consumer; you rule.

From a Status perspective, difficulty tends to signal excellence; it suggests that the novel's author has disdained cheap compromise and studies coursework, stayed true to an artistic vision. Easy fiction has little value, the argument goes. Pleasure that demands hard work, the slow penetration of mystery, the outlasting of what are your short-term and long-term career mba essay lesser readers, is the pleasure most worth having; and if, like Mrs. M—, you can't hack it, then to hell with you. The Status position is aqa gcse media undeniably flattering to homework he the writer's sense of importance. Studies? In my bones, though, I'm a Contract kind of person. I grew up in a friendly, egalitarian suburb reading books for pleasure and problem solving essay, ignoring any writer who didn't take my entertainment seriously enough. Even as an adult, I consider myself a slattern of aqa gcse studies a reader. I have started (in many cases, more than once) Moby-Dick, The Man Without Qualities, Mason Dixon, Don Quixote, Remembrance of Things Past, Doctor Faustus, Naked Lunch, The Golden Bowl, and The Golden Notebook without coming anywhere near finishing them. Indeed, by a comfortable margin, the most difficult book I ever voluntarily read in essay fundamental its entirety was Gaddis's nine-hundred-and-fifty-six-page first novel, The Recognitions.

Gaddis, whose last two books are being published this fall, four years after his death, would have been eighty this December. As much as any American writer of his generation, he frankly endorsed Status and disdained Contract. His methods were increasingly postmodern, but he had old-fashioned Romantic and high-modern notions of the artist as savior and the work of art as singular and coursework, sacred; the plight of both art and artist in a commercially mad America was at the center of his work. Which work is, itself, quintessentially difficult. I read The Recognitions as a kind of penance, back in the early nineties. During the previous year, while my father, in and long-term career goals a different time zone, was losing his mind, I'd written two treatments and four full drafts of an original screenplay. In lieu of actual dollar payments, I had the enthusiastic support of a Hollywood agent who, out of pity or negligence, never mentioned that my story bore a fatal resemblance to Fun with Dick and aqa gcse media studies coursework, Jane, which I hadn't seen. My story had double and triple crosses and causes, characters who used prosthetic makeup to impersonate other characters.

I lived in that state of aqa gcse media studies rage which comes of good ideas problem solving essay doing sustained work that you know to be shoddy and dishonest. By September, when I finally abandoned the project, one wall of media studies coursework my study was scuffed and dented from the pencils, scripts, shoes, and phone books I'd been throwing at homework he, it. I borrowed money and left Philadelphia to sublet a dark, underfurnished Tribeca loft (yes, Mrs. M—, a loft), whose silence was disturbed only by media the shadowy traffic of what short-term career mba essay pigeons in aqa gcse media studies the air shaft. I'd been hoping to write some fiction, but I was far too sick of audience-friendly narrative, of well-made plots and lovable characters. One evening, in essay a state of grim distraction, like somebody going out to score hard drugs, I walked up Sixth Avenue and aqa gcse studies coursework, bought The Recognitions in a beautiful, newly reissued Penguin edition. Every morning for a week and a half, I went from the homework he, breakfast table to a beige ultrasuede sofa module, turned on a lamp, and read non-stop for six or eight hours. I had some professional curiosity about aqa gcse Gaddis, but a few hundred pages of The Recognitions would have satisfied it.

I sat and read the extra seven hundred pages in something like a fugue state, as if planting my feet on a steep slope, climbing. I was reluctant to leave my ultrasuede perch for are your short-term career, any reason. Aqa Gcse Media Studies Coursework? The only way I could justify sitting there and spending borrowed money was to make a regular job, with regular hours, out of climbing the mountain. There were quotations in Latin, Spanish, Hungarian, and six other languages to be rappelled across. Blizzards of essay fundamental obscure references swirled around sheer cliffs of erudition, precipitous discourses on alchemy and aqa gcse media studies coursework, Flemish painting, Mithraism and early-Christian theology. The prose came in page-long paragraphs in essay fundamental rights which oxygen was at a premium, and the emotional temperature of the novel started cold and got colder. The hero, Wyatt Gwyon, was likable as a child (a small disgruntled person), but otherwise the author's satiric judgments and intellectual obsessions discouraged intimacy.

It was a struggle to figure out what, or even who, the story was about; dialogue was punctuated with dashes and studies, largely unattributed; Wyatt himself dwindled to a furtive, seldom-glimpsed pronoun (he); there came brutish party scenes, all-dialogue word storms that raged for scores of pages. The only portable nourishment that might have helped sustain me on good ideas problem essay, my climb was a familiarity with Gaddis's influences, maybe a nice pemmican of media coursework T. S. Eliot and Robert Graves, which I hadn't thought to bring. I was alone and unprepared on a steep-sided, frigid, airless, poorly mapped mountain. Did I already mention that The Recognitions has nine hundred and fifty-six pages? But I loved it. At the novel's hidden pinnacle, behind its clouds of subsidiary symbolism, beyond its blind canyons of Beat anti-narrative, is a story about the loss of personal integrity and the difficult work of regaining it. Wyatt, a talented painter and former seminarian in his early thirties, is living in war 1 essay New York, unhappily married, and aqa gcse coursework, scraping by as a hired draftsman. He has abandoned his painterly ambitions, possibly because a corrupt French critic panned his early work, but more likely because he is what are your and long-term career incredibly earnest and has never found an adequate reply to the condemnation of art which a puritanical great-aunt issued in his boyhood: Our Lord is the only true creator, and only sinful people try to aqa gcse studies emulate Him. One day, in New York, an American capitalist and art collector named Recktall Brown proposes a Faustian bargain: Wyatt will forge the homework he, work of Flemish Old Masters, and Brown will sell them for huge sums. Aqa Gcse Media Coursework? Wyatt agrees to the deal, but after some early success he proves lacking in what short-term goals the necessary spinelessness. He considers resuming his religious studies, but when he goes home to New England he discovers that his father, a Protestant minister, has taken up Mithraism and lost his mind.

Wyatt thereupon embarks on a long pilgrimage of sorts, first in New York, where he tries to expose his own forgeries, and later in Europe. He is last seen leaving a Spanish monastery, on page 900, intending, at last, to live deliberately. Coursework? Having surmounted the American Protestant suspicion of art and survived the dangerous attractions of the American Protestant marketplace, he seems finally on good for a solving, his way to being a real painter. At the time, on media studies, the mountainside, I wasn't conscious of should double clinging to the parallels between Wyatt's story and my own situation: our weirdly isolated lives in lower Manhattan, our failed attempts to aqa gcse media studies sell out, our extremely earnest doubts about art, our craving for penance, our crazy fathers. I was just happy to have a good, hard book to read, and I was impressed with myself for managing it. Following Wyatt's pilgrimage became my own pilgrimage. The loft, for those ten days, in spite of the gurgling pigeons, was the quietest place I've ever been. It was profoundly, metaphysically quiet. By the time I reached the last page of The Recognitions, I felt readier to good problem solving essay face the divorce, deaths, and dislocations that were waiting for me out in the sunlit world.

I felt virtuous, as if I'd run three miles, eaten my kale, been to the dentist, filed my tax return, or gone to church. One pretty good definition of aqa gcse media studies coursework college is that it's a place where people are made to read difficult books. Certainly, my own moments of peak collegiate learning occurred whenever I acquired new tools to homework he unlock difficulty — when I was forced to media studies coursework figure out, all by myself, that Emily Dickinson sometimes meant the opposite of what her words said, or when my German professor asked us, with a mysterious grin, whether it was possible that Josef K. was guilty . To learn about good ideas irony, ambiguity, symbol, voice, and point of view, it made sense to read the most sophisticated texts. Four years of sophistication had a cumulative effect. As a freshman, I thought it would be cool to make up stories for a living, to have that be my job, to see my name in print. By the time I was a senior, my ambition was to create literary Art. I took for media studies, granted that the greatest novels were tricky in their methods, resisted casual reading, and merited sustained study. I also assumed that the highest compliment this Art could be paid was to be taught in a university.

My parents didn't understand this. When I began to write my first book, after college, I could feel my father's skeptical eye on me, could hear him asking questions like What are you contributing to society with your abilities? In college, I'd admired Derrida and the Marxist and feminist critics, people whose job was to find fault with modern Systems. I thought that maybe now I, too, could become socially useful by writing fault-finding fiction. Should Double Space? At the media, excellent public library in Somerville, Massachusetts, I identified a canon of intellectual, socially edgy white-male American fiction writers. The same names — Pynchon, DeLillo, Heller, Coover, Gaddis, Gass, Burroughs, Barth, Barthelme, Hannah, Hawkes, McElroy, and Elkin — kept showing up together in anthologies and in the respectful appraisals of homework contemporary critics. Though various in their styles, they all seemed to take as a given that something was new and strange and wrong about postwar America. They shared the postmodern suspicion of realism, summarized by media coursework the critic Jerome Klinkowitz: If the world is absurd, if what passes for reality is distressingly unreal, why spend time representing it? To prove to myself, if not to my father, that I was engaged in a serious professional pursuit, I tried to join this guild. I was one of what short-term career mba essay those skinny young men in scary glasses and thrift-store clothes whom you see on coursework, Boston or Brooklyn subways, young men who look like they possess massive amounts of data about small-label rock bands or avant-garde literature or video technology, the mananger, very size of these data-sets affording a kind of psychic protection. Aqa Gcse Media Studies? And Gaddis ought to have been my ideal.

Gaddis, it was generally agreed, was the really smart, really angry, really forbidding Systems writer. The Recognitions was an ur-text of postwar fiction, both the granddaddy of difficulty and the first great cultural critique, which, even if Heller and Pynchon hadn't read it while composing Catch-22 and V., managed to anticipate the spirit of and long-term career goals both. Gaddis was the original intense, thrift-store-clad, monster-data-set young man whose ambition, if he let it show in public, would have singed his fellow subway riders' eyebrows. My problem was that, with a few exceptions, notably Don DeLillo, I didn't particularly like the writers in media studies coursework my modern canon. I checked out their books (including The Recognitions), read a few pages, and returned them. I liked the idea of socially engaged fiction, I was at space, work on my own Systems novel of conspiracy and apocalypse, and I craved academic and hipster respect of the kind that Pynchon and Gaddis got and Saul Bellow and Ann Beattie didn't. Aqa Gcse Media Coursework? But Bellow and space my essay, Beattie, not to mention Dickens and Conrad and Bronte and Dostoyevsky and Christina Stead, were the studies, writers I actually, unhiply enjoyed reading. If Coover's The Public Burning and Pynchon's The Crying of Lot 49 moved me, it was mainly because I loved Coover's character Richard Nixon and Pynchon's Oedipa Maas. Ideas For A Problem Solving Essay? But postmodern fiction wasn't supposed to be about sympathetic characters.

Characters, properly speaking, weren't even supposed to exist. Characters were feeble, suspect constructs, like the author himself, like the human soul. Nevertheless, to my shame, I seemed to need them. It wasn't until the nineties, after I'd wasted a year on aqa gcse studies coursework, the screenplay, that I tried to rekindle my collegiate excitement about really hard books. I needed proof that I was a serious Artist, rather than the unwitting plagiarist of Fun with Dick and Jane, and The Recognitions was perfect for the task. Reading the mananger, whole thing would also confer bragging rights. If somebody asked me if I'd read The Sot-Weed Factor, I could shoot back, No, but have you read The Recognitions?

And blow smoke from the media coursework, muzzle of my gun. In the event, nothing was as I'd expected. Not many people in the nineties were asking if I'd read The Sot-Weed Factor. The Recognitions, on the other hand — whether because of causes to world its virtues or because of the aqa gcse coursework, circumstances of my reading it — bowled me over. Its characters weren't sympathetic, but the are your goals mba essay, wit and passion and studies, seriousness of homework he their creator were. I titled my third novel partly in homage to aqa gcse media studies coursework it.

A few years after I conquered The Recognitions, I started Gaddis's second novel, J R. I again bought the handsome Penguin paperback, and ideas for a essay, I devoted an hour or two each evening to reading it. The novel, a massive comedy of modern American venality and social entropy, was just as brilliant as The Recognitions. Unfortunately, I no longer had the aqa gcse media studies, luxury or burden of entire days for reading. One night, I gave up in the middle of double space my essay a four-page paragraph, and for the next few nights I was out late, and when I opened J R again I was lost. I set it aside, hoping to pick up the threads some other night. Two months later, I quietly reshelved it.

The bookmark, a sassy Ticketmaster sleeve bearing an ad for K-ROCK 92.3 FM (HOWARD STERN ALL MORNING / CLASSIC ROCK 'N' ROLL ALL DAY), remained stuck on page 469, attesting to my defeat by J R or to media studies J R 's defeat by my noisy life. In Status terms, I'd simply failed as a reader. But I did have Contract on my side. I'd given the book weeks of causes to world war 1 essay evening reading, it still wasn't working for me, and now I was eager to read shorter, warmer books by James Purdy, Alice Munro, Penelope Fitzgerald, Halldor Laxness. Battling through J R, I'd wanted to grab Gaddis by the lapels and aqa gcse media coursework, shout, Hello! I'm the reader you want! I love smart fiction, and to world war 1, I'm looking for media studies coursework, a good Systems novel. Fundamental? If you can't even show me a good time, who else do you think is studies coursework going to read you? But this only causes to world, made it worse that I had quit. Precisely because I was so well suited to read Gaddis, I felt as if I were personally betraying him by not finishing J R. From a Congregationalist childhood I'd gone straight to coursework a collegiate worship of double space Art, without noticing the transition and aqa gcse studies, without ever quite buying either faith.

One day a secretary called from the Congregational church to ask if I still wanted to be a member, and I said no, and that was that. Homework? But it's much harder to leave a small, embattled cult than a mainstream suburban church. Nothing in my Congregational experience had prepared me for the fanatical fervor, the guilt-provoking authority, of Mr. Difficult. There's something medieval Christian about The Recognitions.

The novel is like a huge landscape painting of modern New York, peopled with hundreds of studies coursework doomed but energetic little figures, executed on wood panels by Brueghel or Bosch, and looking incongruously ancient beneath layers of yellowed lacquer. What Are Your Short-term Mba Essay? Even the blue skies in the book (the phrase Another blue day recurs as a despair-inducing leitmotiv) glow like oil-paint skies in an art museum beyond whose walls, forgotten, is the age of studies coursework H-bombs and Army-McCarthy hearings in which the novel was written. The names dropped are Hans Memling, not Harry Truman; Paracelsus, not Elvis. And yet the book is absolutely of the early fifties. Mananger? Peel away the erudition, and aqa gcse media, you have The Catcher in homework he the Rye: a grim winter sojourn in a seedy Manhattan, a quest for authenticity in a phony modern world. Improvising on the theme of art forgery, Gaddis fills his novel with every conceivable variety of fraud, counterfeiter, poseur, and liar. Unlike Holden Caulfield, though, the main characters of The Recognitions participate in the phonyness themselves. Aqa Gcse Media Studies Coursework? The young literary poseur, Otto Pivner, is working on a play whose plot, he says, still needs a little tightening up. Mananger? The narrator glosses this lie in a tone that's fundamental to the novel, a tone at aqa gcse media coursework, once unsparing and should space, forgiving: (By this Otto meant that a plot of some sort had yet to be supplied, to motivate the coursework, series of monologues in which Gordon, a figure who resembled Otto at his better moments, and whom Otto greatly admired, said things which Otto had overheard, or thought of too late to what short-term goals mba essay say.) Wyatt Gwyon may be the romantic projection of the author's artistic aspirations (How ambitious you are! his wife, Esther, unhappily exclaims), but it's Otto who seems to studies embody Gaddis's own confusion, humiliations, and disappointments. Otto's biography overlaps with Gaddis's — both grew up fatherless, both spent time in Central America and returned to New York via banana boat with their arms, though uninjured, in picturesque slings — and I suspect that the book owes some of its mood of playful fabulation to Gaddis's implication in his own satire.

The one genuine artist in The Recognitions is essay a devoutly Catholic young composer named Stanley. Throughout the book, Stanley is working on a requiem for organ which he hopes to play in a fragile old church in aqa gcse coursework northern Italy. In the very last pages, as the good problem, novel circles back to aqa gcse media Europe, Stanley travels to the church and, failing to understand the caretaker's warning against playing anything dissonant or too heavy on bass, begins to perform the requiem. The church collapses and kills him, and to world essay, The Recognitions closes with some of its best-known lines: most of his work was recovered too, and it is still spoken of, when it is noted, with high regard, though seldom played. The other well-known lines in The Recognitions are uttered by Wyatt after Esther voices surprise that a certain popular poet (Auden, perhaps) is homosexual. Aqa Gcse Media? Rejecting her interest in personal things about writers and painters as a prurient distraction, Wyatt bursts out: What is what are your goals there left of him when he's done his work? What's any artist, but the dregs of his work? the human shambles that follows it around. Studies Coursework? What's left of the man when the work's done but a shambles of apology. Gaddis portrays Esther as a vagina dentata eager to essay sleep with male artists and absorb the properties which had been withheld from her.

Wyatt retreats from her into coldness and aqa gcse media studies coursework, abstraction, and Gaddis retreats from homework he, readers in much the same way — as if, for him, intercourse with the public were a pleasure that threatened to coursework taint the double space my essay, purity of his motives. Aqa Gcse Media? What mattered to Gaddis, who avowedly strove to write literature that would last, was not the weak and fleshly artist but the afterlife. Although he had a family, many friends, and a busy social life in which he enjoyed literary gossip, he consistently denied his person to the public. Strict prohibitions like this are a way in which threatened religious minorities resist the seductions of the should double space, majority culture, and Gaddis in the fifties had Norman Mailer and Truman Capote as examples of writers who had been seduced. He chose, instead, to be a purist of his faith. In his fifty-year career, he gave exactly one substantial interview, to The Paris Review . He published one brief autobiographical essay. He gave no public readings. Not that an excess of media attention was ever a big problem.

The Recognitions was published by Harcourt, Brace in 1955, with a marketing strategy of media studies Everyone is talking about this controversial book! It received fifty-five reviews, an impressive number by homework mananger today's standards, and, as William Gass notes in aqa gcse studies coursework his introduction to the Penguin edition, Only fifty-three of these notices were stupid. The New Yorker gave the book a brief, smirking dismissal (words, words, words); Dawn Powell, in the Post, offered up an error-riddled sneer. Sales were about five thousand in hardcover, not bad for a challenging first novel by an unknown writer. But the only prize the book won was for essay rights, its design, and it quickly disappeared from public sight. I almost think that if I'd gotten the Nobel Prize when The Recognitions was published I wouldn't have been terribly surprised, Gaddis told The Paris Review in 1986, adding that the book's reception had been sobering and media studies coursework, humbling.

Maybe if the novel had met with greater acclaim Gaddis would have relaxed a little; maybe Wyatt's what is it they want tirade, like his other puritan-isms, would have been revealed as a skinny-young-man attitude to good ideas solving be outgrown. I doubt it, though. Media Coursework? The book is about the ideas, everyday world's indifference to the superior reality of art. Its last lines (with high regard, though seldom played) unmistakably prefigure its own reception. Nurturing the hope that your marginal novel will be celebrated by the mainstream — the Cassandra-like wish that people will thank you for telling them unwelcome truths — is a ritual way of media insuring disappointment, of reaffirming your own world-denying status, of mortifying the flesh, of remaining, at heart, an angry young man.

In the four decades following the publication of The Recognitions, Gaddis's work grew angrier and angrier. It's a signature paradox of literary postmodernism: the to world war 1, writer whose least angry work was written first. Some of studies coursework Gaddis's rage appears to homework he have been built-in. Born in 1922, he grew up with his mother in an old house in Massapequa, Long Island, and at aqa gcse media studies coursework, a small Connecticut boarding school that he attended from the ages of five to thirteen. Five is young for boarding school, and five strikes me as a vital figure in homework he Gaddis's biography. In J R, an aqa gcse media studies, alter ego of Gaddis, an angry drinker named Jack Gibbs who was likewise sent to boarding school at the age of five, speaks of having been in the way since the fundamental rights, day I could walk, and he describes the loneliness of aqa gcse media studies coursework boarding school:

End of the day alone on ideas, that train, lights coming on in those little Connecticut towns stop and stare out at an empty street corner dry cheese sandwich charge you a dollar wouldn't even put butter on it, finally pull into that desolate station scared to get off scared to stay on . . . Media? school car waiting there like . . Should Space My Essay? . a God damned open hearse think anybody expect to grow up. Gaddis as a young man was a rowdy, a drinker. Kept from the war by a kidney ailment, he studied English at Harvard and became president of the Lampoon , but in media studies coursework his senior year he was expelled without a degree after a run-in with the Cambridge police. He then bounced around Europe, Latin America, and New York during the seven somewhat shadowy years he was at work on The Recognitions. In the year of its publication, he married an homework mananger, actress, Pat Black, with whom he soon had two children. Here the mood of his biography abruptly changes, the foreign locales giving way to fifties commerce and suburban life with kids. Media Studies? Like Melville a century before him, Gaddis went to work for a living in lower Manhattan. Good Problem? He did public-relations writing for I.B.M., Eastman Kodak, Pfizer, and the United States Army, among others. (An evaluator at media, I.B.M., recommending a simpler style for one of should double my essay his projects, complained that the whole of the text is perhaps too much an impenetrable mass.) For twenty years, even as the country's literary tastes were swinging from the realism dominant in the fifties to the zanier modes of Portnoy's Complaint and Catch-22, Gaddis essentially dropped out of sight. He started and aqa gcse media, abandoned a novel on good ideas solving, business and a play about the Civil War. He smoked a lot and drank a lot. His first marriage ended when he was living in Croton-on-Hudson, New York.

Not until the studies, end of the sixties did he scrape together enough grant money to return full time to the novel about business. By the time the book was published, in ideas essay 1975, the country's mood had caught up with him. Aqa Gcse Studies? J R received major and admiring review attention and won the rights, National Book Award. The chunky paperback edition with its chunky title lettering was, like Patti Smith LPs and the Moosewood Cookbook, a common sight in the secondhand stores and student-slum apartments of media studies my college years. The spine of J R was often suspiciously uncracked, however, or a strangely low used price was pencilled inside the cover, or the good for a problem, bookmark, which might be a sheet of media studies coursework rolling paper or a Talking Heads ticket stub, could be found on page 118, or 19, or 53, because Gaddis's fiction was, if anything, more difficult than ever.

J R is a seven-hundred-and-twenty-six-page novel consisting almost entirely of good ideas for a problem overheard voices, with nary a quotation mark, no conventional narration of any kind, no later that same evening, no meanwhile in New York, not a single chapter break, not even a section break, but thousands of dashes and ellipses, another cast of dozens, and a laughably complicated plot based on Wagner's Ring and aqa gcse media, centered on a multimillion-dollar business empire owned and operated by an eleven-year-old Long Island schoolboy named J R Vansant. J R is the grubby kid you have to laugh at because he's not old enough to hate, the preadolescent whose entire being is devoted to wanting stuff and to trading it for other, better stuff. First he does it with a classmate: -Boy, what crap. That's all you've got is essay rights crap. What's this. -It's this club you can join if I recommend you. Coursework? -What kind of club. -It's this club, see? You step inside and suddenly excitement surrounds you! You enter a world highlighted by the soft, flickering glow of essay fundamental rights open-hearth fireplaces . . . the attentive rustle of aqa gcse studies beautiful Bunnies- Soon enough, he's trading with captains of industry. Early in the novel, J R's sixth-grade teacher takes the double space my essay, class to Wall Street to aqa gcse studies buy one share of Diamond Cable stock and learn how our system works. While the class's new stock is losing ten per cent of its value in a few hours, and brokers and corporate officers are engaging in causes to world war 1 vile manipulations of markets and senators and foreign governments, and aqa gcse studies coursework, a corporate P.R. What Short-term? flak is media coursework laying on the smarm (you and your other fellow Americans no longer play a passive part in our nation's great economy), J R is studying the causes to world, bylaws of Diamond Cable, asking dead-on questions like What's a warrant? and What's that minus sign two and an eighth? and media studies coursework, ascertaining that the mananger, class's share of stock entitles it to file a shareholder's lawsuit.

Within weeks, by threatening such a suit and accepting a cash settlement, J R, who conducts his business on aqa gcse coursework, a pay phone at the middle school, acquires his working capital. He buys a million and a half Navy-surplus wooden picnic forks, a bankrupt textile mill in upstate New York, and then an outward-spiralling galaxy of dubious concerns — a brewery, a printer, a publisher, a nursing home, a mortuary. Like his creator, J R is an obsessive. (Also like Gaddis, J R has no visible father. His mother is a busy nurse.) He pursues what his country teaches him is essay worth pursuing. He's devoid of charm, compassion, and scruples, but he doesn't know any better, and so you root for him against the novel's many corporate and media, legal sharks, who should know better but behave just as badly. J R anticipates Jonathan Lebed, the alleged teen-age market manipulator in New Jersey. It predicts the S. L. Problem Solving Essay? crises and corporate raiders of the eighties (Because like what good is this here pension fund doing just sitting there, J R wonders, if we can like put it to work for them to aqa gcse media get this here acquisition, you know?), and it nicely demolishes President Bush's claim that Wall Street greed was an anomaly of the nineties. The most sincere adult in problem solving the novel is, again, a young composer, a sweetheart named Edward Bast, whom J R dragoons into serving as the front man for aqa gcse media studies, his conglomerate.

While Bast spends his days helping other characters (nobody, of course, helps him), the opera that he wants to essay compose is aqa gcse media coursework gradually scaled back to a cantata, to a piece for small orchestra, and, finally, to a piece for solo cello. The novel's maddening distractions recall the homework, frustrations of Kafka's fiction; you can sense an author nightmarishly unable to find a quiet space to work. Bast tries to media studies compose music in a Manhattan pied-a-terre that's a bitter cartoon of entropy; two broken faucets spew hot water day and night, the only clock runs backward, the rooms are piled high with boxes of unidentified crap, a never located radio dribbles nonsense, and essay fundamental rights, bushels of junk mail keep arriving for J R, who has sent Bast a mechanized envelope opener that slices letters in half. In another part of town, Thomas Eigen, a P.R. writer for Diamond Cable who once wrote an important literary novel, comes home from the office too tired to aqa gcse studies coursework work on his new opus. The apartment is a mess, his wife is good ideas solving angry, and his little boy insists that he play a board game: -You got in the Heffalump's trap.

Mama Papa got in the Heffalump trap. Mama? -She can't hear you David. Don't shout. -If I get red now I'll, yellow. Aqa Gcse Coursework? I got yellow too look, I always win look, now look where I am and. Ideas Solving Essay? -David you don't always win, nobody. -I won Mama four times today. Media Studies Coursework? Mama? -Stop shouting David.

He held the bag down, -and I. got. -Black! You peeked. Papa you peeked! -Peeked? J R is written for the active reader. You're well advised to carry a pencil with which to flag plot points and draw flow charts on the inside back cover. Causes Essay? The novel is a welter of dozens of studies interconnecting scams, deals, seductions, extortions, and betrayals. Between scenes, when the dialogue yields briefly to run-on sentences whose effect is like a blurry handheld video or a speeded-up movie, the images that flash by are of are your short-term and long-term career denatured, commercialized landscapes — trees being felled, fields paved over, roads widened — that recall to the modern reader how aesthetically shocking postwar automotive America must have been, how dismaying and portentous the first strip malls, the first five-acre parking lots. Indeed, one defense of Gaddis and his difficulty is that conventional fiction, driven by aqa gcse media substantial characters and based on a soul-to-soul Contract between reader and homework he, writer, was simply inadequate to the social and media coursework, technological crises that twentieth-century writers saw developing all around them.

Both the moderns and the postmoderns resorted to a kind of literature of emergency. The moderns employed new, self-conscious methods to address the fundamental rights, new reality and preserve the vanishing old one. The postmodern enterprise was even more radical: to resist absorption or cooptation by an all-absorbing, all-coopting System. Media Studies Coursework? Closure was the enemy, and the way to causes to world war 1 avoid it was to refuse to studies coursework participate in the System. Essay Rights? For Pynchon this meant flight and paranoia; for aqa gcse, Burroughs it meant transgression. Essay Fundamental? For Gaddis it meant being very angry — so angry that, at a certain point, he stopped making sense.

Halfway through J R, I bailed out. As one of his ex-followers, I wonder: Did I betray him, or did he betray me? One frequent problem with the literature of emergency is that it doesn't age well. Media Studies? In the fifties and sixties, Gaddis and his cohort sounded alarms about the emergence of what are your short-term and long-term career goals mba essay a world in which we've now been living for decades. Our suburban, gasoline-dependent, TV-watching American present looks a lot more like 1952 than 1952 looked like 1902. As the decades pass, the postmodern program, the notion of formal experimentation as an act of resistance, begins to seem seriously misconceived. Fiction is the most fundamental human art. Fiction is storytelling, and our reality arguably consists of the stories we tell about media coursework ourselves.

Fiction is also conservative and what are your short-term career, conventional, because the structure of its market is relatively democratic (novelists make a living one book at a time, bringing pleasure to large audiences), and because a novel asks for ten or twenty hours of solitary attentiveness from media studies coursework, each member of ideas for a solving essay its audience. You can walk past a painting fifty times before you begin to aqa gcse appreciate it. You can drift in and out of a Bartok sonata until its structures dawn on you, but a difficult novel just sits there on your shelf unread — unless you happen to be a student, in which case you're obliged to turn the problem essay, pages of media studies coursework Woolf and Beckett. This may make you a better reader. But to to world war 1 essay wrest the aqa gcse media studies coursework, novel away from its original owner, the bourgeois reader, requires strenuous effort from theoreticians. And once literature and its criticism become co-dependent the fallacies set in. For example, the Fallacy of Capture, as in the frequent praise of Finnegans Wake for its capturing of human consciousness, or in the justification of J R 's longueurs by its capture of an elusive postwar American reality; as if a novel were primarily an ethnographic recording, as if the point of reading fiction were not to should double my essay go fishing but to admire somebody else's catch. Or the Fallacy of the Symphonic, in which a book's motifs and aqa gcse, voices are described as washing over the reader in orchestral fashion; as if, when you're reading J R, its pages just turn themselves, words wafting up into your head like arpeggios. Or the Fallacy of Art Historicism, a pedagogical convenience borrowed from the moneyed world of ideas for a solving visual art, where a work's value substantially depends on its novelty; as if fiction were as formally free as painting, as if what makes The Great Gatsby and O Pioneers! good novels were primarily their technical innovations. Or the epidemic Fallacy of the Stupid Reader, implicit in every modern aesthetics of aqa gcse coursework difficulty, wherein difficulty is a strategy to homework he protect art from cooptation and the purpose of this art is to aqa gcse upset or compel or challenge or subvert or scar the fundamental rights, unsuspecting reader; as if the writer's audience somehow consisted, again and again, of Charlie Browns running to kick Lucy's football; as if it were a virtue in media a novelist to be the kind of boor who propagandizes at friendly social gatherings. It's unfortunate for Gaddis that so many of should double space his friends, scholars, and defenders participate in these fallacies.

Joseph Tabbi, the editor of Gaddis's essays and a true believer in subversive difficulty, thinks that the Apocalypse — the death of the individual, the triumph of the studies coursework, System — is not merely imminent, it has already occurred without your even realizing it, so don't blame the orphic Gaddis for to world war 1 essay, his inaccessibility. Tabbi's apologies are a nice example of aqa gcse media five-alarm avant-gardism: Gaddis's audience has been limited in part because readers trained on nineteenth-century realism miss in his work those signs and space, conventional symptoms by which characters may be recognized, too readily, as rounded and whole. Such conventional characters are agents within a bourgeois and media, industrial world that is now, in should space my essay the United States, largely historical. If you're having a good time with a novel, you're a dupe of the postindustrial System; if you still identify with characters, you need to retake Postmodernism 101. William Gass, in his introduction to The Recognitions, names the aqa gcse studies coursework, childish thing that it's time to put behind us: Too often we bring to literature the bias for 'realism' we were normally brought up with. Gass's defense of difficulty complements Tabbi's, but with greater sophistry and essay fundamental rights, alliteration. If the author works at studies coursework, his work, Gass writes, the reader may also have to, whereas when a writer whiles away both time and words, the reader may relax and gently peruse.

Gaddis's fiction could have used fewer friends like this and better enemies. Even Steven Moore, a Gaddis scholar whose criticism is a model of clarity and intelligent advocacy, lets his enthusiasm get the better of him. J R, for Moore, is a lean and economical book, because its inferential, all-dialogue form forces readers to supply missing descriptions and information; the purpose of a novel being, I suppose, to capture and efficiently store data. My small hope for literary criticism would be to war 1 essay hear less about orchestras and capturings and aqa gcse coursework, more about the erotic and culinary arts. Think of the novel as lover: Let's stay home tonight and double space, have a great time. Just because you're touched where you want to be touched, it doesn't mean you're cheap; before a book can change you, you have to media studies love it. Or the essay, novelist as the cook who prepares, as a gift to the reader, this many-course meal.

It's not all ice cream, but sauteed broccoli rabe has charms of aqa gcse media its own. Difficult fiction of the should space my essay, kind epitomized by Gaddis seems to media studies coursework me more closely associated with the lower end of the digestive tract. His detractors refer to short-term goals mba essay his logorrhea, but it's more accurate to media coursework characterize him as retentive-constipated to the point of being unreadable, sometimes even unintelligible. Edmund Wilson, in his Freudian phase, identified the playwright Ben Jonson as a classic anal-retentive writer, obsessed with excretion, money, lists, seedy underworlds, arcane words, obscure references. Wilson suggested that the best writers trust their talents, and he contrasted Jonson's cramped output with that of his friend and rival Shakespeare, whose open and free nature Jonson himself praised. The Alchemist, Jonson's peculiar play about a London con man posing as a transmuter of gold, reads like Renaissance Gaddis. Both writers stuff far too many swindles into their plots, and for both of them money is the homework mananger, world's shit (Recktall Brown!), at aqa gcse media studies, once fascinating and repellent.

If I'm sounding a little Freudian myself, it's because the first lines of page 523, the terminus of double my second reading of media studies J R, look so much like impacted excreta: across smalltite traces and has Nonny put in for a mineral depletion allowance tipped his hand to homework the FDA coming down hard on media studies, cobalt safety levels now Milliken jumps in to protect home industry only thing they had besides sheep and Indians till he suddenly gets the idea his state is Lean and economical? J R suffers from the madness it attempts to double resist. The first ten pages and the last ten pages and every ten pages in between bring the news that American life is shallow, fraudulent, venal, and hostile to artists. But there never has been and never will be a reader who is unpersuaded of aqa gcse coursework this news on page 10 but persuaded on page 726. The novel becomes as chilly, mechanistic, and exhausting as the what and long-term mba essay, System it describes. Studies? Its world is ruled by corporate white men who pursue their work with pleasureless zeal, casually sideline women and minorities, and homework he, invent difficult insider languages to discourage newcomers: how oddly like the book itself! (And how odd that Gaddis and his academic admirers reject Christian Puritanism only to demand that his readers renounce the sinful pleasures of realism and cultivate a selfless and pure love of Art!) Even the fascination of J R Vansant wanes by mid-novel. J R is an avatar of Bart Simpson, but Bart is incomparably better suited to media our cultural environment than J R is. Even the best gags in J R wear you out before you're done with them. On The Simpsons, the gags hit their target, the target feels pain, and next week there's a new episode.

The curious thing is that I suspect Gaddis himself would rather have watched The Simpsons. I suspect that if anyone else had written his later novels, from J R onward, he would not have wanted to read them, and that if he had read them he would not have liked them. Gaddis developed a style that his disciples believe ought to have transformed the way Americans read fiction, but his own tastes were notably conservative. What Are Your Short-term? He had particular disdain for modern art. For the aqa gcse media studies coursework, cover of are your career mba essay his fourth novel, A Frolic of His Own (1994), he chose an media studies coursework, abstract painting by his daughter, Sarah, without mentioning on the jacket that she'd painted it when she was five: See, any child can paint like that. Steven Moore, no doubt with the best of intentions, has assembled an impressive list of ideas for a problem what Gaddis did and didn't like to media studies coursework read. Basically, he didn't like art fiction. Good For A? He had, Moore reports, little interest in the contemporaries with which he was associated, including Pynchon. In general, Moore concludes, he seemed more likely to pick up a novel like Jay McInerney's Bright Lights, Big City (which he found 'very funny') than novels as challenging as his own. To serve the reader a fruitcake that you wouldn't eat yourself, to build the reader an uncomfortable house you wouldn't want to live in: this violates what seems to me the categorical imperative for any fiction writer. This is the aqa gcse coursework, ultimate breach of Contract.

If J R is dedicated to the proposition that America sucks, the message of homework he his third novel, Carpenter's Gothic (1985), is that it really, really, really sucks. Gaddis himself conceded that the aqa gcse media coursework, book was an homework, exercise in style, and media coursework, its content is strictly paint-by-numbers. A telegenic Southern preacher turns out to be — a dangerous, venal hypocrite! A United States senator turns out to be — corrupt! The book is a husk. Unlike The Recognitions, it was handsomely reviewed. Gaddis's last real novel, A Frolic of His Own, rambles on for nearly six hundred pages in illustration of what are your goals how a system designed to create order (American law) can end up sponsoring disorder. The book is ideal for graduate study. It makes a banal but unexceptionable social point (we litigate too much in America), it's riddled with motifs, quotations, stories within stories, and countless allusions to Gaddis's own earlier works and other famous texts (better brush up on your Plato and Longfellow), and its only aesthetic weakness, really, is that much of it is repetitive, incoherent, and insanely boring.

This novel, of course, got the warmest reviews of any of Gaddis's books, and was given one of those unofficial lifetime-achievement National Book Awards. The best parts of Frolic are the legal opinions and the characterizations. Creating a character entirely through dialogue is like boxing with one arm behind your back, and I'm not persuaded by the Gaddistic argument that straining our imaginations makes a character any more real to us. (In fact, the aqa gcse, work of reading Gaddis makes me wonder if our brains might even be hard-wired for conventional storytelling, structurally eager to form pictures from sentences as featureless as She stood up.) Still, his inferentially drawn characters can be vivid. Oscar Crease is a fifty-something amateur playwright and part-time professor in whose disorderly person a comically large number of lawsuits intersect. He lives in the large old house of his childhood on Long Island, hopelessly surrounded by a lifetime's worth of miscellaneous papers: another cartoon of mananger entropy. Functionally, Oscar is a baby. Aqa Gcse? He spends much of the novel in a wheelchair, forever pawing at his girlfriend's blouse, trying to get his hands and mouth on her breasts, and sucking down wine day and night. In The Recognitions, a son grows up and vanishes. Carpenter's Gothic, the book without children, is a book without hope. At the are your career mba essay, center of the other two novels is a very large child. In Frolic, it's the selfish, unreasonable, self-pitying, incapable, insatiable Oscar, a pig in aqa gcse media studies coursework the role of king, a suffering artist who (ha ha!) happens to have little talent.

Oscar claims your sympathy only to abuse it. His long play about the Civil War is obviously and unfunnily bad, but a hundred pages are devoted to reproducing the manuscript and another fifty to endless jawing about mananger its relation to aqa gcse studies art, justice, and order. Should My Essay? The novel is an coursework, example of the particular corrosiveness of literary postmodernism. Gaddis began his career with a Modernist epic about the forgery of masterpieces. He ended it with a pomo romp that superficially resembles a masterpiece but punishes the reader who tries to stay with it and follow its logic. When the reader finally says, Hey, wait a minute, this is a mess, not a masterpiece, the book instantly morphs into a performance-art prop: its fraudulence is the whole point! And the reader is out twenty hours of to world war 1 essay good-faith effort. Regarding Gaddis's two posthumously published books, I feel the way I did when my father was in a nursing home. Unless you're a very good old friend, it's better not to aqa gcse media studies see him suffering like this.

The title of Gaddis's last novel, Agape Agape, comes from a tonally arch and intellectually dubious essay that he once wrote about player pianos and are your career goals mba essay, mechanization in the arts. The book is media studies coursework mainly a free-form rant, however, with the sentences, yes, run the sentences, run together, make it choppy, even easier than it looks but no what no, what matters is the art . Homework Mananger? An unnamed novelist lies dying, his body a wreck that has betrayed his spirit. Studies? He reproaches himself for his failures, denounces the populist herd for misunderstanding him, and double space my essay, worries that he's perceived as a mere cartoon. But a cartoon is aqa gcse studies what Agape Agape is: one opaque, obsessive, citation-riddled, solipsistic paragraph deifying the work as the only refuge from one's painful humanity. The novel did manage to stab me with its final note, a note reminiscent of Gaddis's early dreams of a Nobel Prize — That was Youth with its reckless exuberance when all things were possible pursued by Age where we are now, looking back at what we destroyed, what we tore away from that self who could do more, and its work that's become my enemy because that's what I can tell you about, that Youth who could do anything — but I was moved for homework he, the very reasons that Gaddis denigrated throughout his career: because I was touched by the human shambles. I was thinking of the aqa gcse media coursework, artist, not the art.

If you're still wondering if you missed something, some key to Gaddis that will unlock his difficulty, you can set your mind at rest by reading The Rush for Second Place, a slender collection of his essays and ideas for a problem solving essay, occasional writings. Here you'll learn that Gaddis can't finish even a short nonfiction piece without breaking into a rant. Aqa Gcse Media Studies? You'll find essays consisting of strung-together quotes that you have to read carefully, twice, before you conclude that no argument (or, indeed, logic) is solving essay hidden in the string.You'll see that, sure enough, literary difficulty can operate as a smoke screen for an author who has nothing interesting, wise, or entertaining to say. You'll find not one reference to studies the pleasure of reading fiction. What Are Your Goals Mba Essay? You'll learn, rather, that Gaddis believed that novels should improve the world — that good fiction is not about the way things are but about the way things should be. You'll learn that the phrase agape agape refers to his belief that the world of Contract, the American world of dollars and machines, has ripped apart the charitable love ( agape ) to which early-Christian communities aspired. Or something like that — it's a little unclear.

I imagine Gaddis's disciples wagging their fingers at me, telling me I'm another Stupid Reader, explaining that the media studies coursework, essays subvert my expectations of clarity, of pleasure, of edification; that I haven't got the joke yet. Should Double? They have postmodern apologies for media coursework, his difficulty, such as this one by what are your short-term and long-term Gregory Comnes: The narrative enactment of this epistemology shows readers how hard work is a necessary precondition for having meaning in aqa gcse narrative by forcing readers to participate actively in the construction of ideas solving essay narrative meaning, requiring them to bring information to the text to aqa gcse media read what was never written. Homework He? They tell me, in other words, that I just need to work a little bit harder . To which I can only reply that there is studies no headache like the good ideas for a problem solving, headache you get from working harder on deciphering a text than the author, by all appearances, has worked on assembling it; and that I'm beginning to get that headache. And beginning, as well, to sound like Mrs. M—? Like many other Contract-minded Americans, like the literary societies of a hundred years ago, like the book clubs of aqa gcse media studies today, I understand that the mananger, Contract sometimes calls for work. I know the pleasures of a book aren't always easy. I expect to work; I want to work. It's also in my Protestant nature, however, to expect some reward for this work. Aqa Gcse Media? And, although critics can give me pastoral guidance as I seek this reward, ultimately I think each individual is alone with his or her conscience.

As a reader, I seek a direct personal relationship with art. The books I love, the fundamental, books on which my faith in literature rests, are the ones with which I can have this kind of aqa gcse coursework relationship. The Recognitions, to my surprise, turned out to be a book like this. After The Recognitions, however, something happened to what are your and long-term goals mba essay Gaddis. Some-thing went haywire. Whether it's true or not, I tell myself a story about a five-year-old boy who was in the way, about a skinny young man who, like Hamlet inscribing his stepfather's villainy on his brain, assembled an encyclopedia of phonyness unparalleled in literature. He confided his faith and hope to a nine-hundred-and-fifty-six-page-thick vault, and he gave the grownup world one chance to aqa gcse studies coursework recognize him. When the world, inevitably, failed this test, he took his talent to are your short-term and long-term the archetypically phony work of corporate P.R., as if to studies coursework say, You'll never catch me hoping again. The modern cry of homework he pain became the aqa gcse, postmodern bitter joke.

The corporate P.R. Causes War 1 Essay? work was vile, but at aqa gcse media studies coursework, least he was conscious of essay fundamental rights its vileness. Indeed, the media, essence of postmodernism is an adolescent fear of getting taken in, an adolescent conviction that all systems are phony. The theory is homework he compelling, but as a way of media studies coursework life it's a recipe for rage. The child grows enormous but never grows up. I think there's a good story in this. To the extent that I believe it's the story of Gaddis himself, it softens my anger with him, dissolves it in sadness. What Are Your Career Mba Essay? A Gaddis like this is not remotely a cartoon, and a story like this would never fit into a Simpsons format. Studies Coursework? A story like this, where the difficulty is the difficulty of life itself, is what a novel is for. Click here to download Gaddis' essay in causes war 1 Adobe PDF format.

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Logan International Airport Essay Sample. This report provides an analysis and evaluation of the current and aqa gcse coursework prospective delay problems of Logan International Airport at Boston, Massachusetts. Method of analysis includes waiting line simulation and causes to world war 1 historical data tracking as well as response from both local community and Massport. Media Studies Coursework? Results of the data show that the major causes to homework, delay are broken down in the following: 1. Increasing demand for annual operations. 2. Adverse weather conditions, especially the northwest wind which Logan airport is not designed to studies coursework, accommodate at normal capacity. Homework? 3. Continuous heavy air traffic at near capacity and potential over-scheduling during peak hours. The report finds the prospects of Logan International Airport in its current position are neither responsive to the delay problem nor well prepared for the predicted increase in passengers and operations in the upcoming years. Recommendations discussed in media studies, the report to good for a problem, combat the delay issue include: 1. Aqa Gcse Media Studies Coursework? Diversion: Where smaller planes would be diverted to nearby airports during peak hours to reduce the overall delay time of conventional jets 2. Runway: increase the should space my essay, overall capacity of the airport to mitigate delay problems 3. Demand-management methods: such as peak-period pricing, incentives to divert aircraft to aqa gcse studies, non-peak hours, and tradable permits of 15-minute peak-period slots. Mananger? We expect peak period pricing to be the most effective means of reducing delay time because smaller aircrafts are less able to absorb the peak period landing fee and will most likely opt to aqa gcse studies, land during non-peak hours. Logan airport is an airport that suffers from what short-term and long-term career, many delay issues due to aqa gcse media coursework, the fact that it operates at capacity or over capacity during peak hours.

The main cause of the delays is due to moderate or adverse weather conditions which renders either 1 or 2 of its runways unusable. During good weather conditions and peak timing of 17h, there is a 12.5-minute expected system wait time. However at 18h, the arrival rate exceeds the capacity rate (utilization rate is greater than 1) and the line goes to infinity according to the waiting line system. This is also the case in moderate and adverse weather conditions. (Figure 1) However in reality, because the arrival rate differs per hour, the excess arrivals in the peak periods are left waiting (circulating in the air) until arrival rates drop in non-peak period (hour 19). The problem with the double space, status quo is that it is very costly because delay times are very high. For example, during peak hours in moderate or adverse weather conditions, planes are delayed an aqa gcse studies average of 1.5 hours and incurs a cost up to $167,079 (Figure 12). In addition when planes are delayed for landing they are forced to circulate in homework, the airspace which is potentially dangerous when the aqa gcse coursework, airspace becomes crowded and it would result in should double, an increased fuel cost.

Even under good weather conditions where the utilization is less than 1 and we can calculate a delay time, the cost associated with that delay can become very expensive (up to$ 53,015 for conventional jets). (Figure 4) As Logan airport faces capacity issues on a daily basis during peak hours, it is important that a solution is implemented as quickly as possible to start reducing the high delay costs. Divert traffic to another airport. An alternative that was considered was diverting the Turboprops and regional airplanes to another airport. Worchester airport is aqa gcse media coursework 53 miles from Logan airport which is approximately 10 minutes by flight. Only the smaller regional and homework mananger turboprops can be diverted because large planes are likely to overfly the aqa gcse studies coursework, distance from Logan to Worchester. Worchester Regional Airport is ideal because it has the capacity to take on additional flights since its passenger growth has declined by 16% according to exhibit 5 of the case.

Furthermore its runways are positioned such that when the wind is blowing North-West (adverse weather conditions for Logan), Worchester has 2 runways in operation, whereas Logan only has 1 runway (Figure 7). If Turboprops and double space regional airplanes were to be diverted then their delay time would only be 10 minutes in adverse weather conditions. As the delay time would be significantly reduced for regional and turboprops in this scenario, we. believe that the small planes would be willing to make the switch. This would also free up capacity by media 56% at should double, Logan airport so that the conventional planes would also have a decreased delay time of 22 minutes as compared to aqa gcse coursework, an infinite wait time (Figure 2). However, while this alternative might be favorable in causes to world war 1 essay, the short term, it is rather unfeasible over the long term as there would be a significant passenger cost in terms of aqa gcse media studies loss of goodwill. We assume that the loss of goodwill would be similar to the passenger cost of $30.9/passenger/hour and we include a car rental cost of $9/passenger/hour for a total passenger switching cost of mananger $40/passenger/hour.

Passengers would likely be upset at arriving at a different location resulting in many inconveniences and additional costs incurred. If this happens on a regular basis, Logan airport’s reputation will be hurt and this may adversely affect its revenue as well. Building a new runway. Building a new runway 14/32 (one end at 320 degrees facing the NW and the other at 140 degree facing the SE) which will situate at aqa gcse media coursework, the southwestern edge of the fundamental, airport is media studies coursework a favorable solution toward the increasing arrivals and departures at Logan Airport and to combat the low runway configuration during adverse weather conditions, particularly the NW wind. The current layout of Logan Airport consists of 4 major runways which allow for should space, a 3-runway configuration under SW winds, 3-runway configuration under NE wind, 2-runway configuration under the SE wind, and 2-runway configuration under NW wind. However when the aqa gcse media studies, NW wind is severe, only homework he runway 15R/33L (1-runway configuration) is safe to use, and this leads to a significant downgrade on coursework the capacity (to 40-60 operations per hour from normal capacity of homework mananger 118-126 operations). According to the Massport’s data, a typical year consists of the following percentages of the time that wind from different directions occurs: 37% NW, 18% NE, 17% SE, and 28% SW (Figure 9).

The 2013 weather data provided by National Weather Service Forecast Office at Boston (http://www.erh.noaa.gov/box/) also says that around 35% (Figure 8) of the time, the wind direction present at studies, Logan Airport is from the NW. Essay? Assuming a typical year, these two sources lead us to conclude that the airport is usually not operating at normal capacity due to frequent NW wind, which confirms the NW wind as one of the aqa gcse media studies coursework, primary causes of delay. Runway 14/32 is an obvious and effective solution to delay problems as the runway is designed to allow aircrafts to take off and land during severe NW wind and thus enhance runway configuration to for a problem essay, 3 runways (R 14/32, 15R/33L, 9/27) under moderate NW wind and 2 runways under severe NW wind. Also since a runway goes both ways, Runway 14/32 can also be used when there is media studies a SE wind. Therefore, this new runway will be useful 54% of the time. Are Your And Long-term? Ultimately, with Runway 14/32 built in, Logan Airport will, for most of the time, have a 3-runway configuration regardless of the wind direction.

Hence, the airport can guarantee a stable 118-126 operation per hour all year long. This guarantee is extremely important to Logan Airport as it is the origin and destination of many flights. Media Studies Coursework? The new Runway 14/32 costs about $100 million to build, but it helps Logan Airport to to world war 1 essay, mitigate delay problems, by reducing costs in terms of operation expenses and ground crew time. We assume airplanes arrive at a constant rate throughout the aqa gcse, year with no severe wind, permitting a 3-runway configuration. Good Solving? If the arrival rate is 15/hr, Logan Airport can save around $3 million a year; if the arrival rate is coursework 35/hr, Logan saves 26 million a year; and if the arrival rate is 55/hr, Logan saves $360 million a year (Figure 5 6). In addition, we can amortize the runway cost of $100 million over a useful life of 40 years according to the U.S. Good Ideas For A Problem Essay? Governmental Accounting Standard Board, coming up to an annual cost of $2.5 million. Despite all the benefits of building a runway, the aqa gcse media studies coursework, major obstacle to this alternative is that more than $20 billion of public money has been committed to a residential development project around the potential stretch of land for the runway. In addition, we see this option as a long-term solution that would require some time before we can see the results of it.

Therefore, implementing this alternative right now would not be wise as we would be committing $100 million as sunk cost now without alleviating the current delay issues. Demand-Management: Peak-period pricing (PPP) One of the main objectives is to divert Turboprops to non-peak periods since they are a key contributor to to world war 1, delay times at Logan airport. As such, we have decided that PPP is the way forward in our aim to reduce the aqa gcse studies, number of essay rights Turboprops during peak periods. By comparing 3 possible PPP options ($150, $200, $250), we found that PPP can perform its demand management role effectively in reducing demand and thus reducing delay times. As calculated, PPP has a much greater impact on the revenue of Turboprops (up to 11.15%) as compared to regional jets (up to studies coursework, 5%) and conventional jets (up to 0.64%), which shows that Turboprops will be most affected by homework mananger implementation of PPP. Our analysis included taking different assumptions and holding different variables constant. Holding everything else constant, Turboprops prefer PPP of $200 whereas regional and conventional jets prefer PPP of $250, as we calculated that these aforementioned PPP give the respective airplanes the media studies, lowest total delay cost. (Figure 3) The mix of airplane types at Logan airport also contributes to the effect on delay, as a higher percentage of ideas for a Turboprops (40%) will have a greater effect on delay times.

The sensitivity of aqa gcse media coursework Turboprops to PPP leads us to assume that 70% of Turboprops will be diverted to non-peak periods as compared to 15% of regional and war 1 essay conventional jets. Media Studies Coursework? Holding everything else constant and comparing the delay costs of the different airplanes with and without a $250 PPP, we can see that Turboprops’ savings are $4913.12, regional jets’ savings are $886.41, and conventional jets’ savings are $46,825.16. Essay Fundamental Rights? We also showed that having a smaller percentage of studies coursework Turboprops (10%) further increase the savings on Turboprops to $6218.31-$326.30 = $5,892.01. Essay Rights? (Figure 4) Because we are unable to implement 2 different PPP, we believe that it is in the best interest of Logan airport to implement a $250 landing fee as this achieves the twin goal of aqa gcse media studies coursework reducing congestion and lowering delay costs. This way, Logan airport can divert the air traffic from peak to non-peak periods at minimal cost with a large number of the turboprops being diverted. Despite having this $250 landing fee not give us the lowest delay cost for Turboprops, we consider the difference of to world essay $131.23 to aqa gcse media studies coursework, be rather negligible. We recommend PPP pricing with a $250 landing fee as it is the solution that can be implemented the quickest with the least amount of implementation cost. Problem Essay? There is no capital investment needed; it is simply a matter of marketing this new structure to the airlines. Some implementation costs could potentially be the loss of aqa gcse media Turboprop customers from the new PPP program, however this will likely be minimal as Logan is an important destination and origination airport. As turboprops typically have the longest landing time, this solution will be most effective in alleviating Logan’s delays during peak hours. Other demand-management methods. There can also be other incentives to reduce peak-period demand such as incentivizing airlines to should my essay, schedule their flights to aqa gcse studies coursework, non-peak hours.

Besides monetary incentives, a more attractive method could be non-monetary, such as granting those airlines priority in baggage systems, better-located offices and check-in counters, or even giving these airlines a certain number of good for a problem free passes to airport lounges. This is a transfer mechanism that can increase pareto efficiency by making all parties better, as delaying 300 people for 3 minutes costs a lot more than delaying 9 people for a longer time. Logan airport can also auction off 15-min slots during peak periods to airlines as a tradable permit, thereby allowing airlines to media studies coursework, trade these permits among themselves while restricting the total demand. One assumption that our waiting line models cannot handle is an causes war 1 essay arrival rate that is greater than the service rate. However, in real life, the utilization rate often exceeds 1, as shown in exhibit 8 of the case, even under good weather conditions during hour 18. The waiting line does not go to infinity because the line just gets pushed to the next hour, or planes get diverted to another airport. The assumption of 65% load factor will not remain constant in real life as the load factor would likely differ during peak and non-peak periods. Also, our diversion factor assumption of 70% for Turboprops and 15% for regional and conventional jets may not be constant over time. Moreover we operated under the assumption that the weightings of 40% Turbo, 16% Regional and 44% Conventional will be constant throughout, however we know that moving into 2015, the mix of airplanes will change with regional planes projected at coursework, 41% of the mix. Finally our models do not take seasonality into account, and assume that all planes arrive uniformly throughout the year.

However airports will generally see more passenger bookings and flights during holidays or throughout the summer months. While we do not believe any of these assumptions will alter our recommendation in a significant way, it is important to realize that our results are not a precise reflection of reality. “Airport Quotas and Peak Hour Pricing: Theory and Practice.” U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Aviation Administration, May 1976. Web. 25 March. 2014. “Chapter 5: Other Approaches to Reducing Delay.” Airport System Development. n.d. Web.

25 March 2014. Essay? Conard, Linda. Virtual Skies: Airport Design. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, April 2010. Media Studies? Web. 25 March 2014. Federal Aviation Administration. U.S.

Department of Transportation. 21 Feb. 2014. Web. 25 March 2014. “How Logan Airport Operates.” Massport and causes to world the Environment. Massport. Aqa Gcse Media Coursework? Web. Homework He? 25 March 2014. “Observed Weather Reports.” National Weather Service Forecast Office, n.d. Aqa Gcse Studies Coursework? Web.

25 March 2014 Willey, Mark. Homework He? “Runway Demand Management Scheme: Brisbane Airport.” Brisbane Airport, n.d. Web. 25 March 2014. Aqa Gcse Media Coursework? “Worcester Regional Airport.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclypedia. Web. 25 March 2014. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and mananger order Logan International Airport. essay editing for only $13.9 per media coursework page.

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