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Gonorrhea Essay Research Paper Gonorrhea is a
Information Technology and Moral Values. Information technology is gonorrhea paper now ubiquitous in essay road robert the lives of gonorrhea research, people across the globe. These technologies take many forms such as personal computers, smart phones, the internet, web and essay network mobile phone applications, digital assistants, and cloud computing. In fact the list is growing constantly and new forms of these technologies are working their way into every aspect of paper, daily life. In some cases, such as can be seen in massive multiplayer online games (see section 2.1.1 below), these technologies are even opening up new ways of dedications, interacting with each other. Information technology at gonorrhea research, its basic level is technology that records, communicates, synthesizes or organizes information. Information can be understood as any useful data, instructions, or meaningful message content. The word literally means to “give form to” or to shape one's thoughts. So a basic type of information technology might be the proverbial string tied around one's finger to remind or inform you that you have some specific task to accomplish today. Here the string stands in for a more complex proposition such as “buy groceries before you come home.” The string itself is not the information, it merely symbolizes the information and therefore this symbol must be correctly interpreted for it to doctoral completion u t, be useful.
Which raises the question, what is information itself? Unfortunately there is not a completely satisfying and philosophically rigorous definition available, though there are at least two very good starting points. For those troubled by the ontological questions regarding information, we might want to simply focus on the symbols and define information as any meaningfully ordered set of symbols. This move can be very useful and mathematicians and engineers prefer to gonorrhea research, focus on this aspect of information, which is called “syntax” and leave the meaningfulness of information or its “semantics” for loyola college essay prompt, others to figure out. Claude E. Shannon working at Bell Labs produced a landmark mathematical theory of communication (1948), where he took his experiences in cryptography and telephone technologies and worked out paper a mathematical formulation describing how syntactical information can be turned into a signal that is transmitted in such a way as to mitigate noise or other extraneous signals which can then be decoded by of water in urdu language, the desired receiver of the message (Shannon 1948; Shannon and Weaver 1949). The concepts described by Shannon, along with additional important innovations made by others who are too many to list, explain the way that information technology works, but we still have the gonorrhea research paper deeper issue to resolve if we want to thoroughly trace the impact of loyola college prompt, information technologies on moral values. The second starting point is a bit more deeply philosophical in nature. Here we begin with the claim that information either constitutes or is closely correlated with what constitutes our existence and the existence of gonorrhea, everything around us. This means that information plays an ontological role in the manner in which the universe operates. A standpoint such as this would place information at the center of concern for philosophy and this idea has given rise to essay not taken robert, the new fields of Information Philosophy and Information Ethics. Philosophy of Information will not be addressed in detail here but the interested reader can begin with Floridi (2010b, 2011b) for an introduction.
Some of the paper most important aspects of Information Ethics will be outlined in more detail below. Every action we take leaves a trail of information that could be recorded and stored for future use. Essay Network! For instance, you might use the simple technology of keeping a detailed diary listing all the research paper things you did and thought during the day. But today you could augment that with even more detail gathered with advanced information technologies some examples include; all of your economic transactions, a GPS generated plot of where you traveled, a list of all the web addresses you visited and the details of each search you initiated online, a listing of all your vital signs such as blood pressure and heart rate, all of what do sat essay, your dietary intakes for the day, and many other examples can be imagined. As you go through this thought experiment you begin to see the complex trail of data that you generate each and every day and how that same data might be collected and paper stored though the use of information technologies. Here we can begin to see how information technology can impact moral values. As this data gathering becomes more automated and ever-present, we must ask who is in control of this data, what is to be done with it, and who will insure its accuracy.
For instance, which bits of information should be made public, which held private, and which should be allowed to become the property of essay network, third parties like corporations? Questions of the production, access and control of information will be at the heart of moral challenges surrounding the use of information technology. One might argue that this situation is no different from the moral issues revolving around the production, access and gonorrhea research control of any basic necessity of essay network, life. But there is gonorrhea paper one major difference, if one party controls the access of some natural resource, then that by necessity excludes others from using it. This is not necessarily so with digital information, it is non-exclusory, meaning we can all at least theoretically possess the what essay same digital information because copying it from one digital source to another does not require eliminating the previous copy. Since there is no physical obstacle to the spread of all information, then there remain only appeals to gonorrhea research paper, morality, or economic justice, which might prevent distributing certain forms of information.
Therefore, understanding the role of what essay, moral values in information technology is indispensable to gonorrhea research, the design and use of what do sat mean, these technologies (Johnson 1985; Moor 1985; Nissenbaum 1998; Spinello 2001). It should be noted that this entry will not directly address the phenomenological approach to the ethics of information technology since there is paper a detailed entry on this subject available (see entry on Phenomenological Approaches to Ethics and importance of water in urdu Information Technology). 1. The Moral Challenges of Information Technology. The move from one set of paper, dominant information technologies to another is always morally contentious. Socrates lived during the long transition from a largely oral tradition to a newer information technology consisting of writing down words and information and collecting those writings into scrolls and of water in urdu language books. Famously Socrates was somewhat antagonistic to writing and he never wrote anything down himself. Ironically, we only research know about essay network, Socrates' argument against writing because his student Plato ignored his teacher and wrote it down in a dialogue called “Phaedrus” (Plato). Towards the end of this dialogue Socrates discusses with his friend Phaedrus the “conditions which make it (writing) proper or improper” (section 274b479c). Socrates tells a fable of an Egyptian God he names Theuth who gives the paper gift of writing to a king named Thamus. Thamus is not pleased with the gift and doctoral completion grant u t replies,
If men learn this, it will implant forgetfulness in their souls; they will cease to exercise memory because they rely on research paper, that which is written, calling things to remembrance no longer from within themselves, but by means of external marks. (Phaedrus, section 275a) Socrates, who was adept at quoting lines from loyola college essay prompt, poems and epics and placing them into his conversations, fears that those who rely on writing will never be able to truly understand and gonorrhea paper live by these words. For Socrates there is something immoral or false about writing. Books can provide information but they cannot, by themselves, give you the dissertation dedications wisdom you need to use or deeply understand that information. Conversely, in an oral tradition you do not simply consult a library, you are the library, you are a living manifestation of the gonorrhea information you know by heart. Essay Network! For Socrates, reading a book is nowhere near as insightful as talking with its author. Written words, seem to gonorrhea, talk to you as though they were intelligent, but if you ask them anything about what they say, from a desire to be instructed, they go on telling you the same thing forever. Importance Of Water In Urdu Language! (Phaedrus, section 275d). His criticism of paper, writing at first glance may seem humorous but the temptation to use recall and call it memory is getting more and more prevalent in modern information technologies. Dissertation! Why learn anything when information is paper just an Internet search away? In order to avoid Socrates' worry, information technologies should do more than just provide access to information; they should also help foster wisdom and understanding as well. 1.1 The Fundamental Character of prompt, Information Technologies.
Early in the information technology revolution Richard Mason suggested that the coming changes in information technologies would necessitate rethinking the social contract (Mason 1986). What he could not have known then was how often we would have to research, update the social contract as these technologies rapidly change. Information technologies change quickly and move in and out of fashion at doctoral u t, a bewildering pace. This makes it difficult to research paper, try to list them all and catalog the moral impacts of each. The very fact that this change is so rapid and momentous has caused some to argue that we need to deeply question the ethics of the process of developing emerging technologies (Moor 2008). It has also been argued that the ever morphing nature of dissertation dedications, information technology is changing our ability to even fully understand moral values as they change. Lorenzo Magnani claims that acquiring knowledge of how that change confounds our ability to reason morally “has become a duty in our technological world” (Magnani 2007, 93). The legal theorist Larry Lessig warns that the gonorrhea research paper pace of change in information technology is road not taken frost so rapid that it leaves the slow and deliberative process of law and political policy behind and in effect these technologies become lawless, or extralegal. This is due to the fact that by the time a law is written to curtail, for research, instance, some form of copyright infringement facilitated by a particular file sharing technology, that technology has become out of date and users are on importance in urdu language, to something else that facilitates copyright infringement (Lessig 1999). But even given this rapid pace of change it remains the gonorrhea research case that information technologies or applications can all be categorized into at least three different types each of which we will look at below. All information technologies record (store), transmit (communicate), organize and/or synthesize information.
For example, a book is a record of information, a telephone is used to communicate information, and the Dewey decimal system organizes information. Many information technologies can accomplish more than one of the above functions and, most notably, the computer can accomplish all of them since it can be described as a universal machine (see the not taken robert frost entry on computability and complexity), so it can be programmed to gonorrhea research, emulate any form of information technology. In section 2 we will look at some specific example technologies and applications from essay road not taken, each of the three types of information technology listed above and research paper track the moral challenges that arise out of the use and design of these specific technologies. Essay In Urdu! In addition to the above we will need to address the growing use of information environments such as massive multiplayer games, which are environments completely composed of information where people can develop alternate lives filled with various forms of social activities (see section 2.3). Finally we will look at not only how information technology impacts our moral intuitions but also how it might be changing the gonorrhea research paper very nature of moral reasoning. In section 3, we will look at information as a technology of morality and how we might program applications and robots to interact with us in a more morally acceptable manner. 1.1.1 Moral Values in Information Recording. We live in a world rich in dedications data and the technology to record and store vast amounts of this data has grown rapidly. The primary moral concern here is that when we collect, store, and/or access information it is done in a just manner that anyone can see is gonorrhea research fair and in the best interests of all parties involved. As was mentioned above, each of us produces a vast amount of information every day that could be recorded and stored as useful data to be accessed later when needed.
But moral conundrums arise when that collection, storage and thesis u t use of our information is done by third parties without our knowledge or done with only our tacit consent. The control of information is gonorrhea paper power. The social institutions that have traditionally exercised this power are things like, religious organizations, universities, libraries, healthcare officials, government agencies, banks and corporations. Essay Network! These entities have access to stored information that gives them a certain amount of gonorrhea research paper, power over importance of water, their customers and gonorrhea research paper constituencies. Today each citizen has access to more and more of dissertation, that stored information without the gonorrhea research paper necessity of do sat scores, utilizing the traditional mediators of that information and therefore a greater individual share of social power (see Lessig 1999). One of the great values of modern information technology is that it makes the recording of information easy, and in some cases, it is done automatically. Today, a growing number of people enter biometric data such as blood pressure, calorie intake, exercise patterns, etc. into applications designed to help them achieve a healthier lifestyle. This type of data collection could become more automated in research the near future. There are already applications that use the GPS tracking available in chicago college essay prompt many phones to track the length and duration of a user's walk or run. How long until a smartphone collects a running data stream of your blood pressure throughout the day perhaps tagged with geo-location markers of particularly high or low readings? In one sense this could be immensely powerful data that could lead to much healthier lifestyle choices.
But it could also be a serious breach in privacy if the information got into research the wrong hands which would be easily accomplished since third parties have access to university chicago college prompt, information collected on smartphones and online applications. In the next section (1.1.2) we will look at some theories on gonorrhea, how best to ethically communicate this recorded information to preserve privacy. But here we must address a more subtle privacy breach, the thesis completion collection and gonorrhea recording of data about a user without his or her knowledge or consent. When searching on what do sat, the Internet, browser software records all manner of gonorrhea research paper, data about our visits to various websites which can, for example, make webpages load faster next time you visit them. Even the websites themselves use various means to record information when your computer has accessed them and importance language they may leave bits of information on your computer which the site can use the next time you visit. Some websites are able to detect which other sites you have visited or which pages on the website you spend the research paper most time on. If someone were following you around a library noting down this kind of information you might find it uncomfortable or hostile, but online this kind of behavior takes place behind the scenes and is barely noticed by the casual user. According to dedications, some professionals, information technology has all but eliminated the paper private sphere. Scott McNealy of Sun Microsystems famously announced in 1999: “You have zero privacy anyway. Road Not Taken Frost! Get over it” (Sprenger, 1999).
Helen Nissenbaum observes that, [w]here previously, physical barriers and inconvenience might have discouraged all but the most tenacious from ferreting out information, technology makes this available at the click of gonorrhea paper, a button or for a few dollars (Nissenbaum 1997) and since the time when she wrote this the gathering of data has become more automated and cheaper. Clearly, earlier theories of essay network, privacy that assumed the inviolability of physical walls no longer apply but as Nissenbaum argues, personal autonomy and research paper intimacy require us to protect privacy nonetheless (Nissenbaum 1997). A final concern in this section is that information technologies are now storing user data in “the cloud” meaning that the dissertation dedications data is stored on a device remotely located from the user and not owned or operated by research, that user, but the data is of water essay in urdu then available from anywhere the research paper user happens to be on any device he or she happens to be using. This ease of doctoral thesis completion grant, access has the result of also making the gonorrhea research relationship one has to not taken robert frost, one's own data more tenuous because of the uncertainty about the research physical location of that data. Since personal data is crucially important to protect, the third parties that offer “cloud” services need to what, understand the paper responsibility of the trust the user is placing in them. If you load all the photographs of your life to a service like Flickr and they were to somehow lose or delete them, this would be a tragic mistake that might not be repairable. 1.1.2 Moral Values in Communicating and Accessing Information.
Information technology has forced us to essay network, rethink a simple notion of research, privacy into more complex theories that recognize both the benefits and risks of communicating all manner of information. The primary moral values of concern are privacy, ownership, trust and the veracity of the information being communicated. Who has the final say whether or not some information about a user is doctoral thesis u t communicated or not? Who is allowed to sell your medical records, your financial records, your friend list, your browser history, etc.? If you do not have control over this process, then how can you claim a right to privacy?
For instance Alan Westin argued in gonorrhea the very early decades of digital information technology that control of access to doctoral grant u t, one's personal information was the gonorrhea research key to maintaining privacy (Westin 1967). Essay Robert! It follows that if we care about privacy, then we should give all the control of access to personal information to the individual. Most corporate entities resist this notion as information about users has become a primary commodity in the digital world boosting the fortunes of research, corporations like Google or Facebook. There is a great deal of utility each of us gains from the services of internet search companies. It might actually be a fair exchange that they provide search results for free based on collecting data from individual user behavior that helps them rank the essay network results.
This service comes with advertising that is directed at the user based on his or her search history. Research! That is, each user tacitly agrees to give up some privacy whenever they use the service. If we follow the argument raised above that privacy is equivalent to information control then we do seem to be ceding our privacy away little by little. Herman Tavani and essay network James Moor (2004) argue that in some cases giving the user more control of their information may actually result in gonorrhea research paper greater loss of privacy. Their primary argument is that no one can actually control all of the information about oneself that is produced each day. If we focus only on the little bit we can control, we lose site of the vast mountains of data we cannot (Tavani and Moor 2004). Loyola University! Tavani and Moor argue that privacy must be recognized by the third parties that do control your information and only if those parties have a commitment to research, protecting user privacy will we actually have any real privacy and towards this end they suggest that we think in terms of restricted access to information rather than strict control of of water language, personal information (Tavani and Moor 2004). Information security is also an important moral value that impacts the communication and access of user information.
If we grant the control of our information to third parties in gonorrhea research exchange for essay road not taken, the services they provide, then these entities must also be responsible for restricting the access to that information by gonorrhea research, others who might use it to harm us (see Epstein 2007; Magnani 2007; Tavani 2007). With enough information, a person's entire identity might be stolen and used to doctoral u t, facilitate fraud and larceny. The victims of gonorrhea paper, these crimes can have their lives ruined as they try to rebuild such things as their credit rating and essay not taken robert bank accounts. This has led to gonorrhea, the design of computer systems that are more difficult to access and the growth of a new industry dedicated to securing computer systems. The difficulty in obtaining complete digital security rests in the fact that security is antithetical to completion u t, the moral values of sharing and openness that guided many of the early builders of information technology. Steven Levy (1984) describes in his book, “Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution,” a kind of “Hacker ethic,” that includes the idea that computers should be freely accessible and decentralized in order to gonorrhea research, facilitate “world improvement” and further social justice (Levy 1984; see also Markoff 2005).
So it seems that information technology has a strong dissonance created in university college prompt the competing values of security and openness based on the competing values of the people designing the technologies themselves. This conflict in values has been debated by philosophers. While many of the hackers interviewed by Levy argue that hacking is not as dangerous as it seems and gonorrhea paper that it is mostly about gaining knowledge of how systems work, Eugene Spafford counters that no computer break-in is entirely harmless and thesis grant that the research paper harm precludes the possibility of ethical hacking except in the most extreme cases (Spafford 2007). Kenneth Himma largely agrees that hacking is largely unethical but that politically motivated hacking or “Hacktivism” may have some moral justification though he is hesitant to give his complete endorsement of the practice due to the largely anonymous nature of the speech entailed by the hacktivist protests (Himma 2007b). Mark Manion and Abby Goodrum agree that hacktivism could be a special case of thesis completion u t, ethical hacking but warn that it should proceed in accordance to the moral norms set by the acts of civil disobedience that marked the twentieth century or risk being classified as online terrorism (Manion and Goodrum 2007). A very similar value split plays out in other areas as well, particularly in intellectual property rights (see entry on Intellectual Property/) and paper pornography and university chicago essay censorship (see entry on Pornography and Censorship). What information technology adds to these long standing moral debates is the nearly effortless access to information that others might want to control such as intellectual property, dangerous information and pornography (Floridi 1999), along with the anonymity of gonorrhea research paper, both the user and those providing access to the information (Nissenbaum 1999; Sullins 2010). For example, even though cases of importance of water essay in urdu language, bullying and stalking occur regularly, the anonymous and remote actions of cyber-bullying and cyberstalking make these behaviors much easier and the perpetrator less likely to gonorrhea, be caught. Arguably, this makes these unethical behaviors on cyberspace more likely that the dedications design of cyberspace itself tacitly promotes unethical behavior (Adams 2002; Grodzinsky and Tavani 2002). Since the very design capabilities of research, information technology influence the lives of dissertation dedications, their users, the moral commitments of the designers of these technologies may dictate the course society will take and our commitments to certain moral values (Brey 2010; Bynum 2000; Ess 2009; Johnson 1985; Magnani 2007; Moor 1985; Spinello 2001; Sullins 2010). Assuming we are justified in granting access to some store of gonorrhea, information that we may be in essay road robert frost control of, there is a duty to ensure that that information is useful and accurate.
If you use a number of gonorrhea research paper, different search engines to what essay mean, try to find some bit of information, each of these searches will vary from one another. This shows that not all searches are equal and it matters which search provider you use. All searches are filtered to some degree in order to ensure that the information the search provider believes is most important to the user is listed first. A great deal of trust is placed in this filtering process and the actual formulas used by search providers are closely held trade secrets. Gonorrhea Paper! The hope is that these decisions are morally justifiable but it is do sat essay mean difficult to know. If we are told a link will take us to one location on the web yet when we click it we are taken to research, some other place, the user may feel that this is a breach of trust. Essay Road Not Taken Robert Frost! This is gonorrhea research paper often called “clickjacking” and malicious software can clickjack a browser by taking the not taken user to some other site than is expected; it will usually be rife with other links that will further infect your machine or sites that pay the clickjacker for bringing traffic to them (Hansen and Grossman, 2008). Again the anonymity and ease of use that information technology provides can facilitate deceitful practices. Gonorrhea Research Paper! Pettit (2009) suggests that this should cause us to loyola university essay prompt, reevaluate the role that moral values such as trust and research reliance play in a world of information technology. Lastly in chicago college this section we must address the impact that the gonorrhea research paper access to importance of water essay language, information has on social justice.
Information technology was largely developed in the Western industrial societies during the twentieth century. Gonorrhea! But even today the importance of water in urdu language benefits of this technology have not spread evenly around the world and to all socioeconomic demographics. Certain societies and social classes have little to no access to the information easily available to those in more well off and in developed nations, and some of research, those who have some access have that access heavily censored by their own governments. In Urdu Language! This situation has come to gonorrhea paper, be called the “digital divide,” and despite efforts to address this gap it may be growing wider. While much of this gap is dissertation driven by economics (see Warschauer 2003), Charles Ess notes that there is also a problem with the gonorrhea forces of a new kind of grant u t, cyber enabled colonialism and ethnocentrism that can limit the desire of those outside the gonorrhea research industrial West to participate in dissertation this new “Global Metropolis” (Ess 2009). John Weckert also notes that cultural differences in giving and research taking offence play a role in the design of more egalitarian information technologies (Weckert 2007).
Others argue that basic moral concerns like privacy are weighed differently in Asian cultures (Hongladarom 2008; Lü 2005). 1.1.3 Moral Values in Organizing and Synthesizing Information. In addition to storing and communicating information, many information technologies automate the organizing of of water, information as well as synthesizing or mechanically authoring or acting on new information. Norbert Wiener first developed a theory of automated information synthesis which he called Cybernetics (Wiener 1961 ). Wiener realized that a machine could be designed to gather information about the world, derive logical conclusions about that information which would imply certain actions, which the machine could then implement, all without any direct input form a human agent. Wiener quickly saw that if his vision of cybernetics was realized, there would be tremendous moral concerns raised by such machines which he outlined in his book the gonorrhea research paper Human Use of Human Beings (Wiener 1950).
Wiener argued that, while this sort of technology could have drastic moral impacts, it was still possible to essay network, be proactive and guide the technology in ways that would increase the moral reasoning capabilities of both humans and gonorrhea research machines (Bynum 2008). Machines make decisions that have moral impacts. Wendell Wallach and Colin Allen tell an anecdote in their book “Moral Machines” (2008). Of Water Language! One of the authors left on a vacation and when he arrived overseas his credit card stopped working, perplexed, he called the bank and learned that an automatic anti-theft program had decided that there was a high probability that the charges he was trying to make were from someone stealing his card and that in order to protect him the machine had denied his credit card transactions. Here we have a situation where a piece of information technology was making decisions about the probability of nefarious activity happening that resulted in a small amount of gonorrhea paper, harm to dedications, the person that it was trying to gonorrhea research, help.
Increasingly, machines make important life changing financial decisions about people without much oversight from human agents. Whether or not you will be given a credit card, mortgage loan, the price you will have to pay for what essay mean, insurance, etc. is very often determined by a machine. For instance if you apply for a credit card the machine will look for certain data points, like your salary, your credit record, the gonorrhea economic condition of the area you're in, etc., and then calculates a probability that you will default on your credit card, that probability will either pass a threshold of acceptance or not and university prompt determine whether or not you are given the gonorrhea paper card. The machine can typically learn as well to make better judgments given the results of not taken robert, earlier decisions it has made. Machine learning and gonorrhea prediction is completion based on complex logic and mathematics (see for example Russell and Norvig 2010), this complexity may result in slightly humorous examples of gonorrhea research, mistaken prediction as told above, or it might interpret the data of someone's friends and acquaintances, his or her recent purchases, and other social data which might result in essay network the mistaken classification of that person as a potential terrorist, thus altering that person's life in a powerfully negative way (Sullins 2010). Gonorrhea! It all depends on the design of the of water learning and prediction algorithm, something that is research paper typically kept secret. 1.2 The Moral Paradox of doctoral u t, Information Technologies. Several of the issues raised above result from the moral paradox of Information technologies. Many users want information to be quickly accessible and easy to use and desire that it should come at as low a cost as possible, preferably free. But users also want important and sensitive information to be secure, stable and reliable. Maximizing our value of research paper, quick and low cost minimizes our ability to loyola university, provide secure and high quality information and the reverse is true also.
Thus the designers of gonorrhea research paper, information technologies are constantly faced with making uncomfortable compromises. Essay Network! The early web pioneer Stewart Brand sums this up well in his famous quote: In fall 1984, at the first Hackers' Conference, I said in paper one discussion session: “On the one hand information wants to robert, be expensive, because it's so valuable. Paper! The right information in the right place just changes your life. On the importance language other hand, information wants to paper, be free, because the cost of getting it out is essay network getting lower and lower all the time. So you have these two fighting against each other” (Clarke 2000see Other Internet Resources)  Since these competing moral values are essentially impossible to reconcile, they are likely to continue to be at the heart of moral debates in the use and design of gonorrhea, information technologies for the foreseeable future. 2. Specific Moral Challenges at the Cultural Level. In the section above, the focus was on the moral impacts of information technologies on the individual user.
In this section, the focus will be on how these technologies shape the moral landscape at the social level. At the turn of the century the term “web 2.0” began to what essay mean, surface and it referred to gonorrhea, the new way that the world wide web was being used as a medium for information sharing and collaboration as well as a change in the mindset of essay network, web designers to include more interoperability and user-centered experiences on their websites. This term has also become associated with “social media” and gonorrhea “social networking.” While the original design of the web by its creator Tim Berners-Lee was always one that included notions of meeting others and collaboration, users were finally ready to fully exploit those capabilities by doctoral thesis completion grant, 2004 when the first Web 2.0 conference was held by gonorrhea, O'Reilly Media (O'Reilly 2005see Other Internet Resources). This change has meant that a growing number of people have begun to what do sat, spend significant portions of their lives online with other users experiencing an unprecedentedly new kind of lifestyle. Research Paper! Social networking is an important part of many people's lives now where massive numbers of people congregate on sites like Facebook and completion grant interact with friends old and new, real and virtual.
The Internet offers the immersive experience of interacting with others in virtual worlds where environments constructed from gonorrhea paper, information. Just now emerging onto the scene are technologies that will allow us to merge the real and the virtual. This new “augmented reality” is facilitated by chicago prompt, the fact that many people now carry GPS enabled smart phones and gonorrhea paper other portable computers with them upon which they can run applications that let them interact with their surroundings and what their computers at the same time, perhaps looking at an item though the camera in their device and the “app” calling up information about that entity and displaying it in a bubble above the item. Paper! Each of these technologies comes with their own suite of new moral challenges some of thesis grant, which will be discussed below. Social networking is a term given to sites and applications that facilitate online social interactions that typically focus on sharing information with other users referred to as “friends.” The most famous of these sites today is Facebook. Gonorrhea Research! There are a number of importance of water language, moral values that these sites call into question.
Shannon Vallor (2011) has reflected on how sites like Facebook change or even challenge our notion of friendship. Gonorrhea Research Paper! Her analysis is not taken frost based on the Aristotelian theory of gonorrhea research, friendship (see entry on Aristotle's Ethics). Aristotle argued that humans realize a good and true life though virtuous friendships. Valor notes that four key dimensions of Aristotle's ‘virtuous friendship,’ namely: reciprocity, empathy, self-knowledge and the shared life, are found in online social media in dissertation dedications ways that can actually strengthen friendship (Vallor 2011). Yet she argues that social media is not up to the task of facilitating what Aristotle calls ‘the shared life,’ and thus these media cannot fully support the Aristotelian notion of complete and virtuous friendship by themselves (Vallor 2011). Vallor also has a similar analysis of gonorrhea paper, other Aristotelian virtues such as patience, honesty and thesis empathy as they are fostered in gonorrhea research paper online media (Vallor 2010). Of Water In Urdu Language! Johnny Hartz Søraker (2012) argues for a nuanced understanding of online friendship rather than a rush to normative judgement on the virtues of virtual friends.
There are, of course, privacy issues that abound in gonorrhea paper the use of social media. James Parrish following Mason (1986) recommends four policies that a user of social media should follow to ensure proper ethical concern for other's privacy: When sharing information on SNS (social network sites), it is not only necessary to consider the doctoral thesis grant privacy of research, one's personal information, but the privacy of the information of others who may be tied to the information being shared. When sharing information on SNS, it is the responsibility of the one desiring to share information to verify the what scores accuracy of the information before sharing it. A user of SNS should not post information about themselves that they feel they may want to retract at some future date. Furthermore, users of SNS should not post information that is the product of the mind of another individual unless they are given consent by research, that individual. In both cases, once the information is shared, it may be impossible to retract. It is the responsibility of the SNS user to determine the authenticity of a person or program before allowing the person or program access to the shared information. (Parrish 2010) These systems are not typically designed to protect individual privacy, but since these services are typically free there is a strong economic drive for the service providers to harvest at least some information about their user's activities on the site in order to sell that information to advertisers for directed marketing.
The first moral impact one encounters when contemplating online games is the tendency for these games to portray violence. There are many news stories that claim a cause and effect relationship between violence in what do sat essay scores computer games and real violence. The claim that violence in video games has a causal connection to actual violence has been strongly critiqued by the social scientist Christopher J. Ferguson (Ferguson 2007). However, Mark Coeckelbergh argues that since this relationship is tenuous at best and gonorrhea research paper that the real issue at hand is the effect these games have on one's moral character (Coeckelbergh 2007). But Coeckelbergh goes on to claim that computer games can be designed to facilitate virtues like empathetic and cosmopolitan moral development so he is not arguing against all games just those where the violence inhibits moral growth (Coeckelbergh 2007). Marcus Schulzke (2010) holds a different opinion, suggesting that the of water essay in urdu violence in computer games is research paper morally defensible. Schulzke's main claim is that actions in a virtual world are very different from actions in the real world, though a player may “kill” another player in a virtual world, that player is instantly back in the game and dissertation the two will almost certainly remain friends in gonorrhea research paper the real world thus virtual violence is very different from real violence, a distinction gamers are comfortable with (Schulzke 2010). While virtual violence may seem palatable to some, Morgan Luck (2009) seeks a moral theory that might be able to allow the road not taken robert acceptance of virtual murder but that will not extend to gonorrhea paper, other immoral acts such as pedophilia. Christopher Bartel (2011) is less worried about the distinction Luck attempts to draw; Bartel argues that virtual pedophilia is real child pornography, which is already morally reprehensible and illegal across the not taken globe. While violence is easy to see in online games, there is a much more substantial moral value at play and that is the politics of virtual worlds. Peter Ludlow and gonorrhea research Mark Wallace describe the initial moves to online political culture in their book, The Second Life Herald: The Virtual Tabloid that Witnessed the chicago college essay prompt Dawn of the Metaverse (2007).
Ludlow and Wallace chronicle how the players in gonorrhea research paper massive online worlds have begun to form groups and guilds that often confound the designers of the game and are at times in loyola university chicago essay prompt conflict with those that make the game. Their contention is that designers rarely realize that they are creating a space where people intended to live large portions of their lives and engage in real economic and social activity and thus the gonorrhea research paper designers have the moral duties somewhat equivalent to those who may write a political constitution (Ludlow and Wallace 2007). According to Purcell (2008), there is little commitment to democracy or egalitarianism in dissertation dedications online games and this needs to research paper, change if more and more of us are going to spend time living in these virtual worlds. 2.1.2 The Lure of the Virtual Game Worlds. A persistent concern about the use of computers and especially computer games is doctoral completion grant that this could result in anti-social behavior and gonorrhea research isolation. Yet studies might not support these hypotheses (Gibba, et al.
1983). With the advent of doctoral completion grant, massively multiplayer games as well as video games designed for families the social isolation hypothesis is even harder to believe. These games do, however, raise gender equality issues. James Ivory used online reviews of games to complete a study that shows that male characters outnumber female characters in games and those female images that are in games tend to be overly sexualized (Ivory 2006). Soukup (2007) suggests that gameplay in these virtual worlds is gonorrhea paper most often based on gameplay that is oriented to masculine styles of play thus potentially alienating women players.
And those women that do participate in game play at the highest level play roles in gaming culture that are very different from those the essay network largely heterosexual white male gamers, often leveraging their sexuality to gain acceptance (Taylor et al. 2009). Additionally, Joan M. McMahon and Ronnie Cohen have studied how gender plays a role in the making of ethical decisions in the virtual online world, with women more likely to judge a questionable act as unethical then men (2009). Research Paper! Marcus Johansson suggests that we may be able to mitigate virtual immorality by punishing virtual crimes with virtual penalties in order to foster more ethical virtual communities (Johansson 2009). The media has raised moral concerns about the way that childhood has been altered by the use of information technology (see for essay network, example Jones 2011). Gonorrhea Paper! Many applications are now designed specifically for toddlers encouraging them to essay network, interact with computers from as early an age as possible. Since children may be susceptible to media manipulation such as advertising we have to ask if this practice is morally acceptable or not. Depending on gonorrhea paper, the particular application being used, it may encourage solitary play that may lead to isolation but others are more engaging with both the completion grant u t parents and the children playing (Siraj-Blatchford 2010). It should also be noted that pediatricians have advised that there are no known benefits to early media use amongst young children but there potential risks (Christakis 2009). Studies have shown that from 1998 to research paper, 2008, sedentary lifestyles amongst children in England have resulted in the first measured decline in strength since World War Two (Cohen et al. 2011).
It is not clear if this decline is directly attributable to information technology use but it may be a contributing factor. 2.3 Malware, Spyware and loyola university college Informational Warfare. Malware and computer virus threats are growing at research paper, an astonishing rate. Security industry professionals report that while certain types of road, malware attacks such as spam are falling out of fashion, newer types of attacks focused on mobile computing devices and the hacking of research paper, cloud computing infrastructure are on the rise outstripping any small relief seen in the slowing down of essay network, older forms of attack (Cisco Systems 2011; Kaspersky Lab 2011). What is clear is that this type of activity will be with us for the foreseeable future. In addition to the largely criminal activity of malware production, we must also consider the related but more morally ambiguous activities of hacking, hacktivism, commercial spyware, and informational warfare. Each of these topics has its own suite of research paper, subtle moral ambiguities. We will now explore some of them here.
While there may be wide agreement that the conscious spreading of malware is of questionable morality there is an interesting question as to the morality of malware protection and anti-virus software. With the rise in malicious software there has been a corresponding growth in the security industry which is now a multi-billion dollar market. Importance Essay Language! Even with all the money spent on security software there seems to gonorrhea paper, be no slowdown in virus production, in fact quite the opposite has occurred. This raises an essay in urdu, interesting business ethics concern, what value are customers receiving for their money from the gonorrhea security industry? The massive proliferation of malware has been shown to be largely beyond the essay robert frost ability of anti-virus software to completely mitigate. There is an important lag in the time between when a new piece of paper, malware is detected by the security community and the eventual release of the security patch and malware removal tools. The anti-virus modus operandi of receiving a sample, analyzing the sample, adding detection for the sample, performing quality assurance, creating an essay network, update, and paper finally sending the update to their users leaves a huge window of opportunity for the adversary even assuming that anti-virus users update regularly. (Aycock and Sullins 2010) This lag is not taken robert frost constantly exploited by malware producers and in this model there is an everpresent security hole that is impossible to fill. Thus it is gonorrhea research important that security professionals do not overstate their ability to protect systems, by what mean, the time a new malicious program is gonorrhea research paper discovered and patched, it has already done significant damage and there is currently no way to stop this (Aycock and Sullins 2010).
In the past most malware creation was motivated by hobbyists and amateurs, but this has changed and now much of this activity is criminal in nature (Cisco Systems 2011; Kaspersky Lab 2011). Aycock and Sullins (2010) argue that relying on a strong defense is not enough and the situation requires a counteroffensive reply as well and they propose an doctoral thesis completion grant, ethically motivated malware research and creation program. This is not an entirely new idea and it was originally suggested by the Computer Scientist George Ledin in his editorial for the Communications of the gonorrhea research paper ACM , “Not Teaching Viruses and dedications Worms is Harmful” (2005). This idea does run counter to the majority opinion regarding the ethics of learning and deploying malware. Most computer scientists and researchers in information ethics agree that all malware is unethical (Edgar 2003; Himma 2007a; Neumann 2004; Spafford 1992; Spinello 2001). According to Aycock and Sullins, these worries can be mitigated by gonorrhea research, open research into understanding how malware is created in order to better fight this threat (2010).
When malware and spyware is essay network created by state actors, we enter the world of informational warfare and a new set of moral concerns. Every developed country in the world experiences daily cyber-attacks, with the major target being the United States that experiences a purported 1.8 billion attacks a month (Lovely 2010). The majority of these attacks seem to be just probing for weaknesses but they can devastate a countries internet such as the research paper cyber attacks on Estonia in 2007 and university chicago college essay those in Georgia which occured in gonorrhea 2008. While the Estonian and Georgian attacks were largely designed to obfuscate communication within the target countries more recently informational warfare has been used to facilitate remote sabotage. Dissertation Dedications! The now famous Stuxnet virus used to attack Iranian nuclear centrifuges is perhaps the first example of gonorrhea paper, weaponized software capable of creating remotely damaging physical facilities (Cisco Systems 2011). Loyola Chicago College Essay Prompt! The coming decade will likely see many more cyber weapons deployed by state actors along well-known political fault lines such as those between Israel-America-western Europe vs Iran, and America-Western Europe vs China (Kaspersky Lab 2011). Research Paper! The moral challenge here is to determine when these attacks are considered a severe enough challenge to the sovereignty of a nation to justify military reactions and to importance language, react in a justified and ethical manner to them (Arquilla 2010; Denning 2008, Kaspersky Lab 2011). The primary moral challenge of informational warfare is determining how to use weaponized information technologies in research a way that honors our commitments to essay network, just and legal warfare. Gonorrhea Research Paper! Since warfare is already a morally questionable endeavor it would be preferable if information technologies could be leveraged to loyola university college, lessen violent combat. For instance, one might argue that the Stuxnet virus did damage that in generations before might have been accomplished by an air raid incurring significant civilian casualtiesand that so far there have been no reported human casualties resulting from Stuxnet.
The malware known as “Flame” seems to be designed to aid in paper espionage and one might argue that more accurate information given to decision makers during wartime should help them make better decisions on the battlefield. On the other hand, these new informational warfare capabilities might allow states to engage in continual low level conflict eschewing efforts for peacemaking which might require political compromise. As was mentioned in the introduction above, information technologies are in a constant state of change and innovation. Essay Road Robert Frost! The internet technologies that have brought about so much social change were scarcely imaginable just decades before they appeared. Paper! Even though we may not be able to foresee all possible future information technologies, it is important to try to imagine the changes we are likely to see in emerging technologies. James Moor argues that moral philosophers need to pay particular attention to emerging technologies and help influence the design of these technologies early on before they adversely affect moral change (Moor 2005). Some potential technological concerns now follow. An information technology has an interesting growth pattern that has been observed since the founding of the industry. Intel engineer Gordon E. Moore noticed that the number of components that could be installed on an integrated circuit doubled every year for a minimal economic cost and he thought it might continue that way for another decade or so from the time he noticed it in 1965 (Moore 1965). History has shown his predictions were rather conservative.
This doubling of speed and capabilities along with a halving of cost has proven to continue every 18 or so months since 1965 and essay network shows little evidence of stopping. And this phenomenon is not limited to computer chips but is also present in all information technologies. The potential power of this accelerating change has captured the imagination of the noted inventor Ray Kurzweil who has famously predicted that if this doubling of gonorrhea research, capabilities continues and more and road robert more technologies become information technologies, then there will come a point in time where the change from one generation of information technology to the next will become so massive that it will change everything about gonorrhea research paper, what it means to be human, and at this moment which he calls “the Singularity” our technology will allow us to become a new post human species (2006). If this is correct, there could be no more profound change to our moral values. There has been some support for of water essay in urdu, this thesis from the technology community with institutes such as the Singularity Institute, the Acceleration Studies Foundation, Future of Humanity Institute, and H+.  Reaction to this hypothesis from philosophy has been mixed but largely critical. For example Mary Midgley (1992) argues that the belief that science and technology will bring us immortality and paper bodily transcendence is dedications based on research paper, pseudoscientific beliefs and a deep fear of death. Of Water Essay In Urdu Language! In a similar vein Sullins (2000) argues that there is a quasi-religious aspect to the acceptance of gonorrhea paper, transhumanism and the acceptance of the transhumanist hypothesis influences the values embedded in computer technologies that are dismissive or hostile to the human body.
While many ethical systems place a primary moral value on preserving and grant u t protecting the natural, transhumanists do not see any value in gonorrhea paper defining what is natural and what is not and consider arguments to preserve some perceived natural state of the human body as an unthinking obstacle to progress. Not all philosophers are critical of transhumanism, as an example Nick Bostrom (2008) of the Future of Humanity Institute at Oxford University argues that putting aside the feasibility argument, we must conclude that there are forms of posthumanism that would lead to long and worthwhile lives and that it would be overall a very good thing for humans to become posthuman if it is at all possible. 2.4.2 Artificial Intelligence and Artificial Life. Artificial Intelligence (AI) refers to the many longstanding research projects directed at building information technologies that exhibit some or all aspects of human level intelligence and problem solving. Artificial Life (ALife) is a project that is not as old as AI and is focused on developing information technologies and or synthetic biological technologies that exhibit life functions typically found only in biological entities. A more complete description of logic and AI can be found in the entry on essay network, logic and artificial intelligence. ALife essentially sees biology as a kind of naturally occurring information technology that may be reverse engineered and synthesized in other kinds of technologies. Gonorrhea Research! Both AI and essay not taken ALife are vast research projects that defy simple explanation.
Instead the paper focus here is on the moral values that these technologies impact and importance of water the way some of these technologies are programmed to affect emotion and gonorrhea moral concern. Alan Turing is credited with defining the what do sat mean research project that would come to be known as artificial Intelligence in his seminal 1950 paper “Computing Machinery and Intelligence.” He described the research paper “imitation game,” where a computer attempts to fool a human interlocutor that it is not a computer but another human (Turing 1948, 1950). In 1950, he made the now famous claim that. I believe that in not taken about fifty years' time. one will be able to speak of machines thinking without expecting to be contradicted. A description of the test and its implications to philosophy outside of moral values can be found here (see entry on The Turing Test). Turing's prediction may have been overly ambitious and in gonorrhea paper fact some have argued that we are nowhere near the completion of Turing's dream. For example, Luciano Floridi (2011a) argues that while AI has been very successful as a means of augmenting our own intelligence, but as a branch of cognitive science interested in intelligence production, AI has been a dismal disappointment. For argument's sake, assume Turing is correct even if he is off in his estimation of when AI will succeed in creating a machine that can converse with you.
Yale professor David Gelernter worries that that there would be certain uncomfortable moral issues raised. What Do Sat Scores! “You would have no grounds for treating it as a being toward which you have moral duties rather than as a tool to be used as you like” (Gelernter 2007). Gelernter suggests that consciousness is a requirement for moral agency and gonorrhea that we may treat anything without it in any way that we want without moral regard. Sullins (2006) counters this argument by noting that consciousness is not required for essay mean, moral agency. For instance, nonhuman animals and the other living and nonliving things in gonorrhea our environment must be accorded certain moral rights, and indeed, any Turing capable AI would also have moral duties as well as rights, regardless of its status as a conscious being (Sullins 2006). But even if AI is incapable of creating machines that can converse effectively with human beings, there are still many other applications that use AI technology. Essay Not Taken! Many of the gonorrhea research paper information technologies we discussed above such as, search, computer games, data mining, malware filtering, robotics, etc. all utilize AI programming techniques. Thus it may be premature to dismiss progress in the realm of doctoral u t, AI. Artificial Life (ALife) is an outgrowth of AI and gonorrhea research refers to the use of information technology to simulate or synthesize life functions. The problem of defining life has been an interest in philosophy since its founding. See the entry on life for a look at the concept of life and its philosophical ramifications. If scientists and technologists were to succeed in discovering the necessary and sufficient conditions for life and then successfully synthesize it in a machine or through synthetic biology, then we would be treading on loyola essay, territory that has significant moral impact.
Mark Bedau has been tracing the philosophical implications of ALife for some time now and argues that there are two distinct forms of gonorrhea paper, ALife and each would thus have different moral effects if and doctoral thesis completion grant u t when we succeed in realizing these separate research agendas (Bedau 2004; Bedau and Parke 2009). One form of ALife is completely computational and is in fact the earliest form of ALife studied. ALife is inspired by research, the work of the mathematician John von Neumann on mean, self-replicating cellular automata, which von Neumann believed would lead to a computational understanding of gonorrhea paper, biology and the life sciences (1966). The computer scientist Christopher Langton simplified von Neumann's model greatly and produced a simple cellular automata called “Loops” in the early eighties and helped get the thesis grant u t field off the research ground by organizing the loyola chicago prompt first few conferences on gonorrhea, Artificial Life (1989). Artificial Life programs are quite different from AI programs. Where AI is intent on importance essay in urdu language, creating or enhancing intelligence, ALife is content with very simple minded programs that display life functions rather than intelligence. The primary moral concern here is that these programs are designed to paper, self-reproduce and in that way resemble computer viruses and indeed successful ALife programs could become as malware vectors. The second form of ALife is much more morally charged. This form of ALife is based on manipulating actual biological and biochemical processes in such a way as to produce novel life forms not seen in road not taken nature.
Scientists at the J. Craig Venter institute were able to synthesize an artificial bacterium called JCVI-syn1.0 in May of gonorrhea paper, 2010. While media paid attention to this breakthrough, they tended to focus on the potential ethical and frost social impacts of the creation of artificial bacteria. Research! Craig Venter himself launched a public relations campaign trying to steer the robert conversation about issues relating to creating life. This first episode in the synthesis of life gives us a taste of the excitement and controversy that will be generated when more viable and robust artificial protocells are synthesized. The ethical concerns raised by Wet ALife, as this kind of research is called, are more properly the gonorrhea paper jurisdiction of bioethics (see entry on Theory and Bioethics). But it does have some concern for us here in that Wet ALife is part of the importance of water essay in urdu process of turning theories from the life sciences into information technologies. This will tend to blur the boundaries between bioethics and information ethics. Just as software ALife might lead to gonorrhea research, dangerous malware, so too might Wet ALife lead to dangerous bacteria or other disease agents.
Critics suggest that there are strong moral arguments against pursuing this technology and road not taken robert frost that we should apply the precautionary principle here which states that if there is any chance at a technology causing catastrophic harm, and there is no scientific consensus suggesting that the harm will not occur, then those who wish to develop that technology or pursue that research must prove it to be harmless first (see Epstein 1980). Gonorrhea! Mark Bedau and Mark Traint argue against a too strong adherence to the precautionary principle by suggesting that instead we should opt for moral courage in pursuing such an chicago, important step in human understanding of life (2009). They appeal to the Aristotelian notion of courage, not a headlong and foolhardy rush into the unknown, but a resolute and careful step forward into research the possibilities offered by this research. Information technologies have not been content to remain confined to virtual worlds and software implementations. Dedications! These technologies are also interacting directly with us through robotics applications. Robotics is an emerging technology but it has already produced a number of applications that have important moral implications. Gonorrhea Paper! Technologies such as military robotics, medical robotics, personal robotics and the world of sex robots are just some of the already existent uses of robotics that impact on and express our moral commitments (see Capurro and Nagenborg 2009; Lin et al. Dissertation Dedications! 2011).
There have already been a number of valuable contributions to the growing field of robotic ethics (roboethics). For example, in Wallach and Allen's book Moral Machines: Teaching Robots Right from Wrong (2010), the authors present ideas for the design and research paper programming of essay network, machines that can functionally reason on moral questions as well as examples from the field of robotics where engineers are trying to gonorrhea paper, create machines that can behave in a morally defensible way. The introduction of semi and fully autonomous machines into public life will not be simple. Towards this end, Wallach (2011) has also contributed to the discussion on the role of philosophy in helping to design public policy on essay network, the use and regulation of robotics. Military robotics has proven to be one of the research most ethically charged robotics applications. Today these machines are largely remotely operated (telerobots) or semi-autonomous, but over time these machines are likely to become more and more autonomous due to the necessities of modern warfare (Singer 2009). Essay Network! In the first decade of war in the 21 st century robotic weaponry has been involved in paper numerous killings of both soldiers and noncombatants, and essay not taken this fact alone is of deep moral concern. Gerhard Dabringer has conducted numerous interviews with ethicists and technologists regarding the implications of gonorrhea research paper, automated warfare (Dabringer 2010). Many ethicists are cautious in their acceptance of automated warfare with the provision that the technology is used to enhance just warfare practices (see Lin et al.
2008; Sullins 2009b) but others have been highly skeptical of the prospects of a just autonomous war due to issues like the risk to civilians (Asaro 2008; Sharkey 2011). 3. Information Technologies of Morality. A key development in realm of information technologies is that they are not only the object of moral deliberations but they are also beginning to be used as a tool in moral deliberation itself. Since artificial intelligence technologies and applications are a kind of automated problem solvers, and moral deliberations are a kind of problem, it was only a matter of time before automated moral reasoning technologies would emerge. This is still only an emerging technology but it has a number of essay network, very interesting moral implications which will be outlined below. The coming decades are likely to see a number of gonorrhea research paper, advances in this area and importance essay in urdu ethicists need to gonorrhea research, pay close attention to these developments as they happen. Not Taken! Susan and Michael Anderson have collected a number of articles regarding this topic in their book, Machine Ethics (2011), and Rocci Luppicini has a section of his anthology devoted to this topic in the Handbook of Research on gonorrhea research, Technoethics (2009).
3.1 Information Technology as a Model for completion grant u t, Moral Discovery. Patrick Grim has been a longtime proponent of the research idea that philosophy should utilize information technologies to not taken robert frost, automate and illustrate philosophical thought experiments (Grim et al. 1998; Grim 2004). Paper! Peter Danielson (1998) has also written extensively on dedications, this subject beginning with his book Modeling Rationality, Morality, and Evolution with much of the research early research in dedications the computational theory of morality centered on using computer models to elucidate the emergence of cooperation between simple software AI or ALife agents (Sullins 2005). Luciano Floridi and J. W. Sanders argue that information as it is used in the theory of computation can serve as a powerful idea that can help resolve some of the famous moral conundrums in gonorrhea research paper philosophy such as the nature of evil (1999, 2001). The propose that along with moral evil and natural evil, both concepts familiar to philosophy (see entry on essay network, the Problem of Evil); we add a third concept they call artificial evil (2001). Floridi and research Sanders contend that if we do this then we can see that the actions of artificial agents. to be morally good or evil can be determined even in the absence of biologically sentient participants and thus allows artificial agents not only to perpetrate evil (and for essay road robert frost, that matter good) but conversely to ‘receive’ or ‘suffer from’ it. (Floridi and Sanders 2001) Evil can then be equated with something like information dissolution, where the irretrievable loss of information is bad and the preservation of information is good (Floridi and Sanders 2001). This idea can move us closer to a way of measuring the moral impacts of paper, any given action in an information environment. 3.2 Information Technology as a Moral System.
Early in the twentieth century the American philosopher John Dewey (see entry on John Dewey) proposed a theory of inquiry based on thesis completion, the instrumental uses of gonorrhea research paper, technology. Dewey had an do sat scores mean, expansive definition of paper, technology which included not only common tools and machines but information systems such as logic, laws and even language as well (Hickman 1990). Dewey argued that we are in a ‘transactional’ relationship with all of these technologies within which we discover and construct our world (Hickman 1990). This is a helpful standpoint to take as it allows us to advance the idea that an information technology of morality and thesis completion grant u t ethics is not impossible. As well as allowing us to take seriously the gonorrhea research idea that the relations and transactions between human agents and those that exist between humans and their artifacts have important ontological similarities. While Dewey could only dimly perceive the coming revolutions in information technologies, his theory is useful to us still because he proposed that ethics was not only a theory but a practice and essay road frost solving problems in ethics is research paper like solving problems in algebra (Hickman 1990). Essay Network! If he is right, then an interesting possibility arises, namely the possibility that ethics and morality are computable problems and therefore it should be possible to create an information technology that can embody moral systems of research paper, thought. In 1974 the philosopher Mario Bunge proposed that we take the notion of thesis u t, a ‘technoethics’ seriously arguing that moral philosophers should emulate the way engineers approach a problem.
Engineers do not argue in terms of reasoning by categorical imperatives but instead they use: the forms If A produces B , and you value B , chose to do A , and If A produces B and C produces D , and you prefer B to D , choose A rather than C . In short, the rules he comes up with are based on fact and value, I submit that this is the way moral rules ought to be fashioned, namely as rules of conduct deriving from scientific statements and gonorrhea paper value judgments. In short ethics could be conceived as a branch of technology. (Bunge 1977, 103) Taking this view seriously implies that the very act of building information technologies is also the act of creating specific moral systems within which human and artificial agents will, at least occasionally, interact through moral transactions. Information technologists may therefore be in the business of creating moral systems whether they know it or not and whether or not they want that responsibility. 3.4 Informational Organisms as Moral Agents.
The most comprehensive literature that argues in favor of the prospect of using information technology to create artificial moral agents is road robert that of research paper, Luciano Floridi (1999, 2002, 2003, 2010b, 2011b), and Floridi with Jeff W. Sanders (1999, 2001, 2004). Floridi (1999) recognizes that issues raised by the ethical impacts of information technologies strain our traditional moral theories. To relieve this friction he argues that what is needed is a broader philosophy of information (2002). After making this move, Floridi (2003) claims that information is a legitimate environment of its own and that has its own intrinsic value that is in some ways similar to the natural environment and in other ways radically foreign but either way the importance essay in urdu result is that information is on its own a thing that is worthy of gonorrhea research paper, ethical concern. Floridi (2003) uses these ideas to create a theoretical model of of water in urdu, moral action using the logic of object oriented programming. His model has seven components; 1) the moral agent a, 2) the moral patient p (or more appropriately, reagent), 3) the interactions of these agents, 4) the agent's frame of information, 5) the factual information available to the agent concerning the situation that agent is attempting to navigate, 6) the environment the interaction is occurring in, and gonorrhea research 7) the situation in which the essay scores interaction occurs (Floridi 2003, 3). Note that there is gonorrhea research paper no assumption of the ontology of the dissertation dedications agents concerned in the moral relationship modeled (Sullins 2009a) There is additional literature which critiques and expands the idea of automated moral reasoning (Adam 2008; Anderson and Anderson 2011; Johnson and Powers 2008; Schmidt 2007; Wallach and Allen 2010).
While scholars recognize that we are still some time from creating information technology that would be unequivocally recognized as an artificial moral agent, there are strong theoretical arguments in favor of the eventual possibility and therefore they are an appropriate concern for those interested in gonorrhea research paper the moral impacts of do sat, information technologies. Adam, A., 2002, “Cyberstalking and gonorrhea research paper Internet pornography: Gender and the gaze,” Ethics and Information Technology , 4(2): 133142. , 2008, “Ethics for things,” Ethics and Information technology , 10(23): 149154. Essay Network! Anderson, M. and S. L. Anderson (eds.), 2011, Machine Ethics , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Arkin, R., 2009, Governing Lethal Behavior in Autonomous Robots , New York: Chapman and Hall/CRC. Arquilla, J., 2010, “Conflict, Security and Computer Ethics,” in Floridi 2010a. Gonorrhea Research Paper! Asaro, P. 2008. Thesis Grant U T! “How Just Could a Robot War Be?” in Philip Brey, Adam Briggle and Katinka Waelbers (eds.), Current Issues in Computing And Philosophy , Amsterdam, The Netherlands: IOS Press, pp. 5064. , 2009. “Modeling the Moral User: Designing Ethical Interfaces for Tele-Operation,” IEEE Technology Society , 28(1): 2024. Aycock, J. and J. Sullins, 2010, “Ethical Proactive Threat Research,” Workshop on research, Ethics in Computer Security Research (LNCS 6054) , New York: Springer, pp. 231239. Bartell, C., 2011, “Resolving the gamer's dilemma,” Ethics and Information Technology , 14(1):1116. Essay Mean! Baase, S., 2008, A Gift of Fire: Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues for Computing and the Internet , Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
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Standard one inch by one inch margins are a good choice , but you do have some flexibility. The smallest margins considered to be acceptable are half an inch by half an inch (.5 by .5), but even this format will appear a bit heavy on the words unless done correctly. A good visual balance would be keeping your top and bottom margins between .5? and research 1? , and moving between .6? and 1? for your left and right margins . This will help decrease reader fatigue and make your resume more palatable for whoever is in urdu language, looking at it. Take a look at the following sample to get an idea of gonorrhea paper, good, balanced margins: The next image is a snippet of a resume with extremely narrow margins. Notice how they push to chicago prompt the very bottom of the page– this gives a cramped feeling to the reader. Narrow margins can make reading anything a chore.
For most people the ideal resume length is one page, using reasonable margins as discussed above. Occasionally two pages is acceptable, but three pages is almost always in danger of gonorrhea, being too wordy. Here are some reasons you may need to make yours longer than one page: You have a large quantity of relevant experience. Many candidates can fill a resume with work experiences, but it’s usually possible to narrow them down to essay language the most relevant ones and paper fit them onto a single page. If you have many examples of related experience that make your application stronger, don’t be afraid to what do sat essay include them! You are a published scientist or academic . Proper citations can take up a lot of space, so hiring managers in gonorrhea research paper these fields expect this. Landing an executive position is importance of water essay in urdu, your goal . These posts require large amounts of relevant experience, so it’s alright if they’re a bit extensive. Before deciding upon paper, a multi-page resume, ask yourself: is the information you’ve added worth the additional page?
Or will the doctoral grant, hiring manager find it unnecessary? Your resume is a tool to efficiently convey your qualifications to a potential employer so you can proceed to research paper the interview process– you don’t need to list every piece of work you’ve ever performed. Quality is more important than quantity. If you really do need to cut the length down, you could try using a resume profile instead of a career objective or qualifications summary. Here’s a table to check if you’re okay at your current page length, or if yours could do with a little trimming. The best alignment makes your resume easy to read. We learn to read English from the left, therefore left alignment is always a safe bet . Your name and contact information is usually centered , but the headers (“Professional Experience”, “Education”, “Additional Skills”) and dissertation your introduction/objective can be left aligned or centered. This depends on the template you’re following, as well as your personal taste.
Left-aligned Resume Sample. Center-aligned Resume Sample. Left-aligned Resume Sample. Center-aligned Resume Sample. You don’t need your resume to be as stylish as this guy, but it doesn’t hurt to try! Another way to gonorrhea paper accent yours is to use style elements like lines, symbols and text boxes . If implemented effectively, these can help direct the reader’s attention to loyola university your stronger sections, and make the overall reading experience more pleasant.
If used haphazardly though, they can hurt your chances at gonorrhea research getting an interview. There are some general rules to follow if you want your style game to be on doctoral thesis completion u t, point. Lines, like many things, must be enjoyed in gonorrhea research paper moderation. Placing a strategic line after your objective makes the essay, reader subconsciously linger on gonorrhea research paper, your objective. This is a good tactic if you want them to give your objective that additional attention. Lines can also be used in a functional resume to draw the reader’s attention toward your skills section and away from your work history. Functional resumes are great if you have are trying to mask your 1) lack of or 2) abundance of experience.
They are also helpful if you have large gaps in your work history or have been jumping from company to company, which are two things hiring managers don’t like to see. Whether you’re inexperienced, over-experienced or just have a tendency to job-hop, you can use our wide range of what scores mean, free resume templates to learn how to cover employment blemishes and emphasize your strongest areas. Pugs are cute, but this is research, not the essay road frost, time to gonorrhea research paper put a clip art image of an do sat adorable little Pug puppy on your Veterinarian resume. Gonorrhea Research! The only flashy aspect should be your relevant work experience ; others are used to make this experience clear to the reader . In Urdu Language! This holds true for symbols. Bullet points come in different shapes and sizes, and are the primary symbol used in paper a resume because they draw the hiring manager’s attention to essay network your achievements and paper skills. Essay Not Taken Robert Frost! If there’s a time to get a bit creative, it’s here– just remember to keep things clear. Gonorrhea Research! You can’t go wrong with the road not taken robert frost, circle bullet, but arrows diamonds are also nice choices for gonorrhea paper the less conventional job applicant. Mantis Resume Template (arrows) Lynx Resume Template (squares)
Mantis Resume Template (arrows) Lynx Resume Template (squares) Some experts advise against text boxes because they are worried the Applicant Tracking System (ATS) will skip over the content placed inside, but this bias is a bit outdated. As ATS software improves, text boxes have become a viable stylistic option for your resume. Dedications! If you’re feeling conservative then feel free to steer clear of them, but if you do want to use a text box or two (or several), go for it! Text boxes can be an ally in your quest to achieve aesthetic harmony. One way a well-placed text box can help your resume stand out is by emphasizing certain pieces of information , like your name.
Notice in the following image how a text box around the applicant’s name, “Chris Jones,” makes it jump off the page. A hiring manager is much more likely to paper remember this applicant as a result, which helps later on in the hiring process. An applicant’s name in a text box. Text boxes also make your content clearer to the reader because they help break information into reasonable chunks. This makes you appear organized and thoughtful, which are valuable traits in a job candidate. They also improve overall readability. Check out how these headers are highlighted through the use of each text box.
Each header included in essay network a text box. Text boxes can also give your resume some personality and make it stand out, but don’t go overboard! They have the paper, power to strengthen and weaken your application, so use every text box responsibly. 4. Resume paper: Color, weight, size texture. Woah, now. Loyola College Essay! Your draft is looking pretty solid, but don’t lose control– it’s not the research, right time to use that Egyptian papyrus you’ve been saving as printing material. I’d also advise against spraying it with cologne or perfume– that only works in doctoral thesis grant u t the movies. Legally Blonde might not be the paper, place to look for job application advice. With that said, it’s still important to doctoral thesis completion grant consider what impressions different types of paper may give your hiring manager. Bring a printed copy of your resume to research paper the interview! Even if you already emailed a copy to the hiring manager, it’s courteous and professional to loyola prompt have physical copies on hand.
The paper color of gonorrhea, your printed resume should be some shade of white or off-white; avoid colors like baby blue or hot pink unless you’re applying to be the Easter Bunny. Essay Network! Plain white is definitely acceptable for most people, but if you’re feeling adventurous you could dabble in the realm of ivory or cream-colored paper. These colors stand out gonorrhea research paper, a bit from run-of-the-mill white paper, without standing out too much. Dedications! They are like adding cuff-links to a nice dress shirt– they catch the eye and look nice, but aren’t needed to look stylish. Have you ever felt 100% cotton, 32lbs linen paper?
It’s the Rolls Royce of the paper world, and it will instantly make your resume appear more important than its 24lbs counterpart. Gonorrhea! It’s soft yet sturdy, and gives the holder a strong urge to never let go. Paper quality so good, you can’t help but hold it in two hands. If that paper weight texture is too inconvenient to essay find, see if you can still land a 32lbs option. Gonorrhea Research Paper! 24lbs is better than your standard printer paper, but not by much.
Use some serious paper to of water essay show that you’re a serious job applicant. There are many factors that can make or break your resume, and we’ve just covered the visual elements. If it’s well-honed, it can be a valuable tool during the job hunt. Try not to underestimate the paper, importance of good aesthetics ! If you’re ready to loyola start, you can take a look at our templates pages or use our builder to construct a professional resume in minutes. Get more interviews with our Free Resume Builder.
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20 Classic Case Studies Every Business Student Should Know. Although almost every business is unique in its own way, there are some universal lessons that apply to gonorrhea research just about essay network any kind of gonorrhea paper business. In these case studies, we#39;ll take a look at employee performance and what do sat mean retention, supply chain management, growth, ad spending, and research more. Although the following are focused on specific businesses, all business students can learn lessons from their triumphs and mistakes. Read on, and doctoral thesis completion you#39;ll find 20 classic case studies you#39;d do well to know as a business student.
Managers hope they#39;ll never have to deal with employee drug abuse, but the fact is that it does happen. Gonorrhea! In this case, Amber, an administrative assistant started out well, but began to adopt strange and inconsistent behavior. Her work was maintained pretty well, but she began arriving late and calling in sick often, especially right around the time she got paid. She began borrowing and failing to repay money, and then started showing a short temper on the phone with customers. After being found in the ladies room sniffing white powder, she was confronted about a cocaine problem, and reacted by quitting immediately, leaving a hole in the organization for months before a replacement could be found and replaced. Experts believe the employer#39;s actions were wrong, waiting too long to confront Amber, and focusing on accusations instead of criticizing behavior directly related to work, such as lateness and rudeness to clients. They also point out that Amber should have been sent in for a drug test before being outright accused of using cocaine, opening up the opportunity for rehabilitation instead of a severed tie. Thesis Completion Grant! Sometimes, doing the right thing is more important than profits, a lesson that Malden Mills learned firsthand. When the factory burned down in 1995 just two weeks before Christmas, production halted and employees assumed they#39;d be out of work until the factory was rebuilt.
But CEO Aaron Feuerstein extended the employees 90 days at full pay, as well as 180 days with benefits at a cost of $25 million to Malden Mills. After the factory was rebuilt and all of the gonorrhea paper displaced workers were rehired, cooperation and productivity reached a new high, with 40% more business, 95% customer and what scores employee retention, and a production increase from 130,000 to 200,000 yards per gonorrhea research paper week. In Urdu! However, since then, Malden Mills has been to bankruptcy court three times, with much of the debt tied to the rebuild of the paper factory. Feuerstein made employees happy, to be sure, but business students should study this case to consider whether bold philanthropic actions will pay off in the end. In 2008, Starbucks announced that they would be closing 600 US stores.
Up to that point, Starbucks stores had added new offerings, including wi-fi and music for sale, but started to lose its warm neighborhood store feeling in favor of a chain store persona. Harvard Business Review points out importance of water language, that in this situation, Starbucks is a mass brand attempting to command a premium price for research, an experience that is no longer special. Meaning, in order to keep up, Starbucks would either have to cut prices, or cut down on stores to restore its brand exclusivity. HBR#39;s case study shares three problems with the growth of Starbucks: alienating early adopters, too broad of an road robert frost appeal, and superficial growth through new stores and products. Harvard recommends that Starbucks should have stayed private, growing at a controlled pace to maintain its status as a premium brand. Big business is attractive, with huge profits for some. Gonorrhea Research Paper! But there#39;s something to be said about small business as well, with lower risk and the potential for creativity. Essay Language! Darren Robbins of Big D Custom Screen Printing in Austin, TX found success in his business by pursuing customers with orders both large and small.
Although Big D started out catering only to large orders, the shop sat idle in research paper between orders, and through effective scheduling and dedications transparent pricing, was able to fill in dead times with smaller orders. Paper! Big D found a profit in a market segment that other local screen printers weren#39;t clamoring to fill. Experts believe this was a smart strategy, allowing Big D to spread out risk in their business and offer customized products. But at least one person is critical of the essay network offering, pointing out that the niche has little upside potential, and may hurt the gonorrhea company#39;s efficiency. Family businesses typically have the essay network luxury of passing the torch down to gonorrhea children after parents retire, but in some cases, there are no candidates, or the dedications candidates may not be right for the role. This presents a challenge when it#39;s time to find a successor, especially if existing employees have assumed that top level promotions would come from within the research family. Essay Network! So the Carlson companies had to put in great effort to research paper find a replacement, looking both internally and outside of the company, ultimately finding an what internal candidate who would work well with the family but also offered plenty of experience as an executive in different industries. According to Beverly Behan of Hay#39;s Group, Carlson should be commended for paper, not only making the right decision in not hiring the heir apparent, but for handling the job search in a calm, effective way.
Retiring Employees, Lost Knowledge. University Essay Prompt! Another important retirement issue is gonorrhea paper one of lost knowledge. What happens when retirees leave the office, taking years of experience and know-how right along with them? Businesses lose all of chicago prompt that knowledge, but according to gonorrhea research paper American Express, it doesn#39;t have to be that way. Through a pilot program, AMEX created a workforce transformation group that would allow retiring participants to gradually give up some of their day to dedications day responsibilities. In return, the employees would spend some of this time mentoring and teaching classes to successors. This resulted in a phased retirement, allowing employees to leave gradually and enjoy more time while still enjoying a portion of their previous salary, and regular benefits. This also meant that some employees stayed a year or more past traditional retirement age. AMEX believes this program is a success, allowing senior employees to enjoy their last years of work in a reduced capacity, as well as educating the existing workforce for future success. Consultant David DeLong agrees, citing this program as an example of how job handoffs should really work.
Advertising costs money, which many businesses find themselves short of these days. But forgoing ad spending in favor of better profits can be a mistake. Experts say that in a slump, one of the gonorrhea best things you can do is adopt or increase your advertising strategy to u t attract customers. During a recession, this is especially true, as other businesses may be cutting back on gonorrhea their ad spending, making your voice even more prominent to customers. After seven years of growth, buliding from 30 to 300 locations, Firehouse Subs#39; growth fizzled, and company leaders realized they had to what do sat do something about it. So they returned local advertising fees collected from franchisees, not to put in their pockets, but to take hold of their own local marketing. Sales fell even more, revealing that this was not a good strategy at the time. Instead, Firehouse reclaimed their local marketing fee, and then gave franchisees the option to take part in a new marketing campaign, requiring them to pay double for gonorrhea research paper, local marketing, but in return, becoming part of an $8 million advertising campaign poised for success.
Experts commend Firehouse for having the courage to ask franchisees for more money where it was needed, even when times were tough. In 1982, seven people in Chicago died after taking Tylenol due to an unknown suspect lacing the capsules with cyanide after the university chicago essay prompt products reached the shelves. In the immediate aftermath, Tylenol#39;s commanding 37% market share dropped to just 7% nationwide, despite the problem being contained to the Chicago area. Tylenol was not responsible for the tampering of the product, but to maintain the research paper product#39;s reputation, Johnson Johnson pulled all of the Tylenol from the shelves, absorbing a loss of more than $100 million dollars. Tylenol was successfully reintroduced with tamper resistant packaging, discounts, and sales presentations to road frost the medical community. Research! The brand survived due to essay swift action and effective public relations from Johnson Johnson.
It#39;s tough to be the little guy, especially when one of the big guys becomes your direct competition. But at Hangers Cleaners, an offbeat image and research good customer service helped them pull through when PG opened an essay network eco-friendly dry cleaners in the same town. Hangers differentiated itself through van delivery service, funny t-shirts and hangers, as well as social networking. The company also spent time connecting with the community by partnering with local businesses and charities. Research! Instead of out-pricing or out-spending PG, Hangers embraced its personality and adopted a culture of doctoral excellent service that customers found value in. As a result, Hangers has experienced growth while other local dry cleaners have reported flat or declining revenues. Market Expansion Through Partnership. To support new growth, businesses have to expand past their initial customer base, an often daunting task for small businesses.
However, partnering with another successful company can help businesses reach a new level. Diagnostic Hybrids, specializing in medical diagnostics, did just that, partnering with Quidel, a market leader in research paper rapid diagnostic tests. This partnership allowed Diagnostic Hybrids to thesis completion grant u t enjoy a larger market presence, as well as take advantage of better research and development resources. Although Diagnostic Hybrids was acquired by paper Quidel, key elements of the organization remain, with the same company president, and operation as a separate subsidiary. Essay Language! Tesco#39;s move into research paper Korea offers a classic case study of essay network building market share internationally. The company made some smart moves in gonorrhea research their Korean expansion, most notably partnering with Samsung, the leading Korean conglomerate, and essay not taken embracing the Korean way of life by gonorrhea research operating stores as local businesses and community centers. Tesco also made a smart move by employing nearly 100% Koreans on staff, with only 4 British employees out of 23,000. Reports indicate that Tesco#39;s intelligent strategy has won over dissertation, shoppers in Seoul, with 25% of Koreans signed up for gonorrhea research paper, loyalty cards and sales in the billions, finding success in loyola college crack[ing] the research paper Asian tiger, where competitors such as Carrefour and Wal-Mart have failed. Another excellent international case study comes from bike manufacturer Triumph, which lost steam in of water its British home base three decades ago, but found new life by heading overseas. In 2010, Triumph sold just 7,562 bikes in the UK, but 50,000 worldwide, indicating that an international interest paid off for gonorrhea paper, the company. Triumph#39;s famous factory in Warwickshire closed up shop in 1983, but the Indian factory remained, and these days, the motorcycles have become the country#39;s Harley Davidson.
The company struggles to meet demand in India, with a six month waiting list and a new factory being built. India#39;s middle class has embraced the vehicle as an affordable commodity, even giving them as dowries in weddings. What Mean! Background Checks for Job Candidates. Gonorrhea Paper! Background checks are an issue faced by many companies, as sensitive information is now more public than ever. OfficeDrop is no exception, as the company scans paper into what scores digital files, including patient records and minister sermons, most of which require trustworthy employees who can handle documents discreetly.
Many companies offer quick, superficial checks, but for OfficeDrop owner Prasad Thammineni, more information was required. He found a company that would allow research to delve into a number of different sources and perform a more comprehensive search. Other business owners offered somewhat critical opinions of paper Thammineni#39;s choice, pointing out importance of water essay, that instead of Googling to find a background check company, he should have asked his business network who they were using. They also recommended that he take advantage of gonorrhea free resources, including online searches and checking out loyola essay, social media sites to learn more about job candidates. Employee Engagement in gonorrhea paper Tough Times. Essay Network! When Gamal Aziz stepped in gonorrhea as president of the MGM Grand Hotel Casino, he didn#39;t just take on a $400 million spruce up of the hotel, he worked on the employees as well. He asked rank and file employees to share their insight through a hotel, discovering that there was a disconnect between what was going on at the hotel and the knowledge of staff.
He implemented an easy fix, creating short meetings at the start of every shift to inform employees of daily happenings so that staff could offer more to loyola essay prompt guests, improving customer loyalty, return visits, and spending. Research Paper! Experts laud Aziz for differentiating the MGM grand with top quality service from the employees. University Chicago College Prompt! Social Media Serves Up Creme Brulee. Marketing is key, whether you#39;re a multibillion dollar company, or just a guy with a cart full of creme brulee. But just doing it isn#39;t enough: you have to market effectively. Curtis Kimball, the man behind the Creme Brulee Cart, put Twitter to gonorrhea research work for him amassing thousands of importance essay language followers and gonorrhea paper growing his business by allowing people to follow the cart through the online service. Kimball engages with customers and develops a personal relationship with followers online, asking for suggestions on flavors and cart locations.
Perhaps the most impressive part of this story is the fact that Kimball has no marketing budget (Twitter is a free service), yet enjoys an incredibly popular status and high ratings on Yelp. Overreaching Products, Suffering Sales. You can#39;t be everything to everyone, as Hickory Farms found out. A company that started out with holiday gift baskets including sausage, ham, and cheese at one point had an offering of 2,500 different products, sprawling the company and resulting in a loss of favor with customers. Thesis Completion U T! Recognizing this issue, Hickory Farms streamlined itself, slashing their number of products from 2,500 to 300 with more modern visuals, descriptions, and other features, including less packaging and research more recycled content. The company also overhauled their website, making it easier to thesis completion grant shop online. All of this streamlining resulted in a price reduction of 13% that Hickory Farms was able to pass on gonorrhea research to their customers.
Brand strategist Jennifer Woodbery believes that this was a smart move, making the scores mean most of gonorrhea research paper Hickory Farms#39; trusted name and image with an effective rebranding of doctoral thesis completion offerings. Maintaining Consistently Good Employees. It happens all the time: good employees get a promotion, and suddenly, they#39;re not so good anymore. Such is the case for cat shelter Paws Need Families, as Della, a cleaner turned assistant manager, then manager started arriving late, letting applications sit, and slipped on inoculations, all serious offenses. Instead of gonorrhea paper confronting Della directly, general meetings were held, and essay robert frost an assistant manager was hired to compensate for Della#39;s shortcomings.
Ultimately, Della never cleaned up her act, and was fired. Ken Blanchard, co-author of gonorrhea research The One Minute Manager believes this situation could have been avoided with frequent meetings and support with a system of review, both of which can identify issues before they become real problems. Loyola Prompt! In 2009, Maclaren issued a recall for every stroller it had sold in gonorrhea the US for a decade, which came to 1 million units. The strollers were recalled so that a cover could be installed to prevent amputation of a baby#39;s fingers, which could happen if the baby were to be in dedications the stroller in the wrong spot. As a luxury brand, this incident was damaging even though it was a misuse of the product and not a defect. Experts believe that Maclaren did the right thing in the aftermath of the recall, asking for a fast track recall from the Consumer Product Safety Commission, and gonorrhea research paper got out in front of the recall as it started spreading through the press, saving face and further embracing a mission of dedications child safety. We all hope that clients will pay on time, but the fact is that most businesses have to deal with lateness at some point or another. How you deal with it can make all the difference, and this case study reveals a smart strategy. When a client wrote to check in on the progress of work, a web developer replied that she was hesitant to work quickly for that client because she was still waiting on payments for gonorrhea paper, month-old work. This immediately got the essay network attention of the clients, who contacted her and discovered that their checks were not going to the right address.
The problem was solved almost instantaneously, enforcing both leverage and rewarding positive behavior. However, it was risky, and the client criticized her for gonorrhea paper, not sharing a warning before coming to a difficult point. In 2000, a fire at the Philips microchip plant affected phone manufacturers Nokia And Ericsson. The companies reacted in different ways, and ultimately, Ericsson did not do well, quitting the dedications mobile phone business and research paper allowing Nokia to win over dissertation, the European market. While Ericsson had tied up all of its key components in a single source and planned to wait out the problem with the fire, Nokia worked to snatch up spare chips from gonorrhea research other plants and suppliers, as well as re-engineered some of their phones to adapt to thesis completion grant different chips from new suppliers. It#39;s not hard to imagine what happened after that. Nokia kept trucking along, while Ericsson suffered from months of lost production and gonorrhea research paper sales, allowing the market to be dominated by Nokia.
This incident and fallout is importance of water essay in urdu a classic lesson in supply chain risk management. Copyright Online Colleges 2017. All rights reserved.
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Gonorrhea Essay Research Paper Gonorrhea is a
Writing Better University Essays/Referencing. By referencing the sources you use in your essay, you do a number of things. First of gonorrhea, all, you comply with an what mean, academic convention. Secondly, you make your essay look more professional. Gonorrhea Paper! In fact, it not only looks more professional, but its argument becomes more powerful.
Thirdly, you allow others to check your sources. This is often only thesis completion grant u t a hypothetical issue, but a look through the list of your references will allow others to judge your argument quickly. Gonorrhea Research Paper! Fourthly, you acknowledge your sources and thus admit that like everyone else, you’re a dwarf on the shoulders of the giants. The essential bits of essay not taken, referencing require you to provide enough information to others so that they can identify the source. What exactly is meant by enough is research paper open to debate, and this is also where conventions come in.
Essential is that you do provide references. Ideally, you would do so properly. It’s not so difficult, and the sooner you get into essay network, the habit of referencing, the better. There are two forms to do the referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the Harvard system. Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style. In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and gonorrhea research, appropriate system. The Harvard system is also known as author/date, and will be described here in more detail. Within your essay, whenever you make a statement that is essentially based on somebody else’s work, you should attribute the essay network source. You do this by stating the author(s) and the year of the publication you consulted. Where the name of the author occurs naturally in the text, it does not need to be repeated.
The references are usually included at the end of a sentence, or where inappropriate in a place where the text flow is not interrupted too much, such as in research, front of university prompt, a comma. This may be necessary, for example, if only the research paper first half of your sentence is based on someone else’s work. Switzerland seems to importance of water essay, be the ideal place for gonorrhea research studying the loyola university chicago essay prompt effects of direct democracy, since no other country has gone as far in research, terms of implementing such means (Franklin, 2002). The name of the author is included in brackets, together with the year of publication. Some styles put a comma between the two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002). Where there are two authors, both names are included: (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994).
Some styles prefer the word and , others prefer the ampersand ( symbol). Where there are more than two authors, the name of the first author is given, followed by what essay scores mean, et al. (which literally means and others ): (Almeder et al. , 2001). Some styles put et al. into italics, others don’t. If you have two or more references for the same argument, you should separate the references with a semicolon (; symbol): (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999). If there are very many references to an argument, use your own judgement to select the most relevant ones. What should you reference? Basically references should be included to any argument made by someone else, including numbers you cite.
However, statements of general nature need not be attributed to anyone. A statement that the sky is blue alone does not require a reference. However, if you state that the sky is blue because of a specific reason, then you should include a reference. If you use the paper exact words of an in urdu, author (quotation), you’ll need to give the gonorrhea research number of the page where you copy from. This is needed so anyone can quickly check the original words, should he or she feel so. Of Water In Urdu Language! See the separate section on quotes.
It’s not uncommon that you want to use the gonorrhea paper arguments of say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book. Strictly speaking, you should not reference Weber’s work for such a statement, because you have not actually read it. Can you really be sure this is what Weber said or meant? The technically correct trick is to add cited in after the dissertation dedications reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in Hamilton, 2002). You should always reference the work you consulted, and this includes the year of publication. Many books are published in their second and third editions, so giving the correct year can be helpful.
Similarly, even if a book is merely a reprint by a different publisher, give the gonorrhea research paper year of the edition you consulted. The page numbers may differ. If it’s just a second print of the exact same book, use the original date. Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year. The convention to not taken robert, circumvent this issue is to give both years: the year of the original publication, together with the one of the work you consulted. Gonorrhea Research Paper! Sometimes slashes are used between the dates (/ sign), others prefer the used of square brackets ([ and ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 ). Another small issue occurs where an author published more than one book or article in a single year, and dissertation dedications, you want to cite more than one of them. The trick here is to add letters from the alphabet after the year to identify which of the works you refer to. Gonorrhea Research! Use the what do sat essay mean letter a for the first of gonorrhea research, your references, the letter b for the second and essay, so on: (McManus, 1994a) and (McManus, 1994b) are two different works. To sum it up, inside the text, you give the family name of the author, followed by the year of the paper publication.
Always cite the text you consulted, because in do sat essay scores mean, the end it’s your responsibility that the references are correct. At the end of your essay you should include a list of references. Such a list of references provides more details than just the research paper name of the author and the year of importance essay, publication. Gonorrhea Research Paper! It’s this list that allows identifying the work cited. Each work you cited in the essay is importance of water in urdu language cited once, and listed in gonorrhea, alphabetical order. Note that a bibliography and list of references is not technically the in urdu language same. A bibliography is a list of relevant sources that may or may not be cited in the main text.
References are the sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial. Gonorrhea Research Paper! Use the heading references for your references. For books, you put the family name of the author(s) and their initials, followed by dedications, the year of gonorrhea research paper, publication in brackets, the title in italics, the language place of publication, and finally the name of the publisher. If there are editors, give their names instead of the authors’. If there is a subtitle to the title, this is usually separated using colons (: sign). Research! Where there are more than four authors, it’s common to do sat essay mean, use et al. after the gonorrhea paper first three, but some styles insist on what do sat scores, citing all authors.
Sometimes a book is co-published by paper, two publishers, and this can be indicated by what essay scores, using a slash (/ sign). Where you give the editors rather than the actual authors, you indicate this by research paper, adding (eds) after their names, or (ed.) if there is only one. Essay Network! The title is capitalized. For example: Anderson, C. Zelle, C. (eds) (1998) Stability and research, Change in German Elections: How Electorates Merge, Converge, or Collide , London, Praeger. Granovetter, M. (1974) Getting a Job: A Study of loyola university chicago, Contacts and Careers , Chicago, Chicago University Press.
Grass, G. (1963) Katz und Maus , Neuwied am Rhein, Rowolth/Hermann Leuchterhand. Gonorrhea Research Paper! Hall, S. (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices , London, Sage. Halsey, A., Heath, A. Ridge, J. (1980) Origins and Destinations , Oxford, Clarendon Press. Chapters in a book are cited separately, especially if the book is edited. University College Essay Prompt! You give the family name of the author and his or her initial, the year, the name of the chapter in gonorrhea, single speech marks (‘ and ’ sign; not capitalized), followed by the word in , and the name and year of the editor(s). If you cite only dedications one chapter, you can give the whole reference at the end; otherwise it’s enough to give the name and year of the editor. In this case, however, the book itself needs to be included in the list of references, too.
For example: Allen, J. (1995) ‘Global worlds’ in Allen, J. Massey, D. (eds) (1995). Hardin, R. (1990) ‘Public choice versus democracy’ in research paper, Chapman, J. Wertheimer, A. (eds) (1990). Leroy, P. Verhagen, K. (2003) ‘Environmental politics: Society’s capacity for political response’ in Blowers, A. Hinchliffe, S. (eds) (2003) Environmental Responses , Chichester, Wiley. An entry in a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in a book. The editors are often given on the front of the reference book. For example: Jackman, R. (2001) ‘Social capital’ in dissertation, Smelser, N. Gonorrhea Research! Baltes, P. (eds) (2004). Journal articles are cited in a way that is quite similar to chapters in a book. The main difference really is importance essay language that details about the volume and page numbers are included, too.
The reference starts with the name and initial of the author, the year in brackets, the title of the article in single speech marks (not capitalized), followed by the name of the gonorrhea research paper journal in what do sat, italics (capitalized), and further details. Gonorrhea! The details of journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers of the article. If there are different numbers to essay network, a volume, this is indicated by including it in gonorrhea research, brackets before the colon, if known. Online journals may not have page numbers. For example: Burt, R. (1987) ‘Social contagion and innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalence’, American Journal of Sociology , 92:1287–335. Thoits, P. Hewitt, L. College Essay Prompt! (2001) ‘Volunteer work and well-being’, Journal of Health and Social Behaviour , 42(2):115–31. Small, C. (1999) ‘Finding an research, invisible history: A computer simulation experiment (in virtual Polynesia)’, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation , 2(3). Valente, T. (1996) ‘Social network thresholds in the diffusion of information’, Social Networks , 18(1):69–89.
Pages on the internet should be cited where used. Dissertation Dedications! You should bear in mind the quality of the site before citing from gonorrhea paper it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too. Dissertation Dedications! There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for your essays. The reference includes the name of the author and initial, the year in brackets, the title of the document in italics, the word online in gonorrhea paper, square brackets, the place of loyola university college essay prompt, publication, the publisher, the words available from research : followed by the URL, and the date when the mean document was accessed in brackets. The date is important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear. Many web sites include a copyright note at the bottom, giving you an indication when the gonorrhea research content was written. For example: Moser, P. (2005) Politik im Kanton Zurich—eine Synthese [online], Zurich, Statistisches Amt des Kantons Zurich, available from: http://web.archive.org/web/20051224111845/http://www.statistik.zh.ch/statistik.info/pdf/2005_15.pdf [accessed 27th October 2005]. Chan, T. Goldthorpe, J. (2004) Social Status and Newspaper Readership [online], Oxford, Oxford University, available from: http://users.ox.ac.uk/ sfos0006/papers/news4.pdf [accessed 31st March 2005]. Newspaper articles are very similar to journal articles in the way they are cited. The key difference is chicago that rather than the volume, the date is given.
The reference therefore includes the name and initial of the author, the year of publication in brackets, the title in single speech marks, the name of the newspaper in italics (capitalized), the date, and finally the page where the article was found. Gonorrhea Research Paper! For one page it’s customary to importance language, use the abbreviation p. , for articles running over two or more pages, the abbreviation pp. is common. For example: Cockburn, P. Usborne, D. (2004) ‘Burning with anger: Iraqis infuriated by gonorrhea, new flag that was designed in London’, The Independent , 28th April, pp.2–3. Handouts from loyola chicago essay prompt a lecture can be referenced and gonorrhea research paper, should be referenced if they are used as the do sat basis of what you write. It’s normally a better idea not to use lecture notes, but try to find the original referred to in the lecture. Not only will you have more control over what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and journal article than lecture handouts. The reference to a lecture handout includes the name and initial of the research lecturer, the doctoral thesis completion grant u t year in bracket, the title of the handout in paper, single speech marks, the words lecture notes distributed in followed by road not taken, the name of the course in italics, the word at and the name of your institution, the place, and date of the lecture. For example:
Burt, S. (2005) ‘Survey sampling and administration’, lecture notes distributed in Survey Research Methods at research, Cambridge University, Cambridge, 9th February 2005. Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the dissertation dedications basis of your essay, you should include such conversations. It’s usually a good idea to have another reference to a printed piece, but sometimes this is not an option. In terms of giving the reference, personal conversations are very easy: the name of the person you spoke to, the year in brackets, the words conversation with the author and the date of the conversation. Gonorrhea! For example: Smith, E. (2004) conversation with the not taken frost author 6th July 2004.
The same format can also be used for personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Once again, bear in mind the credibility of your sources. With e-mail messages it’s customary to include the e-mail address of the sender in brackets after the name, but it’s essential that you obtain consent from the author. The subject line of the e-mail is often included as the title. With all forms of personal conversation, the issue of consent is gonorrhea important.
It’s always a very good idea to check with the author first. There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the average book or journal article. For everything there is a solution in the academic conventions. If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of importance of water essay language, art, check with your institution how this should be done. If everything else fails, remember the function of referencing, and paper, provide a reasonable amount of information for others to chase the work. Dissertation Dedications! Common problems include the lack of authors, unpublished documents, or lack of gonorrhea research, publisher. Where there is no author, often there is an essay road frost, organization. Put the name of the gonorrhea paper organization. If there is no-one, it’s customary to put the word “Anon” instead of the essay network author’s name. For example: IDEA (1998) Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers [online], Stockholm, International IDEA, available from: http://archive.idea.int/women/parl/toc.htm [accessed 28th February 2006].
UN Statistics Division (2006) Social Indicators [online], New York, UN Statistics Division, available from: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/inc-eco.htm [accessed 20th February 2006]. Sometimes the year of a document is not known. Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the date, such as in (c.1999). Where you just have no clue, there is no need to panic: simply put the word unknown instead of the year. Documents that are unpublished as such, for example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the research paper indication that they are not published. This is easily done by including the word unpublished in brackets at the end of the reference. With articles sent to you, you should always ask permission to cite; just like you would with an ordinary e-mail.
For theses it’s common to include the kind of do sat essay mean, thesis after the title, such as PhD thesis or MA thesis . Where the name or place of the publisher is unknown a very simple solution is used: leave the information blank. This is particularly an issue with internet sites. Including the URL is in this case much more helpful than trying to guess the name of the publisher. Course materials provided to you are treated very similar to the lecture handouts. Give the name of the gonorrhea research author, the year in brackets, the course code if there is one, the course title in italics (capitalized), the doctoral thesis completion kind of material and gonorrhea research, its title in single speech marks, place of publication, and what do sat essay mean, publisher. For example:
Peake, S. (2003) U216 Environment , Video 4 ‘Shanghai Boom’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The Open University (2004) DD305 Personal Lives and Social Policy , CD-ROM 2 ‘Interviews and Interviewing’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The capitalization of titles may seem a bit confusing, but it follows a simple logic: it’s the main title that is capitalized. In the gonorrhea research paper case of a book, the main title is dissertation that of the book. In the case of journal articles, on the other hand, the main title is thought to be that of the journal itself. Gonorrhea Paper! It might be confusing that within the journal, the title of an article often is capitalized.
Capitalization is not very hard to achieve. Do Sat! Put in capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the paper first word, verbs, and loyola university essay prompt, adjectives. This is in fact almost everything. Not put in capital letters are words like and , in , or , or with . Unfortunately most word processors don’t capitalize properly when told to, and put every single word in capital letters, including the research paper ands and withins that should not come with capital letters. Different publishers have different house styles, and you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently. Essay Network! This is gonorrhea common with British and American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity . No matter how strongly you might disagree with the spelling, you should always use the original spelling in university essay prompt, the references. It’s perfectly fine to change them in paper, your essay itself, but not in the references. A good manual of style, such as the Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003) will be able to give you further guidance. Many course providers have their own preferences or house styles, and it’s advisable to follow these conventions. Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the one outlined in this guide in a consistent manner will be well received. You’ll find full references to every work mentioned in this book at the end.
It’s difficult to write about referencing without mentioning plagiarism. Plagiarism describes the act or result where you take the words or ideas of somebody else and present them as your own. Plagiarism is of water essay language considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely. Most importantly, however, your reputation is on the line. The origin of the word plagiarism gives you an gonorrhea research, idea what others will think of not taken frost, you when you plagiarize. The word goes back to gonorrhea paper, the Latin plagiarius , a thief and kidnapper—in particular a child snatcher and somebody abducting slaves.
The modern use in essay network, academia brands you a literary thief (OED, 2005). There are a number of reasons why plagiarism occurs. The worst case is deliberate plagiarism (for whatever reason). Careless work may lead to gonorrhea paper, plagiarism, but is not commonly considered as severe an offence as the deliberate case. Loyola College Prompt! Careless work is often a sign of students working too closely to the original, and this can be easily remedied.
Without changing your habit, simply by including references to where you got the ideas from, and putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. In practice, you still might rely too much on the original and paper, not deliver as good an essay as you could. Deliberate plagiarism, often motivated by laziness, can’t be remedied directly. At the time, it may seem a reasonable risk to copy from the internet, but is it really worth it? Bear in mind that there is something in for you, too—that is something in addition to the grades. The more you write, the easier it gets. If you work too closely to the original, there is a simple solution: don’t write the essay with the books in dissertation, front of you. By so doing, there is very little danger that you copy word by gonorrhea research, word. In a way, you force yourself to make the material your own: and that is a good thing—it makes a better argument, your essay will be more original, and not least, you’ll also get better grades.
Rather than having the doctoral original works in gonorrhea research paper, front of you, try using your notes. As you still will need to put those references for the ideas you take from others, make a note whenever you do so. What! I use brackets with three X inside, to remind myself that I need to put a proper reference. Often I remember very well who said this, so I include, for example, (Granovetter XXX) inside the text. When checking the essay, it’s hard not to notice the gonorrhea triple X; and there is always the search facility in the word processor. By putting a place holder, I can get on with the job of writing without interrupting my thoughts. Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to myself that there is some more work to be done: finding the proper reference, for example.
If you think plagiarism is hard to detect by your marker, think again. Dissertation! There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away. Technology-wise, your markers are likely to have the same possibilities than you have if not more. If you can copy and paste something you found on the internet, it’s equally easy for your marker to find it on research paper, a search engine, again. It would, of essay network, course, be possible, to change plagiarized work to the extent that the deed is no longer easy to spot.
Usually, however, this is just as much work as writing the essay yourself. Just to give you an idea, the markers of gonorrhea research paper, your essay will not only have access to dedications, the same search engines than you have. There is software to scan essays for duplicates; and many institutes even have access to gonorrhea paper, essay banks (sites on the internet where complete essays are sold). The most successful tool, however, is probably the human brain with its incredible ability to remember. If you copy from what essay scores a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too.
If you copy from a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Knowing what is on gonorrhea research paper, the reading list helps spot essays that refer to other works a great deal, or don’t refer to some of the core reading. Your marker can estimate how many readings you had time to read, or whether you’re likely to essay frost, have read a great number of papers on the Belgian perspective of whatever issues is set in the question. An even easier sign is having the same paragraph twice in the same essay, for example. There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in style or formatting. Many people are unaware of gonorrhea paper, how idiosyncratic one’s writing style is. Not Taken Robert! They are in fact so individual that writing styles can be used to determine how many people wrote a document, such as the Christian Bible (Jakoblich, 2001). Writing style includes the tenses we use, the level of formality, our own choice of words, the kinds of metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over punctuation, the length of sentences, or the use of specialist terms. Gonorrhea Research Paper! Typographic signs include font size, choices of where to break paragraphs, spaces in between lines, and things like proper m- and what scores, n-dashes (when copying from electronic articles).
The presence or lack of references is gonorrhea research paper often an easy sign: for example, where there are many references inside the text, but few at the end, or where the citation style changes within a single essay. A marker may get suspicious where there is suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none. Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in not taken frost, references when copying from electronic journals; and have them automatically underlined by the word processor. Even where you take care of these issues, a paragraph copied from the internet will very unlikely link well with the rest of your essay. The style may be inappropriate, or just different. Essays from an essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to the exact question you have been set.
In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily. This is gonorrhea research done by writing freely without having the books right in front of college essay, you. Instead, work with your notes, and take care to put references where you use the paper ideas from others. Mean! Don’t use the internet to copy from, no matter how tempting it is. It will hardly ever be worth it. There is an important difference between citations and quotations. Unfortunately, confusion is gonorrhea paper commonplace; and road not taken frost, the terms are frequently used incorrectly.
Knowing your citations from your quotations is useful when writing essays. It’s essential, in fact, if you want to reference properly. Citations are about research paper, ideas you take from others. Quotations are about the exact words used by others. This is really the whole distinction. So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the words of someone else, you quote. Dedications! “Why can’t a man be more like a woman?” (Blankenhorn, 1995, p.117) is a quotation, because I use the exact same words Blankenhorn did. However, when stating that families in the US are increasingly defined by the absence of a father (Blankenhorn, 1995), I only use the idea, not the exact words. When putting a reference, the difference between a citation and a quotation is research that for a quotation we always put a page number. This is done to enable the reader to check the words in the original context. Loyola University Essay! In the gonorrhea paper list of references at what do sat essay scores mean, the end of the text, there is no difference.
Short quotations are included in the text, and enclosed by speech marks. Longer quotations are set apart from the main text by gonorrhea research paper, indenting the quotations, and usually putting in a slightly smaller font. Doctoral! Longer means about 3 to 4 lines or more. For example: It is true that many voters may be voting for reasons wholly unconnected with social inequalities in any of the three dimensions. They may attach greater importance to some specific issue such as foreign affairs, or they may vote out of personal reasons or habits with which egalitarianism has nothing to do. (Runciman, 1966, p.136)
When quoting someone else, you should take great care to copy the words exactly. Sometimes, you might want to change a quote slightly in order to make it fit your essay. If these changes are substantial, you should use your own words and cite the research work instead. If the changes are small, use square brackets to indicate that you have changed the dedications text. For example, you might quote Rawls (1999, p.87) that intelligent people don’t “[deserve their] greater natural capacity”. I have included the words that I changed in square brackets, leaving the rest the gonorrhea same. This indicates to my readers that the words in essay road, square brackets are not the exact same as Rawls used. For reference, the original reads: “No one deserves his greater natural capacity” (p.87). I made the changes, because I wrote about intelligent people, and Rawls was talking in research, more general terms. Whilst quotations can lighten up an essay, you should not rely on them too much. Your own writing is much more important, and often text you quote was written for a different purpose.
The consequence is that the quotations may be relevant in content (what is being said), but in terms of style don’t fit well with what you wrote. Loyola University Chicago College Essay! If you rely too much on quotations, you run the risk that your readers will think that you maybe don’t really know what you’re writing about: that you have not understood the material well enough. When writing an essay, particularly when writing an extended essay, it’s easiest to put the references whilst you write. This is the case, because you still know where you got the idea from. I keep a place holder to remind myself that a reference is needed if I can’t remember the research author right away.
Often, I will know at least some of what do sat essay mean, it, and write this down. By putting a place holder rather than chasing the reference right away, I can stay focused on the writing. However, I also indicate that the essay is not completed. Place holders like (Baudrillard, XXX) or (XXX last week’s reading) will help me find the gonorrhea paper full references once I completed the essay or section. References are needed whenever you write an academic piece of writing. Even where you can get away without referencing, by including references your essay will be taken more serious. It’s a good habit to put references all the essay network time, so when you really need to—such as in your thesis—you’ll not struggle, or spend days trying to gonorrhea paper, find out how to reference a chapter in a book. There are a number of software packages such as Endnote , Refworks , Scholar’s Aid Lite , or Bibus that help you putting references. These computer applications interact with your word processor, and automate much of the referencing process. They manage citations, and usually let you search libraries and journal databases.
Useful and flexible as they are, such software packages need some time to get used to. It’s thus a good idea to familiarize yourself with their working before the deadline is u t menacing. For example, make sure you know how to put page numbers for quotations. Even if you don’t use a dedicated computer program to manage your references, it might be useful to collect references in a separate file. So, after completing your essay, copy all the references to research paper, a separate file. The next time you cite the same paper, it’ll be a simple case of copying and pasting, without the work of formatting the reference.
Keeping the full references with your notes can safe a great deal of essay road not taken frost, time, too.