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bilography Dissertation on New Woman Novelists (preliminary stage to Ardis's later book, see Ardis 1990). Assumes an early beginning of the modernist era. Attempts a diachronic arrangement of literary works. Provides many textual references. Ardis, Ann. 1990.

New Women, New Novels: Feminism and Early Modernism . New Brunswick London: Rutgers UP. Batchelor, John. 1986. The Edwardian Novel. London: Duckworth. Beauman, Nicola. 1983. A Very Great Profession: The Woman's Novel 1914-39 . Paper. London: Virago. Beetham, Margaret. 1996. A Magazine of Her Own?: Domesticity and Desire in the Woman's Magazine, 1800-1914 . London New York: Routledge.

Study on the development of (conservative) women's magazines in the time of 1880-1914. Boom in the 1990s: New Journalism . Change of images of and craft of translation women to a limited degree and in opposition to the New Woman : discussion of critique of research paper middle-class working women, modification of the image of the housewife, division of the reading public into mothers , girls , fashionable women , women at home , ladies. Coursework. Culture of advertisement. Beddoe, Deirdre. Of Research Paper. 1989. Back to Home and every obstacle essay, Duty: Women Between the Wars, 1918-1939 . London etc.: Pandora. Study on the situation of women between the wars. Critique. Key words: misogynist trends in society, female education as an enclave of every obstacle is an opportunity essay emancipation, professions for women, health, leisure, reading, cinema, radio. Images of paper Women, influence on women writers.

Bjorhovde, Gerd. 1987. Rebellious Structures: Women Writers and the Crisis of the Novel 1880-1900 . Oslo: Norwegian UP. One of the few books specifically focusing on interpreting fin-de-siècle highbrow texts by women. Textual material: four representative authors of the late 19th century - Olive Schreiner, Margaret Harkness, Sarah Grand and George Egerton. Forerunners of modernism, prepared the short essay the art of translation grounds for modernist change in terms of content and form: Authors address matters of female concern gained importance in the public consciousness at the turn of the century and shortly before.

Tension between positive and negative evaluation of the New Woman as an critique of research paper, interesting topic to narrate. Foci of New Realisms: Scepticism, questioning of conventional values, transgression of conventional Victorian conception of genre. 'Crisis' of the novel: Breaking of essays conventional structures of critique time, plot, content and style. Fragmentarization of plot, anachronisms, subjectivity, internal focalization, no explicit narrator. Bjorhovde provides very detailed analyses of texts. Bland, Lucy. 1995. Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and Sexual Morality, 1885-1914.

Harmondsworth: Penguin. Bland's book is why did the us enter a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and sexual morality around the turn of the (19th to 20th) century. Her aim is to of research paper sketch the contemporary (and, at least from a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the time. The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material. Part One: historical and scientific background of the topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception). Parts Two and Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of sexual identity. Brokoph-Mauch, Gudrun. 1995. Salome and Ophelia: The Portrayal of Women in Art and Literature at the Turn of the Century. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds.

The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 466-474. Burmeister, Tereza. 1994. In Search of the Lost Woman-Time: Cross-Biographical Studies on the Construction of (Post-)Modern Gender Identity. History of European Ideas 19: 837-844. Chinitz, David. 1997. Aqa Graphics. 'Dance, Little Lady': Poets, Flappers, and the Gendering of Jazz. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach. Of Research Paper. New York London: Garland Publishing.

319-335. Feldman, Jessica. 1989. Gender on the Divide: The Dandy in Modernist Literature. Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history.

Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of christopher thesis publication. Critique Of Research Paper. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Finney, Gail. 1989. Women in Modern Drama: Freud, Feminism, and European Theatre at the Turn of the ww1 essays Century . Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Flint, Kate 1993. The Woman Reader, 1837-1914. Oxford: Oxford UP. Study on female identity and readership.

Key words: motivation to read, responses to books, effects of reading on body and critique of research paper, mind, reading in different contexts (e.g. advice manuals, periodical press, fictional reading, reading practices). Considers various discourses: chapter on medical, physiological and psychoanalytic theory. Provides information on aqa graphics, the material read: helpful source for lesser known primary literature (novels and documentary texts). Gale, Maggie B. 1996. West End Women: Women and the London stage 1918-1962 . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and the theatre. Describes the significant participation of female authors in the theatrical world between 1918 and of research, 1962. After winning the vote, women were on the advance in every sector. Gale addresses women questions, but not from a feminist theoretical background.

Topics of interest: profession and family, working class women, mother role, relationship mother-daughter. Gardiner, Juliet, ed. 1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. London: Collins Brown.

Essay collection on literary representations of the New Woman. Analysis is not limited to the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and less established writers. Hall, Lesley. A. 1991. Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950. Cambridge: Polity Press. Study on men and sexuality. University Essays. Depicts different perspectives on how male sexuality is constructed.

Grounds on biographic material: letters to Marie Stopes written by different men as a response to Stopes's Married Love. Addresses male sexual inhibitions, problems and sexual enlightenment. Critique Of Research Paper. Horn, Pamela. 1995. Women in the 1920s. Stroud: Alan Sutton Publishing.

Jeffreys, Sheila. 1985. The Spinster And Her Enemies: Feminism and sexuality 1880-1930 . London etc.: Pandora. Can Help You Succeed. Study on the image of the spinster. Pays critical attention to the so-called sexual liberation in modernism from a gender-oriented perspective. Main point: sexual liberation applied for of research, men, could be counter-productive for women - negative effects on women: enormous pressure to do sexually well, blurred boundaries between sexual liberation (for men) and sexual obligation (for women). Ergo: diverse feminist reactions to sexual liberation: Purity Movement: postulated the about spiritual nature of paper love, chastity as liberty (images of women: spinster , frigid women , lesbian ), Free Love: Sexuality increases in value, this became especially true for extra-marital love. Yet the problem of sexual obligation remained. Revolt against male harassment: prostitution, child abuse. Coursework. Joannou, Maroula.

1994. Critique. 'Nothing Is Impractible for a Single, Middle-Aged Woman with an Income of her Own': The Spinster in wiebusch thesis Women's Fiction of the 1920s. In: Sybil Oldfield, ed. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945 . London: Taylor Francis. 175-191. Paper on the 1920s image of the spinster in of research English culture and literature (May Sinclair, Katherine Mansfield, Ivy Compton-Burnett, Sylvia Townsend Warner, F.M. Mayor). Discusses fears of society's feminisations through the demographic 'redundancy' of women and contrasts these with the actual economic and familial situation of the majority of English spinsters.

Joannou, Maroula. 1995. 'Ladies, Please Don't Smash These Windows': Women's Writing, Feminist Consciousness and Social Change 1918-38 . Essay Of Translation. Oxford Providence: Berg. Study on paper, women writers between 1918 and 1938. Coursework. Covers a wide spectrum of female authors, some established and some less established. Less established writers: Vera Brittain, Leonora Eyles, Radclyffe Hall, Sylvia Townsend Warner, E.H. Young.

Established writers: Virginia Woolf, Dorothy Richardson, Elizabeth Bowen, Rosamond Lehmann, Rebecca West. Further textual material considered: Anti-fascist writings. Study contains a detailed chapter on critique, the image of the christopher wiebusch spinster and gives relevant textual examples. Kent, Susan. 1987.

Sex and Suffrage in Britain, 1860-1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. Study on the role of sexuality in first wave feminism and its ideological context. Of Research Paper. Foci: stereotypes of femininity (overview). Every Essay. Women's vote as a symbol of sexual liberation. Further foci: sex war, prostitution, marriage, medicine, legislation. Laity, Cassandra. 1996. H.D. and the Victorian Fin de Siècle : Gender, Modernism, Decadence . Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Ledger, Sally. 1997. The New Woman: Fiction and feminism at the fin de siècle. Manchester New York: Manchester UP. Study on the New Woman: supplementary to Ardis (1990). Complex and contradictory definition of New Woman: New Woman as a textual phenomenon in magazines and critique of research, novels, as a trigger of controversial public debate. Detailed contextualization: women's liberation movement in its relation to socialism, imperialism and the debate over essay about the art and craft sexuality ( purity movement vs. decadence), theories on lesbian love, New Woman as a phenomenon of the city.

Classification of the New Woman novel in critique literary-historical terms: shows a multitude of literary forms, only partially to be classified as modernist. Melman, Billie. 1988. Women and the Popular Imagination in the Twenties: Flappers and Nymphs . London: Macmillan. Study on images of can help essay women in the 1920s.

Images dominating the critique paper public consciousness: flapper and surplus woman. Analysis of a very broad spectrum of popular literature (broad in terms of reception rather than sales figures). Coursework. Key words: best-seller, serial fiction, book business and magazines. Milgram Knapp, Shoshana. 1996.

Revolutionary Androgynity in critique the Fiction of 'Victoria Cross'. In: Kaplan, Carola M. Anne B. Simpson, eds. Seeing Double: Revisioning Edwardian and Modernist Literature . New York: St. Martin's Press. 3-19. Miller, Jane Eldridge. 1994. Rebel Women: Feminism, Modernism and the Edwardian Novel . London: Virago. Study on why did enter ww1 essays, the feminist movement in the context of the of research paper modernist era. Revision of the literary canon: Provides a discussion of women's novels between 1900 and 1914, a period often neglected in literary criticism.

Describes the transitional period of literary modernism: Thematic innovations and every is an opportunity, formal modification of traditional narration. Of Research. Attempts of independent female development and criticism of women's role in thesis society replace the traditional courtship plot. Critical reflection of marriage. Critique Of Research Paper. Discussion of (new) images of that you succeed women. Genre: predominantly suffragette novels.

Considers the socio-cultural context of the critique literary texts. Why Did The Us. Ouditt, Sharon. 1994. Fighting Forces, Writing Women: Identity and Ideology in the First World War . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and World War I. Starts out focusing on a description of women at work (medical duty, agricultural work, work in munitions factories).

Continues to approach the topic by looking at different texts: magazines, autobiographies and critique of research, novels (partly popular literature). Literature (fictional and about, non-fictional) is granted a major role in this context. Areas of discussion: images of women: stereotypical Red Cross Nurse (active role of hero, yet female) - the ordinary housewife at the home front as angel in the house in war literature. Critical reflection on the war and women's roles in postwar fiction. Image of the mother as a preserver of critique of research paper life. Feminist pacifism. The shock experience of war and the temporary allocation of roles as a danger to identity. Discussion of the influence of World War I on society and literature as part of modernism. Pumphrey, Martin. 1987.

The Flapper, the Housewife and the Making of Modernity. Every. Cultural Studies 1.2: 179-194. Pykett, Lyn. Of Research. 1992. The Improper Feminine. The Woman's Sensation Novel and the New Woman Writing. London: New York: Routledge. Study on femininity and women's writing. Genre: Sensational novel and New Woman novel between 1860 and 1900.

Points to essays about their subversive and emancipatory aspects. Canon-revisionary impact: Pykett stresses the critique of research importance of the sensational novel and the New Woman novel for literary history. Forerunners of coursework modernist authors such as Woolf and Richardson. Considers formal aspects of subversion: Sensational novel depicts female stereotypes, yet subverts them by paper introducing female protagonists deviating from traditional gender norms. New Woman novel subverts on the level of that you succeed narration and plot: non-realistic, impressionist, episodic. Pykett's study is a source for less established primary literature. Pykett, Lyn.

1995. Engendering Fictions: The English Novel in the Early Twentieth Century . London etc.: Edward Arnold. Study proceeds from paper literary history focusing on novels. Introduces established modernist writers on the us enter, the basis of the of research paper gender crisis at the time (relatively selective). Wiebusch. Deals with New Woman writing, psychological theories, Dora Marsden's The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist and the phenomenon of degeneration as a result of mass society.

Defines literary modernism quite restrictively: modernism as a programme of literary aesthetics, experimentation and formation of a canon, period beginning in 1890. Critique Of Research. Provides critical discussion of arguments against a feminist revision of the modernist canon. Showalter, Elaine. 1990. Sexual Anarchy: Gender and aqa graphics, Culture at the Fin de Siècle. London: Bloomsbury. Study on gender concepts at the fin de siècle . Breaking of traditional roles. Key words: theories on critique of research paper, sexuality, naming of homosexuality, multiple personalities (Jekyll/Hyde), reflection on physicality in terms of opportunity essay dissecting bodies (Jack the Ripper), venereal diseases, aestheticization of paper sexuality, concepts of why did enter ww1 essays decadence, images of women (New Woman, surplus woman). Simpson, Anne B. 1996. Architects of the Erotic: H.G. Wells's 'New Women'.

In: Kaplan, Carola M. Anne B. Simpson, eds. Seeing Double: Revisioning Edwardian and Modernist Literature . New York: St. Martin's Press. Of Research. 39-55. Aqa Graphics Coursework. Stern, Katherine. 1987.

The War of the critique of research paper Sexes in British Fantasy of the Suffragette Era. Critical Matrix 3.1: 78-109. Study dealing with differences of male and enter ww1 essays, female utopian fiction. Critique. Genre: drama and novel. Focus is on women's concerns: 'female' defence and 'male' rejection. White, Cynthia L. 1970. Women's Magazines 1693-1968 . London: Michael Joseph. A seminal account of the development of women's magazines. One of White's foci is the that can help you succeed literature published in these magazines. Pages 77-117 are of particular interest.

Chinitz, David. 1997. Of Research. Dance, Little Lady': Poets, Flappers, and the Gendering of Jazz. Christopher. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach.

New York London: Garland Publishing. 319-335. Gitter, Elizabeth G. 1984. The Power of Women's Hair in the Victorian Imagination. PMLA 99: 936-954. Of Research Paper. Analyses the significance of qualities can help women's hair as fetish and instrument for hypnosis in the poetic and visual imagination of the Victorians. Kaplan, Joel H. Sheila Stowell. 1994. Critique Paper. Theatre and Fashion: Oscar Wilde to the Suffragettes . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Study on the interrelationship of theatre and fashion: reciprocal influence.

Function of aqa graphics showing fashionable women's clothes on stage: attracting and stimulating for audience (except in performances of Ibsen or Shaw). Critique Paper. Semantic function of dress: social status of a character and its alteration in the course of the play ( Pygmalion ; from flower girl to lady). Symbolization of stereotypes of femininity: Woman as sex object, New Woman and Suffragette emphasize masculine markers (e.g. boots, umbrella) and reject female markers (e.g. skirts, sashes, puffed sleeves) - this is true for qualities that can help you succeed essay, the stage as well as social reality. Critique Of Research Paper. Marvin, Carolyn. 1988. When Old Technologies Were New: Thinking about Electric Communication in the Late Nineteenth Century . New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Cultural studies approach. Analyses technological innovations (the 'new media') of the late 19th century and their medial and about and craft of translation, communicative impact in Anglo-American culture.

Ch. 3: Focuses on the gender-specific functionalization of the body for promoting new electronic technologies. Müller-Tamm, Pia Katharina Sykora, eds. 1999. Of Research. Puppen. Körper. Coursework. Automaten: Phantasmen der Moderne. Kunstsammlung NRW, Düsseldorf: Oktagon.

Collection of essays discussing modernist representations of the puppet, the of research paper body and the automaton. The book includes a picture catalogue with short explanatory texts. The ten essays go beyond the discourse of fine arts: they show different perspectives on the subject reflecting both the boundary position of the artificial human being between art and cultural history and its transformation within contemporary art. Reynolds, Dee A. 1997. Dancing Free: Women's Movement in Early Modern Dance. In: Rado, Lisa, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing.

247-279. Sennett, Richard. 1994. Flesh and Stone: The Body and the City in Western Civilization . New York London: W.W. Norton. Study on space and the art, bodily experience.

Key words: sensory perception, movements, analogies of city and body, allocation of meaning to certain areas (public, private etc.), historical change of cities, interior rooms, increasing dimension of the private in interior rooms. Of Research Paper. Whiteley, Nigel. 1997. Whitewash, Ripolin, Shop-Girls, and Matière : Modernist Design and Gender. In: Rado, Lisa, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 199-228.

Bland, Lucy. 1995. Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and Sexual Morality, 1885-1914. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Bland's book is a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and sexual morality around the turn of the (19th to 20th) century. About. Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at least from a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the time. The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material. Part One: historical and scientific background of the topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception). Parts Two and Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of sexual identity.

Castle, Terry. 1993. The Apparitional Lesbian: Female Homosexuality and Modern Culture. New York: Columbia UP. Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. Critique. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Qualities That. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli.

Gilman, Sander L. 1985. Of Research Paper. Difference and Pathology: Stereotypes of Sexuality, Race and Madness. Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Hall, Lesley. A. 1991. Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950. Cambridge: Polity Press. Study on men and sexuality. Depicts different point of views on how male sexuality is constructed. Grounds on biographic material: letters to Marie Stopes written by different men as a response to Stopes's Married Love. Addresses male sexual inhibitions, problems and sexual enlightenment.

Jeffreys, Sheila. The Us. 1985. The Spinster And Her Enemies: Feminism and sexuality 1880-1930 . London etc.: Pandora. Study on the image of the spinster. Pays critical attention to the so-called sexual liberation in modernism from a gender-oriented perspective. Main point: sexual liberation applied for men, could be counter-productive for women - negative effects on women: enormous pressure to do sexually well, blurred boundaries between sexual liberation (for men) and sexual obligation (for women).

Ergo: diverse feminist reactions to sexual liberation: Purity Movement: postulated the of research paper spiritual nature of love, chastity as liberty (images of women: spinster , frigid women , lesbian ), Free Love: Sexuality increases in value, this became especially true for extra-marital love. Yet the problem of sexual obligation remained. Revolt against male harassment: prostitution, child abuse. Kent, Susan. Christopher Wiebusch. 1987. Sex and Suffrage in Britain, 1860-1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. Study on the role of sexuality in first wave feminism and its ideological context. Foci: stereotypes of femininity (overview).

Women's vote as a symbol of sexual liberation. Further topics: sex war, prostitution, marriage, medicine, legislation. Ledger, Sally. Critique Paper. 1997. The New Woman: Fiction and christopher thesis, feminism at the fin de siècle. Manchester New York: Manchester UP. (ch. 5 on lesbian identity) Study on the New Woman: supplementary to critique of research Ardis (1990). Complex and contradictory definition of New Woman: New Woman as a textual phenomenon in magazines and novels, as a trigger of controversial public debate. Detailed contextualization: women's liberation movement in its relation to socialism, imperialism and the debate over sexuality ( purity movement vs. decadence), theories on lesbian love, New Woman as a phenomenon of the city. Classification of the New Woman novel in literary-historical terms: shows a multitude of literary forms, only partially to the art and craft of translation be classified as modernist.

Lucas, John. 1997. The Radical Twenties: Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Critique Paper. Nottingham: Five Leaves. One field of analysis are theories of sexuality and their portrayal in about 1920s English literature (D.H. Lawrence, Joyce), the legal situation concerning homosexuality, psychology's impact on sexual 'liberation' and the attitude of the Bloomsbury Group towards sexuality. Paper. Mort, Frank. 1987 [2000].

Dangerous Sexualities: Medico-moral Politics in England since 1830. London: Routledge. Study on sexuality as represented in essays about a medico-moral discourse. Discourse-theoretical approach. Depicts the interaction between morality and medicine in the field of sexuality. Key words: Debate on social hygiene: purity vs. decadence. Sexuality in the context of the city. Moscucci, Ornella. 1990.

The Science of Woman: Gynaecology and Gender in England, 1800-1929. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Comprehensive study on the conception of female sexuality, proceeding from cultural history. Focus: 19th century. Important points: Historicity of gender and gynaecology, dependence on cultural context. Concepts of femininity in medical discourse. Gender difference explained physically and psychologically.

Discussion of bisexuality and hermaphroditism. Further foci: Darwinism, environmentalism, degeneration, anthropology. Rado, Lisa. 2000. The Modern Androgyne Imagination. A Failed Sublime. Charlottesville and London: UP of Virginia. Showalter, Elaine. 1990. Sexual Anarchy: Gender and of research paper, Culture at the Fin de Siècle.

London: Bloomsbury. Study on gender concepts at the fin de siècle . Breaking of traditional roles. Key words: theories on sexuality, naming of homosexuality, multiple personalities (Jekyll/Hyde), reflection on physicality in terms of dissecting bodies (Jack the Ripper), venereal diseases, aestheticization of sexuality, concepts of decadence, images of women (New Woman, surplus woman). Weeks, Jeffrey. 1985. Sexuality and essay, its Discontents: Meanings, Myths Modern Sexualities . London: Routledge Kegan Paul. Study on the development of the scientific discourse on of research paper, sexuality. References to psychoanalysis, Darwinism and eugenics. A very useful collection of articles from the perspectives of natural science, social science and the humanities which provides an overview on opportunity essay, the degeneration debate in the 19th and the early 20th centuries.

The institutionalisation of the degeneration debate is critique paper reflected in the light of the discourses of medicine, anthropology, and the theatre. Premises: degeneration as a counterpart to the nineteenth-century belief in progress; degeneration and regeneration as two poles of obstacle opportunity a rhetoric strategy and critique of research, logical order - fact and fiction at the same time. You Succeed. Cf. Critique Of Research. Siegel for specific strategies of representation. Carpenter, Edward. [1889] 1903. Die Civilisation, ihre Ursachen und ihre Heilung , transl.

Karl Federn. Leipzig: Hermann Seemann Nachfolger. [engl. Civilization: Its Cause and Cure ] Cultural criticism with a socialist orientation. Characterised by a harsh criticism of civilisation in which cultural and bio-medical discourses intermingle: contemporary English civilisation as infectious disease either culminating in death following various stages of degeneration or culminating in social stagnation. The socialist form of qualities that society as utopian potential. Critique Paper. Dijkstra, Bram. 1986. Short About And Craft Of Translation. Idols of of research paper Perversity: Fantasies of Feminine Evil in the Fin de siècle. New York, London: Oxford UP. Study on representations of femininity in short the late 19th century, proceeding from art history. References to literature and other cultural discourses of the time.

Of particular interest in paper this context: motif of the self-sufficient Narcissa , a degenerate/deviant woman (due to her auto-eroticism) subverting the conventional image of altruistic femininity. Reference to her criminal disposition (Lombroso), Narcissa as a potential danger to university essays male identity in of research sexological theory (Moll, Feré, Krafft-Ebing). Doyle, Laura. 1994. Bordering on the Body: The Radical Matrix of Modern Fiction and Culture . New York Oxford: Oxford UP. Fuchs, Stefan F.-J.

1992. Dekadenz: Versuch zur ästhetischen Negativität im industriellen Zeitalter anhand von Texten aus dem französischen und englischen Fin de siècle. Heidelberg: Winter. Qualities. Philosophically oriented dissertation on decadence. Rejects an historical approach to the literary texts of decadence, rather, uses them as a basis for historical and philosophical reflections on pre-modern developments in critique the 19th century. Crucial points: the short about and craft of translation radically negative connotation of the term decadence, as opposed to its appropriation as a means to counter an optimistic bourgeois belief in progress.

Greenslade, William. 1994. Degeneration, Culture and the Novel, 1880-1940. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Hurley, Kelly. 1996. The Gothic Body: Sexuality, materialism, and degeneration at the fin de siècle. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Kline, Salli J. 1992.

The Degeneration of Women: Bram Stoker's 'Dracula' as Allegorical Criticism of the paper 'Fin de Siècle' . Essays. Rheinbach-Merzbach: CMZ-Verlag. Study of Bram Stoker's Dracula analysing the novel in relation to Nordau's cultural criticism and Lombroso's theory on atavism, degeneration, innate criminal disposition and 'moral insanity'. Of Research. Main thesis: Stoker's novel shows a constant blotting out of the sensus literalis by a sensus allegoricus with the latter serving as an instrument of an ultra-conservative (also in qualities that can help terms of gender), reactionary polemic against ongoing changes of consciousness and social changes of the period. Link-Heer, Ursula. 1986. Critique. 'Le mal a marché trop vite.' Fortschritts- und Dekadenzbewußtsein im Spiegel des Nervositäts-Syndroms.

In: Wolfgang Drost, ed. Fortschrittsglaube und Dekadenzbewußtsein im Europa des 19. Jahrhunderts: Literatur - Kunst - Kulturgeschichte . Heidelberg: Winter. 45-67. Essay And Craft. Valuable historical overview on critique of research, the cultural significance and medical diagnosis and treatment of nervous illnesses in the 19th century. Main theses: a) these kinds of diseases have always been read as cultural pathologies, i.e. as symptoms of coursework cultural crisis; b) there has been no clear-cut temporal succession of notions of progress and of decadence but both have always been closely interwoven. The study places degeneracy (nervous exhaustion) in the cultural context of the time, as one of the illnesses of the peripheral nervous system. Investigates modern nervousness as a syndrome and manner of self-description of an industrial culture striving after expansion and progress. Considers psychiatric writings of the 19th century (Erb, Morel, Beard). Mehnert, Henning.

1986. Zur Bedeutung der Begriffe 'symbolisme', 'décadentisme' und 'dégénerescence' im 19. Jahrhundert. In: Wolfgang Drost, ed. Fortschrittsglaube und Dekadenzbewußtsein im Europa des 19. Jahrhunderts: Literatur - Kunst - Kulturgeschichte . Critique Of Research Paper. Heidelberg: Winter. 75-84. Study traces concepts of decadence back to Montaigne and Rousseau and analyses the later tendency to individualise and psychologize these notions (starting with Morel).

Focus on Morel's prototypical study: the medico-psychiatric component of degeneration, which is also analysed in Magnan, Lombroso, Gobineau, Nordau and, as a literary premise, in Baudelaire and Huysmans. Nordau, Max. 1993. Degeneration . Lincoln, New York: University of Nebraska Press. [Original: Entartung , 2 vols. Why Did Enter. Berlin: Carl Duncker, 1892/93]. Study in two volumes by Max Nordau, a doctor and cultural theorist, first published in German, from paper 1895 onward also available in an English translation. A scandalous success at the time, one of the best known works in the debate on degeneration. It is a poignant, and at times openly polemic attack against certain tendencies in the arts: Decadence, aestheticism, symbolism (among others) are classified as degenerate (in a physiological and mental sense). Can Help. Nordau's argumentation is based on his medical knowledge and on the criminological theories of Lombroso. Criticism of civilisation is expressed in critique of research the form of apocalyptic scenarios ('the dusk of nations') and, for the first time, presented as a concern of short essay the art doctors and, especially, psychiatrists. Phenomena of degeneracy (intellectual, moral or physical) become the object of psycho-pathology.

For Nordau, mysticism and egomania count as typical symptoms of the degenerate artist, for which he offers methods of diagnosis and even suggestions for therapy. Nordau's study is an attack in scientific disguise against intellectuals and is directed against personalities like Wagner, Nietzsche, Ibsen, Swinburne, Huysmans or Wilde. Pick, Daniel. 1989. Faces of critique paper Degeneration: A European Disorder, c. 1848-c. 1918 . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. A sociological study, well-documented and thoroughly researched. Provides important information on the concept of essays degeneration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Pick predominantly analyses scientific and pseudo-scientific documents of the time, but also considers literary examples. Of Research Paper. Study covers texts from all over Europe but lacks any explicit reflection on the interrelation between degeneration and gender. Pykett, Lyn.

1995. Engendering Fictions: The English Novel in the Twentieth Century . London, etc.: Edward Arnold. Feminist study on the interdependence between constructions of femininity and degeneration: The New Woman as cause and symptom of cultural degeneration and as 'cure for social evils'; like the homosexual, the thesis New Woman is an critique, example of the transgression of gender boundaries (illustrated also in exterior appearance: body and style); effects: pathological allocations of sexual excess, degeneration, denial of every obstacle opportunity femininity. Urban mass culture and society as a product of feminisation. Of Research Paper. Feminism as a symptom of degeneration. Emerging concepts of regeneration within the feminist debate. Qualities Can Help. Rose, Jonathan.

1986. The Edwardian Temperament 1895-1919. Athens/Ohio, London: Ohio UP. Study on the change of values in the Edwardian period, proceeding from cultural and literary history (however, literary texts are generally only discussed on a surface level, and the category of gender is reflected in a rather uncritical manner, if at paper, all). Christopher Wiebusch. Aspects of interest: religious (and moral) crisis, the secularisation of spirituality and critique of research, the emergence of essays about surrogate religions, the 'quest for otherness', the idealisation of interpersonal relations and in particular homoeroticism, the cult of vitality as a reaction to late Victorian decadence, the motif of the illegitimate child and the unmarried mother, the efficiency movement and eugenics, the Edwardian culture of leisure and fun. Schulte, Christoph. 1997. Psychopathologie des Fin de siècle : Max Nordau: Der Kulturkritiker, Arzt und Zionist. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. Revised postdoctoral thesis based on the unpublished works of Nordau (mainly letters, researched for the first time).

A comprehensive study, structured biographically. Theoretical approach: rejects deconstruction, favours Foucauldian discourse analysis. Content: Analysis of the interconnected strands within intellectual history 1870 to 1920. Shows the lasting effects of scientific positivism on social theories, psychology and medicine as well as the transfer of critique psycho-pathological findings into the field of civilisation and every, art criticism through terms like decadence and degeneration. Shaw, George Bernard.

1932 [1908]. The Sanity of Art: An Exposure of the Current Nonsense about Artists Being Degenerate. Paper. In: Major Critical Essays . London: Constable. Opportunity Essay. 281-332. Polemic response to Nordau's Degeneration from the perspective of the critique paper artist. Shaw refutes Nordau's arguments by showing up their inherent paradoxical and unscientific nature and thus attacks Nordau at his weakest point, i.e. his attempt to legitimise his theories with the help of medical science. Siegel, Sandra. 1985. Literature and Degeneration: The Representation of 'Decadence'.

In: Edward J. Chamberlain Sander L., Gilman, eds. Degeneration: The Dark Side of Progress. New York: Columbia UP. 199-219. Trotter, David. 1993. The English Novel in History . London, New York: Routledge. (ch.7) Short outline of the history of degeneration theory focusing on the origins of degeneration in the natural sciences and medicine, its Darwinist basis, the classification of degenerative symptoms, the that emergence of a discourse of degeneration in the cultural and literary theory of the late 19th century. Important points in the literary context of degeneration: popularity of a 'plot of decline, of physical and moral exhaustion' in naturalistic fiction (also in so-called slum fiction). Degeneration as a topic in the new woman novel and likewise in popular fiction.

Bland, Lucy. 1995. Critique Of Research Paper. Banishing the Beast. English Feminism Sexual Morality. 1885-1914. Qualities Essay. London et. al: Penguin Books. Bland's book is a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and critique of research, sexual morality around the qualities turn of the (19th to 20th) century. Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at least from a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the time. The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material. Part One: historical and scientific background of the topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception).

Parts Two and Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of critique sexual identity. DiQuinzio, Patrice Iris Marion Young, eds. Enter Ww1 Essays. 1997. Critique Paper. Feminist Ethics and Social Policy . Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana UP. A slightly heterogeneous collection of essays focusing on examples of aqa graphics practised (feminist) morality. Critique. Requires knowledge of the theoretical discussion. Essays About. Provides articles on the following topics: politics, medicine, health system, military, immigrants, AIDS, pornography and abortion. Of Research. Main focus: the situation in the United States. The Us Enter Ww1 Essays. Dreitzel, H.P. 1972. Die gesellschaftlichen Leiden und das Leiden an der Gesellschaft: Vorstudien zu einer Pathologie des Rollenverhaltens.

Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke. A study on subjectively perceived marginality and its psycho-pathological and socio-pathological causes from the perspective of social psychology. Suggested approach: role theory. Of particular interest: Dreitzel's notion of 'Anomie' (= total lack or confusion of norms), which he derives from the history of sociology and of research paper, supplements with his own concepts of interaction and coursework, role identity. Of Research Paper. Gilligan, Carol.

1982. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development . Cambridge, Mass. London: Harvard UP. Probably the most influential feminist study on the topic of morality. Takes Lawrence Kohlberg's model of moral development as a starting point. Opportunity. Exposes Kohlberg's argumentation as male-centred. Modifies his theory with the help of object relations theory to account for gender differences. Gilligan's work is based on empirical studies. Her main thesis: due to disposition and experiences of socialisation, men/boys tend to an ethic of justice whereas girls/women typically internalise an ethic of care . Gilman, Sander L. Of Research Paper. 1985. Difference and Pathology: Stereotypes of Sexuality, Race and Madness.

Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Hall, Lesley. A. 1991. Wiebusch. Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950. Of Research Paper. Cambridge: Polity Press. About. Study on men and sexuality. Critique Of Research Paper. Depicts different point of views on how male sexuality is why did the us enter ww1 essays constructed.

Grounds on biographic material: letters to Marie Stopes written by different men as a response to Stopes's Married Love. Critique Of Research Paper. Addresses male sexual inhibitions, problems and obstacle is an opportunity essay, sexual enlightenment. Harrison, Beverley Wildung. 1985. Critique Of Research. Making the Connections: Essays in Feminist Social Ethics, ed. Carol S. Robb. Boston: Beacon Press.

A collection of essays (written between 1972 and 1985) on the feminist discourse of ethics and Christianity. Approach: theologically oriented social history. Harrison's ethics is characterised as feminist socialist Christian in Robb's preface. Harrison sets a universalist Christian ethics against the ideas of Carol Gilligan. Advocates an equality feminism pleading for 'objectivity' of the feminist perspective. Hekman, Susan J. 1995. Moral Voices, Moral Selves: Carol Gilligan and Feminist Moral Theory . Enter. Cambridge, Oxford: Polity Press. In-depth discussion of the critique paper work of Carol Gilligan offering various readings of her work. The study also provides a critical analysis of the meaning of morality in a poststructuralist context (Foucault, Lyotard et al.). Documents a significant conceptual shift in the morality debate, which has lost theoretical impact through the influence of other academic disciplines. Hekman favours a gender-oriented reconceptualization of moral theory that would take its pluralistic approach from discourse analysis.

Jakobsen, Janet R. 1998. Why Did The Us Enter Ww1 Essays. Working Alliances and the Politics of Difference: Diversity and Feminist Ethics . Critique Of Research. Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana UP. Study on feminist practices of alliance politics . Rejects notions of female unity as an axiomatic base. Discards the feminist difference hypothesis. Argument proceeds from christopher wiebusch postmodern theoretical debates: ethics as a field of complex negotiations; agency as a basis for alliance politics. Jeffreys, Sheila. Critique Paper. 1985. The Spinster And Her Enemies: Feminism and university, Sexuality 1880-1930 . London etc.: Pandora. A very useful study which questions critically the general presumption of sexual liberation in the modernist period, a development which continues to be regarded as one of the paper most characteristic and influential within the modernist context. Every. Jeffreys shows that the emergence of critique of research paper sexology by no means meant that women experienced sexual liberation. Quite the opposite, according to Jeffreys, it helped to force women into male-dominated heterosexual patterns.

Mort, Frank. 1987 [2000]. Why Did Enter Ww1 Essays. Dangerous Sexualities: Medico-moral Politics in England since 1830. London: Routledge. Study on sexuality as represented in a medico-moral discourse. Discourse-theoretical approach. Critique. Depicts the interaction between morality and about the art and craft of translation, medicine in the field of sexuality. Critique Paper. Key words: Debate on social hygiene: purity vs. decadence. Sexuality in the context of the city. Moscucci, Ornella.

1990. The Science of Woman: Gynaecology and aqa graphics coursework, Gender in England, 1800-1929. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Comprehensive study on the conception of female sexuality, proceeding from cultural history. Focus: ed. century.

Important points: Historicity of gender and gynaecology, dependence on cultural context. Concepts of femininity in medical discourse. Gender difference explained physically and critique of research paper, psychologically. Discussion of bisexuality and hermaphroditism. Further foci: Darwinism, environmentalism, degeneration, anthropology.

Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud, ed. 1995. Weibliche Moral: Die Kontroverse um eine geschlechtsspezifische Ethik . München: dtv. Essay collection which discusses critically and systematically Carol Gilligan's notion of a gender-specific morality (female ethics of care vs. male ethics of justice ). Covers work by Butler, Gilligan, Harding, Habermas. Some of the articles were previously published. Singer, Mona.

1996. Weibliches Subjekt und Gastfreundschaft: Ende und Anfang einer Moral. In: Ruthard Stäblein, ed. Moral: Erkundungen über einen strapazierten Begriff. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. 118-139. Stäblein, Ruthard, ed. 1996. Moral: Erkundungen über einen strapazierten Begriff. Aqa Graphics Coursework. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer.

Relatively heterogeneous collection of essays, partly in form of interviews. Critique Of Research. Includes articles by Baudrillard and Blanchot. Points of interest: morality's myths of origin, gender difference and morality (Nitzschke, Singer), Foucault's notion of morality. Weeks, Jeffrey. 1985. Sexuality and its Discontents: Meanings, Myths Modern Sexualities . London: Routledge Kegan Paul. Study on the development of the scientific discourse on sexuality. References to psychoanalysis, Darwinism and eugenics.

Bland, Lucy. 1995. Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and Sexual Morality, 1885-1914. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Bland's book is a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and sexual morality around the turn of the (19th to 20th) century.

Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at least from a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the time. The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material. Part One: historical and scientific background of the qualities topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception). Parts Two and Three: discussion of the paper concrete practical difficulties in qualities essay realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of sexual identity. Byles, Joan Montgomery. Critique. 1985. Women's Experience of World War I: Suffragists, Pacifists and Poets. Women's Studies International Forum 8.5: 473-487. Article on the suffrage movement in the context of World War I. Key words: division - militarist suffragettes vs. pacifist suffragettes. Example: conflict between Emmeline and Sylvia Pankhurst.

Textual material: war poetry by qualities can help you succeed essay women. Dyhouse, Carol. 1989. Feminism and the Family in of research England 1880-1939 . London: Blackwell. Study on family and marriage from a woman-centred perspective.

Textual material: basically (auto)biography, but also some novels. Felski, Rita. 1995. Coursework. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Paper. Study on gender and short, modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history.. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Garner, Les. 1984.

Stepping Stones to Women's Liberty: Feminist Ideas in the Women's Suffrage Movement 1900-1918. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP. Kent, Susan. 1987. Sex and Suffrage in Britain, 1860-1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP.

Study on the role of sexuality in critique first wave feminism and its ideological context. Foci: stereotypes of femininity (overview). Women's vote as a symbol of sexual liberation. Further topics: sex war, prostitution, marriage, medicine, legislation. Lyon, Janet. 1992. Militant Discourse, Strange Bedfellows: Suffragettes and Vorticists before the War. differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 4.2: 100-133.

Article on the suffrage movement and developments in art before World War I. Aqa Graphics. Discusses analogies and interactions between militant suffragettes and radical artists of the avant-garde (e.g. vorticists, futurists). Key words: militancy, iconoclasms, feminist delimitation and self-marginalisation, polarizing tendencies and linguistic unambiguity in feminist pamphlets and manifestos. Lyon, Janet. 1994/95. Women Demonstrating Modernism. Discourse 17.2: 6-25. Stowell, Sheila. 1992. A stage of their own: Feminist playwrights of the suffrage era . Critique Paper. Ann Arbor: University of short essay about the art and craft of translation Michigan Press.

Stowell, Sheila. 1996. Suffrage critics and political action: a feminist agenda. In: Michael R. Booth Joel H. Of Research Paper. Kaplan, eds. The Edwardian Theatre: Essays on performance and the stage . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 166-184. Bjorhovde, Gerd. 1987. Rebellious Structures: Women Writers and the Crisis of the Novel 1880-1900 . University About. Oslo: Norwegian UP. One of the few books specifically focusing on interpreting texts of high literary One of the few books specifically focusing on interpreting fin-de-siècle highbrow texts by women. Textual material: four representative authors of the late 19th century - Olive Schreiner, Margaret Harkness, Sarah Grand and George Egerton.

Forerunners of of research paper modernism, prepared the grounds for university, modernist change in terms of content and form: Authors address matters of female concern that emerged in the public consciousness at the turn of the century and critique paper, shortly before. That You Succeed Essay. Tension between positive and negative evaluation of the New Woman as an interesting topic to narrate. Foci of New Realisms: Scepticism, questioning of critique paper conventional values, transgression of conventional Victorian conception of essays genre. 'Crisis' of the novel: Breaking of conventional structures of critique paper time, plot, content and style. That Can Help. Fragmentarization of plot, anachronisms, subjectivity, internal focalization, no explicit narrator. Bjorhovde provides very detailed analyses of texts.

Burke, Carolyn. 1984. Getting spliced: Modernism and Sexual Difference. American Quarterly 39.1: 98-121. Burmeister, Tereza. 1994. In Search of the paper Lost Woman-Time: Cross-Biographical Studies on the Construction of (Post-)Modern Gender Identity. History of European Ideas 19: 837-844. DeKoven, Marianne. 1991. Rich and Strange: Gender, History, Modernism . Why Did The Us Enter. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP.

Study on Gender, History and Modernism (DeKoven's periodization: 1890-1930). Critique Of Research. Based on Derrida's concept of two co-existing paradoxes ( sous-rature ). Main point: male and female authors are afraid of revolutionary literary changes for different reasons: on the male side it is fear of losing one's power position, on the female side it is fear of being punished. Textual material: analysis of university canonized texts. Criticism: DeKoven's study is partially difficult to comprehend. Felski, Rita.

1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and critique paper, modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on aqa graphics coursework, one author: Marie Corelli. Friedman, Ellen G. Miriam Fuchs, eds. 1989. Breaking the Sequence: Women's Experimental Fiction . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP. Gale, Maggie B. 1996. West End Women: Women and critique of research paper, the London stage 1918-1962 . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and the theatre.

Describes the significant participation of female authors in the theatrical world between 1918 and 1962. After winning the aqa graphics coursework vote, women were on the advance in every sector. Gale addresses women questions, but not from a feminist theoretical background. Topics of paper interest: profession and family, working class women, mother role, relationship mother-daughter. Gardiner, Juliet, ed.

1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. London: Collins Brown. Essay collection on literary representations of the New Woman. Analysis is every obstacle essay not limited to the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of critique of research paper textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. That Can Help You Succeed. Deals with established and less established writers. Gardner, Viv Susan Rutherford, eds. 1992. The New Woman And Her Sisters: Feminism And Theatre 1850-1914 . Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.

Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar, eds. 1986. Critique. The Female Imagination and the Modernist Aesthetic . New York etc.: Gordon Breach. Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar. Every Opportunity Essay. 1988.

No Man's Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in the Twentieth Century. Vol. I: The War of the Words . New Haven: Yale UP. Critique Of Research Paper. Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar. 1988.

No Man's Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in the Twentieth Century. University About. Vol. Critique Paper. II: Sexchanges . New Haven: Yale UP. Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar. 1988. No Man's Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in the Twentieth Century. Vol. III: Letters from the university essays Front . New Haven: Yale UP. Griffin, Gabriele, Ed.

1994. Difference in View: Women and Modernism . London: Taylor and Francis. Ingram, Angela Daphne Patai, eds. 1993. Rediscovering Forgotten Radicals: British Women Writers, 1889-1939 . Chapel Hill London: The University of North Carolina Press. Essay collection on critique paper, radical feminist socialist women writers between 1889 and 1939.

Textual material: novels in general (special focus on popular literature by forgotten female authors), a multitude of biographical information, New Woman novel , Romance, Utopian fiction. Distinction between middle-class and aqa graphics, working-class authors and readers. Critique Of Research Paper. Topics of social criticism: birth control, marriage, alcoholism, venereal disease. Formal aspects: Modification of plot with feminist impact. Joannou, Maroula.

1995. 'Ladies, Please Don't Smash These Windows': Women's Writing, Feminist Consciousness and Social Change 1918-38 . Oxford Providence: Berg. Study on women writers between 1918 and 1938. That Can Help You Succeed Essay. Covers a wide spectrum of female authors, some established and paper, some less established. Less established writers: Vera Brittain, Leonora Eyles, Radclyffe Hall, Sylvia Townsend Warner, E.H. Young. Established writers: Virginia Woolf, Dorothy Richardson, Elizabeth Bowen, Rosamond Lehmann, Rebecca West. Further textual material considered: Anti-fascist writings. Study contains a detailed chapter on ww1 essays, the image of the spinster and gives relevant textual examples. Light, Alison. 1991.

Forever England: Femininity, literature and critique of research paper, conservatism between the wars . London New York: Routledge. Obstacle Opportunity. Laity, Cassandra. 1996. H.D. and the Victorian Fin de Siècle : Gender, Modernism, Decadence . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Liska, Vivian.

1995. From Topos to Trope: Feminist Revision of Modernism. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 66-76. Miller, Jane Eldridge. 1994. Rebel Women: Feminism, Modernism and the Edwardian Novel . London: Virago.

Study on the feminist movement in the context of the modernist era. Critique Paper. Revision of the literary canon: Provides a discussion of women's novels between 1900 and 1914, a period often neglected in literary criticism. Describes the transitional period of literary modernism: Thematic innovations and formal modification of traditional narration. Attempts of independent female development and criticism of women's role in society replace the traditional courtship plot. Critical reflection of marriage. Coursework. Discussion of (new) images of women. Genre: predominantly suffragette novels. Considers the socio-cultural context of the literary texts. Montefiore, Janet. 1996.

Men and Women Writers of the 1930s: The dangerous flood of history . London New York: Routledge. Useful study on lesser known authors and texts. Textual material: works by left-wing women writers, antifascist texts, novels, autobiography and critique of research, poetry. Pykett, Lyn. 1992. The Improper Feminine.

The Woman's Sensation Novel and the New Woman Writing. London: New York: Routledge. Study on femininity and the us enter, women's writing. Genre: Sensational novel and New Woman novel between 1860 and 1900. Points to their subversive and emancipatory aspects. Canon-revisionary impact: Pykett stresses the importance of the sensational novel and the New Woman novel for literary history. Forerunners of critique of research modernist authors such as Woolf and Richardson. Considers formal aspects of subversion: Sensational novel depicts female stereotypes, yet subverts them by introducing female protagonists deviating from traditional gender norms.

New Woman novel subverts on the level of narration and plot: non-realistic, impressionist, episodic. Pykett's study is wiebusch thesis a source for less established primary literature. Pykett, Lyn. 1995. Engendering Fictions: The English Novel in critique of research the Early Twentieth Century . London etc.: Edward Arnold. Study proceeds from literary history focusing on novels. Introduces established modernist writers on the basis of the opportunity essay gender crisis at the time (relatively selective). Deals with New Woman writing, psychological theories, Dora Marsden's The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist and the phenomenon of degeneration as a result of mass society. Defines literary modernism quite restrictively: modernism as a programme of literary aesthetics, experimentation and formation of critique paper a canon, period beginning in 1890. Provides critical discussion of arguments against a feminist revision of the modernist canon. Quinn, Patrick J., ed.

1996. Recharting the Thirties . Aqa Graphics. Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. Essay collection on the effects of World War I on society and particularly on literature. Considers neglected authors: Irene Rathbone, R.H. Mottram, but also Rosamond Lehmann and Elizabeth Bowen.

Rado, Lisa, ed. 1994. Rereading Modernism: New Directions in Feminist Criticism . New York London: Garland. Feminist collection of essays on modernism. Critique Paper. Essays address the following topics: Dorothy Richardson as a modernist, Rebecca West as a critic, Left Bank Women and lesbian life, the work of Sylvia Townsend-Warner, women's magazines, Wyndham Lewis's Tarr (as a misogynous text). Of particular importance is Felski's article on the term 'modernism' (see above Felski 1994). Schabert, Ina. 1997. Englische Literaturgeschichte: Eine Darstellung aus der Sicht der Geschlechterforschung . Stuttgart: Kröner. Srebrnik, Patricia.

1994. The re-subjection of 'Lucas Malet': Charles Kingsley's daughter and the response to that you succeed muscular Christianity. In: Donald E. Hall, ed. Muscular Christianity: Embodying the Victorian Age . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 194-214. Canon-revisionary article on Lucas Malet (pseudonym of Charles Kingsley's daughter). Questions traditional concepts of masculinity in Malet's Novels. Critique. Stowell, Sheila. 1992.

A stage of their own: Feminist playwrights of the suffrage era . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. That. Stowell, Sheila. Paper. 1996. Why Did The Us. Suffrage critics and political action: a feminist agenda. In: Michael R. Booth Joel H. Kaplan, eds. The Edwardian Theatre: Essays on performance and the stage . Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

166-184. Waters, Chris. 1993. New Women and Socialist-Feminist Fiction: The Novels of Isabella Ford and Katherine Bruce Glasier. In: Angela Ingram Daphne Patai, eds. Rediscovering Forgotten Radicals: British Women Writers, 1889-1939 . Critique. Chapel Hill London: The University of North Carolina Press. 25-42.

Altick's seminal account of the development of the reading culture in qualities that essay England from the 15th to the early 20th century. Especially his chapter on Periodicals and of research paper, Newspapers 1851-1900 (chapter 15) is university important for critique, an understanding of the background of publication practices in the modernist period. Benstock, Shari. 1986. Women of the Left Bank: Paris, 1900-1940 . London: Virago.

An important study on women writers of the is an Left Bank in general. Critique Of Research. Of special interest is chapter 10: At the Sign of the Printing Press: The Role of Small Presses and Little Magazines. Unfortunately Benstock remains on a biographical and anecdotal level, introducing editors, publishers and contributors. She says very little about the actual contributions. Beetham, Margaret. 1996.

A Magazine of Her Own?: Domesticity and Desire in the Woman's Magazine, 1800-1914 . London New York: Routledge. It is Parts III and qualities that can help you succeed, IV (New Woman, New Journalism, the 1880s and 1890s, The reinvention of the domestic English woman: into the twentieth century) that are of particular interest. Beetham concentrates on magazines that offer alternative and reactionary discourses on women to the innovative trends of the time. She also comments on the literature that appeared in these magazines and its function. She thus offers an important view of this area of public culture that many of the modernist women reacted against. Dennison, Sally. Critique Paper. 1984. [Alternative] Literary Publishing: Five Modern Histories . Iowa City: University of Iowa Press.

Dennison demonstrates how all sorts of non-commercial publishing - from self-publishing to small presses, university press publishing, little magazine publishing, publishing through a bookstore, and publishing through patrons - helped to further modernist literature and to make it accessible to a wider audience. University. In most cases such alternative publishing was the only means for young authors to get their works published at all. Dennison uses Eliot, Joyce, Woolf, Nin, and Nabokov as examples. What she fails to notice is that alternative publishing can have commerical interests, too (see Rainey 1989, 1997, 1998). Dettmar, Kevin J.H. Stephen Watt, eds. 1996. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press. An important essay collection by young American scholars presenting a new perspective on and evaluation of modernist literature. They distance themselves from the traditional view of modernism as an awe-inspiring solitary fortress against a growing mass culture by showing that it was clearly rooted within commodity culture, too.

Today it is difficult to of research paper imagine that some senior scholars refused to christopher thesis contribute to this collection because they considered it inappropriate to discuss financial interests and paper, commodity culture in connection with modernist literature. Of particular interest are the introduction and about, the essays by Diepeveen, Materer, and Murphy (see the of research respective entries). Eliot, Simon. Opportunity. 1994. Some Patterns and Trends in British Publishing, 1800-1919 . Critique Of Research Paper. London: The Bibliographical Society. A statistical survey of book and magazine publications in obstacle is an opportunity essay the period of 1800-1919. The data is of research covered in six sections: Section A The Annual Pattern of Publication; Section B The Monthly Pattern of Publication 1800-1919; Section C Subject Publishing; Section D Price Structure; Section E Periodical Publication; Section F The Background. Unfortunately Eliot focuses mainly on the 19th century. He has nothing to say on essays, the magazine and newspaper market in the 20th century, for example, so that his survey is only of very limited value for the modernist period.

Feather, John. 1988. A History of critique paper British Publishing . Short Essay About The Art Of Translation. London: Croom Helm. Feather offers important background information about the development of the publishing trade in of research paper Britain. Although he only focuses on commercial publishing the university essays about study offers some useful background information about the book market in general. Of particular interest is Part IV: The Trade in the Twentieth Century in of research which Feather uses Stanley Unwin, Victor Gollancz and Allen Lane as examplary publishers. Garrity, Jane. 1999. 'Selling Culture to the Civilized': Bloomsbury, British Vogue , and the Marketing of National Identity. Modernism/modernity 6.2: 29-58. Garrity shows that the connection between commodity culture and 'high culture' was much closer than has been previously thought by demonstrating how readily the various members of the Bloomsbury group published in Vogue . Hanscombe, Gillian and Virginia L. Essay And Craft Of Translation. Smyers.

1987. Writing for their Lives: The Modernist Women 1910-1940 . London: The Women's Press. Hanscombe and Smyers's seminal study on modernist women writers, editors and publishers. Of special interest for modernist publication practices in general are Chapter 12 'The public is a stupid beast. ' Book publishing I and critique, Chapter 13 'There is a climax in sensibility' Book publishing II in which they particularly stress the close connection between little magazines and the book market. They argue that in most cases of why did enter experimental writing only critique of research paper, publication in little magazines made a later book publication possible.

Jensen, Robert. 1994. Marketing Modernism in Fin-de-Siècle Century Europe . About The Art And Craft. Princeton: Princeton UP. Jensen does not deal with modernist literature but with art. It is nevertheless an interesting study to compare developments in the art world (especially the critique marketing of avant-garde artists) and the book market. Kaufmann, Michael. 1998. Wiebusch Thesis. A Modernism of One's Own: Virginia Woolf's TLS Reviews and Eliotic Modernism. In: Beth Carol Rosenberg Jeanne Dubino, eds. Virginia Woolf and the Essay . New York: St Martin's Press. 137-155.

Kaufmann shows how the place of publication can be indicative of an author's conception of literature and her or his readership by comparing Virginia Woolf's and T.S. Eliot's essays. He argues that Woolf's reviews in the TLS address a much more 'common reader' than Eliot's essays in ephemeral and elitist little magazines such as The Egoist and The Little Review . Keating, Peter. Critique. 1989. The Haunted Study: A Social History of the English Novel 1875-1914 . London: Secker Warburg. A seminal social historical account of the essay about the art development of the contemporary bookmarket. Keating shows what influence the conditions and changes in the bookmarket had on writers. Leavis, Q.D. 1932.

Fiction and the Reading Public . London: Chatto Windus. Leavis's still interesting study of British reading habits in the 1920s. It is not only an important document because of the empirical data she offers but also as a New Critical position taking within the intellectual and of research, literary field of the early 1930s. Lee, Hermione. 1998. 'Crimes of Criticism': Virginia Woolf and coursework, Literary Journalism. In: Jeremy Treglown Bridget Bennett, eds. Grub Street and the Ivory Tower: Literary Journalism and Literary Scholarship from Fielding to the Internet . Oxford: Clarendon Press. 112-134. Lee not only gives an overview of Virginia Woolf's journalistic work but also shows how she used journals and literary and little magazines in order to advertise her own and her friends' work as well as the Hogarth Press. McDonald, Peter D. 1997. British Literary Culture and Publishing Practice 1880-1914 . Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Unfortunately a misleading title. McDonald does not analyse the of research publication system in the age of transition but rather in late Victorianism. He hardly pays any attention to the authors of the 1890s. His case studies focus rather on Joseph Conrad, Arnold Bennett, and Arthur Conan Doyle without making clear why he chose these authors. Ohmann, Richard. 1996. Selling Culture: Magazines, Markets, and Class at the Turn of the Century . New York: Verso. Rainey, Lawrence. 1998.

Institutions of Modernism: Literary Editors and Public Culture . New Haven: Yale UP. A seminal contribution to the argument that the alleged gap between modernism and essays about, public (or even mass) culture was not as great as the modernists claimed themselves. As example cases Rainey uses the paper publication history of Pound, H.D., Joyce's Ulysses and Eliot's The Waste Land. One rather irritating 'flaw' of this otherwise important study is Rainey's discussion of H.D. Here he leaves his seemingly disinterested position and tries to show that H.D.'s recanonisation by feminist critics was a mistake since H.D.'s work does not deserve it at all (a judgement of the obstacle essay value of an author he does not give with respect to any of the male authors!). Critique. Wexler, Joyce Piell. 1997.

Who Paid for Modernism? Art, Money, and the Fiction of aqa graphics Conrad, Joyce, And Lawrence . Fayetteville: The University of Arkansas Press. Using the paper careers of Conrad, Joyce and Lawrence as examples Wexler demonstrates that the modernist artists' image as oppositions to financially oriented bourgeois artists is a myth and that authors made use of why did the us enter ww1 essays this myth to further their success. She also shows that in critique of research paper modernism the writer's position became particularly complicated because s/he was wedged between the Romantic ideal of the genius who shows no interest in his or her market value and an interest in acknowledgement (because no recognition at all is still regarded as a sign of failure) and being able to live on one's writing. White, Cynthia L. 1970. Women's Magazines 1693-1968 . Short The Art And Craft. London: Michael Joseph. A seminal account of the development of women's magazines. One of White's foci is the literature published in critique these magazines. Pages 77-117 are of particular interest. Willison, Ian, Warwick Gould and Warren Chernaik, eds. 1996.

Modernist Writers and coursework, the Marketplace . Basingstoke London: Macmillan. An essay collection that deals with the conditions of publication for modernist writers, focusing on of research, the publication histories of individual (canonised) authors (James, Yeats, Conrad, Lawrence, Woolf, Eliot, Pound, Lewis). Only Edward Bishops essay on and craft, little magazines (see above) offers a more general overview on avant-garde publication practices. 291 (1915-1916, American magazine) The (New) Adelphi (1923-1955) Art and Letters (1917-1920) Blue Review (1913) Broom (1921-1924, American magazine) The Calendar of of research paper Modern Letters (1925-1927) The Chapbook (1919-1925) The Criterion (1922-1939) The Dial (1880-1929, American magazine; especially the era of Scofield Thayer's and Marianne Moore's editorship 1920-1929) The Egoist (1914-1919) The Enemy (1927-1929) (New) English Review (1908-1937) The (New) Freewoman (1911-1914) The Golden Hind (1922-1924) Life and Letters (1923-1924) Life and Letters later Life and Letters Today (1928-1950) The Little Review (1914-1929, American magazine) The London Aphrodite (1928-1929) The London Mercury (1919-1939) The Masses (1911-1917, American magazine) New Age (1894-1938; especially the years of A.R. Orage's editorship, 1908-1922) The New Coterie (1925-1927) The New Masses (1926-. American magazine)

Others (1915-1919, American Magazine) Open Window (1910-1911) (New) Oxford Outlook (1919-1932) Oxford Broom (1923) The Palatine Review (1916-1917) Poetry (1912-present, American magazine; especially the phase of every obstacle is an essay Harriet Monroe's editorship, 1912-1935) Poetry and Drama (1913-1914) The Poetry Review (1912-present) The Scottish Chapbook (1922-1923) Secession (1922-1924; exile-American magazine published in various European cities) Time and Tide (1920-1979) [in its first phase 1920-1928 it was a little magazine] Transatlantic Review (1924-1925) transition (1927-1938, published in France and Holland) The Tyro (1921-1922) Wheels: An Anthology of Verse (1916-1921) One of the first overviews of British and American modernist little magazines and one of the bases for Hoffman, Allen and Ulrich's (1946) bibliography. Of Research Paper. Allen especially stresses the importance of little magazines as almost the only medium of publication for experimental young authors. Anderson, Margaret. [1930] 1971. My Thirty Years' War . Westport: Greenwood Press. Margaret Anderson's famous autobiography in which she not only describes her unconventional life but also the development of The Little Review under her editorship.

This is, of course, a very subjective account, but it nevertheless contains important information for any study on little magazines. Anonymous. 1941. Little Mags, What Now?. The New Republic 104.13: 424.

A state-of-the-art article on little magazines. The author discusses the development of a little-magazine culture in America from the 1920s to the late 1930s and argues for a revival of little magazines in enter ww1 essays a 1920s fashion in critique paper order offer new authors a forum for publication. Baker, Denys Val, ed. 1943. Little Reviews Anthology . London: Allen Unwin. Can Help Essay. An anthology of what Baker himself calls the best writing which has appeared in the little reviews and literary magazines of Britain since the outbreak of war (v).

His introduction offers some theoretical reflections on little magazines. Interesting is his choice of little magazines from critique which he takes the wiebusch thesis stories and critique, poems: The Bell , Horizon , Indian Writing , New Writing , Oasis , Opus , Our Time , Now , Poetry (London), Poetry Quarterly , Poetry Review , The Bell , New Vision , Wind and about, the Rain , Oasis , Opus , Scythe (formerly Townsman ), and Seven . Of Research Paper. Barash, Carol. 1987. Dora Marsden's Feminism, the Freewoman , and the Gender Politics of Early Modernism. Princeton University Library Chronicle 49.1: 31-56. Short About The Art And Craft. One of the of research paper first essays on the development of The (New) Freewoman / Egoist from a feminist to a literary little magazine. Barash presents this development as the story of Pound's take-over. This assessment has changed, though (see especially Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997, 2001; Thacker 1993). Bennett, David. 1989. Periodical Fragments and Organic Culture: Modernism, the Avant-Garde, and the Little Magazine.

Contemporary Literature 30: 480-502. The author sees in about and craft of translation little magazines an example for a distinction between avant-garde and modernism as proposed by Peter Bürger (1974). Publications in the ephemeral medium of little magazines are still part of an avant-garde culture, but they become modernist texts by being published in book form. This distinction has been convincingly questioned by Bishop (1996) and Rainey (1998). Benstock, Shari Bernard Benstock. 1991. Critique Of Research Paper. The Role of Little Magazines in the Emergence of Modernism. Library Chronicle of the University of Texas 20: 68-87. Obstacle Opportunity. An important overview of the paper copies of (American) little magazines at the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center at the University of Texas, Austin. Christopher Wiebusch. Unfortunately the authors remain on of research, a merely biographical level. The editors of the that little magazines and their aesthetic ideas are introduced.

Benstock and Benstock say very little about the critique exact content of these magazines. van den Berg, Hubert Ralf Grüttemeier, eds. 1998. Manifeste: Intentionalität (Avant Garde Critical Studies 11). Amsterdam Atlanta: Rodopi. A rather heterogeneous essay collection on literary manifestos (mainly European modernist ones). Theoretically the that you succeed authors base their contributions on the intentionality debate (Eco, Searle, Fish, Knapp Michaels, Hirsch).

The authors' claim that a manifesto is necessarily intentional and that its authors' intentions can be gauged from it is quite problematic. Of particular interest are the contributions by Wolfgang Asholt (on intentional strategies in futurist, dadaist and surrealist manifestos) and by Martin A. Kayman (on Pound and imagism). Bishop, Edward. Critique Paper. 1996. Re:Covering Modernism - Format and Function in the Little Magazines. In: Willison, Gould and Chernaik, eds. 287-319. An important overview of every obstacle is an essay little magazines from the 1890s to the 1920s.

Bishop pays special attention to the connection between visual and typographical design and the literary contents of these magazines. He sees the different magazine as a representation of the increasing institutionalisation of modernism (in this he argues against Bennett's (1989) postulation that little magazines represent the avant-garde and not modernism). Bishop covers The Yellow Book , The Savoy , The Dial , The Little Review , Poetry , The Egoist , Blast , and critique of research paper, Criterion . Why Did The Us Enter. Bloomfield, B.C. 1976. An Author Index to Selected British Little Magazines 1930-1939 . London: Manssell. An additional (but by far not as comprehensive) reference to Sader, ed. (1976). Bradbury, Malcolm. 1958. The English Review . London Magazine 5: 46-57. One of the first accounts of The English Review with a special focus on the period of Ford Madox Ford's editorship.

Bradbury stresses that this was one of the few Edwardian magazines where new and experimental could publish alongside more traditional ones. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1961. The Calendar of critique Modern Letters : A Review in Retrospect. London Magazine n.s. 1.7: 37-47. Bradbury's attempt to revaluate The Calendar of Modern Letters as an important literary-critical review alongside The Criterion and The Adelphi . He points out that the the us Calendar served as model for F.R.

Leavis's Scrutiny (a series of critical articles in the Calendar , called Scrutinies actually gave Leavis's magazine its name). Paper. Unfortunately the Calendar 's importance is still not recognised today. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1971. The Social Context of Modern English Literature . That You Succeed Essay. Oxford: Blackwell. Critique Paper. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1976. London 1890-1920. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Essays About. Modernism 1890-1930 . Harmondsworth: Penguin.

172-190. This chapter is of interest because Bradbury introduces some of the important contemporary British little magazines such as Rhythm / The Blue Review , The Poetry Review , a Poetry and Drama , The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist , and Blast . Bradbury, Malcolm. 1995. The Criterion. A Literary Review in Retrospect. The London Magazine 5.2: 41-54. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1999. Modernism and the Magazines. In: Heinz Antor and Kevin L. Critique Of Research. Cope, eds. Transcultural Encounters - Studies in English Literatures . Heidelberg: Winter.

187-313. A survey of little magazines which mainly remains on a positivist level, listing names of magazines, editors, and contributors. Bradbury demonstrates the interconnection of the the us development of modernism and of little magazine. He manages to give an idea of the diversity of magazines, but because he covers so many he does not have much space for detailed discussions of specific examples. Critique. Bradbury, Malcolm James McFarlane. 1976. Movements, Magazines and Manifestos: The Succession from qualities that essay Naturalism.

In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism 1890-1930 . Harmondsworth: Penguin. 192-205. The authors show how much the various European modernist movements (especially Imagism, Vorticism, Futurism, Surrealism, Expressionism, and Dadaism) depended on little magazines as an outlet. Critique Of Research Paper. Casford, E. Leonore. 1929. The Magazines of the aqa graphics coursework 1890's: A Chapter in the History of English Periodicals; Being a Critical Study of critique paper The Albemarle, The Yellow Book, and The Savoy, with a Brief Description of Other Literary Magazines of the 1890's (Language and Literature Series 1). Eugene: University of Oregon Press. An important overview of little magazines of the 1890s which shows how early the concept of little magazines received literary critical attention.

Apart from The Albemarle , The Yellow Book and The Savoy Casford also discusses The Anti-Philistine , The Butterfly , The Dome , Hobby Horse , The Pageant and The Quarto . Clarke, Bruce. 1985. Dora Marsden's Egoism and aqa graphics, Modernist Letters: West, Weaver, Joyce, Pound, Lawrence, Williams, Eliot. Works and Days 2.2: 27-47. An early version of parts of his seminal study on Dora Marsden (1996). Clarke, Bruce.

1992. Dora Marsden and Ezra Pound: The New Freewoman and 'The Serious Artist'. Contemporary Literature 33.1: 91-112. Critique Of Research Paper. An early version of parts of his seminal study on short the art, Dora Marsden (1996). Clarke, Bruce. 1996. Dora Marsden and Early Modernism: Gender, Individualism, Science . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. An important revaluation of Dora Marsden's role in the cultural field at the beginning of the 20th century. Clarke argues that Marsden's intellectual development from suffragism to egoism mirrors in a nutshell the direction literature took at the time (a turn from critique of research personal politics to an individualistic literary practice, 1). He provides a detailed account of aqa graphics coursework Marsden's philosophical, political and literary influences. Other than Barash (1987) Clarke sees Marsden's change of critique of research name of her little magazine from The (New) Freewoman to The Egoist as a voluntary one.

He thus reduces the short essay the art of translation influence Pound allegedly had on her (see also Barash 1989; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997, 2001; Thacker 1993). Clooney, J.P. 1938. Among the Magazines. The Phoenix 1.2: 134-150. A very critical review of a number of literary magazines of the critique of research paper time with quite different literary and opportunity, political positions ( The Townsman , Purpose , Life and Letters Today , Poetry , The Examiner ). Interesting as a document of how little magazines were received and discussed in of research paper the contemporary literary field. Diepeveen, Leonard.

1996. 'I Can Have More Than Enough Power to Satisfy Me': T.S. Eliot's Construction of His Audience. In: Kevin J.H. Dettmar Stephen Watt, eds. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press. 37-60. An interesting discussion of how Eliot created his own elitist audience through his essays. Diepeveen shows the importance the ephemeral form of publication of little magazines had in this.

Eliot argued that only in these smaller but literary more 'elitist' media of publication could he find what he termed the qualified reader Eliot explicitly differentiated himself from editors of larger - and thus to his mind more commercial - magazines such as The London Mercury (see also Kaufmann 1998 on the difference between Eliot's and thesis, Virginia Woolf's conceptions of their readership). Dupee, F.W. 1938. British Periodicals. Partisan Review 5: 45-48. A very critical review of British little magazines.

Dupee criticises their apolitical stance (which is not surprising considering the political position of the Partisan Review ) and at the same time stresses their ideological heterogeneity. Of Research Paper. He also finds fault with the - to his mind - poor literary quality. He discusses The Criterion , Scrutiny , Purpose , Arena , Colosseum , Left Review , Life and Letters Today , and New Verse . Eliot, Thomas S. Christopher. 1926. The Idea of a Literary Review. The New Criterion 4: 1-6. Eliot's own outline of an ideal little or literary magazine. It not only critique of research paper, offers a contemporary perspective on little magazines but also reveals important information about his own conception of literature. Emmart, A.D. Aqa Graphics Coursework. 1923. The Limitations of American Magazines. Modern Quarterly 1.3: 17-26.

A very conservative critique of American little magazines and the literature published in them. He particularly finds fault with an alleged lack of moral and too much experimentation in the field of psychological realism. Emmart is especially critical of The Dial and The Little Review . Ferrall, Charles. 1992a. Suffragists, Egoists, and the Politics of Early Modernism. English Studies in Canada 18.4: 433-446. Ferrall tries to critique of research show that Pound's 'take-over' of the New Freewoman and the change of why did the us enter name into The Egoist was not just an appropriation of a feminist magazine through 'phallocratic' and misogynist men but that this change reflects Marsden's development, too. He examines her turn from suffragism to a Nietzschean and Stirnerian egoism and points out some analogies between her political and philosophical writings and that of the critique imagists, especially Pound (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Morrisson 1997, 2001; Thacker 1993). Ferrall, Charles.

1992b. Christopher Thesis. The New Age and the Emergence of Reactionary Modernism Before the Great War. Modern Fiction Studies 38: 653-667. Ferrall counters the notion that the critique of research paper New Age was one of the short essay central magazines in propagating modernism in general. In contrast to Martin (1967) he argues that A.R. Orage, the editor at the time only supported politically reactionary authors such as Ezra Pound and Wyndham Lewis and thus contributed to the development of a 'reactionary modernism' only.

Fletcher, John Gould. 1934. The Little Reviews: Yesterday and To-Day. Critique Of Research. Space 1.8: 84-86. Qualities You Succeed Essay. An contemporary account of American little magazines (1914-1929). Fletcher observes a tendency towards a proletarisation and a decentralization of critique of research paper American literature and culture through these new little magazines (85). He does, however, acknowledge that some of the new authors would have had no other possibility of publication. Garner, Les.

1990. A Brave and Beautiful Spirit: Dora Marsden 1882-1960 . Aldershot: Avebury. The first book-length biography of Marsden. An attempt at a revaluation of Marsden's role in the suffragette movement and in modernism. Essays About. At times a little too subjective and anecdotal.

Of special interest are chapters 4 The Freewoman , 1911-1912; 5 The New Freewoman , June-December 1913; 6 The Egoist , January 1914-December 1919. Görtschacher, Wolfgang. 1993. Little Magazine Profiles: The Little Magazines in Great Britain 1939-1993. Salzburg: Salzburg University. Although Görtschacher focuses on little magazines of the second half of the 20th century his comments on the nature of little magazines in general are quite useful. What he offers is a descriptive discussion of critique paper various magazines and their editors (sometimes with interviews). It is a little odd, though, that he restricts the term 'little magazine' to poetry magazines only; his typology of little magazines is thus not very convincing. Graham, Walter.

1930. English Literary Periodicals . University Essays. New York: Thomas Nelson. A very early survey of British periodical culture from the 18th century to the 1920s. He only briefly touches on little magazines, though. Of particular interest in this respect are Chapter 9 The Later Reviews and the Fortnightly , Chapter 11 The weekly journal of belles-lettres , and Chapter 12 (in which he discusses among other magazines The (New) Adelphi , The Athenaeum , The Criterion , The English Review , Life and of research paper, Letters The London Mercury , and the art, the TLS ). Grant, Joy. 1967. Harold Monro and the Poetry Bookshop . London: Routledge Kegan Paul.

A biography of one of the lesser known editors of critique of research paper little magazines ( The Poetry Review , Poetry and christopher, Drama , The Chapbook ) and a discussion of his own poetry. Hamilton, Ian. 1976. The Little Magazines: A Study of critique of research paper Six Editors . London: Weidenfels and Nicolson. A much quoted study in coursework which Hamilton focuses on critique paper, an anecdotal and biographical account of The Little Review , Poetry , The Criterion , New Verse , The Partisan Review , and Horizon . Hamilton's ironical comments on contributions that he regards as inferior can be quite irritating. One severe disadvantage is that he neither gives any bibliographical information about the quotations he uses nor offers a bibliography. Hanscombe, Gillian and Virginia L. Smyers. 1987. Writing for their Lives: The Modernist Women 1910-1940 . London: The Women's Press.

Hanscombe and obstacle is an essay, Smyers's seminal study on modernist women writers, editors and publishers. Of particular interest for little magazines are Chapter 10 'The stand of the individual against immensities. ' - Periodical publishing I and Chapter 11: 'Life for Art's sake. ' - Periodical publishing II in which they discuss the role of women in little-magazine publishing. Magazines they cover include The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist (here they hold the early feminist opinion that Pound forced Marsden into a change of name and conception of her magazine, cf. Barash), The Little Review , The Dial , Poetry , Contact , The Transatlantic Review , The Quarter , Close-up , and transitions . Hayman, Ronald. 1975. The Calendar of paper Modern Letters.

New Review 1: 14-19. Heyl, Lawrence. 1940. Little Magazines. The Princeton University Library Chronicle 2.1: 21-6. An early attempt at the us ww1 essays, a definition and description of (American) little magazines. Critique Of Research Paper. Interesting as a historical document. Hoffman, Frederick J. 1943. The Little Magazines: Portrait of an Age.

The Saturday Review of Literature 26.52: 3-5. One of the first overviews of British and American modernist little magazines and one of the bases for Hoffman, Allen and Ulrich's (1946) bibliography. Allen especially stresses the importance of little magazines as almost the only medium of publication for the art of translation, experimental young authors. Hoffman, Frederick J., Charles Allen and Carolyn F. Ulrich. 1946. Of Research Paper. The Little Magazine: A History and a Bibliography . Princeton: Princeton UP. Still the authoritative annotated bibliography of British and American little magazines. The introductory chapters are also of interest. Aqa Graphics. Hoffman, Allen, and Ulrich even attempt a typology of little magazines, but mostly they remain on a positivist and anecdotal level listing dates of publication, names of editors and contributors, etc.

Homberger, Eric. 1976. Chicago and New York: Two Versions of of research paper American Modernism. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism 1890-1930 . Harmondsworth: Penguin. 151-161. Only of the us enter ww1 essays marginal interest for paper, little magazines, but at can help you succeed, least Homberger mentions the great influence of little magazines on the New York literary scene (e.g. The Liberator , Smart Set , Others , Glebe , Seven Arts , New Republic , The Freeman , Nation , Masses , The Little Review , The Dail ). Howarth, Herbert.

T.S. Eliot's Criterion : The Editor and His Contributors. Comparative Literature 2: 97-110. Johnson, Abby Arthur. 1973/74.

The Politics of a Literary Magazine: A Study of The Poetry Review , 1912-1972. Journal of Modern Literature 3: 951-964. Joost, Nicholas. 1967. Years of of research Transition: The Dial 1912-1920 . Barre, Mass.: Barre Publishers. Wiebusch Thesis. A detailed study of the development of critique of research The Dial from a rather conventional (literary) magazine to university essays about a platform for experimental literature under Scofield Thayer and Sibley Watson. Joost, however, argues that the literature that appeared in the Dial has been overestimated and critique, that more radical magazines such as The Little Review did much more to further modernist writings. Joost, Nicholas Alvin Sullivan. 1970. D.H.

Lawrence and 'The Dial'. Carbondale, Ill.: Southern Illinois UP. A detailed account of Lawrence's involvement with The Dial in the course of his career. A bit too anecdotal at times, but still readable. Kadlec, David. 1993. Pound, Blast , and why did enter ww1 essays, Syndicalism.

English Literary History 60.4: 1015-1031. Kadlec argues that the design of BLAST was informed by the development of syndicalist miner's actions in Wales under Tom Mann before WW I. According to him not only the magazine's name is critique of research indebted to the worker's movement but also its visual aggressiveness and aesthetic militancy. He also attributes Pound's radical aesthetics in this period to his interest in syndicalism (introduced to him mainly via A.R. Orage's The New Age ). Every Is An Essay. Kenner, Hugh. 1971. Critique. The Pound Era . Berkeley: University of California Press. Kenner's book is interesting as an account of Pound's involvement with The New Freewoman / The Egoist - especially if you compare it with more recent studies of this little magazine. It is amazing how Kenner manages to leave out Dora Marsden's entirely! Knight, Melinda. 1996.

Little Magazines and the Emergence of Modernism in qualities you succeed essay the Fin de Siècle . American Periodicals 6: 29-45. Knight convincingly demonstrates that little-magazine culture in America did not begin in critique paper 1912 with the appearance of Poetry , The Poetry Journal , The Smart Set and The Masses , but much earlier with fin-de-siècle magazines such as The Chap-Book , M'lle New York , The Fly Leaf , The Lark , The Philistine and others. Aqa Graphics Coursework. She argues for a revaluation of critique of research these magazines' influence in the development of modernism. Lewis, Wyndham. 1927. Editorial notes: Art and 'Radical' Doctrines. The Enemy 2: xxiii-xxviii. Lewis's own 'position taking' in the literary field. Aqa Graphics Coursework. His editorial mainly consists of a biting critique of transitions and paper, Gertrude Stein's - to university his mind - negative influence on it. Implicitly, of course, this is indicative of his own conception of literature and little magazines. Of Research Paper. Lidderdale, Jane Mary Nicholson.

1970. Dear Miss Weaver: Harriet Shaw Weaver, 1876-1961 . London: Faber Faber. A still seminal biography of Harriet Shaw Weaver with a special focus on her role as Joyce's patron. Aqa Graphics Coursework. But Lidderdale and Nicholson also touch upon her role as editor of The Egoist and publisher of The Egoist Press. Little Magazine. 1997. Britannica CD: Version 97 . Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. A valuable first source of information on little magazines providing a definition, a list of the most prominent British and American little magazines, and a classification into different periods. MacKendrick, Louis K. 1972. New Freewoman : A Short Story of Literary Journalism. English Literature in critique paper Transition 15.3: 180-187.

MacKendrick, Louis K.. 1975. T.S. Eliot and the Egoist : The Critical Preparation. Dalhousie Review 55: 140-154. MacShane, Frank. 1961. Obstacle Essay. The English Review . South Atlantic Quarterly 60: 311-320. Marek, Jayne E. 1995. Women Editing Modernism: Little Magazines and of research paper, Literary History . Why Did The Us Enter. Lexington: The UP of Kentucky.

A very important feminist contribution to critique the history of little magazines. Marek tries to show that in the function of publishers and editors more women were involved in the development of modernism than traditional accounts convey. The question, however, remains why there were not more women contributors (especially in a British context). With the exception of Bryher, Marek focuses on American women editors and publishers (Harriet Monroe, Alice Corbin Henderson, Margaret Anderson, Jane Heap, Bryher, Marianne Moore) and has an every obstacle, additional chapter on Ezra Pound's role in little magazine culture. Marek concentrates on critique, the editors' own writings in their magazines and their personal contacts. The Art And Craft. She says hardly anything about the paper set-up of particular issues or the norms and values conveyed in other contributions. Marks, Peter.

1997. Illusion and Reality: the Spectre of Socialist Realism in Thirties Literature Williams, Keith Steven Matthews, eds. Rewriting the Thirties: Modernism and After . London New York: Longman. 23-36. University About. In his essay on British literature of the 1930s Marks also discusses the role of critique of research little magazines. He distinguishes between left-wing magazines that explicitly engage in the relationship between literature and politics (such as The Left Review , New Signatures , The Adelphi , and Cambridge Left ) and those magazines that are their unpolitical or conservative ( New Verse , The Criterion , Scrutiny ). Interesting for an analysis of the development of little magazine culture. Martin, Peter A. 1977. The Short Story in England: 1930s Fiction Magazines. Studies in Short Fiction 14: 233-240.

An account of the role of the us enter ww1 essays little magazines ( New Writing , New Stories , Lovat Dickson's Magazine , Penguin Parade ) in the development of prose writing - especially the short story - in the 1930s. Martin, Wallace. 1967. Critique Of Research. The New Age Under Orage: Chapters in English Cultural History . Manchester: Manchester UP. One of the first studies on the role of the New Age in the modernist period. Martin is a little too enthusiastic in portraying The New Age as a platform for innovative and experimental authors alongside BLAST and The Egoist (see for essay the art of translation, example Ferrall 1992b for paper, a more critical evaluation of the christopher wiebusch magazine). Masteller, Richard N. 1997.

Using Brancusi: Three Writers, Three Magazines, Three Versions of critique Modernism. American Art 11.1: 47-66. Materer, Timothy. 1996. Make It Sell! Ezra Pound Advertises Modernism. In: Kevin J.H. Dettmar Stephen Watt, eds. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press. 17-36.

Materer shows how Pound took over advertising schemes from commodity culture in order to make Imagism and Vorticism popular. He thus discloses the allegedly unbridgeable gap between the avant-garde and consumer culture as a mere modernist self-stylisation. He demonstrates how Pound used little magazines such as The Egoist , The Little Review and BLAST for his purpose and how these magazines themselves adopted methods from commodity culture advertising. Morrisson, Mark S. 1996. The Myth of the Whole: Ford's English Review , The Mercure de France and Early British Modernism.

ELH 63: 513-533. Morrisson argues that Ford turned to essays France, i.e. the Mercure de France in his outline of The English Review because he saw no English equivalent that could bridge the gap between 'high' literary standards and a broad audience. Of Research Paper. He wanted neither a typical coterie magazine nor one of the typical mass papers such as the Daily Mail . Morrisson, Mark S. 1997. University Essays About. Marketing British Modernism: The Egoist and of research, Counter-Public Spheres. Twentieth Century Literature 43.4: 439-469. An analysis of the development from The Freewoman as a suffragist magazine to short essay about the art and craft The Egoist as a magazine of the literary avant-garde. Morrisson shows that this change not only had an influence on the readership of the magazine but on advertisers as well. He argues that The Egoist folded up because in contrast to The Freewoman it failed to address a homogeneous audience (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 2001; Thacker 1993).

Morrisson, Mark S. 2001. The Public Faces of Modernism: Little Magazines, Audiences, and Reception 1905-1920 . Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press. A seminal study of of research little magazines. The Us Enter. Morrisson not only gives the typical account of little magazines' central role in the development of critique of research paper modernism but also analyses their relationship to what he calls the 'public sphere'. He thereby manages to obstacle is an demonstrate convincingly that the alleged gap between mass culture and the avant-garde is not as great as has been posited. He focuses on four British ( The English Review , Poetry and Drama , The Egoist , Blast ) and two American ( The Little Review , The Masses ) magazines (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997; Thacker 1993). Munson, Gorham. 1937.

How to Run a Little Magazine. The Saturday Review of Literature 15.22: 3-4, 14, 16-17. A contemporary discussion of little magazine culture. Critique Of Research Paper. Munson interestingly already claims to have noticed a decline of and loss of university about interest in little magazines as compared with the 1920s. Murphy, Michael. 1996. 'One Hundred Per Cent Bohemia': Pop Decadence and the Aestheticization of Commodity in the Rise of the Slicks. In: Kevin J.H. Dettmar Stephen Watt, eds. Paper. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press. 61-89.

Murphy demonstrates that the connection between commodity culture and avant-garde culture was much closer than has been previously thought. He uses Vanity Fair to show how quickly commodity culture picked up some of the every opportunity essay features of the avant-garde. Not only did modernist authors publish in magazines such as Vanity Fair but also the critique paper advertisements in these magazines show clear influences of modernist art. Nelson, Cary. 1989. Repression and the us enter ww1 essays, Recovery: Modern American Poetry and of research, the Politics of Cultural Memory, 1910-1945 . Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. In his study on American poetry of the first half of the 20th century Nelson also briefly discusses the role little magazines (including left-wing magazines and magazines of the Harlem Renaissance) played in the publication and, ultimately, canonization of short about the art and craft some of the best known authors. He also provides an impressive variety of illustrations from little magazines.

Nelson's canon debate originates in a Marxist rather than a gender-oriented position, but he discusses some lesser-known women authors, too. One great disadvantage is the structure of the book: Nelson deliberately designed it as one long essay without chapter divisions so that the reader is left with the detective work of deducing from the implicit information given in the course of the study what organisational principle underlies the study. Pollack, Felix. 1976. Elitism and the Littleness of Little Magazines. Southwestern Review 61: 297-303. Pound, Ezra. 1930. Small Magazines. Of Research. The English Journal 19.9: 689-704.

Pound's own position on the role and functions of little magazines. He discusses almost exclusively the magazines he was involved with (and, of university essays course, he is very critical of those he has left, such as Poetry ). He covers Poetry , The Egoist , The English Review, The Little Review , The Dial , and briefly The Criterion , transatlantic review , and critique of research, transition . Rainey, Lawrence. 1989. The price of modernism: reconsidering the publication of The Waste Land . Critical Quarterly 31.4: 21-47. Rainey's seminal first contribution to the discussion of modernism's economic interests. He demonstrates that the question of where to publish The Waste Land was guided by financial interests. Eliot ultimately chose the magazine ( The Dial ) that offered the most and actually made quite a lot of money.

The modernists' self-stylization as artists who had no interest in financial success whatsoever thus has to be modified. Rainey, Lawrence. University Essays About. 1997. The real scandal of Ulysses : How literary modernism came to retreat from the public sphere. TLS (January 31): 11-13. Of Research. Rainey argues that Sylvia Beach's decision to publish Ulysses was not just a selfless act of support for an avant-garde author, but was guided by financial considerations as well. She consciously chose to publish Ulysses as a deluxe and not as a limited edition. The book thus immediately became a collector's item rather than a book for a limited audience. The attention was diverted from the content to the book as object.

Rhondda, Viscountess, Margaret Haig. 1933. This Was My World . London: Macmillan. Lady Rhondda's highly interesting autobiography in every is an essay which she also briefly mentions the foundation and development of Time and Tide . Rosenberg, Harold. 1938. Critique. Literature Without Money. Direction 1.3: 6-10. A contemporary discussion of the role of little magazines in the development of modernism in America.

Rosenberg stresses that the little magazines often served as a first step in the publication history of an author and that commercial magazines and publishing houses latched on when they considered her or him financially promising. He notices a difference in reception with regard to the three genres (decidedly less interest in poetry with the christopher wiebusch thesis commercial publishers). Sader, Marion, ed. Critique Of Research. 1976. Every Opportunity Essay. Comprehensive Index to English Language Little Magazines 1890-1970 . Millwood, NY: Kraus-Thomson-Organization. A six-volume author index to over one hundred - mainly American and British - little magazines. The entries include information on works by and about authors who were published in these magazines (interviews, articles, essays, poems, drama, fiction). Schwartz, Delmore. 1939. The Criterion , 1922-1939. Kenyon Review 1: 437-449.

Selver, Paul. 1959. Orage and The New Age Circle: Reminiscences and Reflections . Critique Of Research Paper. London: Allen Unwin. This is more an autobiography than an account of The New Age and its editor A.R. Orage although he tries to improve Orage's reputation with his book. Selver describes his own (rather marginal) function in the magazine. Essays. His comments on some of the avant-garde authors reflects his own conservative literary values. Singer, Herman B. Critique Of Research. 1940.

The Modern Quarterly 1923-1940. Modern Quarterly 11.7: 13-19. That Can Help Essay. A characterisation of Modern Quarterly from a political perspective. Critique Paper. Singer focuses on the editor's (V.F. Calverton) position with respect to marxism and the Soviet Union and its influences on the magazine. Qualities That Can Help Essay. He hardly says anything about the literature in Modern Quarterly . Critique Of Research Paper. Spender, Dale. 1984. Time and Tide Wait for No Man . The Art And Craft Of Translation. London etc.: Pandora Press. One of the few accounts of Time and Tide . Unfortunately Spender concentrates on giving biographical information about the most important (political) contributers (Lady Rhondda, Elizabeth Robins, Rebecca West, Cicely Hamilton, Helena M. Swanwick, Winifred Holtby, Very Brittain, and Crystal Eastman) and on reprinting some of their articles. Apart from naming some of the most prominent authors that appeared in Time and Tide she says very little about the magazine's literary contents. Sullivan, Alvin, ed.

1984. British Literary Magazines: The Victorian and Edwardian Age, 1837-1913 . Westport, Conn. London: Greenwood Press. To date one of the most important reference work on literary and little magazines. Of Research. The magazines are arranged in alphabetical order. Each magazine is introduced in an essay (whose length depends on the assumed importance of the magazines), including bibliographical references, information on publishers, editors, location sources as well as possible indexes and reprint editions, Sullivan, Alvin, ed.

1986. British Literary Magazines: The Modern Age, 1914-1984 . Westport, Conn. London: Greenwood Press. To date one of the most important reference work on literary and little magazines. The magazines are arranged in alphabetical order. Each magazine is introduced in an essay (whose length depends on the assumed importance of the short essay magazines), including bibliographical references, information on publishers, editors, location sources as well as possible indexes and reprint editions, Symons, Julian. Of Research. 1967.

The Cri. London Magazine n.s. University Essays About. 7: 19-23. A description of The Criterion . Symons presents the of research paper magazine as an odd combination of aqa graphics coursework a conservative and overly academic literary criticism and of research, an interest in literary innovation, revealing T.S. Eliot's own position. About. This also becomes apparent in of research Eliot's conservative social criticism. Symons notes some of the poetry that was published in The Criterion as remarkable, the prose less so and he complains that some genres such as history and biography were ignored altogether. Tell, Waldo. 1934. Review of Radical Magazines. Partisan Review 1: 60-63.

An early account of a new turn to the left in (American) little magazines of the 1930s. Tell introduces Left Front , The Anvil , Dynamo , and Blast (not Wyndham Lewis's London magazine of 1913). Thacker, Andrew. 1993. Dora Marsden and The Egoist : 'Our War Is With Words'. About And Craft. English Literature in Transition, 1880-1920 36.2: 178-196. Another attempt to revaluate Marsden's position as editor of The (New)Freewoman / The Egoist and of research paper, her role in the development of literary modernism (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997, 2001) Todd, Ruthven. 1939. The Little Review. Every Obstacle Opportunity. Twentieth Century Verse 15/16: 159-162.

An early account of The Little Review focusing mainly on its early years. Todd criticises Margaret Anderson's indiscriminate choice of literature and stresses that her only critique, real 'find' was Ulysses . He sees the most important improvement of the magazine in Pound's employment as foreign editor. Trilling, Lionel. 1951. The Function of the why did the us enter ww1 essays Little Magazine. The Liberal Imagination Essays on critique paper, Literature and Society . London: Secker and christopher wiebusch thesis, Warburg.

93-103. Originally published as an individual essay in 1946 in an anthology on critique paper, and of The Partisan Review this is another quite early literary-critical account of the function of little magazines, especially with respect to the development of modernism. Trilling criticises that the intellectuals of his time have lost interest in literature but sees a new hope in politically oriented little magazines such as The Partisan Review . Troy, William. 1930. The Story of the Little Magazines. The Bookman 70: 476-481, 657-563.

Vondeling, Johanna E. 2000. The Manifest Professional: Manifestos and Modernist Legitimation. College Literature 27.2: 127-145. Vondeling's notion of the manifesto is a little too vague, including essays and programmatic poetry, but she offers an interesting analysis of the function of wiebusch thesis little magazines in an author's self-legitimation. She focuses on of research paper, Marinetti's Futurist Manifesto, Pound's essays in BLAST , and wiebusch thesis, Loy's Feminist Manifesto and critique paper, her essay International Psycho-Democracy. Wall, Alan. 1976. Little Magazines: Notes towards a methodology. In Francis Barker et al., eds.

Literature, Society and the Sociology of Literature (Proccedings of the Essex Conference of the Sociology of Literature). Colchester: University of Essex. 105-117. Christopher Thesis. Wall provides some genereal sociological reflections from a typical 1970s marxist position on the status of little magazines. His main focus is on The Calendar of Modern Letters , though. In spite of Wall's today rather outmoded political stance he offers a valuable attempt to go beyond a mere positivist listing of names of authors, editors and contributors. Whiteley, Mary N.S. Critique. 1932. Shall We Let It Die? The Saturday Review of Literature 9.2: 19. A letter to the editor that regrets the imminent death of Harriet Monroe's Poetry . In a retrospective account Whitley stresses the can help you succeed essay magazine's importance in the advancement of modernist - especially imagist - poetry.

Young, Alan Michael Schmidt. 1973. A Conversation with Edgell Rickword. Poetry Nation 1: 73-89. Zabel, Morton Dauwen. 1929. The Way of Periodicals. Paper. Poetry 34.6: 330-4.

A comment on aqa graphics coursework, the death of The Dial and The Little Review , which Zabel with amazing foresight also regards as the end of a literary-historical era: In going, they open the way to our next literary period, and so leave with us some of the sensations of suspense we experienced when they first flashed upon the view (1929: 334). Critique Paper. Study on the situation of women between the wars. Key words: misogynist trends in society, female education as an enclave of emancipation - professions for women, health, leisure, reading, cinema, radio. Images of Women, influence on that can help you succeed essay, women writers. Brantlinger, Patrick. 1996. 'The Bloomsbury Fraction' Versus War and Empire. In: Carola M. Kaplan Anne B. Simpson, eds. Seeing Double: Revisioning Edwardian and Modernist Literature . New York: St.

Martin's Press. 149-167. Buitenhuis, Peter. 1987. The Great War of Words: British, American, and Canadian Propaganda and Fiction, 1914-1933 . Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. Study on war and literature. Key words: established (male) authors, war euphemisms, war propaganda. Textual material: predominantly pamphlets, but also narrative fiction. Fictional accounts less obvious and stereotypical, more ambivalence (cf. ch. 8).

Buitenhuis distinguishes between two phases: 1st phase - patriotic, glorification of war, 2nd phase - less patriotic, critical discussion of war. Byles, Joan Montgomery. 1985. Women's Experience of World War I: Suffragists, Pacifists and Poets. Women's Studies International Forum 8.5: 473-487. Article on the suffrage movement in the context of World War I. Key words: division - militarist suffragettes vs. pacifist suffragettes. Example: conflict between Emmeline and Sylvia Pankhurst. Textual material: war poetry by women.

Fussell, Paul. 1975. The Great War and critique, Modern Memory . London New York: Oxford. Study on war and modernism. University About. Details on World War I: major events, the end of the Great War - national ideals vs. reality. Foci: war landscape - depiction of the trenches and paper, actual fighting, enemy territory vs. friendly territory, contrast home front - front, dichotomy of thesis good and evil.

Mythicisation and fictionalization of war: revival of the cultic, the mystical, the paper sacrificial, the sacramental and the universally significant. Speechlessness in the face of terror and its euphemistic verbalisation. The pastoral as a sheltering place of escape. Homoeroticism. Criticism: study is restricted to christopher wiebusch male authors and provides questionable value judgements. Gardiner, Juliet, ed. 1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. London: Collins Brown.

Essay collection on literary representations of the New Woman. Analysis is not limited to the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and less established writers. (ch. 6: Women's War) Goldman, Dorothy, ed. Critique. 1993. Women and World War I: The Written Response . That Can Help Essay. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Essay collection on women writers' reactions to paper World War I. Introduces female authors (not restricted to British ones).

Key words: War from a female perspective, female world of experience. Patriotic vs. pacifist attitudes. Textual material: poetry (contrast to male war poets) and novels. Hewitt, Douglas. 1988.

English Fiction of the Early Modern Period, 1890-1940 . Longman Literature in English Series. London, New York: Longman. Higonnet, Margaret et al., eds. 1987. Behind the Lines: Gender and the Two World Wars . New Haven London: Yale UP. Essay collection on gender and war. Postulates a gender-specific experience of the World Wars: confirmation of qualities you succeed traditional gender roles, yet some change of gender consciousness in the field of war occupations such as driver, nurse, factory worker new professions (see Higonnet, Gould, Gubar). Of Research Paper. Questioning of masculinity through depiction of war neurosis and mutilation (see Showalter). Different perspectives and manners of perceiving war: men focus on christopher wiebusch, the dramatic war action, women focus on critique of research paper, the long-term effects of the war. (cf. Rebecca West's The Return of the essay and craft of translation Soldier ). Special role of literature: expresses problems more poignant, yet has little effect on political change.

Hynes, Samuel. 1990. A War Imagined: The First World War and English Culture. London: Bodley Head. Detailed study on the influence of World War I on literature and art. Introduces war as a driving force for Modernism. Key words: Loss of values. Of Research Paper. Decadence.

Search for new forms and contents. War and the difficulty of its representation - conventional means do not suffice for adequate representation of war. Disillusionment (caused by war) leads to experimental tendencies in essay about the art art and literature. Representation of space is further considered. Captures the time before and critique of research, after the war in different phases. Every Obstacle Is An Opportunity. Criticism: On the whole very informative, also with regards to primary sources, but: unfortunately no bibliography. Kern, Stephen. 1983.

The Culture of Time and Space, 1880-1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. (ch. 11: The Cubist War) Longenbach, James. 1989. The Women and Men of 1914. In: Helen M. Critique Of Research Paper. Cooper, Adrienne Auslander Munich Susan Merill Squier, eds. Arms and the Woman: War, Gender, and Literary Representation . Why Did The Us. Chapel Hill, London: The University of North Carolina Press. 97-123.

Lucas, John. 1997. The Radical Twenties. Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. (ch. 4 on Jazz) Cultural-theoretical study on the 1920s as a time of paper radical change. Points out several aspects of society and discusses them in terms of their radicality: Effects of Wold War One on coursework, the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Detailed discussion of novels (also by female authors). Critique Paper. Considers literary representation of space.

Mowat, John Loch. 1955. Britain Between the Wars 1918-1940 . London: Methuen. Nicholls, Peter. 1995. Modernisms: A Literary Guide . London: Macmillan. Study on the time between the two World Wars: the 'Roaring Twenties' and the social consciousness in the 1930s (socialism, marxism, Spanish civil war, pacifism). Further key words: Fashion (the androgynous style of the flapper), architecture and mass media. Onions, John. Short The Art Of Translation. 1990. English Fiction and Drama of the Great War, 1918-39.

Basingstoke: Macmillan. Study on British war fiction. Similar to Hynes (1990), but not as detailed. Centred on the figure of the hero and likewise the anti-hero. Considers comparatively few literary works, most of them established texts. Of Research. Devaluation of minor works. Ouditt, Sharon. Thesis. 1994.

Fighting Forces, Writing Women: Identity and Ideology in the First World War . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and World War I. Starts out focusing on a description of women at work (medical duty, agricultural work, work in munitions factories). Continues to approach the topic by looking at different texts: magazines, autobiographies and novels (partly popular literature). Literature (fictional and non-fictional) is granted a major role in this context. Areas of discussion: images of of research women: stereotypical Red Cross Nurse (active role of short essay the art hero, yet female) - the ordinary housewife at the home front as angel in critique of research the house in war literature. Critical reflection on the war and why did enter, women's roles in postwar fiction. Image of the mother as a preserver of life. Feminist pacifism.

The shock experience of war and paper, the temporary allocation of roles as a danger to identity. Discussion of the influence of World War I on essay about, society and literature as part of modernism. Quinn, Patrick J., ed. Critique Of Research. 1996. Essays. Recharting the Thirties . Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. Critique. Essay collection on qualities that can help you succeed essay, the effects of World War I on society and particularly on literature. Critique Paper. Considers neglected authors: Irene Rathbone, R.H. Mottram, but also Rosamond Lehmann and enter, Elizabeth Bowen. Of Research. Trout, Steven. Every Obstacle Is An Essay. 1986. R. H. Paper. Mottram: The Great War and Europa's Beast . In: Patrick J. Quinn, ed.

Recharting the Thirties. Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. 51-63. Tylee, Claire M. 1990. The Great War and Women's Consciousness: Images of Militarism and Womanhood in Women's Writings, 1914-64 . Basingstoke London: Macmillan. de Vries, Jaqueline. 1994. Gendering Patriotism: Emmeline and enter, Christabel Pankhurst and critique of research paper, World War I. In: Sybil Oldfield, ed. Christopher Wiebusch. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945. London: Taylor Francis. 75-88.

Wilson, Trevor. 1986. The Myriad Faces of War: Britain and the Great War 1914-1918 . Cambridge: Polity Press. Critique Of Research Paper. Study on World War I: based upon every is an facts and events. Key words: happenings at the front, the home front, working situation, job market and women's participation. Winter, J.M. 1985. The Great War and the British People . Basingstoke London: Macmillan. Demographic study on World War I, proceeding from social history. Key words: war and loss, people's health, standards of living, efforts to increase birthrates, female surplus. Criticism: the study hardly considers women's situations and perspectives.

Zilboorg, Caroline. Of Research Paper. 1996. Why Did The Us Ww1 Essays. Irene Rathbone: The Great War and Its Aftermath. In: Patrick J. Quinn, ed. Recharting the Thirties. Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. 64-81. Berg, Christian, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds.

1995. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and critique paper, the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. Bloom, Clive, ed. 1993. Literature and Culture in Modern Britain. Aqa Graphics. Vol.

1: 1900-1929 . London New York: Longman. Essay collection on the socio-cultural context of modernism. Focuses on critique, literature and art in their relation to society. Considers a multitude of aspects: mass culture, literary criticism, poetry, the novel (also: popular fiction), drama, forms of publication, radio, cinema, popular music and fine arts. Booth, Michael R. Joel H. Kaplan, eds. 1996. The Edwardian Theatre: Essays on performance and the stage . Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Essay collection on Edwardian theatre. Focus on the business aspects of theatre: stage, management, critics, audience. Popular theatre: musical comedy, Music Hall, Variety, suffrage plays, East End popular theatre. Popularity of Cross-dressing: male cross-dressing as misogynist, female as positive (imitating the male accepted norm), general implication: blurring of gender boundaries. Every Obstacle Is An. Butler, Christopher. 1994. Early Modernism: Literature, Music, and critique of research, Painting in Europe, 1900-1916 . Oxford: Clarendon Press. Chinitz, David. 1997. Dance, Little Lady': Poets, Flappers, and the Gendering of Jazz.

In: Lisa Rado, ed. Every Obstacle Is An. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach. Of Research. New York London: Garland Publishing. 319-335. Finney, Gail. 1989. Women in Modern Drama: Freud, Feminism, and European Theatre at the Turn of the christopher wiebusch Century . Ithaca London: Cornell UP.

Gale, Maggie B. Critique Paper. 1996. Aqa Graphics. West End Women: Women and the London stage 1918-1962 . London New York: Routledge. Study on paper, women and the theatre. Describes the significant participation of female authors in the theatrical world between 1918 and 1962. After winning the vote, women were on that can help, the advance in every sector. Gale addresses women questions, but not from a feminist theoretical background. Critique. Topics of interest: profession and family, working class women, mother role, relationship mother-daughter. Griffin, Gabriele. 1994. Becomings as Being: Leonora Carrington's Writings and Paintings 1937-40. In: Griffin, Gabriele, ed.

Difference in obstacle is an essay View: Women and Modernism . London: Taylor and Francis. Holledge, Julie. 1981. Innocent Flowers: Women in the Edwardian Theatre . London: Virago. Hynes, Samuel. 1990.

A War Imagined: The First World War and English Culture. London: Bodley Head. Paper. Detailed study on the influence of World War I on literature and wiebusch, art. Introduces war as a driving force for modernism. Critique. Key words: Loss of values.

Decadence. Search for new forms and aqa graphics, contents. War and the difficulty of its representation - conventional means do not suffice for an adequate representation of war. Disillusionment (caused by war) leads to experimental tendencies in art and literature. Representation of space is further considered. Captures the time before and after the war in different phases. Criticism: On the whole very informative, also with regards to primary sources, but: unfortunately no bibliography. Isaak, Jo Anna. 1986. The Ruin of of research paper Representation in Modernist Art and every obstacle is an essay, Texts . Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Research Press.

Kahn, Elizabeth Louise. 1997. Engendering the Scandal: The Cubist House and the Private Spaces of critique of research Modernity. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 175-198. Kaplan, Joel H. Every Obstacle Opportunity. Sheila Stowell. Of Research. 1994. Theatre and Fashion: Oscar Wilde to the Suffragettes . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Study on the interrelationship of theatre and fashion: reciprocal influence. Function of showing fashionable women's clothes on stage: attracting and stimulating for audience (except in performances of Ibsen or Shaw).

Semantic function of coursework dress: social status of a character and its alteration in the course of the play ( Pygmalion ; from flower girl to lady). Symbolization of stereotypes of femininity: Woman as sex object, New Woman and Suffragette emphasize masculine markers (e.g. boots, umbrella) and critique of research, reject female markers (e.g. skirts, sashes, puffed sleeves) - this is true for the stage as well as social reality. Lucas, John. 1997. The Radical Twenties. Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. Can Help Essay. (ch. 4 on Jazz) Study on the 1920s as a time of radical change, proceeding from cultural theory. Points out several aspects of society and critique of research, discusses them in terms of their radicality: Effects of World War I on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Why Did Enter Ww1 Essays. Detailed discussion of novels (also by of research paper female authors).

Lyon, Janet. 1992. Why Did. Militant Discourse, Strange Bedfellows: Suffragettes and Vorticists before the War differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 4.2: 100-133. Article on the suffrage movement and developments in art before World War I. Discusses analogies and critique of research paper, interactions between militant suffragettes and radical artists of the avant-garde (e.g. vorticists, futurists). Key words: militancy, iconoclasms, feminist delimitation and self-marginalisation, polarizing tendencies and linguistic unambiguity in feminist pamphlets and manifestos.

Plassard, Didier. 1995. Le Théatre de Kandinsky face à l'interpretation. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. Qualities Can Help You Succeed. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 507-521. Reynolds, Dee A. 1997. Dancing Free: Women's Movement in Early Modern Dance.

In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 247-279. Critique. Stevenson, Randall. 1992. Aqa Graphics. Modernist Fiction: An Introduction . Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf. (ch. 4 on art) Weisstein, Ulrich. 1995. How Useful is the Term 'Modernism' for the Interdisciplinary Study of Twentieth-Century Art?. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds.

The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Critique Of Research. Berlin New York: de Gruyter. Yaari, Monique. 1995. Ironies of Modern/Postmodern Art: Duchamp, Margritte, Adami. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 537-552. Zabel, Barbara. 1997. Gendered Still Life: Painting of Still Life in the Machine Age. In: Lisa Rado, ed.

Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 229-246. Beddoe, Deirdre. 1989. Back to Home and Duty: Women Between the Wars, 1918-1939 . London etc.: Pandora. Study on the situation of women between the university about wars. Key words: misogynist trends in society, female education as an enclave of emancipation - professions for critique of research paper, women, health, leisure, reading, cinema, radio. Images of Women, influence on women writers. That You Succeed Essay. Bloom, Clive, ed.

1993. Literature and Culture in Modern Britain. Vol. 1: 1900-1929 . Of Research Paper. London New York: Longman. Essay collection on the socio-cultural context of modernism. Focuses on literature and qualities that can help, art in their relation to society.

Considers a multitude of aspects: mass culture, literary criticism, poetry, the novel (also: popular fiction), drama, forms of publication, radio, cinema, popular music and fine arts. Carey, John. 1992. The Intellectuals and the Masses: Pride and Prejudice among the Literary Intelligentsia 1880-1939. London: Faber Faber. Study on the phenomenon of the masses from the perspective of intellectuals. Key words: polarization - mass culture vs. Critique Of Research Paper. literary elite.

Revolt of the masses. Rewriting the masses: question of value judgements, increase in value. Cultivation of high intellectual standards as a means of excluding the masses from a reading public. Space: suburbia - housing development, suburbia as a place of the coursework masses. Travel: flight from civilisation of established authors like Robert Byron, Graham Green, Evelyn Waugh. DiBattista, Maria Lucy McDiarmid, eds. 1996. High and Low Moderns: Literature and Culture 1889-1939 . Of Research. Oxford: Oxford UP. Hewett, Angela. 1994. The Great Company of Real Women': Modernist Women Writers and Mass Commercial Culture.

In: Lisa Rado, ed. Rereading Modernism: New Directions in Feminist Criticism . New York London: Garland. 351-372. Huyssen, Andreas. 1986. After the Great Divide: Modernism, Mass Culture, Postmodernism . London: Macmillan.

LeMahieu, D. L. 1988. A Culture for Democracy: Mass Communication and the Cultivated Mind in every is an essay Britain between the Wars. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Lucas, John. 1997. The Radical Twenties. Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. Study on the 1920s as a time of radical change, proceeding from cultural theory.

Points out several aspects of society and critique paper, discusses them in terms of their radicality: Effects of World War I on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Detailed discussion of novels (also by female authors). Melman, Billie. 1988. Women and qualities essay, the Popular Imagination in the Twenties: Flappers and Nymphs . London: Macmillan. Study on images of women in the 1920s. Images dominating the public consciousness: flapper and surplus woman.

Analysis of a very broad spectrum of popular literature (broad in terms of reception rather than sales figures). Critique. Key words: best-seller, serial fiction, book business and magazines. Rado, Lisa, ed. 1997. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. Christopher. Heterogenous essay collection. Key words: Flaneuse, Striptease, spirituality (moments of of research being), advertising in popular magazines, Modernist Design, Modern Dance, primitivist and matriarchal tendencies ( Herland ), Flappers and Jazz. Trodd, Anthea 1998. Women Writing in English: Britain 1900 1945. Every Opportunity Essay. London: Longman. Wicke, Jennifer.

1988. Advertising Fictions: Literature, Advertisement, Social Reading . New York, Columbia UP. Of Research. Ankum, Katharina von, ed. 1997. Women in the Metropolis: Gender and Modernity in Weimar Culture . Berkeley: University of California Press. Barta, Peter I. University Essays About. 1990. The Treatment of the Fourth Dimension in the Modernist City Novel. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds.

Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 310-315. Study on the modernist city novel . Of Research Paper. Key words: the fourth dimension, i.e. the representation of space as a major constituent of the integrative text structure. Space and identity.

Becker, Claudia. 1990. Zur Interiorisierung der Raumsymbolik in der Literatur der Moderne. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 281-287.

The article deals with modernist tendencies of internalization: depiction of different rooms of the essays interior (factual and psychological ones). Becker, Sabina. 1993. Urbanität und Moderne: Studien zur Großstadtwahrnehmung in der deutschen Literatur 1900-1930. St. Ingbert: Röhrig. Berghahn, Daniela. 1988.

Raumdarstellung im englischen Roman der Moderne . Critique Paper. Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Authoritative text on literary representations of space in the avant-gardist modernist novel. Key words: Subjectivity, integration of space in stream of consciousness; selectivity of perception and representation, processes of fragmentarization, montage as technique to depict space; associative spaces; spatial symbolism; interdisciplinary analogies (literature and art: impressionism, cubism); provides an analysis of Henry James The Ambassadors , Joseph Conrad Nostromo , Ford Madox Ford The Good Soldier , D.H. Lawrence Women in Love , James Joyce Ulysses , E.M. Forster A Passage To India , and Virginia Woolf To the Lighthouse . Boynton, Percy Holmes. 1913. London in English Literature. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press. Christopher Thesis. (Ch. 10 Contemporary London) Bradbury, Malcolm. 1976.

London 1890-1930. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Paper. Modernism. 1890-1930. Harmondsworth: Penguin. 172-190. Bronfen, Elisabeth. 1986. That. Der literarische Raum: Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel von Dorothy M. Richardsons Romanzyklus Pilgrimage. Critique Of Research Paper. Tübingen: Niemeyer. Study on literary space in the work of Dorothy Richardson.

Approach: phenomenological (cf. Ströker and Hoffmann) and structuralist (cf. Lotman). Key words: subjectivity of spatial perception in streams of consciousness. Metaphorical space (additional symbolism) vs. space which can be physically entered. Space and identity. Spatial textual structures. Carey, John. 1992. The Intellectuals and the Masses: Pride and Prejudice among the Literary Intelligentsia 1880-1939.

London: Faber Faber. (Chap. 3 The Suburbs and the Clerks) Study on the phenomenon of the masses from the perspective of intellectuals. Space: suburbia - housing development, suburbia as a place of the masses. Travel: flight from civilisation of established authors like Robert Byron, Graham Green, Evelyn Waugh. Ecker, Gisela. 1995. Allegorical Gardens of Desire in Modernity: A Gendered Perspective. In: Susan C. Scott, ed. The Art of Interpreting . University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University. 260-292.

Allocations of that can help you succeed meaning to the garden based on depth psychology. Critique Of Research. Gender-specific dimensions of the garden: a place of solitude and expansion of consciousness for women - a place of maternal security for men. Frank, Joseph. 1963. Spatial Form in Modern Literature. In: The Widening Gyre: Crisis and Mastery in Modern Literature . New Brunswick: Rutgers UP. 3-63. Article on textual space.

Textual structures are described with help of spatial metaphors (see also Smitten 1981). Friedman, Susan Stanford. 1996. Spacialization, Narrative Theory, and Virginia Woolf's The Voyage Out . In: Kathy Mezei, ed. Ambiguous Discourse: Feminist Narratology and British Women Writers . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. 109-136.

Article is an every obstacle opportunity essay, example of the notion of text as space. Structure of text and structure of communication: intertextual, historical and psychological (semiotic and symbolic) references. Fryer, Judith. 1984. Women and Space.

The Flowering of Desire. Paper. In: Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies : 187-230. Article on gendered concepts of space in architecture, housing and narrative fiction from the turn of the century up to the 1930s based on social geography. Contains writings on architecture and feminist reform efforts. Aqa Graphics. Gindin, James. 1992. British Fiction in the 1930s: The Dispiriting Decade . Of Research Paper. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Study introduces only the well-known texts of the 1930s. There are several references to the literary representation of space (ex. Rosamond Lehman, Elizabeth Bowen) Hertel, Kirsten. 1997. London zwischen Naturalismus und Moderne: Literarische Perspektiven einer Metropole. Heidelberg: Winter.

Keating, Peter. 1984. The Metropolis in Literature. In: Anthony Sutcliffe, ed. Metropolis 1890-1940. London: Mansell. 129-145. Kern, Stephen. 1983. The Culture of why did enter Time and Space 1880 1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Study on modernist concepts of time and space.

Documents historical changes of spatial concepts in modernity. Key words: Subjectivity, categorisation according to different ways of perception (visual, acoustic, tactual etc.) Microscopic space. Art (cubism, impressionism) and critique of research, sculpture. Film (rapid change of pictures and scenes). Heterogeneous space. Plurality of stance, multi-perspectivity. Changes of attitude. Space as designable matter (magnetic fields, architecture, artificial lighting). Expansion and reduction of geographical space (expeditions, public and private transport, aviation).

Urban spaces. Psychoanalysis (mental rooms of the interior, stream of consciousness). Klarer, Mario. 1995. Simultaneity and Gender in Modernist Discourses. In: Near Encounters. University Essays About. Festschrift für Richard Martin . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Interdisciplinary study on the phenomenon of simultaneity and its implications concerning space and gender.

Simultaneity as spatially represented in the novel as well as in modernist paintings. Androgynity as a form of simultaneity. Müller, Lothar. 1988. Die Großstadt als Ort der Moderne: Über Georg Simmel. In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt.

14-36. Pike, Burton. 1981. Of Research Paper. The Image of the City in Modern Literature. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP. Pratt, Annis. 1972. Qualities Can Help You Succeed. Women and Nature in Modern Fiction. Of Research. Comparative Literature 13: 476-490.

Article on space and nature in modern fiction. Key words: epiphanies in natural settings (especially in novels of development), gender-specific differences in the perception of nature. Sizemore-Wick, Christine. 1989. A Female Vision of the City. London in the Novels of and craft Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Study on the city from a female perspective. City can be entered by women in the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of novels. Critique. Spencer, Sharon. 1971.

Space, Time and Structure in the Modern Novel . New York: New York UP. Squier, Susan Merill. 1985. Virginia Woolf and London: The Sexual Politics of the City . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Stanzel, Franz.

1990. Das Niemandsland in der englischen und deutschen Dichtung. Wiebusch. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. Critique Of Research Paper. 3. Qualities Essay. München: iudicum. 219-27. Article on the connecting and separating aspects of a boundary. Example: no-man's land between the trenches during the First World War in German and English literature. Critique Of Research Paper. Voss, Dietmar. 1988. Die Rückkehr der Flanerie: Versuch über ein Schlüsselphänomen der Moderne.

In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt. 37-60. Weightman, Gavin Steve Humphries. 1984. Coursework. The Making of Modern London, 1815-1914. London: Sidgwick Jackson. Wolff Janet. 1985.

The Invisible Flaneuse. Women and the Literature of Modernity. Theory, Culture and Society 2.3: 37-46. Würzbach, Natascha. in print. Identitätskonstitution durch Raumerleben in der englischen Erzählliteratur des Modernismus. Paper. Theory of subjectivity and short essay about the art and craft, identity.

The significance of space and body for the pre-linguistic formation of identity. Codes of critique of research spatial representation. Gender-specific spatial experience and concepts of subjectivity in some modernist novels. Ackroyd, Peter. [2000] 2001. London.

The Biography . Qualities That Can Help You Succeed Essay. London: Vintage. Alexander, Sally. 1989. Becoming a Woman in London in the 1920s and 1930s. In: David Feldman Gareth Stedman Jones, eds. Metropolis London: Histories and Representations since 1800. Of Research Paper. London New York: Routledge. 245-271. Alter, Peter. 1993.

Im Banne der Metropolen: Berlin und London in den zwanziger Jahren . Göttingen: Vandenhoeck Ruprecht. Alter, Peter. Why Did The Us Ww1 Essays. 2000. London in der Neuzeit. In: Andreas Sohn Hermann Weber, eds. Haupstädte und Global Cities an der Schwelle zum 21. Jahrhundert . Bochum: Winkler.

57-79. Ankum, Katharina von, ed. 1997. Women in the Metropolis: Gender and Modernity in Weimar Culture . Berkeley: University of California Press. Barta, Peter I. Of Research Paper. 1990. The Treatment of the Fourth Dimension in the Modernist City Novel. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Every Is An. Space and critique paper, Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 310-315. Study on university, the modernist city novel . Key words: the fourth dimension, i.e. the representation of space as a major constituent of the integrative text structure.

Space and identity. Becker, Sabina. Paper. 1993. Urbanität und Moderne: Studien zur Großstadtwahrnehmung in der deutschen Literatur 1900-1930. Every Obstacle Opportunity. St. Ingbert: Röhrig. Boynton, Percy Holmes. 1913. London in English Literature.

Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press. (Ch. 10 Contemporary London) Bradbury, Malcolm. 1976. London 1890-1930. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism. 1890-1930. Critique Paper. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

172-190. Christopher Wiebusch. Breuner, Michael. 1991. Hunger for Place: Studien zur Raumdarstellung im London-Roman seit 1940 . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Study on the London Novel after 1940. Key words: literary appropriation of the city. Space and subjectivity: subjective perceptions and formations of space (philosophical basis: see Ströker, psychological basis: see Minkowski). Brooks, J.A. 1982.

Ghosts of London: The East End, City, and North. Of Research Paper. Norwich: Jarrold. Carey, John. 1992. The Intellectuals and the Masses: Pride and Prejudice among the Literary Intelligentsia 1880-1939.

London: Faber Faber. (Chap. 3 The Suburbs and the Clerks) Study on the phenomenon of the masses from the perspective of intellectuals. Space: suburbia - housing development, suburbia as a place of the masses. Travel: flight from civilisation of established authors like Robert Byron, Graham Green, Evelyn Waugh. Drabble, Margaret. 1979. A Writer's Britain: Landscape in Literature. Photographed by Jorge Lewinski. London: Thames Hudson.

Epstein-Nor, Deborah. 1991. The Urban Peripatetic: Spectator, Streetwalker, Woman Writer. Nineteenth Century Literature 46.3: 351 - 375. Frisby, David. 2001. Cityscapes of Modernity: Critical Explorations . Cambridge: Polity Press. Harding, Desmond. 2002. Writing the City: Urban Visions And Literary Modernism . Christopher Wiebusch Thesis. New York: Routledge.

Hertel, Kirsten. 1997. Critique Paper. London zwischen Naturalismus und Moderne: Literarische Perspektiven einer Metropole. Heidelberg: Winter. Keating, Peter. 1984. University Essays. The Metropolis in critique paper Literature.

In: Anthony Sutcliffe, ed. Qualities Can Help You Succeed Essay. Metropolis 1890-1940. London: Mansell. 129-145. Critique Of Research Paper. Kilian, Eveline. 2002. Exploring London. Walking the City - (Re)Writing the City.

In: Hartmut Berghoff, Barbara Korte Ralf Schneider, eds. The Making of Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the British Experience, 1600 to 2000 . Short About The Art Of Translation. London: Palgrave. 267-283. Klotz, Volker. Of Research Paper. 1969.

Die erzählte Stadt: Ein Sujet als Herausforderung des Romans von Lesage bis Döblin. München: Hanser. Kublitz-Kramer, Maria. 1995. Frauen auf Straßen: Topographien des Begehrens in short about the art and craft Erzähltexten von Gegenwartsautorinnen. München: Fink. Critique Of Research. Kursbuch Stadt.

Stadtleben und Stadtkultur an der Jahrtausendwende. 1999 . Essays About. Redaktion Stefan Bollmann. Stuttgart: DVA. Of Research Paper. Lane, Eric. 1988. A Guide to Literary London. Sawtry, Cambridgeshire: Dedalus. Lefèbvre, Henri.

1972. Die Revolution der Städte. München: List. Lehan, Richard. 1998. The City in Literature: An Intellectual and Cultural History . Berkeley: University of California Press. Essays About. Mahler, Andreas, ed. 1999. Stadt-Bilder: Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination . Heidelberg: Winter. Manley, Lawrence.

1995. Literature and Culture in Early Modern London . Critique Paper. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Marcus, Steven. 1987. Reading the Illegible. Some Modern Representations of Urban Experience. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. The Art Of Translation. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and Literature. Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 232-256. Milgram, Stanley.

1970. Das Erleben der Großstadt: Eine psychologische Analyse. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie 1: 142-152. Paper. Müller, Lothar. 1988. University Essays About. Die Großstadt als Ort der Moderne: Über Georg Simmel. Of Research Paper. In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne.

Reinbek: Rowohlt. 14-36. Every Is An. Nord, Deborah Epstein. 1991. Critique Of Research Paper. The Urban Peripatetic: Spectator, Streetwalker, Woman Writer. Nineteenth Century Literature 46.3: 351-375. Nowel, Ingrid. 1998. London: Biographie einer Weltstadt - Architektur und Kunst, Geschichte und Literatur.

Köln: Dumont. Why Did The Us Enter Ww1 Essays. Parson, Deborah L. 2000. Streetwalking the Metropolis: Women, the City and Modernity. Oxford: Oxford UP. Pfeil, Elisabeth. 1972. Großstadtforschung: Entwicklung und gegenwärtiger Stand. Hannover: Jänecke.

Pike, Burton. 1981. The Image of the City in Modern Literature. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP. Critique. Punter, David. 1979. Obstacle Opportunity. Blake's Capital Cities. In: P. Weston, ed. London in Literature. London: Roehampton Institute.

46-72. Scherpe, Klaus R., ed. 1988. Of Research. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt. Sennett, Richard, ed. 1978. Classic Essays on the Culture of Cities . New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Sennet, Richard.

1995. Flesh and Stone. The Body and short essay about the art of translation, the City in Western Civilization . London: Faber Faber. Critique Of Research Paper. Shaffer, Elinor S., ed. 1996. Spaces: Cities, Gardens and Wilderness . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Sharpe, William 1986. Feminizing the christopher wiebusch Urban World. Urban Resources . 3.2: 55-57. Sharpe, William Leonard Wallock. 1987.

From 'Great Town' to 'Nonplace Urban Realm': Reading the Modern City. In: William Sharpe und Leonard Wallock, Hgg. Visions of the Modern City. Essays in History, Art, and Literature. Baltimore/London: Johns Hopkins UP. 1-51. Sharpe, William Leonard Wallock. 1987. From 'Great Town' to critique paper 'Nonplace Urban Realm': Reading the Modern City.

In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and coursework, Literature. Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 1-51. Sizemore-Wick, Christine. 1989.

A Female Vision of the City: London in the Novels of Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from a female perspective. City can be entered by women in the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of paper novels. Smuda, Manfred, ed.

1992. Die Großstadt als Text . München: Wilhelm Fink. Squier, Susan Merrill, ed. 1984. Women Writers and the City: Essays in Feminist Literary Criticism . Knoxville. University of Tennessee Press. Squier, Susan Merill. 1985.

Virginia Woolf and London: The Sexual Politics of the City. Chapel Hill London: The University of North Carolina Press. (Ch. 5 The Carnival and Funeral of Mrs Dalloway's London) Sutcliffe, Anthony, ed. 1984. Metropolis 1890-1940. London: Mansell. Timms, Edward David Kelley, eds. 1985. Unreal City: Urban Experience in Modern European Literature and Art.

Manchester: Manchester UP. Twyning, John. 1998. London Dispossess: Literature and Social Space in the Early Modern City. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Voss, Dietmar. 1988.

Die Rückkehr der Flanerie: Versuch über ein Schlüsselphänomen der Moderne. In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt. 37-60. Weigel, Sigrid. 1990. Every Obstacle Is An Opportunity Essay. 'Die Städte sind weiblich und nur als Sieger hold': Zur Funktion des Weiblichen in Gründungsmythen und Städtedarstellungen. In: Sigrid Weigel, ed. Topographien der Geschlechter. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt. 149-189.

Weightman, Gavin Steve Humphries. 1984. The Making of Modern London, 1815-1914. London: Sidgwick Jackson. Weightman, Gavin Steve Humphries. 1984. The Making of Modern London, 1914-1939.

London: Sidgwick Jackson. Weinreb, Ben Christopher Hibbert. 1983. The London Encyclopaedia. London: Macmillan. Wilson, Elizabeth. 1991. The Sphinx in the City: Urban Life, the Control of Disorder, and Women . London: Virago. Wolff Janet. 1985. The Invisible Flaneuse.

Women and the Literature of Modernity. Theory, Culture and Society 2.3: 37-46. Bausinger, Hermann et al., eds. 1991. Reisekultur: Von der Pilgerfahrt zum modernen Tourismus . München: Beck.

Berghoff, Hartmut, Barbara Korte Ralf Schneider, eds. Paper. 2002. The Making of Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the British Experience, 1600 to 2000 . London: Palgrave. Blake, Susan L. 1990. Every Is An Essay. A Woman's Trek: What Difference Does Gender Make? Women's Studies International Forum 13.4: 347-353. Birkett, Dea.

1989. Spinsters Abroad: Victorian Lady Explorers . Oxford: Blackwell. Black, Jeremy. 1985. The British and the Grand Tour . London: Croom Helm. Blunt, Elison Gillian Rose, eds. 1994. Writing Women and Space: Colonial and of research paper, Postcolonial Geographies . New York: The Guilford Press. Collection of aqa graphics coursework essays on ethnological and geographical issues. Theoretical background: postcolonial studies, gender studies, discourse theory, and constructivism. Premiss: the white, middle-class subject constructs other cultures from a privileged and relatively uncritical stance.

Female living spaces: social mapping paves the way for social and political orientation, territorial dissociation. Fight against imperialism and gender-specific oppression. Articles on: Mary Kingsley's perspective on landscape, geographical spaces such as Australia, Western Africa, Ireland. Bode, Christoph, ed. 1997. West Meets East: Klassiker der britischen Orient-Reiseliteratur . Heidelberg: Winter. Brendon, Piers.

1991. Thomas Cook: 150 Years of Popular Tourism . London: Secker Warburg. Brenner, Peter J., ed. 1989. Of Research Paper. Der Reisebericht: Die Entwicklung einer Gattung in der deutschen Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Articles on the history of German travel literature. Introduction considers basic issues: perception of the foreign through patterns of the qualities that can help you succeed essay (kn)own. Perception is influenced by emotions: stimulation, rejection, amazement.

Quality of travel experience ranges from dissociation to identification. Change of the German travel report relative to the changes in the philosophical conception of the world (homogeneity or heterogeneity of the world). Brenner, Peter J. 1989. Die Erfahrung der Fremde: Zur Entwicklung einer Wahrnehmungsform in der Geschichte des Reiseberichts. In: Peter J. Brenner, ed. Der Reisebericht: Die Entwicklung einer Gattung in critique of research paper der deutschen Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. 14-49. Obstacle Opportunity. Burkart, Arthur J. Slavoj Medlik. 1974. Tourism: Past, Present, and Future . London: Heinemann. Buzard, James.

1993. The Beaten Track: European Tourism, Literature, and paper, the Ways to qualities that essay Culture, 1800 - 1918 . Oxford: Clarendon Press. Seminal study on the definition and history of tourism. Critically assesses the traveller vs. tourist dichotomy . Critique Of Research Paper. Tourism is approached in a differentiated manner weighing the following aspects: tourism as phenomenon of the masses, processes of stereotyping the foreign, selection and assessment of tourist attractions, alleged authenticity, convenience and enhancement of infrastructure, the hierarchical structure of home culture vs. foreign culture, relaxation and flight from civilisation, democratisation of travelling, antitourism ( off the beaten track ). Textual sources: travel reports, tourist guides, literary texts, documents on economic aspects of tourism. Chard, Chloe. 1999. Pleasure and Guilt on the Grand Tour: Travel Writing and Imaginative Geography 1600-1890 . Manchester: Manchester UP.

Cocker, Mark. 1992. Loneliness and Time: British Travel Writing in the Twentieth Century . London: Secker Warburg. Study exclusively deals with white, middle-class, imperialistic, male authors. Uncritical stylisation of the male traveller as a hero (alleged male characteristics: self-discipline, survival in the face of danger, suppression of emotions, 'the lone wolf', self-sufficiency). Claims travel literature to be factual. Why Did The Us Ww1 Essays. Cocker's arguments are not very well organised, nor up to the current state of research. Nevertheless, a useful source for male travel reports. Culler, Jonathan.

1988. The Semiotics of Tourism. In: Jonathan Culler, ed. Framing the Sign: Criticism and Its Institutions . Oxford: Blackwell. 153-167. Article describes tourism as a semiotic system of paper stereotypization. Emphasises the fact that tourist attractions and souvenirs are semiotically communicated, i.e. Christopher. they are signifiers serving the satisfaction of certain desires. Paper. Discusses this representative function of tourism from a Barthesian perspective, sees the availability of tourism as a commercial product. Thesis: semiotic processes of tourism turn the world into an accumulation of travel destinations. Dodd, Philip. 1982.

The Views of aqa graphics coursework Travellers: Travel writing in the 1930s. Of Research Paper. Prose Studies 5.1 (Special Issue The Art of Travel: Essays on Travel Writing ): 127-138. Dodd analyses the traveller's/the narrator's attitude towards the travelled places as the most important structural component of the text. In general, the attitudes mirror the culturally given standards; personal interests also come into the play: e.g. nostalgic childhood memories ( home tour ), social interests etc. Dodd discusses texts by Greene, Muir, Orwell, Priestley.

Foster, Shirley. 1990. Nineteenth Century Women Tavellers and Their Writings . New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf. The study predominantly deals with female English travellers/travel writers of the 19th century. It is structured according to areas of destination (Italy, North-America, Far East) documenting the travellers' different attitudes towards the respective countries. Introductory chapter is of fundamental relevance for theories and histories of female travelling. The following aspects are given detailed treatment: breaking away from social conventions and confining norms, the double bind of the female traveller and her difficulties as a woman due to male prejudice. Female travellers as exceptional women: acquisition of stereotypically male characteristics, emancipated behaviour (positive evaluation, depicted in an almost panegyric manner).

Mixture of male and female conventions of writing: topography, economic aspects, male activity vs. female aesthetics of landscape, female living spaces; objectivity, factual information vs. emotionalised information, expression of subjectivity and self-analysis, practising dominance vs. opening up to the foreign culture and showing a readiness to integrate. Foucault, Michel. 1992. Andere Räume. Essay About. In: Karlheinz Bark et al., eds. Aisthesis: Wahrnehmung heute oder Perspektiven einer anderen Ästhetik . Leipzig: Reclam: 34-46. Critique Of Research. Foulke, Robert. 1992. University About. The Guide Book Industry. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of critique of research paper Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press.

93-106. Essay on the genre of the essays about travel-guide: the travel-guide as the sole source for critique paper, mass-tourists, the best-selling subgenre within travel literature. Distinction between predominantly factual-informative and other, more personally oriented, guides. Criteria for evaluation: travel-guides have to be up to date, affordable, handy, and respectable. Content: sights and practical hints (means of transportation, hotels, restaurants, food, clothing). Early travel handbooks in every opportunity essay the 19th century are above all educational ( Grand tour ). Three different treatments of Bath demonstrate how travel-guides differ (in terms of selection, representation, or evaluation of the place). Critique Of Research. Frederick, Bonnie Susan H. McLeod, eds. 1993. Christopher Wiebusch. Women and the Journey: The Female Travel Experience . Pullman, Washington: Washington State UP.

Essay collection on critique paper, women and travelling. Introduction discusses fundamental issues: women's motivations for travelling (liberation from the confining domestic shelter, transgression of boundaries), special risks for coursework, women, self-development, women's difficulties in finding a balance between the demands and conventions of paper home on the one hand and the freedom of travelling on the other hand. The individual contributions deal with examples of women travellers, focusing on their encounters with women of other ethnicities and questions of sex, race and class. The representation of female travelling in christopher wiebusch thesis literary texts is also considered: the female quest plot seems to allow no happy ending for female characters (either return to restrictive patriarchal structures at home or emigration to a foreign country). Fussell, Paul.

1980. Abroad: British Literary Travelling Between the Wars . Oxford: Oxford UP. Early authoritative text on travel literature. Deals exclusively with traditional male travel literature written between the critique of research paper wars (summaries, biographical details). Authors discussed are: Robert Byron, Norman Douglas, Graham Greene, D.H. Lawrence, Evelyn Waugh. The Us Enter. Aspects of analysis: major need to travel in of research paper post-war society, boom of travel literature, introduction of essay and craft of translation passports, awareness of national borders.

Travel vs. tourism, the latter strongly deprecated. Questionable categorisation of travel periods: exploration (Renaissance), travel (age of the bourgeoisie), tourism (proletarian age). Fussell's study is of rather restricted use for of research, information on university essays, travel literature. Fussell, Paul. 1992. Travel and the British Literary Imagination of the Twenties and Thirties.

In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press. Of Research. 71-92. Ghose, Indira. 1998. Women Travellers in Colonial India: The Power of the Female Gaze . Oxford: Oxford UP. Postcolonial-deconstructionist and feminist study on India. Ghose's study aims at uncovering ideologies. Shows women as doubly colonised. Qualities Can Help You Succeed Essay. Women's subversive refusal of the colonial discourse, female quest for identity. Questions of ethnic difference and multi-culturalism.

Contemplation of the paper Other serves self-definition (confirmation of the the us ww1 essays Self through reduction of the Other). The rational subject of European Enlightenment as the standard of critique of research paper evaluation. Textual sources: 19th-century travel literature of British women depicting different images of Indian women. The female perspective of wiebusch women travellers is influenced by of research paper aspects of race, class and gender. They seem to have taken over male positions of epistemological superiority, of voyeurs or spies. Coursework. This is also evident in the description of landscape following the aesthetic conventions of the picturesque. Henderson, Heather. Critique Paper. 1992. The Travel Writer and the Text: My Giant Goes with Me Wherever I Go. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on thesis, the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press.

230-240. Henderson demonstrates the intertextuality of travel literature on the basis of several examples. Literary and cultural influences determined the perception and style of travel writers: stereotypes, prejudices, historical and literary knowledge, former travel reports. Impossibility of a direct access to the reality of the travelled country. Critique. Subjective experiences of the traveller as another element of mediating reality. About. Hindley, Geoffrey. 1983. Paper. Tourists, Travellers, and qualities essay, Pilgrims . London: Hutchinson. Hunter, Jefferson. 1982. Edwardian Fiction . Cambridge, Ma.

London: Harvard UP. Of Research Paper. Study on the Edwardian novel . Obstacle Opportunity. Discusses predominantly male authors (only Woolf and Vita Sackville West are mentioned). Key words: Formal aspects (continuity and change). Depiction of social problems. Best-sellers (do not account for the particular character of the critique epoch). Is An Essay. Travel literature as a means of escaping into the exotic. Imperialism. Debate on identity. The English country mansion as a topos. Criticism: Tendency towards superficial judgements. Ingemanson, Brigitta Maria.

1993. Under Cover: The Paradox of Victorian Women's Travel Costume. In: Bonnie Frederick Susan H. McLeod, eds. Women and the Journey: The Female Travel Experience . Pullman, Washington: Washington State UP. 5-24. Critique Of Research Paper. The essay shows how women travellers of the Victorian and Edwardian period endeavoured to dress and act according to conventional norms of femininity. This caused considerable difficulties for women: mountaineering with crinoline and Alpenstock . Aqa Graphics Coursework. Dressing according to male dress codes was perceived as a loss of identity by most women up to the 20th century. Jost, Herbert. Critique Paper. 1989.

Selbst-Verwirklichung und Seelensuche: Zur Bedeutung des Reiseberichts im Zeitalter des Massentourismus. In: Peter J. Brenner, ed. Der Reisebericht: Die Entwicklung einer Gattung in der deutschen Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. 490-507. Kohl, Stephan. 1990.

Travel Literature and about the art, the Art of Self-Invention. In: Rüdiger Ahrens, ed. Anglistentag 1989 Würzburg: Proceedings . Tübingen: Niemeyer. Paper. Korte, Barbara. 1996. Der englische Reisebericht: Von der Pilgerfahrt bis zur Postmoderne . Darmstadt: WBG. Study on wiebusch, the history of travel literature in England; attempts a systematic description of the genre. Key words: genre hybridity and openness, relation of fact and fiction, narrative components, subject-object relation. Marginally, Korte also considers travel literature by women authors. Distinguishes different motivations for travelling and different forms of travel reports: pilgrimage (spiritual salvation), voyages of discovery (trade routes, map-making, exotic merchandise, conquest), expedition (scientific and nautical discoveries), Grand tour (identity formation, sights, sexual adventures), Home tour (getting to know one's own country, questions of national identity and nationalism), subjectivity, experimental forms of paper travel literature in every obstacle the 1930s (personal experience, civilisation critique), development of tourism (relaxation, security, comfort, sights), intertextual play with travel reports in postmodernism. Kowalewski, Michael, ed.

1992. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press. The contributions to paper this essay collection are quite heterogeneous with respect to content and aqa graphics coursework, quality, they are separately listed and critique of research, annotated under the every is an essay names of the respective authors (see Rober Foulke, Heather Henderson, Mary Morris). The following aspects are mentioned in the editor's foreword: emphasis of the newly awakened interest in critique of research travel literature; hybridity of the genre (mixture of autobiography, journalism, travel guide, confessional literature, and novel); curiosity and desire for independence as travel motivations; subjectivity of travel impressions. Lawrence, Karen L. 1994. Penelope Voyages: Women and Travel in the British Literary Tradition . Cornell: Cornell UP. Essays About. Semiotic-psychoanalytic approach to interpreting travel literature and novels calling upon mythical constructions.

Lawrence asks the hypothetical question: What happens if Penelope no longer waits for critique of research paper, Odysseus but begins to travel herself? Thesis: it is the traditional exclusion of women from travelling that brings about the essay of translation male travel plot. Lawrence argues on the basis of psychoanalytic theorems: Freud's association of the uncanny with the stranger and the mother suggests the male traveller's ambivalent search for the maternal/original safety. Travelling enabled women to penetrate new spaces, experiencing the tension between the familiar and the strange. Of Research Paper. The flexibility of the university genre of travel literature opened up opportunities for women, even the process of writing became a kind of travel adventure, a breaking away from male (literary) conventions. Lawrence illustrates that the signifier 'travel' can denote various signifieds. Postulates differences between male and female conventions of writing and behaviour, provides evidence from a number of texts (Mary Kingsley and Sarah Lee among others). Critique Paper. Lobsien, Eckhard. 1981. Essay Of Translation. Landschaft in Texten: Zur Geschichte und Phänomenologie der literarischen Beschreibung . Stuttgart: Metzler.

Lutwack, Leonard. 1984. The Role of Place in Literature . New York: Syracuse UP. MacCannell, Dean. 1976. [1999] The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class . New York: Schocken Books. Structuralist-semiotic study on tourism. MacCannell sees the tourist as a prototype of the modern human being (hunger for adventure, need for leisure time, superficiality). Critique Paper. Sights are signifiers to which different signifieds can be assigned; they acquire a representative function. Every Obstacle Is An Opportunity. Authenticity of critique paper sights is produced and serially reproduced in the souvenir.

Process of semantisation: sacrilization, framing and elevation, mechanical reproduction. Wide spectrum of aqa graphics coursework tourist attractions: museums, parks, historical buildings, residential areas (e.g. Beverley Hills), shipyards, slums, garbage dumps (examples of the negative sides of tourism), ways of transport (tunnels, canals, bridges), business quarters, markets, population groups (e.g. Amish people). Critique Paper. Melchett, Sonia 1991. Passionate Quests: Five Modern Women Travellers . London. Heinemann. Is An Essay. Mersmann, Arndt. 2000. Novel Topographies: A Spatial Reading of Sybil. Of Research Paper. In: Joachim Frenk, ed.

Spatial Change in English Literature . Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. Disraeli's novel serves as an example for illustrating the new experiences of space created by the possibility of wiebusch railroad travelling (the account is based on paper, Schivelbusch 1977, see below). Key words: mobility, speed, transportation of goods, communication, overcoming of distances, changes of landscape, gaining knowledge of about different social areas. Mills, Sara. 1991. Paper. Discourses of Difference: An Analysis of Women's Travel Writing and short of translation, Colonialism . London: Routledge. One of the first studies focusing on postcolonial issues from a feminist perspective (see also Ghose 1998). Extensive methodological reflections on paper, the discourse-theoretical approach (Foucault). Mills emphasises that travelling women should - just as men - be viewed in the context of an imperialist ideology, yet they deal with it differently ( double-voiced discourse ). Mills provides a research report on travel literature and remarks on the previous neglect of female travellers. There are three case studies: Mary Kingsley, Alexandra David-Neel, Nina Mazuchelli. Morris, Mary.

1992. Women and Journeys: Inner and Outer. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press. 25-32. About The Art And Craft Of Translation. Morris characterises female travelling and travel writing from her own perspective. Two types of travel plots are possible for women authors: either waiting for the stranger at home or searching for the strange abroad. Morris discusses women's inclination to enter a dialogic relationship with the foreign country, to critique of research bring in their own perception.

Women prefer travelling in company, they are often in short essay need of paper male protection. On the that can help whole the study draws a somewhat simplistic picture of travelling women. Pelz, Annegret. 1993. Reisen durch die eigene Fremde: Reiseliteratur von Frauen als autobiographische Schriften . Köln: Böhlau. Pfister, Manfred. 1993.

Intertextuelles Reisen, oder: Der Reisebericht als Intertext. In: Herbert Foltinek, Wolfgang Riehle Waldemar Zacharasiewicz, eds. Tales and 'their telling difference': Zur Theorie und Geschichte der Narrativik . Festschrift Franz K. Stanzel. Heidelberg: Winter. The article refutes the myth of authenticity and shows the of research paper manifold intertextual networks of travel literature. Typology of intertextuality in travel literature. Repressed and the art of translation, negated intertextuality (blurring of intertextual tracks; search for new, non-verbalised spaces), compiled intertextuality (excerpting travel guides and reports), homage paying intertextuality (visiting cult-places and quoting authorities), dialogic function of of research paper intertextuality (discussion of former travel traditions). Pfister, Manfred Indira Ghose. 1996. Still Going Strong: The Loneliness of the obstacle is an opportunity essay Long Distance Traveller in Modern Travel Writing.

Journal for the Study of British Culture 3.2: 149-163. Of Research. Pratt, Marie Louise. 1992. Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation . London: Routledge. Postcolonial approach. Deals with travel literature on South America and Africa 1750-1980. Shows different types of relations between two cultures: co-presence ( contact zone ), dominance of the why did the us conqueror's perspective ( colonial frontier ), seemingly innocent stance of the conqueror ( anti-conquest ), assimilation of the conquered ( autoethnographic ). An imperialistic attitude of critique of research conquest can also be expressed within Europe, e.g. through arrogance towards the stranger or through mental appropriation.

Pratt includes rhetorical devices of imperialistic tendencies in travel literature: epithets and essays, similes referring to the traveller's own country, aesthetisation of landscape according to native categories, elevated position with panoramic view, self-revaluation caused by a joy for discovery, exploiting the knowledge of the paper native guide. Quadflieg, Helga. 2000. Kleine Fluchten: Isabella Bird und ihre Reisen nach Amerika. In: Querelles: Jahrbuch für Frauenforschung 2000. (Vol.

5: Grenzgängerinnen des moralischen Geschlechts ). Stuttgart: Metzler. 110-123. A case study of some of Isabella Bird's travel writings. Illustrates the why did the us enter ww1 essays double bind of the female traveller in the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century: tension between conventionality and freedom, affirmation and subversion of existing norms (see also Forster 1990: Frederick, ed. 1991). Robinson, Jane.

1990. Wayward Women: A Guide to Women Travellers . Oxford: Oxford UP. A bibliography of women's travel writing listing approx. 400 authors. Entries contain brief biographical sketches, key words and synopses. Robinson provides bibliographical access to a comprehensive corpus of texts, and thereby enables further research on female travel literature.

Russel, Mary. [1986] 1996. The Blessings of a Good Thick Skirt: Women Travellers and Their World. Critique Of Research Paper. London: Flamingo. Said, Edward. 1983. Orientalism . New York: Random House. Schabert, Ina. 1997. Reisebücher: Die Frau in der Fremde.

In: Ina Schabert. Englische Literaturgeschichte aus der Sicht der Geschlechterforschung . Stuttgart: Kröner. 589-597. Schäffter, Ortfried, ed. 1991. Das Fremde: Erfahrungsmöglichkeiten zwischen Faszination und Bedrohung . Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. Schaff, Barbara. 1999. Gendered Cities: Italienische Städte im Blick britischer Reisender. Wiebusch. In: Andreas Mahler, ed. Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination . Heidelberg: Winter.

173-196. Schaff discusses the textuality of cities and their literary representation with respect to the different perspectives of male and female authors/characters. Critique Paper. Examples: phallic conception of Florence as cultural space of masculinity (Lawrence), Venice as art-trophy (Ruskin) or as embodiment of the archetypal mother (Byron); Rome as unapproachable (for Dorothea in Middlemarch ), or as a symbol of triumphant conquest (Felicia Hemans). Schivelbusch, Wolfgang. 1977. Why Did The Us Enter. Geschichte der Eisenbahnreise. Zur Industrialisierung von Raum und Zeit im 19. Of Research Paper. Jahrhundert. Frankfurt/M: Fischer.

Authoritative study on travelling by railroad. Focuses on: development of railway traffic in England, on enter, the continent and in North America; the railroad's peculiarities as a means of public transport and merchandise transportation; the change of the experience of of research space and time; economic, social and cultural aspects; Schivelbusch presents a (somewhat one-sided) critique of every is an civilisation (alienation from nature). Schülting, Sabine. 1997. Critique Paper. Wilde Frauen, Femde Welten: Kolonisierungsgeschichten aus Amerika . Reinbek: Rowohlt. Stannard, Martin. 1982. Debunking the Jungle: The Context of Evelyn Waugh's Travel Books 1930-9. Prose Studies 5.1 (Special Issue The Art of Travel: Essays on Travel Writing ): 105-126. Stevenson, Catherine Barnes. 1982.

Victorian Women Travel Writers in Africa . Boston: Twayne. Schwarze, Hans-Wilhelm. 1982. Ereignisse, Zeit und Raum, Sprechsituationen in short essay about and craft of translation narrativen Texten. In: Hans-Werner Ludwig, ed. Arbeitsbuch Romananalyse: Eine Einführung . Tübingen: Narr.

145-188. [esp. 170-174] Tinling, Marion. 1989. Woman into the Unknown: A Sourcebook on Women Explorers and Travelers . Of Research. New York: Greenwood Press. Veit, Karin. 1997. Journey and Gender - Diversity of about the art Travel Writing. In: Susanne Fender, ed. Feminist Contributions to the Literary Canon: Setting Standards of Taste . Leviston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press. 107-138.

Veit examines gender-specific aspects of travelling and travel writing. Cites examples of women writers blurring the of research gender boundaries, i.e. exemplary travel texts depicting women who break away from their conventional female role. Examples of gender-specific discourses: the journey of Ella Maillart and Peter Fleming from Peking through the Chinese province Sianking to essays about Cashmere is told in two different texts (1936) representing a female and critique paper, a male version; further examples are the two journeys to Russia undertaken by Susan Richards and Christopher Hope at the same time (1990). Veit's analysis confirms gender stereotypes, but also illustrates the double-voiced discourse of obstacle is an female travellers in their writings. Critique Of Research Paper. Würzbach, Natascha. 2001. Erzählter Raum: fiktionaler Baustein, kultureller Sinnträger, Ausdruck der Geschlechterordnung. In: Jörg Helbig, ed. Erzählen und Erzähltheorie im 20.

Jahrhundert: Festschrift für Wilhelm Füger . Heidelberg: Winter. 105-129. Article covers the state of research on the phenomenon of literary space. Coursework. Approaches: narratology, phenomenology, psychoanalysis, social geography, structuralism, semiotics of culture, deconstruction, cultural history, and gender studies. Introduces categories of conceptions and critique, typologies of space. Points of special consideration: semantization of that you succeed space, reference to the subject, the body, movement in space and its function as a reader's guide. Provides literary examples. Essay collection on the socio-cultural context of modernism. Focuses on literature and art in of research paper their relation to society.

Considers a multitude of aspects: mass culture, literary criticism, poetry, the novel (also: popular fiction), drama, forms of publication, radio, cinema, popular music and qualities you succeed essay, fine arts. Felski, Rita. Of Research Paper. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. That You Succeed Essay. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication.

Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Harris, Jose. 1994. Private Lives and Public Spirit: Britain 1870-1914 . Harmondsworth: Penguin. Study proceeding from social history. Key words: demography, family, property, profession, religion, society and critique, state, social theories. Short Essay About The Art And Craft Of Translation. Keating, Peter. 1989.

The Haunted Study: A Social History of the English Novel 1875-1914 . London: Secker Warburg. Kern, Stephen. 1983. The Culture of of research Time and Space, 1880-1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Lewis, Jane, Ed. 1986. Christopher Wiebusch. Labour and Love: Women's Experience of Home and Family, 1850-1940 . Oxford: Blackwell. Study on women's social history between 1850 and 1940.

Deals with the usual topics: childhood, marriage, motherhood, class differences. Lucas, John. 1997. Of Research Paper. The Radical Twenties. Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves.

Study on the 1920s as a time of radical change, proceeding from cultural theory. Points out several aspects of society and discusses them in terms of their radicality: Effects of World War I on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Detailed discussion of novels (also by christopher female authors). McFarlane, Barbara. 1984.

Homes for Heroines. Housing in the Twenties. In: Making Space. Women and the Man-Made Environment . London: Pluto Press. 26-36. Social history: women-centred housing. Paper. Mowat, John Loch. 1955. Wiebusch Thesis. Britain Between the critique of research paper Wars 1918-1940 . Christopher. London: Methuen. Nicholls, Peter. 1995.

Modernisms. A Literary Guide . Critique Paper. London: Macmillan. Study on the time between the two World Wars: the 'Roaring Twenties' and the social consciousness in the 1930s (socialism, marxism, Spanish civil war, pacifism). Further key words: Fashion (the androgynous style of the flapper), architecture and mass media. Oldfield, Sybil, ed. 1994. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in wiebusch thesis Britain 1914-1945. London: Taylor Francis. Essay collection on social history.

Centred on women's history, introduces several women's groups. Key words: Divorce laws, motherhood. Of Research. Women's rights to work between the wars, elementary school teachers. Suffragettes. Pacifist movement. Fascism. Female artists. Winter, J.M. 1985. The Great War and the British People . Basingstoke London: Macmillan.

Demographic study on World War I, proceeding from social history. Key words: war and thesis, loss, people's health, standards of living, efforts to increase birthrates, female surplus. Criticism: the study hardly considers women's situations and perspectives. Study on critique of research paper, female experience of the qualities you succeed essay two World Wars. Special focus: women and profession.

Restraining of women from working in the time between the wars. Study provides detailed historical evidence: thoroughly investigated. Byles, Joan Montgomery. 1985. Paper. Women's Experience of World War I: Suffragists, Pacifists and Poets. Women's Studies International Forum 8.5: 473-487. Article on the suffrage movement in the context of World War I. Coursework. Key words: division - militarist suffragettes vs. pacifist suffragettes. Example: conflict between Emmeline and Sylvia Pankhurst. Textual material: war poetry by women. Dyhouse, Carol.

1989. Feminism and the Family in England 1880-1939 . London: Blackwell. Study on family and paper, marriage from a women-centred perspective. Textual material: basically (auto)biography, but also some novels. Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP.

Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Gardner, Viv Susan Rutherford, eds. Every Opportunity Essay. 1992.

The New Woman And Her Sisters: Feminism And Theatre 1850-1914 . Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf. Gardiner, Juliet, ed. 1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. London: Collins Brown. Essay collection on critique, literary representations of the New Woman. Analysis is not limited to the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and less established writers. Horn, Pamela.

1995. Women in the 1920s . Stroud: Alan Sutton Publishing. Lewis, Jane, ed. 1986. Labour and Love: Women's Experience of Home and Family, 1850-1940 . Oxford: Blackwell. Essay collection on women's social history between 1850 and 1940. Deals with the usual topics: childhood, marriage, motherhood, class differences. McFarlane, Barbara. 1984. Homes for Heroines.

Housing in the Twenties. In: Making Space. Women and qualities that essay, the Man-Made Environment . London: Pluto Press. 26-36. Social history: women-centred housing. Oldfield, Sybil, ed. 1994. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in critique of research paper Britain 1914-1945. London: Taylor Francis. Essay collection on social history.

Centred on women's history, introduces several women's groups. Key words: Divorce laws, motherhood. Women's rights to work between the wars, elementary school teachers. Suffragettes. Pacifist movement. Fascism. Female artists. Ouditt, Sharon. 1994. Fighting Forces, Writing Women: Identity and Ideology in the First World War . London New York: Routledge.

Study on christopher wiebusch, women and World War I. Starts out focusing on critique, a description of women at work (medical duty, agricultural work, work in munitions factories). Continues to every obstacle is an opportunity essay approach the topic by looking at different texts: magazines, autobiographies and novels (partly popular literature). Literature (fictional and of research paper, non-fictional) is granted a major role in this context. Areas of discussion: images of women: stereotypical Red Cross Nurse (active role of every obstacle hero, yet female) - the ordinary housewife at the home front as angel in the house in war literature. Critical reflection on the war and women's roles in postwar fiction.

Image of the mother as a preserver of life. Feminist pacifism. The shock experience of war and the temporary allocation of roles as a danger to identity. Discussion of the influence of World War I on critique of research, society and literature as part of essay about the art of translation modernism. Bataille, Georges. 1994. Die Erotik , ed. G. Bergfleth. München.

Benthien, Claudia. 1999. Critique Of Research Paper. Haut: Literaturgeschichte, Körperbilder, Grenzdiskurse . Reinbek b. Hamburg: Rowohlt. Benthien, Claudia Irmela Marei Krüger-Fürhoff, eds. 1999. Über Grenzen: Limitation und Transgression in Literatur und Ästhetik . Why Did. Stuttgart, Weimar: Metzler. Bordo, Susan.

1993. Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture, and the Body . Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press. Breger, Claudia Tobias Döring, eds. 1998. Figuren des/der Dritten: Erkundungen kultureller Zwischenräume . Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi. Butler, Judith. 1990. Gender Trouble: Feminism and critique of research paper, the Subversion of short essay of translation Identity.

New York, London: Routledge. de Lauretis, Teresa. 1990. Eccentric Subjects: Feminist Theory and Historical Consciousness. Feminist Studies 16.1: 115-150. Dollimore, Jonathan. 1992. The Dominant and the Deviant: A Violent Dialectic. In:ed. Wayne R. Dynes Stephen Donaldson, eds. Critique Paper. Homosexual Themes in Literary Studies . Every Is An Opportunity. New York: Garland. 87-100.

Douglas, Mary. [1966] 1984. Purity and Danger: An Analysis of the Concepts of Pollution and Taboo . London, etc.: Ark. Doyle, Laura. 1994. Bordering on the Body: The Radical Matrix of critique of research Modern Fiction and Culture . New York, Oxford: Oxford UP. Durkheim, Emile. [1893] 1996. Über soziale Arbeitsteilung. Studie über die Organisation höherer Gesellschaften. Frankfurt/M.

Dreitzel, H.P. 1972. Die gesellschaftlichen Leiden und das Leiden an der Gesellschaft: Vorstudien zu einer Pathologie des Rollenverhaltens . Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke. Febvre, Lucien. 1990. 'Frontière - Wort und Bedeutung. In: Lucien Febvre. Das Gewissen des Historikers . Frankfurt/M. 27-36. Ferguson, Russell, Martha Gever, Trinh T. Minh-ha Cornel West, eds. 1990.

Out There: Marginalization and Contemporary Cultures. You Succeed Essay. New York: The New Museum of Contemporary Art Cambridge/Mass., London: The MIT Press. Finke, Laurie. 1986. The Rhetoric of Marginality: Why I Do Feminist Theory.

Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature 5.2: 251-72. Foucault, Michel. [1963] 1988. Critique. Zum Begriff der Übertretung. In: Michel Foucault. Schriften zur Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. 69-89. Freud, Sigmund. [1919] 1994. Das Unheimliche. In: Sigmund Freud.

Studienausgabe IV, Psychologische Schriften, ed. Alexander Mitscherlich et al. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. 241-274. Aqa Graphics Coursework. Gregg, John. 1994. Critique Of Research. Maurice Blanchot and the Literature of Transgression. Princeton/New Jersey: Princeton UP. Hohnsträter, Dirk.

1999. Im Zwischenraum. Christopher Wiebusch Thesis. Ein Lob des Grenzgängers. In: Claudia Benthien Irmela Marei Krüger-Fürhoff, eds. 1999. Über Grenzen: Limitation und Transgression in critique paper Literatur und Ästhetik . Stuttgart, Weimar: Metzler. 231-244. Jervis, John. 1999.

Transgressing the Modern: Explorations in the Western Experience of Otherness . Oxford: Blackwell. Can Help You Succeed Essay. Koschorke, Albrecht. 1990. Paper. Die Geschichte des Horizonts: Grenze und Grenzüberschreitung in wiebusch thesis literarischen Landschaftsbildern . Paper. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Kristeva, Julia.

1980. Powers of essays about Horror. An Essay on paper, Abjection . New York, London: Routledge. Sargisson, Lucy. 2000. Utopian Bodies and the Politics of Transgression. London, etc.: Routledge. Shildrick, Margrit, Janet Price.

1999. Openings on the Body: A Critical Introduction. In: Janet Price Margrit Shildrick, eds. Feminist Theory and the Body: A Reader . New York: Routledge. 1-14. Shildrick, Margrit. 1997. Leaky Bodies and Boundaries. Feminism, Postmodernism and (Bio)Ethics . London, New York: Routledge.

Showalter, Elaine. Essays About. 1985. Feminist Criticism in the Wilderness. In: Elaine Showalter, ed. The New Feminist Criticism: Essays on Women, Literature and Theory . London: Virago, 243-270.

Stallybrass, Peter Allan White, eds. 1986. The Politics and Poetics of Transgression . London: Methuen. Stevens, Hugh. 2000. Paper. Introduction: Modernism and its Margins.

In: Hugh Stevens Caroline Howlett, eds. Modernist Sexualities . Manchester, New York: Manchester University Press, 1-12. Turner, Victor. 1967. Aqa Graphics. Betwixt and critique, Between: The Liminal Period in Rites de Passage . In: Victor Turner.

The Forest of Symbols . New York: Cornell UP. Van Gennep, Arnold. [1908] 1960. The Rites of christopher wiebusch thesis Passage , trans. M.B. Vizedom, G.L. Caffee. Chicago: U of paper Chicago P. Weigel, Sigrid. Coursework. 1990.

Rekonstruktion und Relektüre: Die Arbeit von Frauen in der Literaturwissenschaft als Teil weiblicher Kulturkritik. In: Sigrid Weigel. Topographien der Geschlechter: Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Literatur . Reinbek b. Hamburg: Rowohlt. 252-263. Butler, Judith.

1993. Bodies that Matter: On the Discursive Limits of 'Sex' . New York London: Routledge. Diprose, Ros. Of Research Paper. 1994. University Essays About. The Bodies of Women: Ethics, Embodiment and Sexual Difference. London: Routledge. Foucault, Michel. 1992. Sexualität und Wahrheit 1: Der Wille zum Wissen.

6th ed. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Foucault, Michel. 1994. Überwachen und Strafen: Die Geburt des Gefängnisses . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Foucault, Michel. 1998. Über Hermaphrodismus: Der Fall Barbin , ed. Wolfgang Schäffner Joseph Vogl. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp.

Grosz, Elizabeth. 1994. Volatile Bodies: Toward a Corporeal Feminism. Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana UP. Haraway, Donna. 1991. The Promises of Monsters: A Regenerative Politics for Inappropriate/d Others. In: L. Grossberg, C. Nelson, P. Treichler, eds. Cultural Studies. London: Routledge. Herdt, Gilbert, ed.

1994. Third Sex, Third Gender: Beyond Sexual Dimorphism in Culture and History . New York: Zone Books. Horner, Avril Angela Keane. 2000. Body Matters: Feminism, Textuality, Corporeality. Of Research. Manchester, New York: Manchester UP. Hurley, Kelly. 1996. The Gothic Body: Sexuality, Materialism, and Degeneration of the Fin de Siècle. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Jacobus, Mary, Evelyn Fox Keller Sally Shuttleworth, eds. 1990. Body/Politics: Women and the Discourses of Science. New York London: Routledge. Laqueur, Thomas. 1992. Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud . Cambridge/Mass., London: Harvard UP. Price, Janet Margrit Shildrick, eds. 1999. Feminist Theory and christopher, the Body: A Reader . New York: Routledge.

Sargisson, Lucy. 2000. Critique. Utopian Bodies and the Politics of Transgression. London, etc.: Routledge. Shildrick, Margrit. 1997. Leaky Bodies and Boundaries: Feminism, Postmodernism, and (Bio)Ethics . London: Routledge.

Terry, Jennifer Jacqueline Urla, eds. 1995. Deviant Bodies . Bloomington: Indiana UP. Brooks, J.A. 1982. Ghosts of London: The East End, City, and North. Norwich: Jarrold. Dinzelbacher, Peter, ed.

1993. Europäische Mentalitätsgeschichte: Hauptthemen in Einzeldarstellungen . Stuttgart: Kröner. Essay About. Essay collection on different experiences of space from antiquity up to the present. Approach: history of mentality. Key words: experience of space as social, geographic, and critique of research, cultural (fields of interest: religion, architecture etc.). Space and aspects of coursework conquering and opening up (of new rooms). Cyberspace. Critique Paper. Foucault, Michel. 1992.

Andere Räume. In: Karlheinz Bark et al., eds. Aisthesis: Wahrnehmung heute oder Perspektiven einer anderen Ästhetik . Reclam: Leipzig. 34-46. Article on space and otherness. Difference between normal and thesis, deviant spaces. Key words: heterotopias (hospitals, psychiatric clinics, prisons. ); spatial symbolism and history of mentality. Critique Paper. Frenk, Joachim, ed. 2000.

Spatial Change in English Literature . Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. Aufsatzsammlung. Mentalitätsgeschichtlich bedingter Wandel von Raumvorstellungen in about der englischen Literaturgeschichte. Besonderes Interesse der Postmoderne am Raum (Sozialgeographie, Kolonialismus, Datenflüsse um den Erdball, Cyberspace.) Fryer, Judith. 1984.

Women and Space. The Flowering of critique Desire. In: Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies . 187-230. Study on gendered concepts of space in architecture, housing and narrative fiction from the turn of the century up to the 1930s based on social geography. Ww1 Essays. Contains writings on architecture and feminist reform efforts. Grosz, Elizabeth. 1995. Space, Time and Perversion. Essays on the Politics of Bodies . London: Routledge. Critique Paper. (esp.

103-124) Hauser, Susanne. 1990. Der Blick auf die Stadt: Semiotische Untersuchungen zur literarischen Wahrnehmung bis 1910 . Short And Craft Of Translation. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer. Semiotic studies on literary perceptions of urban spaces. Key words: perception of space in general. Basic patterns of the experience of city space (multi-stimulation, processes of selection. ). Culturally variable navigation of perception (closely connected with aspects of value judgements).

Higonnet, Margaret R. Joan Templeton, eds. 1994. Of Research Paper. Reconfigured Spheres: Feminist Explorations of Literary Space . Amherst: University of coursework Mass. Press. Essay collection. Paper. Provides different perspectives on the feminist relevance of space: Historical, multi-cultural, metaphorical. Coursework. Key words: Symbolic representative functions of space in texts.

Marginalisation, transgression of boundaries, role of clothing, ghettoisation of critique of research feminist literary criticism. Hubrath, Margarete, ed. 2001. Geschlechterräume: Konstruktionen von gender in Geschichte, Literatur und Alltag . Köln: Böhlau. Kern, Stephen. 1983. Essay. The Culture of Time and critique of research, Space 1880 1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Study on modernist concepts of time and essays, space. Documents historical changes of spatial concepts in modernity.

Key words: Subjectivity, categorisation according to different ways of perception (visual, acoustic, tactual etc.) Microscopic space. Art (cubism, impressionism) and sculpture. Film (rapid change of pictures and scenes). Heterogeneous space. Plurality of critique of research paper stance, multi-perspectivity. Is An Opportunity. Changes of attitude. Space as designable matter (magnetic fields, architecture, artificial lighting). Expansion and reduction of critique of research paper geographical space (expeditions, public and private transport, aviation). Urban spaces. Psychoanalysis (mental rooms of the the us ww1 essays interior, stream of consciousness). Kursbuch Stadt.

Stadtleben und Stadtkultur an der Jahrtausendwende. 1999 . Redaktion Stefan Bollmann. Stuttgart: DVA. Läpple, Dieter. 1991. Gesellschaftszentriertes Raumkonzept: Zur Überwindung von physikalisch-mathematischen Raumauffassungen in der Gesellschaftsanalyse. In: Martin Wentz, ed. Stadt-Räume . Frankfurt/M.: Campus.

35-46. Theoretical essay on different natures of space: Human-centred concepts of space vs. scientific concepts of space. Lefèbvre, Henri. 1972. Die Revolution der Städte. München: List. McFarlane, Barbara. 1984. Homes for Heroines. Housing in the Twenties. In: Making Space.

Women and the Man-Made Environment . London: Pluto Press. 26-36. Social history: women-centred housing. Nowel, Ingrid. 1998. London: Biographie einer Weltstadt. Architektur und Kunst, Geschichte und Literatur. Köln: Dumont. Shaffer, Elinor S., ed.

1996. Spaces: Cities, Gardens and Wilderness . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Sharpe, William 1986. Feminizing the Urban World. Urban Resources 3.2: 55-57. Schivelbusch, Wolfgang. 1979.

Geschichte der Eisenbahnreise. Zur Industrialisierung von Raum und Zeit im 19. Jahrhundert . Frankfurt/M.: Ullstein. Paper. Historical study on space and time in the 19th century related to the development of the railway as a means of travel and transport. Its influence on the perception of space and essays about, time. (Germany, England, USA). Sennett, Richard. 1994. Flesh and Stone: The Body and the City in Western Civilization . New York London: W.W.

Norton. Study on space and bodily experience. Key words: sensory perception, movements, analogies of city and critique paper, body, allocation of meaning to christopher certain areas (public, private etc.), historical change of cities, interior rooms, increasing dimension of the private in interior rooms. Weigel, Sigrid. 1983. Topographien der Geschlechter: Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Literatur . Reinbek: Rowohlt.

Study on gender topographies and literature. Cultural-historical approach. Considers space: female allegorization of the critique city. Weinreb, Ben Christopher Hibbert. Wiebusch Thesis. 1983. Of Research. The London Encyclopaedia. London: Macmillan. Collection of essays, proceeding from cultural theory. Social space is defined by rules of behaviour, moral concepts, interests, objectives and class.

It is therefore relevant for questions of that you succeed gender identity. Key words: setting and transgression of of research paper boundaries; domains of power; imaginary space in literature and utopia. Wiebusch. Bell, David Gill Valentine, eds. 1995. Mapping Desire: Geographies and Sexuality . Critique Of Research Paper. London: Routledge.

Collection of essays, proceeding from social geography. Key words: connection of space and different facets of identity formation (personal, professional and sexual). Questions of the body. Urban spaces. Power relations connected with space. Benko, Georges Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. 1997. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and christopher wiebusch, Postmodernity . Critique. Oxford. Blackwell.

Collection of essays. Approach: deconstructivist social geography - social space as a linguistic construct to be newly developed over and over by the individual. Key words: Blurring of boundaries between mental and empirical spaces; spatial symbolism (described from a constructivist background and not from the usual arguments of social history or history of mentality). Duncan, Nancy, ed. 1996.

Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and about, Sexuality. London: Routledge. Essay collection on space, gender and sexuality. Approach: social geography. Key words: territories. Boundaries: blurring of boundaries, transgression of boundaries. Domains of power concerning questions of gender identity and deviation from gender norms.

Duncan, Nancy. 1996. Renegotiating Gender and Sexuality in Public and critique, Private Spaces. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. Can Help You Succeed Essay. 127-145. Article on spaces of home and family.

Key words: homosexuality (male and female); prostitution. MacDowell, Linda. 1996. Spatializing Feminism. Geographic Perspectives. In: Nancy Duncan, ed.

Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. 28-44. Article on a feminism and space. Approach: deconstructivist social geography. Key words: socially conditioned and designed space, processes of placement, boundaries, centres and margins, changes of place and transgression of boundaries, space and identity. Reference to gender relations. Natter, Wolfgang John Paul Jones III. 1997.

Identity, Space, and Other Uncertainties. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and of research, Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. 141-161.

Article on the volatile nature of space and identity. Christopher Thesis. Approach. Deconstructivist social geography. Conception of space adapted from the conception of subject. Constructivity and contingency of critique of research discursive concepts as means of social change. Pfeil, Elisabeth. 1972.

Großstadtforschung: Entwicklung und gegenwärtiger Stand. Hannover: Jänecke. Rose, Gillian. 1996. Coursework. Masculine Dwelling, Masculine Theory and paper, Feminist Masquerade. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Wiebusch. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and of research paper, Sexuality. London: Routledge.

56-74. Article on space and gender. Approach: Deconstructivist social geography. Space as projection: imagined emotions and actual design of space. Concept of masquerade grounds on Luce Irigaray. University. Spain, Daphne. 1992. Gendered Spaces . Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press. Study on space as a relevant factor for status and gender, proceeding from social geography. Gender-specific segregation (architecture, territorization of paper public spaces) Provides examples from different ethnic cultures. Authoritative text on spatial symbolism.

Key words: archetypical spaces and their meaning in depth psychology: psychological dimension of places like 'house', 'shell' 'box', etc. Universalist allocation of meaning. That You Succeed Essay. Barta, Peter I. 1990. The Treatment of the Fourth Dimension in the Modernist City Novel. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds.

Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 310-315. Essay on the modernist city novel . Key words: the fourth dimension, i.e. the representation of space as a major constituent of the integrative textual structure. Space and identity.

Becker, Claudia. 1990. Zur Interiorisierung der Raumsymbolik in der Literatur der Moderne. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. Critique Paper. 3. München: iudicum. 281-287. Study deals with modernist tendencies of internalization: depiction of different spaces of the interior (factual and psychological ones). Berghahn, Daniela. 1988.

Raumdarstellung im englischen Roman der Moderne . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Authoritative text on essays about, literary representations of space in the avant-gardist modernist novel. Key words: Subjectivity, integration of space in stream of consciousness; selectivity of perception and critique, representation, processes of why did ww1 essays fragmentarization, montage as technique to depict space; associative spaces; spatial symbolism; interdisciplinary analogies (literature and art: impressionism, cubism); provides an analysis of Henry James The Ambassadors , Joseph Conrad Nostromo , Ford Madox Ford The Good Soldier , D.H. Lawrence Women in Love , James Joyce Ulysses , E.M. Forster A Passage To India , and Virginia Woolf To the critique Lighthouse . Breuner, Michael. 1991. Hunger for Place: Studien zur Raumdarstellung im London-Roman seit 1940 . Aqa Graphics Coursework. Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Study on the London Novel after 1940.

Key words: literary appropriation of the city. Space and subjectivity: subjective perceptions and formations of space (philosophical basis: see Ströker, psychological basis: see Minkowski). Archetypical aspects of space. Criticism: terminologically imprecise, appears rather essayistic. Critique Of Research Paper. Bronfen, Elisabeth. 1986. Essay. Der literarische Raum: Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel von Dorothy M. Richardsons Romanzyklus Pilgrimage. Tübingen: Niemeyer. Study on literary space in the work of Dorothy Richardson. Approach: phenomenological (compare Ströker and Hoffmann) and structuralist (compare Lotman). Key words: subjectivity of spatial perception in streams of consciousness.

Metaphorical space (additional symbolism) vs. space which can be physically entered. Space and identity. Spatial textual structures. Drabble, Margaret. Critique Of Research Paper. 1979. A Writer's Britain: Landscape in Literature. Photographed by Jorge Lewinski. London: Thames Hudson.

Ecker, Gisela. University Essays About. 1995. Allegorical Gardens of critique of research paper Desire in Modernity: A Gendered Perspective. In: Susan C. Scott, ed. The Art of Interpreting . University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University. 260-292. Allocations of meaning to the garden based on depth psychology. Gender-specific dimensions of the garden: a place of solitude and expansion of consciousness for women - a place of maternal security for men. Epstein-Nor, Deborah. 1991.

The Urban Peripatetic: Spectator, Streetwalker, Woman Writer. Nineteenth Century Literature 46.3: 351-375. Fludernik, Monika. 1999. Carceral Topography: Spatiality, Liminality and Corporeality in the Literary Prison. Textual Practice 13.1: 43-77. Article on aqa graphics coursework, space and identity. Key words: boundaries; identity formation; spatial symbolism. Provides examples of texts. Critique. Füger, Wilhelm. Short Essay And Craft Of Translation. 1984.

Streifzüge durch Allotopia: Zur Topographie eines fiktionalen Gestaltungsraums. Anglia 102.3,4: 349-391. Article on space in the utopian genre. Hillebrand, Bruno von. 1975.

Poetischer, philosophischer, mathematischer Raum. In: Alexander Ritter, ed. Landschaft und Raum in der Erzählkunst . Darmstadt: WBG. 417-463. Article on different spaces: geometrical space vs. Critique Paper. textual space. Narratological perspective on thesis, spatial representation (narratological background of the 1970s). Hoffmann, Gerhard. 1978. Raum, Situation, erzählte Wirklichkeit . Poetologische und historische Studien zum englischen und amerikanischen Roman. Stuttgart: Metzler. Authoritative text on narrative representation of space.

Approach: phenomenological, structuralist and semantic. Key words: different facets of space, i.e. Critique Of Research Paper. visional space, space of action, atmospheric space (Ströker). Typology of essays narrated space based on subjectivity and literary devices: curious space, grotesque space, gothic space etc. Allocation of meaning to space. Archetypal space, forms of representation: panoramic space, tableau, scene. Hubrath, Margarete, ed. 2001. Geschlechterräume: Konstruktionen von gender in Geschichte, Literatur und Alltag . Köln: Böhlau. Hunt, John Dixon. 1996. Paragone in Paradise: Translating the Garden.

In: Elinor S. Shaffer, ed. Spaces: Cities, Gardens and Wilderness . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 55-70. Article on garden symbolism. Critique Of Research. Depicts the garden as a paradox combining nature with culture, preservation of the fleeting and the fragile. Qualities That Can Help Essay. Jäger, Dietrich. 1998. Erzählte Räume. Studien zur Phänomenologie der epischen Geschehensumwelt . Critique. Würzburg: Könighausen Naumann. Study on the phenomenology of narrative environments of action. Textual examples (predominantly German, but also some English) are viewed as variants of mimesis.

Criticism: terminology is university essays imprecise and unsystematic, generally not up to the contemporary level of research. Of Research Paper. Kilian, Eveline. 2002. Exploring London. Walking the City - (Re)Writing the City. Essay About The Art Of Translation. In: Hartmut Berghoff, Barbara Korte Ralf Schneider, eds. The Making of Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the British Experience, 1600 to 2000 . London: Palgrave. 267-283. Klarer, Mario. 1995. Simultaneity and Gender in Modernist Discourses.

In: Near Encounters: Festschrift für Richard Martin . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Interdisciplinary article on of research, the phenomenon of simultaneity and its implications concerning space and gender. Simultaneity as spatially represented in the novel as well as in modernist paintings. Androgynity as a form of simultaneity. Klein, Holger. 1990. Exploring Place and Space in Drama and in Fiction.

In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 174-181. Genre-theoretical essay on the nature of space in drama and fiction. Different spatial representations in drama and fiction: multi-sensory display of few places on stage vs. linguistic-evocative display of many places in narrative texts. Essay About. Klotz, Volker. 1969.

Die erzählte Stadt: Ein Sujet als Herausforderung des Romans von Lesage bis Döblin. München: Hanser. Kublitz-Kramer, Maria. 1995. Frauen auf Straßen: Topographien des Begehrens in Erzähltexten von Gegenwartsautorinnen.

München: Fink. Lane, Eric. Of Research Paper. 1988. A Guide to Literary London. Sawtry, Cambridgeshire: Dedalus. Lutwack, Leonard. 1984. The Role of Place in Literature . New York: Syracuse UP. Qualities You Succeed. Study on the role of space in paper fiction.

Contains multiple aspects of analysis. Key words: literary coining of qualities can help essay space (topoi). Genre-specific variants. Critique Of Research Paper. Space imagery (spatial allegories, spatial symbols). Expansion and movement.

Time and its spatial component. Every Is An. Characterisation through space. Historical and national particularities of space (placelessness in Modernism, wildering in American literature) Provides detailed textual evidence. On the whole rather unsystematic, yet very stimulating. Maatje, Frank C. 1975. Versuch einer Poetik des Raumes. In: Alexander Ritter, ed. Landschaft und Raum in der Erzählkunst . Darmstadt: WBG. 392-416. Revised article on space (1st version from 1965) providing a summary of the critique state of qualities that can help you succeed essay discussion at the time. Refers to spatial symbolism and the phenomenon of perspective.

Mahler, Andreas, ed. 1999. Stadt-Bilder: Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination . Heidelberg: Winter. Manley, Lawrence. 1995. Literature and Culture in Early Modern London . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Marcus, Steven. 1987. Reading the Illegible.

Some Modern Representations of Urban Experience. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and Literature. Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 232-256. Mersmann, Arndt. 2000. Novel Topography: A Spatial Reading of Sybil . In: Joachim Frenk, ed. Spatial Change in English Literature . Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier.

147-171. Critique. Article on the representation of space in Sybil. Analysis of the particular influence of railway traffic on the perception of space in every obstacle opportunity connection with the narrative structure of the text. Mitchel, W.J.T. 1989.

Space, Ideology, and Literary Representation. Poetics Today 10.1: 91-102. Article on space in literature. Paper. Functional representation of space: instrument of conveying ideology. Criticism: argument not quite clear. Pratt, Annis. 1972. Women and Nature in Modern Fiction.

Comparative Literature 13: 476-490. Article on space and nature in modern fiction. Key words: epiphanies in natural settings (especially in novels of development), gender-specific differences in the perception of nature. Punter, David. 1979. Blake's Capital Cities. In: P. Weston, ed. London in Literature. London: Roehampton Institute.

46-72. Reichel, Norbert. Every Obstacle Is An Opportunity Essay. 1987. Of Research. Der erzählte Raum: Zur Verflechtung von sozialem und poetischem Raum in der erzählenden Literatur . Darmstadt: WBG. Study on the intermingling of social and poetic space. Space as bearer of meaning.

Narrative representations of space are shown in the context of a history of mentality. Ritter, Alexander, ed. 1975. Landschaft und Raum in der Erzählkunst . Darmstadt: WBG. Schaff, Barbara. 1999. Gendered Cities: Italienische Städte im Blick britischer Reisender. In: Andreas Mahler, ed. Stadt-Bilder: Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination. Heidelberg: Winter. 173-196.

Article on the gendered nature of cities. Key words: linguistic and literary conceptualization of cities with male or female connotations, gender-specific perspectives on cities. Application of christopher thesis gender stereotypes to cities. Sharpe, William Leonard Wallock. 1987. From 'Great Town' to 'Nonplace Urban Realm': Reading the Modern City. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and Literature.

Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 1-51. Sizemore-Wick, Christine. 1989. Critique Paper. A Female Vision of the City: London in the Novels of every Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from a female perspective. City can be entered by women in the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of novels. Smuda, Manfred, ed. 1992. Die Großstadt als Text . München: Wilhelm Fink.

Squier, Susan Merrill, ed. 1984. Women Writers and the City: Essays in paper Feminist Literary Criticism . Knoxville. University of Tennessee Press. Stanzel, Franz. University Essays About. 1990. Das Niemandsland in der englischen und deutschen Dichtung. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds.

Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. Critique Paper. 219-27. Article on the connecting and separating aspects of a boundary. Example: no-man's land between the trenches during the First World War in German and English literature. Timms, Edward David Kelley, eds. 1985. Unreal City: Urban Experience in Modern European Literature and Art. Manchester: Manchester UP. Turner, James. 1979.

The Politics of Landscape: Rural Scenery and aqa graphics, Society in English Poetry 1630-1660 . Critique. Oxford: Blackwell. Study on spatial symbolism according to the poetological devices of the 17th century. Social space and every opportunity, literature. Aestheticizing of critique of research paper topography. Methods of symbolizing and allegorizing space. Influence of landscape painting on literature in the 17th century.

Twyning, John. 1998. London Dispossess: Literature and Social Space in the Early Modern City. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Weigel, Sigrid. 1990. 'Die Städte sind weiblich und nur als Sieger hold': Zur Funktion des Weiblichen in every obstacle opportunity Gründungsmythen und Städtedarstellungen. Of Research Paper. In: Sigrid Weigel, ed. Topographien der Geschlechter. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt. 149-189. Würzbach, Natascha.

2001. Erzählter Raum: fiktionaler Baustein, kultureller Sinnträger, Ausdruck der Geschlechterordnung. In: Jörg Helbig, ed. Wiebusch. Erzählen und Erzähltheorie im 20. Jahrhundert: Festschrift für Wilhelm Füger . Heidelberg: Winter. 105-129. Critique. Article covers the the art and craft of translation state of research on the phenomenon of literary space. Approaches: narratology, phenomenology, psychoanalysis, social geography, structuralism, semiotics of culture, deconstruction, cultural history, and gender studies.

Introduces categories of conceptions and typologies of critique space. Points of special consideration: semantization of space, reference to the subject, the body, movement in space and its function as a reader's guide. Provides literary examples. Why Did The Us Enter. Würzbach, Natascha. in print. Identitätskonstitution durch Raumerleben in der englischen Erzählliteratur des Modernismus. Article on paper, the theory of aqa graphics subjectivity and identity. The significance of space and body for the pre-linguistic formation of identity. Codes of spatial representation. Gender-specific spatial experience and concepts of subjectivity in some modernist novels. Article is an critique of research paper, example of the notion of text as space.

Structure of enter text and structure of of research communication: intertextual, historical and psychological (semiotic and symbolic) references. Kahrmann, Cordula Gunter Reiß, Manfred Schluchter. 1977. Erzähltextanalyse: Eine Einführung in Grundlagen und Verfahren . 2 vols. Kronberg: Athenäum. Study on the interpretation of narrative texts. Representations of space are allocated to different textual levels of communication. Schwarze, Hans-Wilhelm. 1982.

Ereignisse, Zeit und Raum, Sprechsituationen in university narrativen Texten. In: Hans-Werner Ludwig, ed. Arbeitsbuch Romananalyse: Eine Einführung . Tübingen: Narr. 145-188. [esp. 170-174] Essay collection on text analysis.

Contains a brief part on the narratological description of space on the grounds of Hoffmann 1978 (see 2.3). Of Research Paper. Ronen, Rose. 1986. Space in Fiction. Poetics Today 7: 421-438. Article on the phenomenon of space and its characteristics in narrative texts. Study is linguistically backed up. Categorisation of space in christopher wiebusch thesis its relation to the perceiving and acting character (immediacy), degree of factuality. Paper. Functions of space: public and private, symbolic, means of characterisation.

Integration in the spatial overall structure (topographic, semantic). Stanzel, Franz. 1979. Theorie des Erzählens . Göttingen: Vandenhoeck Ruprecht. [ch. 5.2] Study on short essay of translation, narratology. Foci: perspectival relation of objects to each other vs. non-perspectival naming of objects. In the critique of research 20th century: priority of perspectival representations of space: Subjectivity. Study on university about, literary space and paper, narratology.

Approach: structuralist/semiotic text analysis (Lotman). Text as a spatial structure. Semantic functions of space: convey conceptions of the world, archetypal notion of verticality and horizontality, distance and closeness, setting and transgressing boundaries. Segmenting function of literary representations of space. Selectivity of is an opportunity representation of space. Depiction of time through space. Generally a universalist notion of space. Paper. Lotman, Jurij. 1972.

Die Struktur literarischer Texte . München: Fink. Theoretical study on the structure of literary texts. Semiotic/structuralist concept of literary space as a model of cultural rooms. Universalist allocations of meaning, depiction of oppositional spaces. Sappok, Christian.

1970. Die Bedeutung des Raumes für die Struktur des Erzählwerks . Aufgezeigt an essays, Beispielen aus der polnischen Erzählliteratur . München: Otto Sagner. Structuralist/semiotic approach to space and narrative traditions. Collection of critique essays, proceeding from cultural theory. Social space is defined by rules of behaviour, moral concepts, interests, objectives and class. It is essays therefore relevant for questions of gender identity. Key words: setting and transgression of boundaries; domains of power; imaginary space in literature and utopia. Of Research. Bell, David Gill Valentine, eds. 1995. Mapping Desire: Geographies and Sexuality . Essays About. London: Routledge. Of Research. Collection of essays, proceeding from social geography.

Key words: connection of space and different facets of identity formation (personal, professional and sexual). Questions of the body. Every Opportunity. Urban spaces. Power relations connected with space. Duncan, Nancy, ed. 1996. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality.

London: Routledge. Essay collection on space, gender and sexuality. Approach: social geography. Key words: territories. Boundaries: blurring of boundaries, transgression of boundaries. Critique Of Research Paper. Domains of power concerning questions of gender identity and deviation from gender norms. Duncan, Nancy. 1996.

Renegotiating Gender and Sexuality in Public and Private Spaces. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. About The Art. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. 127-145. Article on spaces of home and family. Key words: homosexuality (male and female); prostitution. Friedman, Susan Stanford. 1996.

Spacialization, Narrative Theory, and of research, Virginia Woolf's The Voyage Out . In: Kathy Mezei, ed. Ambiguous Discourse. Feminist Narratology and British Women Writers . Ww1 Essays. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press. 109-136. Article is an example of the notion of text as space.

Structure of text and structure of communication: intertextual, historical and psychological (semiotic and critique of research, symbolic) references. Fryer, Judith. 1984. Women and Space. Short About. The Flowering of Desire. In: Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies . 187-230. Essay on gendered concepts of space in of research architecture, housing and narrative fiction from the turn of the century up to the 1930s based on social geography. Contains writings on architecture and wiebusch, feminist reform efforts. Of Research. Gibson-Graham Julie Kathy. 1997.

Postmodern Becomings: From the Space of Form to the Space of Potentiality. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. 306-323. Article on conceptual forms of essays about space from a post-structuralist perspective. Key words: Chora, identity, patriarchy, capitalism.

Remaining question from a gender point of view: Is discursive space volatile enough to be changed more easily than space proper? Higonnet, Margaret R. Joan Templeton, eds. 1994. Paper. Reconfigured Spheres: Feminist Explorations of Literary Space . Amherst: University of Mass. Press. Essay collection.

Provides different perspectives on the feminist relevance of space: Historical, multi-cultural, metaphorical. Key words: Symbolic representative functions of space in texts. Marginalisation, transgression of every obstacle is an opportunity boundaries, role of clothing, ghettoisation of feminist literary criticism. Pratt, Annis. 1972.

Women and Nature in Modern Fiction. Comparative Literature 13: 476-490. Article on space and critique of research, nature in modern fiction. Key words: epiphanies in essay natural settings (especially in novels of development), gender-specific differences in the perception of nature. Rose, Gillian. 1996.

Masculine Dwelling, Masculine Theory and Feminist Masquerade. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. 56-74. Article on space and gender. Critique Of Research. Approach: Deconstructivist social geography. Space as projection: imagined emotions and actual design of space. Concept of masquerade grounds on Luce Irigaray. Sizemore-Wick, Christine.

1989. A Female Vision of the about City. London in the Novels of Five British Women . Paper. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from a female perspective. City can be entered by women in the 20th century. Coursework. Provides detailed analysis of novels. Spain, Daphne. 1992. Gendered Spaces . Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press. Study on space as a relevant factor for status and gender, proceeding from social geography. Gender-specific segregation (architecture, territorization of public spaces) Provides examples from different ethnic cultures.

Weigel, Sigrid. 1983. Critique Paper. Topographien der Geschlechter: Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Literatur . Reinbek: Rowohlt. That. Study on gender topographies and literature. Proceeding from cultural history.

Considers Space: female allegorization of the city. Philosophical study on space. Phenomenological approach. Had a major influence on the treatment of paper space in literary criticism. University. Compare Hoffmann 1978 (3.3), and others. Critique Paper. Authoritative text on spatial symbolism. Key words: archetypical spaces and their meaning in depth psychology: psychological dimension of places like 'house', 'shell' 'box', etc. Universalistic allocation of meaning. Ecker, Gisela.

1995. Allegorical Gardens of Desire in Modernity: A Gendered Perspective. In: Susan C. Obstacle. Scott, ed. The Art of Interpreting . Paper. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University. 260-292. Allocations of every is an essay meaning to critique of research paper the garden based on depth psychology. Gender-specific dimensions of the garden: a place of solitude and expansion of consciousness for women - a place of maternal security for men.

Erikson, Erik. 1970. Womanhood and Inner Space. Aqa Graphics. In: Identity. Youth and Crisis . London: Faber Faber. 261-294. Article on womanhood and inner space.

Psychological approach, supported by evidence from ethnic studies. Critique. Investigates the play of children as a confirmation of traditional gender differences. Milgram, Stanley. 1970. Das Erleben der Großstadt: Eine psychologische Analyse. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie 1: 142-152.

Article on interior space. The Us Ww1 Essays. Approach: psychoanalytical, feminist. Key words: psychological places of the interior; interpersonal spaces of (human) relationship; psychoanalytical symbolization, space imagery, female subjectivity; Separateness and integrity. Gibson-Graham Julie Kathy. Critique Of Research. 1997. Postmodern Becomings. From the Space of obstacle is an opportunity Form to the Space of of research paper Potentiality. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. 306-323.

Article on conceptual forms of space from a post-structuralist perspective. Key words: Chora, identity, patriarchy, capitalism. Remaining question from a gender point of view: Is discursive space volatile enough to be changed more easily than space proper? Gregory, Derek. 1997. Lacan and Geography: The Production of Space Revisited.

In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. 203-234. Article on psychoanalytical space. Key words: bodily experience of space (pre-lingual/premature), experience of space and formation of identity through entering the symbolic order, discursive dependency. Winzen, Matthias. 2000. Hysterisierte Räume.

In: Silvia Eibelmayr et al., eds. Die verletzte Diva: Hysterie, Körper, Technik in der Kunst der 20. Jahrhunderts . Köln: Oktagon. 154-178. Article on space and hystericalization. Foci: paradoxical intermingling of essay the art movement and stiffness.

Loss of orientation and expressivity. Sudden removal of subject-object relations in art and photography. Article on textual space. Textual structures are described with help of spatial metaphors (see also Smitten 1981). Smitten, Jeffrey M. Critique Of Research Paper. Ann Dagistany, eds. 1981. Spatial Form in Narrative . Ithaca, New York. Study theorizes text as space. Describes textual structures with the help of spatial metaphors. Aqa Graphics. Semiotic studies on critique of research, literary perceptions of aqa graphics coursework urban spaces. Key words: perception of space in general.

Basic patterns of the experience of city space (multi-stimulation, processes of selection. ). Culturally variable navigation of perception (closely connected with aspects of value judgements). Jackendoff, Ray Barbara Landau. 1992. Spatial Language and Spatial Cognition. Critique. In: Language of the the us enter ww1 essays Mind: Essays on Mental Represenation . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. 99-124.

Article postulates the superiority of the concrete image of an perceived object over critique of research paper its verbal representation. Based on aqa graphics, cognitive linguistics. Tuan, Yi-Fu. 1974. Topophilia: A Study of Environmental Perception, Attitudes, and Values. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Wagener-Wender, Monika. 1993. Mentale Repräsentation räumlicher Informationen.

Bonn: Holos. Study on space from a perspective of cognitive psychology. Point of interest: cognitive-psychological processes are manifested in the linguistic representation of space. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1966. Champ intellectuel et project créateur.

Les Temps Modernes 246: 865-906. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1974. Zur Soziologie der Symbolischen Formen . Trans. Wolfgang Fietkau. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1982. Die feinen Unterschiede: Kritik der gesellschaftlichen Urteilskraft . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp.

Bourdieu, Pierre. 1983. The Field of Cultural Production, or: The Economic World Reversed. Poetics 12: 311-56. Bourdieu, Pierre. Paper. [1984] 1988. Homo Academicus . Short About The Art And Craft Of Translation. Cambridge Polity. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1985.

The Genesis of the Concepts of Habitus and of Field . Sociocriticism 2: 11-24. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1996. The Field of of research paper Cultural Production: Essays on Art and Literature , ed. Aqa Graphics. Randal Johnson.

Cambridge: Polity Press. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1996. Critique Of Research Paper. The Rules of Art . Cambridge: Polity. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1998. La Domination Masculine . The Us. Paris: Seuil. Bürger, Peter. 1986. Adorno, Bourdieu and of research paper, the sociology of essay literature.

Stanford Literary Review : 75-90. Calhoun, Craig, Edward LiPuma Moishe Postone, eds. 1993. Bourdieu: Critical Perspectives . Cambridge: Polity. Dörner, Andreas Ludgera Vogt. 1990. Kultursoziologie (Bourdieu - Mentalitätengeschichte - Zivilisationstheorie). In: Klaus Michael Bogdal, ed.

Neue Literaturtheorien . Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. 131-153. Dubois, Jaques. 2000. Pierre Bourdieu and Literature. Critique Paper. SubStance 93: 84-102. Eder, Klaus, ed. 1989.

Klassenlage, Lebensstil und kulturelle Praxis: Beiträge zur Auseinandersetzung mit Pierre Bourdieus Klassentheorie . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Fischer, Ludwig Klaas Jarchow. 1987. Die soziale Logik der Felder und das Feld der Literatur. Sprache im technischen Zeitalter 25: 164-172. An introductory essay to a whole issue on Bourdieu's sociology of culture in which the authors clarify and defend Bourdieu's key terminology - especially the concepts of field and habitus. Fowler, Bridget.

1997. Pierre Bourdieu and short essay the art and craft of translation, Cultural Theory: Critical Investigations . London: Sage. A very perceptive and insightful study of Bourdieu's writings on the cultural field with a special emphasis on of research paper, literature. She even offers a gender-related discussion of modernist British literature from a Bourdieusian perspective (chapter 6) which unfortunately remains somewhat superficial and does not reflect the latest research in this area. This partly has to do with the essay the art fact that Fowler is more interested in revaluating 'middlebrow' women's writing than in a discussion of neglected modernist women writers.

Fowler Bridget, ed. 2000. Reading Bourdieu on Society and critique paper, Culture . Oxford: Blackwell. Garnham, Nicholas Raymond Williams. 1980. P. Bourdieu and university, the Sociology of Culture: An Introduction. Paper. Media, Culture and Society 2: 209-223. Aqa Graphics Coursework. Gebauer, Gunter.

1994. Bourdieus Hermeneutik. lendemains 75/76: 27-40. Gebauer, Gunter Christoph Wulf, eds. Critique Of Research Paper. 1993. Praxis und Ästhetik: Neue Perspektiven im Denken Pierre Bourdieus . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Harker, Richard et. al., eds. 1990. An Introduction to the Work of Pierre Bourdieu: The Practice of Theory. Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Honneth, Axel. 1984. Die zerrissene Welt der symbolischen Formen: Zum kultursoziologischen Werk Pierre Bourdieus. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 36: 147-164. Jarchow, Klaas Hans-Gerd Winter. 1993. Pierre Bourdieus Kultursoziologie als Herausforderung der Literaturwissenschaft. In: Gunter Gebauer Christoph Wulf, eds. Praxis und Ästhetik: Neue Perspektiven im Denken Pierre Bourdieus . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp.

93-134. Jenkins, Richard. Essay About. 1992. Pierre Bourdieu . London New York: Routledge. Jurt, Joseph. 1979. Für eine Rezeptionssoziologie. RZLG 3: 214-231. Jurt, Joseph. 1994.

Für eine Wissenschaft der Genese kultureller Werke: Versuch einer Rekonstruktion des literatursoziologischen Ansatzes von Pierre Bourdieu in Les règles de l'art . Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Literaturen 231: 319-347. Critique Of Research. Jurt, Joseph. 1995. Das literarische Feld: Das Konzept Pierre Bourdieus in the us enter ww1 essays Theorie undPraxis . Darmstadt: WBG. Jurt, Joseph. 1997. Of Research. Bourdieus Analyse des literarischen Feldes oder der Universalitätsanspruch des sozialwissenschaftlichen Ansatzes.

Internationales Archiv für Sozialgeschichte der deutschen Literatur 22.2: 152-180. Jurt offers a defense of Bourdieu's concept of the (literary) field against critics who regard it as too economically oriented and as interactionist. Instead he conceives of the model as constructivist, offering a wide range of that can help you succeed essay inderdisciplinary possibilies. Moreover, he points out that it enables both a synchronic and a diachronic analysis of the structure of the production, publication, and reception of paper literature. Jurt, Joseph. 2000. Pierre Bourdieus Theorie des Literarischen Feldes.

In: Derek Robbins, ed. Pierre Bourdieu , vol. 2. London etc.: Sage. 117-147. Lane, Jeremy F. 2000. Pierre Bourdieu: A Critical Introduction . London: Pluto Press. McClean, Ian. Every Obstacle Is An Opportunity Essay. 1993. Bourdieu's field of cultural production. French Cultural Studies 4.3: 241-251.

Moi, Toril. 1991. Appropriating Bourdieu: Feminist Theory and Pierre Bourdieu's Sociology of Culture. New Literary History 22: 1017-1049. Moi, Toril. 1997. The Challenge of the Particular Case: Bourdieu's Sociology of Culture and Literary Criticism.

Modern Language Quarterly 58.4: 497-508. Paulson, William. 1997. The Market of Printed Goods: On Bourdieu's Rules. Modern Language Quarterly 58.4: 399-415. Pinto, Louis. 1996. The Theory of Fields and of research paper, the Sociology of Literature: Reflections on the Work of obstacle opportunity essay Pierre Bourdieu.

International Journal of Contemporary Sociology 33.2: 171-86. Pinto, Louis Franz Schultheis, eds. 1997. Streifzüge durch das literarische Feld: Texte von Pierre Bourdieu, Christophe Charle, Mouloud Mammeri, Jean-Michel Péru, Michael Pollak, Anne-Marie Thiesse . Konstanz: Universitätsverlag Konstanz. van Rees, Cees J. 1983a. Advances in the Empirical Sociology of Literature and the Arts: The Institutional Approach. Poetics 12: 285-310. Critique Paper. van Rees, Cees J. Obstacle Opportunity. 1983b. How a Literary Work Becomes a Masterpiece: On the Threefold Selection Practised by Literary Criticism. Poetics 12: 397-417. van Rees, Cees J. 1987. How reviewers reach consensus on the value of literary works. Poetics 16: 275-94. van Rees, Cees J. Of Research Paper. 1989.

The Institutional Foundation of a Critic's Connoisseurship. Poetics 18: 179-98. Robbins, Derek. 1991. The Work of Pierre Bourdieu: Recognizing Society . Milton Keynes: Open University.

A short and at times rather simplistic survey of Bourdieu's work in chronological order designed as an introduction for students. Robbins covers Bourdieu's major publications from Sociology d'Algerie to La Noblesse d'Etat , but only marginally touches on his literary sociological works. The Us. Robbins, Derek. 2000. Bourdieu and Culture.

London etc: Sage. de Saint Martin, Monique. 1990. Les 'femmes écrivains et le champ littéraire. Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales 83: 52-56. Schwingel, Markus. 1993. Analytik der Kämpfe: Macht und Herrschaft in critique of research paper der Soziologie Bourdieus . Hamburg: Argument Verlag. Schwingel, Markus. 1997.

Kunst, Kultur und Kampf um Anerkennung: Die Literatur- und Kunstsoziologie Pierre Bourdieus in ihrem Verhältnis zur Erkenntnis- und Kultursoziologie. Internationales Archiv für Sozialgeschichte der Deutschen Literatur 22.2: 109-151. A useful overview of the central aspects of essays Bourdieu's sociology of culture. Schwingel shows in paper how far the about concepts of the field and of research paper, habitus are the essential building blocks of an extensive model not only of the sociology of culture but, ultimately, of a genereal sociology. Shiagh, Morag. 1993. 'Cultural studies' and every opportunity, the work of of research paper Pierre Bourdieu. French Cultural Studies 4.3: 213-223. Essay And Craft. Verdaasdonk, Hugo. 1989. Literary Magazines as Media for Publishing Literary Texts.

Poetics 18: 215-32. Critique Of Research. Assmann, Aleida Jan Assmann. University About. 1987. Kanon und Zensur als kultursoziologische Kategorien. In: Aleida Assmann Jan Assmann, eds. Kanon und Zensur: Beiträge zur Archäologie der literarischen Kommunikation II . München: Fink. 7-27. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1971. The Social Context of Modern English Literature . Oxford: Blackwell. Bürger, Peter.

1974. Theorie der Avantgarde . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. [ Theory of the Avant-Garde . Trans. Michael Shaw. Manchester: Manchester UP, 1984] Bürger, Peter. 1985/1986. The Institution of 'Art' as a Category in the Sociology of Literature. Cultural Critique 2: 5-33. Bürger, Peter, ed. 1978. Seminar: Kunst- und Literatursoziologie . Franfurt/M.: Suhrkamp.

Cultural Studies 4. 1973. (Special issue on of research, Literature/society: mapping the field) Desan, Phillippe, Priscilla Parkhurst Ferguson Wendy Griswold, eds. 1989. Literature and Social Practice . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Aqa Graphics Coursework. Fügen, Hans Norbert. 1966. Die Hauptrichtungen der Literatursoziologie . Bonn: Bouvier.

Gaiser, Gottlieb. 1983. Zur Empirisierung des Kanonbegriffs. SPIEL 2: 123-35. Critique. Gaiser, Gottlieb. 1993. Literaturgeschichte und literarische Institutionen: Zu einer Pragmatik der Literatur . Meitingen: Verlag Literatur + Wissenschaft. Gedin, Per.

1977. Literature in the Marketplace . London: Faber. Griswold, Wendy. 1987. The Fabrication of Meaning: Literary Interpretation in the United States, Great Britain, and the West Indies. American Journal of Sociology 92: 1077-1117. von Hallberg, Robert, ed. 1984. Wiebusch Thesis. Canons . Chicago: Chicago UP.

Lepenies, Wolf. 1985. Die drei Kulturen: Soziologie zwischen Literatur und Wissenschaft . München: Hanser. Critique Paper. Poggioli, Renato. 1968. The Theory of the Avant-Garde . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP.

Rogers, Mary F. Short Essay The Art Of Translation. 1991. Novels, Novelists, and Readers: Toward a Phenomenological Sociology of Literature . Albany: State University of New York Press. Critique Of Research Paper. Sanders, Hans. 1981. Institution Literatur und Roman: Zur Rekonstruktion der Literatursoziologie . Franfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Scharfschwerdt, Jürgen. 1977. Grundprobleme der Literatursoziologie: Ein wissenschaftsgeschichtlicher Überblick . Stuttgart etc.: Kohlhammer. Schenck, Celeste M. 1989.

Exiled by Genre: Modernism, Canonicity, and qualities that, the Politics of critique paper Exclusion. In: Mary Lynn Broe Angela Ingram, eds. Women's Writing in Exile . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. 226-250. Viala, Alain. 1988. Prismatic Effects. That. Critical Inquiry 14: 563-573.

Voßkamp, Wilhelm. 1977. Gattungen als literarisch-soziale Institutionen: Zu Problemen sozial- und funktionsgeschichtlich orientierter Gattungstheorie und -historie. In: Walter Hinck, ed. Critique. Textsortenlehre - Gattungsgeschichte . Heidelberg: Winter. 27-44. Wasserstrom, William. 1962. T.S. Eliot and The Dial . Sewanee Review 70.1: 81-92.

Wolff, Janet. [1981] 1993. The Social Production of Art . London: Macmillan.

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Works Cited Smith, E. (2000). Appliances get smart. Words: 265 - Pages: 2. . Part 1 1. A CPU socket - the critique paper actual CPU is directly soldered onto this socket. Since high speeds CPUs generate a lot of the us ww1 essays, heat, there are heat sinks and paper mounting points for fans right next to the CPU socket. Qualities You Succeed! 2. A power connector to distribute power to of research paper the CPU and other components. 3. Slots for the system's main memory, typically in the form of DRAM chips. 4. A chip forms an interface between the CPU, the main memory and other components. On many types of motherboards this is referred to as the Northbridge.

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. Unit 2 Assignment 2 09/30/2014 Cold plasma therapy is the process of using room temperature ionized gas to treat cancer. Normally generated at high temperatures recent advancements have led to essays about progress of atmospheric plasma. This advancement has been said to have the ability to completely remove cancer and tumors. Also a great advantage of cold plasma therapy is that it eradicates all cancer cells while not damaging normal cells. Critique Of Research Paper! This treatment opens many doors and short the art of translation possibilities enabling better overall treatment. The method of cold atmospheric plasma has been researched to kill many pathogenic bacteria. This helps to treat wounds in patients who aren’t able to fight off bacteria themselves. This new medical treatment has been seen as a safe and efficient way to treat patients with chronic wounds.

The treatment is both safe and painless while decreasing bacteria. Critique Of Research Paper! The help of clearing all bad bacteria using cold plasma therapy helps the aqa graphics coursework body successfully heal itself. The cold plasma therapy is used using two methods in-vitro and in-vivo. The method of in-vitro is the one that allows all bad cells to of research eradicated. The method of in-vivo is used to effectively reduce the size of tumors.

This treatment has shown promising signs and potential to every obstacle essay shift the paper way cancer is approached and thought to be treated. Using other methods of matter to treat cancer may be the way the future of medicine is going. APA (American Psychological Assoc.) References Keidar, M., Walk, R. Words: 286 - Pages: 2. . 3.9. Notice of Conflicts or Errors in Bid Documents 11 3.10. That You Succeed Essay! Clarifications of critique, Bids 11 3.11. Bidder Signature 12 4. SPECIFICATIONS AND DRAWINGS 12 5. SPECIAL CONDITIONS 13 6. Essays About! GENERAL CONDITIONS AND CONTRACT AGREEMENTS 13 Appendix A 14 Appendix B 16 Supplier/Bidder List 16 1. INSTRUCTIONS TO BIDDERS Jones Sports Incorporated will start the process of accepting bids from contractors starting November 23, 2014 to build a new baseball field located at 5424 Rolling Meadows Drive, Fort Worth, Texas 76124.Jones Sports will accept proposals for the construction of a practice baseball field, a small parking lot and a clubhouse. 1.1. General Description of Work Jones Sports has purchased 20 acres of land for their semi pro baseball team to conduct practice. On this land Jones Sports has plans to build a practice field, a 50 space parking lot and a small clubhouse. These facilities will be designed for the use of the team and coaches only and does not require seating for spectators.

The outcome of the project would have the construction of critique, a practice field with artificial turf, a 4,000 square foot clubhouse that will consist of a locker room with restrooms and showers, a meeting room with a projector screen and every is an essay projector, a lounge, a small room for storage and a 50 car parking lot where each space will hold a mid-size vehicle. The project will also consist of lighting for the baseball field and parking lot as well.as utilities. Critique Of Research! There will be no seating for. Words: 3898 - Pages: 16. . Arcacia Godfrey 1/15/15 Unit 2 Assignment 2 New Technology in my field Electrical Engineers at aqa graphics coursework, Oregon state university have developed new technology to monitor medical vital signs, with sophisticated sensors so small and cheap they could fit onto a bandage, be manufactured in high volumes and cost less than a quarter. A patent is being processed for the monitoring system and it’s now ready for clinical trials, researchers say when commercialized, it could be used as a disposable electronic sensor with many potential applications due to its powerful performance, small size, and low cost. Heart monitoring is one obvious candidate, since the system could gather data on some components of an paper, EKG, such as pulse rate and atrial fibrillation its ability.

Its ability to measure EEG brain signals could find use in nursing care for patients with dementia. About! ‘’current technology allows you to measure these pulse rate and critique of research paper skin responses. Also the university of Utah engineers have developed a polarizing filter that allows in more light, leading the way for mobile device displays that last much longer on every obstacle is an opportunity essay a single battery charge and cameras that can shoot in dim light. Critique Of Research! Polarizers are indispensable in short essay about and craft of translation, digital photography and LCD displays, but they block enormous amounts of light wasting energy and making it more difficult to photography in low light. Thirdly Microsoft is releasing a $199 fitness band that also checks your email and even pays for coffee as the critique of research company software company seeks. Words: 292 - Pages: 2. . Essay The Art And Craft Of Translation! Taylor Hutson Dr. Dennis Winston English-104 13 October 2015 Writing in My Field Radio expands far beyond the bounds of hip-hop, rhythm and blues, and pop music streamed from critique countless stations across the nation. It is much more than mundane news, traffic and weather updates and is not limited to essay about and craft of translation sports broadcasts.

Much like a painted canvas radio paints a mental masterpiece, filled with life stories, musical applications and of research paper paired with contextual reporting and analysis. For me, radio grasps my mind from the familiar confines of the world around me and places me in a world far beyond anything that I have actually experienced. Accounts of how a French scuba diver nearly drowned to death in a pursuit to save the life of another diver followed by the scary reality of death among the ww1 essays lives of senior citizens in hospice care are only some of the many intriguing stories that inspire me write for radio broadcasting. “How A Woman’s Plan to Kill Herself Helped Her Family Grieve” written by Alex Spiegel is another story that specifically captures the listener within the confines of its broadcast. Sandy Bem had Alzheimer’s disease—a disease that corrupts the mind’s capacity to remember important family members, read, and write. This disease left Sandy feeling helpless and critique paper depressed, later causing her to can help “commit” suicide—assisted suicide.

As Sandy’s health began to critique of research deteriorate her feelings of helplessness grew to the point of despair. After wallowing in sadness for countless.

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Homework vs. No Homework Is the Wrong Question. The real question we should be asking is, What do we believe should happen after the of research paper, end of the school day to christopher thesis, help ensure that students retain what they have learned and are primed to learn more? Any answer with the word, work in its name, as in homework, is not typically going to be met with eagerness or enthusiasm by students. Ideally, we want children to understand that they are always learners. In school, we refer to them as students but outside of school, as children, they are still learners.

So it makes no sense to even advertise a no homework policy in a school. It sends the wrong message. Critique Paper! The policy should be, No time-wasting, rote, repetitive tasks will be assigned that lack clear instructional or learning purposes. A realistic homework strategy should be a key topic of back-to-school night and the first parent-teacher conferences of the school year. But it should also reflect a considered school policy and not simply be up to each individual teacher to carry out according to his or own theory of student learning. Another advantage of this approach is to ensure that individual children are not inadvertently overloaded with demands from teachers who may not know what other teachers are asking of the aqa graphics, same student. This is a particular concern in secondary schools. Home Activities That Matter the Most. Children should be encouraged to read, write, perform arithmetic, better understand the world around them in terms of civics, science, and the arts, and, of course, develop their people skills -- their emotional intelligence. This encouragement should be part of everyday family interactions outside of school, and the school should provide developmental guidance to critique paper, all parents, in the appropriate languages, to help them do this.

For some children, specialized guidance will be needed, and this, too, should be provided proactively to wiebusch, parents. Critique! Some parents will select focused programs or after-school experiences to help foster their children's learning in one or more of the aforementioned areas. To promote equity within and across schools, communities should think about how to make these kinds of experiences available to all children in high-quality ways -- without undue or unrealistic expense to families. Short Essay! Of course, some teachers will have specific, creative ideas about how learning can be enhanced at home, in the context of particular units of study in school. Maybe what we need is a new word for all this.

Instead of of research, homework, how about continued learning or ongoing growth activities? Finally, students' learning would be greatly enhanced by schools taking a clear stance about supporting good parenting. My colleague Yoni Schwab and I have written about the importance of parents focusing on parenting as a priority, and secondarily working on assisting schools with educational issues (Elias, M. J., and Schwab, Y., 2004). Aspects of good parenting that could be encouraged by schools include workshops, family nights, and discussion series on ww1 essays, ways to critique of research paper, promote: Children's social-emotional and character development Parents spending more time directly interacting with their kids in enjoyable ways Parents visibly showing how much they value the importance of of translation, education and critique of research, effort Parents monitoring their children's use of and exposure to electronic media Children's continued learning in as many possible opportunities during everyday household routines. Above all, schools should remind parents to qualities you succeed, never lose sight of modeling for their children the value of close relationships, support, caring, and fun.

That is the most important home work of all. Critique Paper! Elias, M. J., and Schwab, Y. (2004). What About Parental Involvement in Parenting? The Case for Home-Focused School-Parent Partnerships. Education Week , 24 (8), 39,41. University! When Controversy Hits Your Community. Comments (74) Follow Subscribe to comments via RSS. Conversations on Edutopia (74) Sign in of research paper, or register to christopher wiebusch thesis, comment. Ms. Critique Paper! Rinehart and Judith, these are both great points.

Teachers who are willing to essays about, see beyond their assumptions are worth their weight in gold if you ask me. Kudos to you! In the U.S, I think homework is necessary, or in Public Schools. In Finland, one of the top rated educated systems in the world, they do not give sustantial homework; but their classes sizes are like 15-20. Class sizes in critique, the U.S. are usually fire code hazards and students need to have reinforcement of concepts learned and short essay the art and craft, skills acquired. I think it is ironic that we are having a debate about homework when kids in Japan go to critique, another school after to expand learning and achieve an education that would give them an competitive edge. The purpose of homework for me is to deepened your understanding on the us ww1 essays, a topic, a depth that may not be accessible in school.

For example, I go to church every Sunday, I hear the sermons, but I come home at do homework researching, making connections and creating new knowledge or seeing things from critique paper, a different perspective. Homework is important. Without it, our students, would surrender their attention to mind-numbing video games. Homework has and aqa graphics coursework, will always be a main topic of interest between teachers, students, and parents. My interest as an educator sparked with the comment, It should also reflect a considered school policy and not simply be up to each individual teacher to carry out according to his or [her] own theory of of research, student learning. There is why did enter ww1 essays no doubt that a teacher should be open and clear about their homework policies with students and parents from the critique, beginning, but no one knows the needs and why did ww1 essays, demands of their students more than that student's teacher and these needs and demands can change from critique of research, class to qualities you succeed essay, class. Even one of of research, our most influential educators in American History, John Dewey, believed in the teacher's choice based on student knowledge. Qualities Can Help Essay! In fact, he found that it was important for teachers to observe children and to determine from those observations what kinds of critique of research, experiences the children are interested in and ready for (Mooney 18). University! Whether it be in college or in the work force, all adults are asked to take a certain amount of critique of research paper, work home, so in preparation for university essays about that we can't simply eliminate homework from the school system. Instead teachers can build a homework plan based on the knowledge of their students and with the support of their administration. Critique Of Research! According to Peter DeWitt in his article Homework: High Quality Learning or Act of Compliance?

Peter DeWitt shares that homework should focus on relationships and even developing assignments with students so that they can be meaningful and completed in a timely manner, not within an unreasonable amount of time. Within this information, homework should be allowed in public education and thesis, the homework amount and content should be up to the teacher and their knowledge of their students in order for it to be meaningful and necessary. Abigail, what a wonderful, thoughtful addition to the conversation about homework. Of Research Paper! My only addendum is the need for qualities that essay coordination among teachers regarding the assignment of even enlightened homework. Reasonable in the context of critique of research, one class can be unreasonable if three other teachers are being equally reasonable in the same time frame. This is essay of translation less of an issue at of research the elementary level, where, typically, one teacher is assigning homework, but it is certainly an issue at the secondary level. It is also a surmountable problem, to be sure. About! I want to once again advocate for a language change, and urge that we no longer use the word, Homework, because it is laden with surplus meaning and it is critique paper highly imprecise. When we give assignments that we expect to be done in whole or in part during out of school time, we need to label them regarding what they are-- practice, a report, review, studying, test preparation, new reading, etc.

Descriptive accuracy will help us move past the homework-no homework question, which has been and continues to be unproductive. I agree that kindergartners should be climbing trees and playing in dirt. I know the parents at my school are so worried that their kids might get hurt they are not allowed to be in any kind of wiebusch thesis, nature unless an of research paper, adult is is an opportunity essay present at all times and supervising all activities. Critique! I believe that homework should be replaced by experiences, and not graded. For example, with younger students, instead of giving them a math sheet to fill out, I would like to see the aqa graphics, next grocery shopping trip to be math focused. Not only are you counting the produce, you are also weighing it, and pricing it. This is more hands on and can be much more fun. Not to mention it also helps the parents and the students have learned valuable lessons. This can be incorporated with all subjects. It would be fun to see pictures of the students at the store, I would ask the parents for pictures to share with the of research, class but not grade. For older students, I would push for short essay the art them to visit museums, parks, and even volunteer.

These experiences are so much more valuable and unforgettable in comparison to a homework assignment in which the student has to create a PowerPoint presentation, build a model, or write a paper. In the spirit of the holiday season, I will simply say to Cypress70, Amen. There are so many contexts of critique of research paper, everyday life to make math and art and science and every other subject area relevant to that you succeed essay, children of all ages. The application of school to home and life is an authentic, engaging, learning experience. As a quick example, doing some holiday food shopping with my 6 year old grandson, we used the signs for various vegetables as a sight-word reading lab.

And now, he knows the word, eggplant, cold, as well as that there are types of eggplant from of research paper, many different countries worldwide.

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Create your free Business Plan now. Make an investment-worthy business plan easily with our free template. Select a Industry Fill in critique of research the Form. Complete your Business Plan. Print and Download For Free. Business Plans: Writing Guides, Downloadable Templates, and Samples. Updated February 15, 2017 by Legal Templates. 1. Free Business Plan Template Download. Are you an obstacle opportunity entrepreneur looking to of research download a free business plan? If so, you have come to the right place.

Legal Templates is happy to provide you with a hassle-free document downloads. Click the buttons below to download (1) a blank document, and (2) a document that is filled in for coursework, you to reference. Related Business Documents: Click to View. What’s included in of research paper the blank template: In the first download, you will find documents with all of the chapters, section titles, and section subtitles that you will need to successfully complete your plan. Our first plan contains the about 8 chapters of a basic business plan including: Chapter 1: Executive Summary: The executive summary provides investors with a general layout of your company. This chapter is essentially your hook to convince potential financiers that your model is critique paper worthy of their investment. Chapter 2: Company and essays, Financing: In this chapter, the goal is to of research paper outline the legal and operational structure of short about the art and craft of translation, your company, financing requirements, the history behind the company, mission statement and the management team. If you are forming a corporation, be sure to include your Articles of Incorporation here. Chapter 3: Products and Services: This section describes what products and/or services your business will sell (now and in the future), and how you will build, assemble and critique, deliver them.

It also offers a comparison of your company and your direct and why did, indirect competitors. Chapter 4: Customers and of research, Market Analysis: The customers and market analysis page indicates your target customer segments, what needs you are filling for christopher wiebusch thesis, them , and the latest trends among these consumers in terms of growth and behavior. Chapter 5: Marketing and critique of research, Sales: The marketing and sales chapter allows you to why did ww1 essays describe how you will sell your product/service. Particularly what are your company’s strategies for positioning, pricing, promotion and distribution. Chapter 6: Strategy and critique, Implementation: This chapter will give you an opportunity to set the key milestones that help establish a timeline of short, progress towards your goals. Critique! Additionally, it includes subsections like SWOT analysis, competitive edge, and strategic alliances. Chapters 7 + 8: Financial Plan, Sales Forecast, Financial Statements: In the final two chapters, entrepreneurs must define and calculate the financial variables that will go into the creation/expansion of your idea, including its expenses, your anticipated sales forecast, personnel plan, cash flow assumptions, and every obstacle is an opportunity essay, more. If you are purchasing an critique existing company, you should also include the business purchase agreement in your plan.

What’s included in the template with sample text: In the second download, we give you a completed ice cream shop plan to essay the art and craft reference. Each section gives an example of critique of research paper, what you should write. Our guide also includes example graphs and charts, so that you are aware of the types of financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment. For guidance on what you should include in your plan, and why, please reference our How to Write a Business Plan set of articles below. Downloading this small business plan comes at no cost, so feel free to aqa graphics start your download and get started. Of Research Paper! However, you should be aware that there are some pros and cons to using free business templates, rather than using professional software or an thesis experienced writer. Writing a business plan is a prerequisite to your company’s success. A solid plan is necessary to critique help found your company and ensure that your goals remain on wiebusch, track over time. Your plan can and will change as you encounter the critique of research unpredictable variables that come with starting your own company.

If you have an existing company, crafting a solid plan is equally important if you’re hoping to attract investment and wiebusch thesis, expand your company beyond the limits you’ve already reached. Your business strategy should account for the next 3-5 years in advance, and cover every aspect of your industry, including the critical relation between marketing and sales to your company’s finances. Your plan should include the critique of research paper following sections before you submit it to investors. Click each accordion to read a how-to guide for each chapter: “How to Write a Business Plan” Table of Contents: How to Write the Executive Summary. The executive summary contains all of the essential information about what makes your business strong and can help you succeed essay, worthy of investment . It covers the major highlights of the rest of your plan’s chapters. The goal is to briefly tell your reader what your company will do, where you want to take it, and critique, why your business idea will be successful. If you are seeking financing, the executive summary is your first opportunity to grab a potential investor’s interest. The executive summary will be the first chapter of wiebusch thesis, your business plan, though it’s actually the last section that you should write . First, you’ll need to do heavy research to ensure that your plan is of research paper sound before you can write the executive summary.

This section will be different depending on if you are an established business or a new startup. A startup company’s executive summary will need to be interesting and convincing to capture the attention of investors. Aqa Graphics! Your company will lack the of research paper historical data and trends that existing companies are able to provide, but there are strategies to mitigate these factors. First, you’ll need to briefly explain who you are, the background of your management team, and your reasoning behind starting a business in your chosen niche. Secondly, you’ll need to demonstrate that you’ve done quality research that supports how you’ve conceptualized your business. Investors know that talk is cheap – do you have the you succeed data and analysis to back up your claims? Even in of research paper a standard plan, the executive summary for an existing business has no set template, although there are several suggested guidelines that you can find around the web. We suggest the university about following basic template – feel free to add or subtract sections according to your own needs: Summary Management Team Products and Services Customers Marketing and Sales Financial Forecast Financing Requirements (optional) Describe the purpose of the plan (e.g.; to critique of research raise a specific amount of short about the art, debt financing to expand a store location) as well an overview of the company (name, location, company type, products sold, founder(s) and founding date).

Describe the critique of research paper key milestones or objectives that you want to achieve with this business (these are the tangible results in university which you use to prove success of the venture). This statement should be concise and to the point. Summarize the members of the critique paper management team, including highlights of their expertise and experience . Describe how each member contributes to the success of the organization. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and obstacle opportunity essay, Services section. Products and of research, Services. Describe the products and services you are providing and why did enter ww1 essays, who the competitors are within the industry . Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in of research the Products and Services section. Describe whom your customer groups are and whom your key customers are , as well as how you will market to them. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Market section. Describe briefly how you will market your product or service.

Summarize the major points in the Marketing and aqa graphics coursework, Sales chapter, which may include market positioning, pricing, promotion, and distribution. Summarize the most important points from the critique Financial Plan section here. This should include your sales forecasts and projected expenses as well as the logic behind the projections. If you are a new company, describe when you expect to turn a profit . If you are an existing company, highlight past financial performance. 7. Financing Requirements (Optional) Summarize the amount of equity and/or debt financing that you are seeking, when you need it, the use of the funds, and when you expect to reach your next milestone event and/or start paying back the loan. Obstacle Is An Opportunity! Keep this at an overview level , as you will go into more detail later on critique of research paper, in other chapters. Note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the essays about entire writing process first . In particular, complete the financial planning process before attacking this section. Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to critique raise.

With these sections fleshed out, you’ve finished your executive summary. How to Write the Company and wiebusch, Financing Chapter. The company and finance section of your plan is important, because introducing the of research management team is critical for obstacle essay, both start-ups and established companies alike. Investors will use this information to gauge the critique future likelihood of success. Company and Financing Sections. Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and Facilities (optional)

There are many variations and approaches on how to lay out the various components of of translation, a business plan. Critique Of Research! Our approach for the company overview section is to about of translation provide the reader with the company’s legal information, address and paper, a brief description of the company’s history. Since there are follow up sections in this chapter that over go the company’s location and history in more detail, you will want to keep this short (2-3 sentences). A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES. The optimal company type is that you succeed best determined by a credible Attorney. The primer below is critique of research meant only to explain the broad differences between the most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to essay the art of translation the IRS: “A sole proprietor is someone who owns an critique of research unincorporated business by coursework him or herself.” While the most simple to set up and critique of research, the most common, there is a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for any obligations.

So for essay about the art and craft, example, if you sell someone a cupcake and they sue you because they found a hair in it, and you lose in court, the creditors can legally go after your personal possessions – such as the roof over your head. A partnership, according to the IRS: “A partnership is the relationship existing between two or more persons who join to carry on paper, a trade or business. Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and expects to share in the profits and losses of the short about and craft company.” A partnership has certain advantages compared to of research a LLC, such as not needing to file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and qualities can help you succeed essay, not needing to file dissolution documents if dissolving the critique partnership. However, similar to sole proprietorships, partners in a partnership have unlimited liability for the company’s debts and liabilities. Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) LLPs are different from traditional partnerships in that there are two classes of partners: (1) General partners that have full management and control but also full personal liability and (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in the partnership interest. Limited partners are often times “silent partners” that wish to invest in the venture but limit their exposure to liability. A corporation is a separate legal entity owned by shareholders. Qualities Can Help You Succeed Essay! A corporation is commonplace for critique paper, businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. The downside to aqa graphics coursework a corporation is the problem of “double taxation” since the corporation’s profits is taxed at the corporate level, and then any dividends distributed to shareholders are then taxed again at critique of research, the personal level.

You can elect a special tax status with the IRS to have your corporation not be taxed at the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity). Some of the drawbacks include not being able to have more than 100 shareholders , and not being able to have non-US citizens/residents. A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the member’s personal liability and only taxes profits at aqa graphics, the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity). Describe the type of of research, company you plan to open, along with the registered name you plan to use. Explain your rationale – for example, if you are starting a company where you plan on seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to start a C-Corporation as majority of VCs will insist on this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address. Include your current office setup and your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable.

For start-ups, and every is an essay, especially those seeking financing, the Management Team section is especially critical. With the lack of history, there is little investors can go by to gauge the future success of a venture. The question lenders and investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your team’s ability to paper execute on the stated goals. Wiebusch Thesis! To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of each member of the management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and responsibilities within the company. Tip: Don’t include details about members of the Management Team that are not relevant to critique the reader. Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the right team to execute on the company’s vision. If you have an why did enter established business the information you want to critique of research present is the same.

Keep in every obstacle essay mind, however, that you also want to of research demonstrate that your team has the capability to every obstacle is an opportunity essay manage growth of the company. Critique Paper! As a company grows from essay about of translation, start-up to established business, the management team must also change. They must be able to manage employees, institute standardized systems, and ensure the business’s ability to scale operations while keeping profitability stable. If you already have a Board of Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and a brief description. In a publically trading company the critique Board of Directors is elected by the shareholders and is the highest authority in the management of the company. For our purposes (context of a private company that is most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of Directors is comprised of investor(s), founder(s), CEO and obstacle is an opportunity essay, independent board member(s) who have substantial business and industry experience. A Board of Director’s typical responsibility is to set broad policies for the company, determine compensation for company management, and of research, approve annual budgets.

An advisory board is university a group of business leaders that can help guide your company and critique, provides it with assistance when needed. Choose individuals with knowledge in your industry and are willing to play a role in your company . While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on how much time the member is committed to the us enter ww1 essays your company. Tips on building your Advisory Board: Choose a well-respected and well-known individual as the first member of your Advisory Board. This will help you to recruit other members of the Board. Choose individuals that have strengths and relationships your business will need.

As your business evolves, so will the members of your Advisory Board. Feel free to shake up the line up over time. In this section you will tell the reader how much money you need to raise, what you are going to use it for, and how you got to the requested amount. Important note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process and in particular, complete the financial planning process. Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to raise. There are two primary financing options: equity and debt. The primary difference between equity and critique paper, debt financing is that debt financing is essentially a loan that is backed by your assets or via a personal guarantee. If your company is already in existence and the art and craft, has trading history, then you may also secure a loan off of your receivables. In contrast, equity financing is essentially you exchanging a stake in your company for a specific sum of money from an critique paper investor . Therefore, the the us enter amount you are able to critique of research raise from investors comes down to how much they value your company. Every Obstacle Is An! There are three fundamental questions every savvy investor will ask you:

Cool idea, how do you make money with it? How much money do you need, and of research, why and when? What do you think your company is worth? If you are seeking financing (regardless of aqa graphics coursework, its equity or debt), that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in the initial stages, followed by break-even and subsequent profitability. Critique Paper! The money you are seeking to wiebusch thesis raise will simply allow you to critique paper have enough cash to cover the initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit. This is a simplification; you may be raising money to why did the us further grow your company, which may already be profitable. Or you might use the financing to get your product to the next stage in of research its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event). Thesis! But the general concept is the of research same; the investment you are seeking bolsters your company’s cash position , allowing it to grow revenue and/or profitability. Cool idea, how do you make money with it? / How much money do you need, and about, why and when? The financial statements provide the answer to the first two questions (which is why we recommend you complete your plan first).

To answer how much money you need, analyze the cash flow statement to determine the cumulative cash flow. The lowest point on this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are , and at what point in time. What do you think your company is worth? The third question is much harder to answer, especially for a new company. At the critique of research end of the day it really comes down to what an investor thinks your company is worth (which is christopher more art than science).

However, there are three popular methods of valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to facilitate the negotiation. Cost approach (asset based approach) The cost approach seeks to determine a company’s value by analyzing the paper market value of its assets. In other words, in this approach the company is worth the sum of all its assets if they were to be liquidated . This approach may be appropriate for some industries such as real estate where the asset value may actually be worth more than the going concern value (present value of about of translation, future cash flows generated by critique of research paper the asset). However, for many companies the value of its branding and reputation, along with its ability to enter generate profits, will exceed the value of critique, its assets. The market approach seeks to essays about determine a company’s value by analyzing recent sales of similar assets, with the theory that valuations of similar companies can serve as a good proxy. This is a common approach in the real estate industry. The income approach seeks to determine a company’s value by using its expected profit over time and then placing a value on that future stream of income in today’s terms . Since there is inherent uncertainty with a future stream of income, there are numerous ways to discount that expected income to account for critique of research, risk. Now you have all the pieces to complete the equation. You have the amount of money you need by looking at cumulative cash flow. You also have an essay of translation idea of how much money your company will be worth.

Equation to critique determine how much equity you should offer: Equity to offer = Company Valuation / Money needed. If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for cash. Essays! Instead, you should focus on the loan’s interest rate and payment schedule. Make sure you will be turning a profit that is both large enough and soon enough to ensure there is of research paper no delinquency on servicing the loan.

For equity financing, answer the following: Investment amount needed When you need it How much time it will buy you / When you expect to turn a profit or get to the next milestone event % of university about, equity offered and at what company valuation (you may wish to keep exact figures vague in order to further negotiate) Exit strategy. For debt financing, answer the following: Loan amount needed When you need it When you will be able to pay back the loan The amount and paper, frequency of loan payments. In addition to the information above, you should also summarize how you plan to aqa graphics coursework use the funds. The level of detail should be at a high level ; if the investor or lender wants to critique paper see expenses in more detail that will be available in enter the Appendix within the Profit/Loss statement. Construction of new kitchen: Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000. If based on your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to month, a line of credit may be a good choice. With a line of of research, credit you draw upon it when you require the funds and why did enter, pay interest immediately on the money as it is borrowed.

It works very similarly to a credit card in of research that you typically have a pre-set limit to how much you can borrow, the major exception that since you may be able to secure the line of aqa graphics coursework, credit with assets, you may be able to get better terms. In the Quick Start Guide we briefly went over the different strategies available and how thinking about your company’s eventual exit will help shape your business model. Of Research Paper! It’s recommended you review the Quick Start guide and practice that exercise. Depending on your company, there are various exit strategies available, including: Selling your business Passing it down through the family Taking the company public (IPO) Liquidation. If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to this section. Angel investors and the us enter, VCs demand a large return on their investment since they are taking a large risk by investing into your company. Therefore, you need to include detailed information on how you intend to sell the paper company or take it public.

Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to take a big risk, they demand a big return. You need to demonstrate your business has the potential to either take substantial market share from an incumbent competitor, or create a new market. Investors like to be in hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and essay, healthcare. These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and ones that investors are more inclined to invest in. Solving a larger company’s problem. If your exit strategy is to sell your company to a larger company, then identify how your company’s product solves that larger company’s stated problems and/or goals. For example, Apple’s mapping software is playing catch-up to paper Google Maps. If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an attractive acquisition target. The mission statement reflects the core purpose and vision of the company.

It’s a statement your employees and customers can get behind. Some tips on writing a well-crafted mission statement: Keep it short. 1-2 sentences max. Don’t use “fluff” words. Make the statement mean something.

A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the company does (what it sells) as well as the culture/vision/purpose. Examples of Fortune 500 firms that really get it right: A. BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: “To discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over serious diseases.” Why it’s great: The keywords “discover, develop and the us, deliver” demonstrate the company’s capability to in delivering an end-to-end solution. Critique Paper! By using the why did the us enter words “innovate” and “prevail over serious diseases” it serves as a rallying call for their thousands of employees that what they are doing is (1) cutting edge and critique of research, (2) has a higher purpose then themselves.

Mission statement: “ We will be the easiest pharmacy retailer for every is an opportunity essay, customers to critique of research use.” Why it’s great: In one short sentence, the university about company has managed to critique of research (1) describe what it sells (2) how it will win in the marketplace. It is a pharmacy retailer and it will solely focus on making itself easier for the customer to use (that could mean so many things, such as innovating online to fulfill prescriptions to improved customer service within their stores). Example of qualities that you succeed essay, poorly written mission statements. A. Critique Of Research Paper! FORTUNE 500 FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY. Mission statement: “ The Company’s primary objective is to maximize long-term stockholder value, while adhering to the laws of the jurisdictions in which it operates and at about the art and craft of translation, all times observing the highest ethical standards.” Why it’s horrible: It does not serve as a rallying call for employees, suppliers, or partners.

Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to maximize value) and borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to adhere to critique paper local and federal laws)? Lastly, it does not mention what the company actually does. B. FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER. Mission Statement: “ We are committed to attracting, developing, and keeping a diverse work force that reflects the nature of every obstacle is an opportunity, our global business.” Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is certainly not a bad thing, only stating that as the company’s mission statement is of research paper ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and completely misses the point of having a mission statement. This is predominately for aqa graphics, businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by new companies that want to highlight relevant history on how the company came to existence, work completed to date, milestones achieved, etc. Some information you may want to include: Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events. Reminder: keep in mind that there is no set rule as to the level of detail you want to include.

This is dictated by the relevancy of the critique information to the reader and christopher wiebusch, how this information helps strengthen your plan’s ability to build credibility for your company. Every company is made of critique of research, milestones. Milestones for a business are achievements that demonstrate the business is on the right track. They are best when quantifiable and measureable. For example, achieving a working prototype of your product, or getting to break-even, are both huge milestones that showcase your ability to execute and is an essay, reduces subsequent risk of your company. Key concept: The more uncertainty that you can take off from the table, the better valuation you can get for your business. For businesses that have a retail or manufacturing component, this is an important section of critique paper, your plan. Information you may want to include: Size (e.g.; in sq. ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at the facility. Location is important for a large number of university, retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of consumer products. If possible, provide statistics about the retail location you have chosen or are planning to choose.

Describe the critique lease terms you are able to secure, and essay about, if there are any laws that protect the lessee from critique of research paper, unreasonable price increases. You can read a detailed article about what to look for in a lease agreement here. Provide detailed information on qualities that you succeed essay, the manufacturing facilities. For example, your operation may require a reliable source of electricity and water. Critique Of Research! Describe how the facility provides the business with these resources. If the facility is obstacle is an opportunity essay pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of that. Location can be an important aspect of your business even if you are not in retail or manufacturing. For example, you might want to open your software company in Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an employee recruitment and paper, fundraising perspective. If you operate out of a home office.

Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of expansion. Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the obstacle company and financing section of your business plan. Writing the of research paper Products and aqa graphics, Services Chapter. The products and services chapter of your business plan should be written clearly and descriptively, to help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the bread and butter of your business. Your products and services section should include the of research following sections.

Products and Services Chapter Sections. Products and Services Competitors Sourcing and wiebusch, Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and Services (optional) Your products and critique of research paper, services are the lifeblood of your business – it’s what your customers need, and if you get this right, everything else will follow . Commonly referred to aqa graphics coursework as “product lift”, which essentially means getting the secret sauce working. Critique Of Research Paper! It means that customers want to buy your product/service, and you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied. Thinking in terms of benefits vs. features. What is the consumer really buying? For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is not only buying a device to aqa graphics tell time, but the prestige and status that comes with a luxury product. Think about what end benefit your product/service delivers. Of course, the functional aspects of of research paper, your product/service are also important. Depending on what you are going to sell, think through the that you succeed essay features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from critique of research, competing products/services. You may have heard the can help you succeed business adage that acquiring a new customer is indefinitely more expensive then keeping an existing customer.

One of the reasons this is true is the potential to sell additional add-ons, upgrades and substitute products/services to paper existing customers . Think about how you can drive incremental revenue. Whether it’s via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream. This is a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per customer. You will complete the price you want to why did the us set your products/services in the Financial Plan chapter, and we also have a section for you to describe your pricing strategy; however it is advisable to start thinking about how you want to price your products/services. Competitive analysis is an extremely useful tool and one that should be revisited often as the competitive landscape changes over critique, time. It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and essay, budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses. Tips on how to paper perform competitive analysis. The Internet makes this much easier then in days past.

Some ideas: Google search using keywords that your customers would use to find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use Indeed.com to is an opportunity find your competitor’s job openings Competitor’s websites Find your competitor’s management team members on of research paper, LinkedIn. Not only do you have to coursework worry about critique, current competitors you can see, but you have to be vigilant and be on the lookout for new entrants. For example, a company that already sells to your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step. You should consider the likelihood of new entrants high if: The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to essay entry (does not take much to start competing) There is future growth potential (such as mobile apps) Much of this is common sense – if you see a market opportunity that no one is competing in yet, don’t expect that you will be alone for long. Sourcing is simply the process of procuring goods and services from suppliers that are required for your company to make its products or deliver its service. Some things to critique of research consider when choosing and managing your suppliers:

Cost: This is an every obvious one – the lower the price, the higher your profit margins will be. Payment terms: The longer you have to of research pay your suppliers, the more working capital you have on hand. Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and what would happen to christopher wiebusch your ability to operate if they cannot deliver. Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to meet your needs? Fulfillment is simply the process of how your company delivers its products/services, from point of sale to delivery.

There are several popular fulfillment options: Engineer to order: the product is designed and built to customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to order: the product’s design is standardized but manufacture of final product is based off of customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and of research paper, yachts) Assemble to aqa graphics order: the product is of research paper assembled to obstacle opportunity the customer’s specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to stock: the of research paper product is manufactured in quantity based on expected sales of the product (e.g.; retailers) If you are going to be selling physical products and expect to hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to how you forecast the amount of inventory you need to meet your projected sales. Too little inventory and you may not be able to meet demand. Too much inventory and you tie up all of your cash on excess inventory. Obstacle Is An Opportunity Essay! Some key points: Have accurate sales forecasts. Use historical sales data if you have it, and make sure you account for seasonality. Have accurate inventory tracking. Use bar code scanning or equivalent to of research paper ensure there are no data entry errors.

Utilize inventory management software. QuickBooks, Sage, and a plethora of other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for you to manage and maximize your inventory levels. Technology in today’s business environment is becoming more and more important and serves as a source of wiebusch, competitive advantage. Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of companies that provide services (low-cost products and shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of delivering those services. Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to ensure its low prices.

FedEx uses technology to optimize delivery routes and times, which enables it to ship to practically every corner of the globe, seamlessly and with very low error rates. Think about critique, how technology plays a part in your business and if it is critical to coursework your business operations. If technology is critical to your business operations, then you must think about your disaster preparedness and contingency planning . Depending on paper, your business, you may want to create back-up copies of data and software, routine security checks, and securing physical assets. What would happen if you lost access to the technology? Think about alternatives that you could utilize. For example, if you license a piece of software and later down the road decide that the qualities that can help you succeed cost is too high, is critique of research paper there a competitor who can license you an wiebusch alternative? If you have exclusive rights to of research a technology, either through a patent or through an exclusive license agreement, this is essays about a great competitive advantage and one that you will want to describe in detail.

There are two types of critique of research paper, intellectual property that may be applicable to a business: industrial property (such as patents and trademarks), and copyright (such as novels and movies). If you have intellectual property that you want to university essays protect, it is advisable that you seek the professional advice of critique, a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is a great way to provide a barrier to the art and craft entry for your business. Intellectual property type 1: Industry property. These include inventions (patents), trademarks and industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress). If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is recommended that you apply for a patent to protect your invention. You should apply for paper, a trademark for your company name and logo as well. Intellectual property type 2: copyright. These include literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs. In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide. Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from about, a legal point of view, but many times is not practical in practice.

For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and downloaded. IP and your employees and critique paper, contractors. It is just as important to secure your intellectual property in obstacle is an opportunity essay relation to your employees and contractors. Critique Of Research Paper! Everyone should be required to sign an invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the company owns all works produced while contracted by the company. In addition, you may consider handing out serialized notebooks for employees to thesis use , so that if there is ever a conflict as to whom owns a piece of intellectual property, there is a physical record. If you have future products and services planned, it is a good idea to critique describe the university about product roadmap and strategy behind it . A key concept is critique of research paper that of product lifecycle, which describes the christopher stages of the life of a product. During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the word out. You may discount the price of the product to encourage new customers.

During this phase, you may focus on paper, expanding your product to the us enter new segments in the marketplace, and expand the product line (for example, with new colors or other variations). During this phase, you are enjoying the fruits of your labor. Critique Of Research Paper! You may add new features to your product to stay competitive and to further differentiate your product from competitors. Marketing spend for your product starts to dissipate as sales of your product are in steady decline. After including all of this information, you’ll have completed the products and you succeed essay, services chapter. Writing the critique paper Customers and Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and market analysis chapter will give you an aqa graphics coursework opportunity to critique paper describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for them, and how these groups of thesis, customers are trending in terms of growth and behavior. This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to your industry. Customers and Market Analysis Sections.

Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional) In the critique market overview section you are going to calculate the total market (referred to as Total Addressable Market) for your products, and then the segment of that market your business can capture. Total addressable market can be thought of in several distinct levels. At the highest level is an the us enter ww1 essays estimate of the critique paper total market given 100% saturation. Another way of why did the us enter, looking at this is what would be the total market if one company had 100% market share. Once you have the total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of this you can realistically capture. Critique! This, of qualities you succeed essay, course, is much harder to critique predict with accuracy. So the important thing to remember is to utilize strong sources for your assumptions. For example, lets say you plan to open a high-end steakhouse in downtown Miami. To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in the downtown area and research the average annual sales for that, each restaurant. Then multiply the two to get the total sales for all high-end restaurants.

This would be your total addressable market. Using the example above, we can then drill down to the next level and determine what percentage of the market you can realistically capture. You might assume that you will take an equal share of the market, thereby decreasing all other competitor’s shares in the market. Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the market. Whatever your assumption, make sure it is critique of research well documented and logical. To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and wiebusch, painful problem for critique of research paper, the customer.

And if there are competitors, you must solve the problem better than them, and enough so that customers are willing to switch to your company. Describe what problem your product is solving. If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into detail on how your product serves each customer segment. Describe how your solution better solves customer’s pain points then your competitors. We as consumers are inherently lazy. We do not want to go through the time and essay about, cost of switching from critique paper, one company’s product/services unless it is essay the art and craft of translation compelling enough, which is dependent on the switching cost. For example, there is virtually no cost to critique of research switch from Coke to christopher wiebusch thesis Pepsi. On the other hand, there is high switching cost associated with migrating from a Mac to critique paper a PC. To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is able to overcome customer’s inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is christopher wiebusch thesis able to reach new customers and bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of taking customers away from your competitors, you are creating a new market for your products).

Understanding market trends at the macro level is critique paper critical for various aspects of your business. Why Did Ww1 Essays! A growing or shrinking market is described in critique of research paper more detail in the market growth section. Below are some of the other factors that will affect market trends: The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on essay and craft of translation, some businesses. For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in sales as households reduce spending on non-essential purchases.

Government regulations and policies can completely alter an industry, so it is of research imperative that you are up to date on upcoming changes. Qualities That Can Help Essay! For example, the Jobs Act of 2012 allowed for the first time non-accredited investors to of research paper participate in private placement of securities. This in the us turn has created a new market for crowd-funding websites to of research paper emerge to connect startups with all types of investors. You may be in an industry where political conditions have an impact on the bottom line. For example, if you count the Dept. of short about and craft, Defense as one of your clients, then the across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in paper the Budget Control Act of 2011) would surely have a negative effect on your business. If you build your business on top of a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and easier to obstacle is an essay use technology, then that will surely put you in a less advantageous position. Knowing technology trends is valuable in ensuring you are gaining a competitive advantage through the paper use of technology. Your customers may change their sensitivity to price depending on a variety of factors, including competition, macroeconomic conditions, and changing consumer tastes. Aqa Graphics! Keeping an eye on this trend will ensure you optimize your pricing strategy. Market growth, mathematically, is simply measuring the critique of research paper change in market size from thesis, one time period to the next (usually in years). So if the market in the first year was $100 million and paper, $150 million the second year, then the market can be said to why did the us ww1 essays have grown by 50%.

You will find that measuring market growth using historical market size data is much easier then forecasting market growth. Utilize publically available data sources, trade publications, market research firms, and government agencies to find much of this research. Being able to critique of research paper demonstrate a market is growing is obviously important – for example, the obstacle market for Blackberry accessories is clearly a declining market. Most investors and lenders will not want to see a new business chase after dwindling customers. On the other hand, the market for Apple and Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and of research, will continue to grow as those companies continue to aqa graphics add new customers. Your industry is defined as the group of companies that are related to paper you in terms of what you sell/how you derive your revenue. For example, Ford and Nissan are both in the automotive industry. Ford and Nissan’s market (i.e.; customers) would be the aqa graphics end consumers who buy their cars.

You will want to critique of research paper describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on the Dept. of Labor website. Understanding your industry’s dynamics is imperative to knowing it’s profit potential and attractiveness. A popular framework for conducting industry analysis is Porter’s five forces analysis, which analyzes an industry’s competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness). By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of your competitors and how your company fits within the competitive landscape. If your industry has low barriers to entry and low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is little standing in university essays the way for new entrants to enter the market and critique, compete. If your industry is supplied by very few suppliers with little alternative but to source from essay about and craft, those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If your industry only has a small number of buyers, or there are many alternative products to choose from, then expect downward pressure on of research paper, your margins. If there are many substitute products in your industry and the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition.

An industry is every obstacle is an opportunity very competitive if there are many competitors about the same size, there is little differentiation between competitor’s products, and it is mature with little growth (so the only way to grow is to take a competitor’s market share). Although your product may cater to many different sets of customers, you want to focus on a select group that will be the critique most likely to purchase your product/service and account for the lion’s share of your company’s revenue. For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of your revenue comes from a small percentage of your customers. Why Did The Us! For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of of research, coffee every day, versus the student type that comes in once a month. When you can name your key customers. If you are in qualities essay a business where volumes are low and prices are high, then you should be able to name your key customers individually. Critique Of Research Paper! In this case, you should describe in detail your relationship with each of christopher, them separately. If you’ve filled out this chapter, congratulations. Paper! Doing market research and customer analysis is a complicated and time consuming task. Qualities That! Time to of research paper move on wiebusch thesis, to the critique paper next chapter! Writing the Marketing and Sales Chapter.

The marketing and sales chapter gives you an opportunity to describe how you will manage your sales force and what sales activities they will conduct in order to close sales. Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution. In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to include: Positioning: Are you going to be the why did the us ww1 essays lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product? Pricing: How will you price your products/services? Promotion: How will your market your products/services? Distribution: Where will your product/services be available? Tip: It will be easier to write this section after you complete the subsequent sections as the overview section summarizes key findings from the other section.

Keep this section at the summary-level, as you will go into further detail in the subsequent sections. Describe how you position your company within the competitive landscape. Will you compete on price, or will you differentiate your offering and stand out from your peers? For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the critique paper low-cost provider in an industry, while Apple designs premium products to reach the luxury end of the market. Provide your product/service at the cheapest price point in the marketplace. There are three primary ways to achieve this: Economies of Scale: For example, being able to turn more tables in that can help a restaurant or produce more widgets in of research paper a factory. Short Essay About The Art And Craft! The more you are able to produce from your asset, the cheaper it becomes.

It will also be harder for your competitors to enter the market since you have fixed assets and experience that requires a large investment. Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to paper low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and can help, cash flow. Making your product/service unique by targeting a specific segment of the market is a compelling strategy, especially if: Your customers are not price sensitive The market is critique competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is is an not easily copied. You can also achieve differentiation through branding and marketing – for example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at a premium price point, primarily through the strength of their branding and not through the taste of their coffee. Determining the of research paper optimal price for your products/services will require you to think through several factors: If you are going shooting for the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to opportunity price yourself accordingly.

Likewise, if you are going for the luxury end of the market, then a higher price is often times a proxy for quality. How price sensitive are your customers? If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on price, then you will want to critique paper be sensitive to this. The price you set must be high enough to over your costs so you can turn a profit. There are, of course, exceptions.

For example, you might want to achieve economies of scale by maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to achieve dominant market share. There may be regulatory/legal constraints on short essay the art and craft of translation, how much you can charge. For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in how much they can charge their customers. Looking at what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of what current customers are accustomed to paying and will likely be willing to pay for your products/services. There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in .99 or .95. In this section, you move from describing your marketing plan onto of research paper, how you will convey your marketing message to the us enter your intended audience.

What marketing channels will you utilize to reach your target customers? Depending on critique of research, your business, traditional media may be an important component of your complete marketing toolbox. These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc. In today’s environment few companies can afford not to aqa graphics coursework have a strong online presence. There are a myriad of options available. Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and consume a small business’s entire marketing budget. A website is a key component of your digital marketing efforts as it will be the destination in of research which your online leads will first visit. Some online marketing options include: Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter)

Word of mouth marketing is by far the most profitable and powerful marketing channel available to any business. New customers that are referred to your business are more likely to christopher wiebusch purchase and more likely to continue referring your company. There are ways to critique boost word of mouth marketing, especially with the advent of social media. For example, asking a satisfied customer to like your business on Yelp and Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of their contacts, all with one click. Integrating social media into your word of mouth marketing strategy is invaluable for every business. Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert. Having a leading voice in your industry will help your business gain credibility from customers, suppliers, partners and competitors. You can start by participating on public forums and every obstacle is an essay, blogs related to your business and critique, adapting the adage “give more to get more”. How will your products be available? On one end of the spectrum is direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to your customers. Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in turn sell to retailers, who in turn sell to consumers.

Three common models: Product is qualities that you succeed stocked in mass-market distribution channels. Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc. Product is specialized and sold through specialized channels. Examples include nautical computers and tooling/machinery. Product is only sold through an exclusive channel. Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags. The Internet presents an unparalleled opportunity to critique reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to reach and sell to customers. Writing the Strategy and Implementation Chapter. The strategy and implementation chapter will give you an opportunity to define the key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals.

It also includes sections that further elaborate on your competitors. Strategy and Implementation Sections. Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional) Milestones are the key events that demonstrate progress is being made , such as completing the company’s first prototype or breaking even. Every Is An Opportunity Essay! These provide a tangible way to measure the success of the business venture. Milestones are so incredibly important to a business yet are one of those things that can be easily overlooked. Why are milestones so important? Because they are a way to measure meaningful progress of a company that in effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable).

A new company has an extremely high-risk profile – but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the of research paper company’s risk decreases. It becomes more apparent that the venture will succeed. Investors and lenders will be looking at what milestones your company has reached in order to create a fair valuation. Milestones might include: Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is a huge milestone. SWOT Analysis is a useful technique for understanding your company’s strengths and aqa graphics, weaknesses , while identifying both the paper opportunities open to your business and the threats it faces. Strengths and the us enter ww1 essays, Weaknesses refer to internal factors in your company, such as: Employees and staff Physical assets such as equipment and facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and Threats refer to external factors facing your company, such as: Market trends Regulatory and legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors. Competitive edge can be bucketed into critique of research, four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and operational effectiveness.

Are you providing a product/service at a lower cost then your competitors? This is about a straightforward competitive edge that is very difficult to deliver. Providing the lowest cost may require operating on of research, razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in fixed costs in christopher order to achieve economies of scale. Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer? This is critique paper a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in order to university about better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the paper market that may be under-served. Are you leapfrogging your competition and providing a notably superior or new product/service?

Popularized by the book “Blue Ocean Strategy”, creating new demand in an uncontested market space is a powerful business strategy. Do you provide superior time to market or customer service? For example, your customers may be willing to pay a higher price for better customer service . Nordstrom’s is an example of a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage. Forging strategic alliances is a commonplace occurrence in business. Aqa Graphics Coursework! There are a wide variety of alliances you might encounter, with various parties in critique paper which you do business. Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an opportunity for a partnership in coursework the future and that should be included in this section. You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of critique of research paper, influence and power of your business. Striking a partnership in university essays about this case may decrease those risk factors and provide a competitive advantage over critique of research, your competitors.

You might have a large portion of your revenue coming from several key customers. Christopher! Inking an exclusive agreement to lock in revenue would, for of research, instance, give you predictable cash flow. It is not uncommon to aqa graphics partner with competitors under certain circumstances – for example, to set standards for the industry or to help further adoption of a technology. Critique Of Research Paper! For example, Sony and Panasonic partnered together to increase the adoption of university, Blu-ray DVDs. Aligning your brand with another company is frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the same demographic. For example, Samsung is the official sponsor of the Olympic games and will provide free mobile phones to all Olympic athletes. Upon completing these sections, your strategy and implementation chapter will be finished. Writing the of research Financial Plan, Statements, and qualities, Sales Forecast Chapters.

Writing the of research financial plan, financial statements, and sales forecast will be the most difficult part of your entire plan. It requires making a large number of intelligent assumptions about the size of the enter market you can realistically target, and the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services. These sections are the of research paper red meat of your plan — these are the chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to make sure they know they’re making a solid financial investment. Chapter 7: Financial Plan and Sales Forecast Sections. Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for Success. Define the price in which you will sell your products and university, services, the cost it will take to critique of research produce or sell the qualities product/service, and the number of units you will sell. Be conservative when making your estimates on the number of units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast. It is of research highly recommended that you first complete the following sections as they lay the foundation for every essay, defining the critique of research sales forecast. Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at what price point; also seeks to define the production cost Target Market section: Defines the size of christopher wiebusch thesis, your target market and of research, what quantities you can sell. Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and Marketing plan.

For example, if you plan on hiring several sales people nine months from the start of your business, you should forecast an increase in sales thereafter. This is the price you will sell your products/services. Fixed price: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling Price changes over about, time: The price of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of raw materials or components Seasonal product – discount to offload excess inventory Promote new product – discount upfront to paper encourage sales, then increase later. This is the direct cost of producing your product/service (at the unit level). Otherwise known as cost of goods sold (COGS). Fixed costs: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling % of sales: A good way to forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the cost as a % of sales on the us enter ww1 essays, a sliding scale. Costs vary each month: The cost of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for several reasons: Economy of critique paper, scale: the more units you produce, the cheaper it becomes to produce them Bargaining power: the essay more units you buy from of research paper, your supplies, the cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of aqa graphics coursework, raw materials may fluctuate based on critique, time of about the art and craft of translation, year. This is the expected number of units you will sell.

My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to of research have some growth over time. Units sold changes over time: The quantity sold of your product/service may increase over time for several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by country and by products/services sold. In the United States, there is university essays no sales tax at the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on particular goods or services. Check with your state department of taxation if you are required to critique of research paper collect sales tax. If yes, you collect the sales tax from your customers and then remit the tax to the state each year. If the why did the us ww1 essays individual assumptions used for each component of the sales forecast is accurate, so will the critique of research paper overall sales forecast. You should be able to explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of hiring personnel are often the largest expense of any business.

In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and contractors you plan to that hire. The number of personnel you plan to hire and at what time is more of an art then a science. Too much staff too soon and you’ll burn through your working capital. Too few staff and critique of research paper, you’ll run the risk of can help you succeed, alienating your customers and partners when you can’t deliver. A good way to paper think about your personnel plan is to think about the milestones you want your business to accomplish and what personnel are required to get your business there. You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and come back to obstacle is an opportunity essay this section later.

Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of paper, company you are building and the financing required also makes a big difference in your staffing plan. For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to want to hire and scale quickly in order to generate large revenues. Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to operate as lean as possible and essay about and craft, maximize profitability so you can service your loans. Fixed amount: Suitable for most situations. Changes over critique paper, time: You might want to define a compensation plan for sales personnel that have an annual bonus component, for christopher wiebusch thesis, example. Employee: If choosing employee you will have to consider certain employee taxes and other considerations.

Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly. In the paper United States, for university, example, you are legally required to provide employee-type benefits in certain situations even if you classify the personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, worker’s compensation and critique of research paper, health insurance, paid time off, training and travel expenses, vacation and sick leave, pension contributions and other benefits. This is referred to the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of total labor costs than payroll costs alone. Burden rate only affects employees and not contractors. If unsure what to every is an essay enter, 15% is a fair estimate. Explain the assumptions and methodology used to critique of research define the christopher wiebusch thesis personnel your business plans to retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and burden rate. For example, you might explain that as you plan to hire several sales people to coincide with the release of a new product.

Enter expenses you plan on incurring for your business. Critique Of Research Paper! A good way to make sure you capture majority of your business’s expenses is to think through costs associated with each functional area of your business, such as product development, marketing and operations. Categorize expense into the us enter, groups, such legal and administrative, rent and leases, and telecommunications. Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers. You will enter these in the next step. Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance – General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes – FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on Sale of Assets.

Enter long-term asset expenses here. Critique Of Research! Long-term assets are comprised of two types: tangible and intangible assets. Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers. Fixed assets are depreciated over its useful lifetime. This is an accounting method that allows the business to allocate the aqa graphics coursework costs of the asset over its life by gradually reducing its value. Common fixed assets: Land and Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and fittings Plant and machinery. Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in nature. Of Research Paper! Intangible assets are amortized over wiebusch thesis, its useful life. These might include: Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition.

Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for less than 12 months. Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and securities that are likely to turned into critique, cash within a year. A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is signed with the total lease amount of $12,000 being paid upfront. Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the PL Statement and Cash Flow Statement would both show the $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on christopher thesis, the month it which it was made. Of Research Paper! This type of expense is better described as a prepaid expense, since the use of the essay about the art office is spread out over a 12-month period of time and can be considered an critique of research asset on the us ww1 essays, the Balance Sheet that is expensed over time. By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an amortized short term asset) then the PL Statement would show the $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at $1,000 each month, while the Cash Flow Statement would reflect the $12,000 payment on month in critique paper which it was made. Obstacle Opportunity Essay! Under Assets, the Balance Sheet would then show the amount of Prepaid Lease that is critique of research remaining at the end of the accounting period. Enter an estimate for university essays, income taxes you expect to of research pay, which should be a summation of federal, state and local income tax. University About! Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is critique of research covered in the Personnel Section as the Burden Rate). As this is only an estimate, 100% accuracy is not required (if unsure what to christopher wiebusch enter here, use 20%). Dividends and critique, distributions (for corporations and LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to the company’s shareholders/owners, taken from the company’s profit.

Dividends are typically paid out at the end of the fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at the discretion of the owners. You may want to set this to zero initially and see how the university essays financials of your business model work out; then you can work backwards and determine how much of retained profit you want to distribute to owners/shareholders. Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business. What are the critique paper monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to keep the business up and running? For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and university, rent expenses for your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs. For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of any of of research, these expenses and include them in your budget. Accounts receivable is defined as sales that the company has made but has yet to collect the money from the purchaser. Most companies operate by allowing some portion of wiebusch thesis, their sales to be on credit. These types of sales are usually made to frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and allow them to avoid the hassle of physically making payments as each transaction occurs. You want your accounts receivable to be as low as possible to of research paper increase your cash flow. Defining what percentage of your sales will be on credit.

You want this percentage to be as low as possible, while keeping in mind that for some businesses it is preferential to provide some credit to your best customers. Defining how long it will take to collect payment. Of the customers that you provide credit to, you need to define when they are to pay you back. The faster, the better your cash flow will look like. It is university typical to provide net-30, which is 30 days. Accounts payable is of research paper defined as short-term debt owed to suppliers and banks. It is to your advantage to you succeed negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow.

When looking at accounts receivable (what is owed to you) and accounts payable (what you owe), the key thing to remember is that you want to paper be paid as soon as possible, and you want to pay others as late as possible (cash on hand is king). Defining what percentage of your purchases will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow. However, ensure you are able to pay your vendors on the purchases made on credit. Defining how long it will take to collect incoming payments.

How many days will it take, on average, to qualities that can help you succeed essay collect incoming payments? Select the typical number of critique paper, days between when you make a credit sale and when the every obstacle payment arrives. Keep in critique of research paper mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow. If your business will sell physical products and you plan on keeping inventory on hand, then you need to define how many months of inventory you wish to keep on hand. The more months of inventory you hold on hand, the more cash is tied up in inventory. This will affect your cash flow. How much inventory should you carry? The ideal amount varies from industry to industry, and business to business.

A good place to find more information is christopher trade associations for your industry. In order to improve your company’s inventory management, you will need to start by collecting good records on your inventory. Using inventory turnover rate as an indicator. Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of inventory on hand. A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on hand. Understanding and managing cash flow is very important to any business. The time period for credit sales and payments may depend on your suppliers or your industry. Critique Paper! Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections.

You can utilize this section to aqa graphics explain any assumptions about cash flow, including details on the time period in of research paper which you will make and receive payments. Qualities That Can Help You Succeed! How did you come to these assumptions and how will it affect your business? When taking out a loan, you borrow an critique of research paper amount of university essays, money (principal) from a lender, and are obligated to pay back at a later time (usually in paper installments). You will typically pay interest on the loan. If you are seeking a loan then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the loan. Personal vs Commercial Loans. For many small businesses, taking out a personal loan to the us enter finance growth is commonplace.

These might include credit cards, home equity line of credit (HELOC), and installment loans. If you have an existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on a variety of factors. Secured vs Unsecured Loans. A secured loan is a loan in which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral. Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against a borrower’s assets. Interest rates will be higher for unsecured loans versus secured loans, for obvious reasons.

If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in the Starting Balances section. A line of credit is paper similar to a loan with the difference being that interest is not charged on the us enter, the part of the of research paper line of credit that is enter unused, and the borrower can draw on the line of credit at any time that he or she needs to. Critique! If you are seeking a line of credit then enter the amount, as you want to aqa graphics coursework forecast the financials assuming you have secured the line of of research paper, credit. The line of credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to be paid immediately at the financial institution’s request. Investments include injections of cash into the business from you, other shareholders or owners, or investors. This typically refers to equity investments where investors contribute cash to the business in exchange for equity (ownership). In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded. If you are a startup, it is essay the art and craft of translation likely that the money you make from sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of critique, funding, such as taking out a loan, receiving investors’ capital, credit lines, or other ways of coursework, borrowing money. What type of funding will you acquire?

At what point in your plan are you expecting these funds? For existing businesses only. The starting balances will be used to adjust the critique of research balance sheet to take into account your company’s financial history. Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at the start of your plan. Enter starting balances for assets: Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation. Enter starting balances for every obstacle is an essay, liabilities: Enter starting balance for Capital and Earnings: Enter your Recent Sales: One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date. If you are an of research existing business, you can enter past financial data here.

This is optional and will be used to calculate historical financial ratios in the Financial Statements section. For each year of your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity. Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to see if the essay the art business is healthy. For example, a restaurant might use the number of tables it can turn per critique of research paper night and the average revenue per qualities that can help you succeed essay dinner. Think about what levers make the most impact to critique paper your business. Qualities That You Succeed! You will want to of research paper continuously track and monitor these metrics to ensure your business model is wiebusch working. Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections. Profit and Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios. The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and critique of research, profit. Every Essay! It is the paper most common of the three reports as it provides a view into the company’s projected “bottom line”. The statement here is christopher wiebusch a read-only display, calculated automatically from the information you entered in the Sales Forecast, Budget, and Personnel Plan sections.

If you wish to edit or change any information, you may do so by going back to those sections. The statement here will update automatically. The balance sheet gives a snapshot of your company’s financial position at a given point in time, usually the paper last day of a fiscal period. It is called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the sum of your liabilities (what you owe) and obstacle is an opportunity essay, stockholder’s equity (your investments from of research paper, stockholders plus money that your business earned that is put back into running your business). The balance sheet here is a read-only display. If you wish to university change the balance sheet, you can do so by going back to the builder in the Financial Plan section. If you are an existing business, you have the option of critique paper, adding starting balances under the Financial Plan section. The cash flow statement displays the cash inflows and outflows from your operating, investing and university essays, financing activities. Critique Of Research! Rather than providing an overview like the balance sheet, the cash flow statement will measure the change in cash during a period.

In other words, how much money did you start and end up with? The statement here is a read-only display. You can go back to edit the sections in why did the us ww1 essays the Financial Plan section in order to change the critique of research paper accounts affected in the cash flow statement. The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the health of your business. Essay And Craft Of Translation! The report here is a read-only display. If you wish to critique change any of the information, you may do so by editing the relevant financial information you’ve entered previously. The ratios here will update automatically. The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to cash is the company in case.

This is important in determining the essays ability of the business to meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in paper debt. The Profitability Analysis shows the overall performance of the company in its ability to make a profit. And Craft Of Translation! The ratios show how much of sales revenue is critique of research paper actual profit after taking costs and expenses into account. The Debt Ratio shows how much of the business’s assets are financed by debt and how much of the business’s assets are financed by stockholders’ equity. The Investment Measures show ROI (Return on Investment) which is the percentage of the return (net profit) of the business divided by the cost of the investment. The most common method of calculating ROI is to divide net profit by total assets. Finishing these chapters represents a massive achievement in completing your business plan. It is by far the every opportunity essay most difficult chapter, as it requires doing somewhat complicated math to critique of research generate accurate financial statements. Qualities! In all likelihood, you will need to critique paper hire an expert or accountant to help you create an accurate and detailed plan that adheres to realistic outcomes. To finish it off, you’ll need to write an appendix and a glossary of terms.

Your appendix will be a more detailed version of the financial statements detailed in opportunity this chapter, and your glossary of terms will simply define the terms of your business that an investor may not understand. Upon including those chapters, your plan will be complete. Feeling inspired to start a business, but don’t know how to write a plan? We have a sample database of plans that you can look through to learn the different chapters and sections necessary to attract equity investments and loans. Although our examples are specific to of research paper each industry, keep in mind that every plan will be unique depending on aqa graphics, your location, your customer base, and your own vision, so these will only serve as a starting point for you and your dream. Click the images to critique view our full business examples. 4. The Pros and Cons of Downloading a Business Plan Template. 1. Write with confidence — you won’t be forgetting any important information. Using this free template can help you write your own plan, without the hassle of figuring out how to order your chapters, or the worry of feeling like you might be missing a section. Coursework! We provide the entire bare bones skeleton of a business plan within this Microsoft Word .doc download. After you download it, it’s up to critique of research you to flesh out the details and ensure that each section is as well researched and wiebusch thesis, intelligently conceived as possible.

2. Step-by-step writing guide and of research, writing samples included. Our plans come with a complete how-to guide with examples from our professional business plan samples to about help steer you through your writing. 3. Completely free – no hidden costs, just download and start writing. This plan is paper completely free. Christopher! You may encounter other people or websites on the Internet charging a price to download the guide. Do not purchase them – there is of research no benefit at all to christopher wiebusch thesis purchasing a pre-fabricated plan. None of the information will be relevant to your company, and you’ll be gaining nothing but the order and paper, structure of the plan – something that you could easily research and re-create on qualities can help essay, your own. Sound good?

Keep in mind that while this guide may give you a better idea of how a it should be structured, that represents only about 5% of the heavy lifting of writing an actual the complete document. Don’t forget that every plan needs well structured elevator pitch. 1. You’ll have to do complicated business planning math and calculations yourself — or pay an expensive rate for someone else to critique do them. You’re going to have to do the opportunity financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to critique of research paper attract investment — all by yourself. Creating these sections requires years of training, math skills, market knowledge, and investment savvy. Aqa Graphics! This requirement is beyond the of research scope of most peoples’ abilities, which is essays about why entrepreneurs turn to professional writers and accountants to do the heavy lifting for them. Keep in mind: You may have a brilliant idea, but until you’ve subjected your product/service to meticulous research, and calculated your potential market as conservatively as possible, your business idea will be nothing but empty words and blather to of research a seasoned investor. 2. You’ll need to manually create visual graphs and charts to essays make the paper calculations easily understandable. You’ll need to obstacle take the numbers you calculated and critique paper, create attractive graphs, charts, and tables for qualities, your plan.

Making your data attractive and easy to comprehend is no easy task. Professional planning software can not only do the calculations for you, but will also turn them into critique of research, relevant graphs, charts, and tables presented in the appropriate order, according to how equity investors and bank loan officers expect to see them. 3. Christopher Wiebusch Thesis! A basic template won’t allow you to track your business’ progress. You won’t be able to keep your company’s information up to date easily. One of the major benefits of critique, using software is that you can continually update your numbers based on your real expenses and earnings, allowing you to track the progress of your business easily and without a major hassle. Nonetheless, we encourage you to download this document and get started with writing out your product/service concepts and marketing plan. If or when you encounter the financial sections, we’ll be looking forward to thesis helping your progress through the major obstacles of writing a successful strategy that will help you get funding for your ideas.

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Legal Templates cannot and does not provide legal advice or legal representation. All information, software and qualities can help you succeed essay, services provided on the site are for informational purposes and self-help only and are not intended to of research paper be a substitute for a lawyer or professional legal advice. Essay About The Art And Craft Of Translation! Use of this site is of research subject to our Terms of Use. Preview Document - Business Plan Template. Make an investment-worthy business plan easily with our free template.